Hail, Britannia

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  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    Hail, Britannia

    A Series By LeinadB93

    Welcome Ladies and Gentleman to the Official Thread for the Turtledove Award winning series Hail, Britannia.

    I started posting this series on 30 July 2015 so it seems rather fitting that I launch this Official Thread on the series' 2nd Anniversary, in the year that it won a Turtledove Award for Best Graphic/Artwork. Before I go any further I would like to take the time to thank @CanadianTory, @Turquoise Blue, @MasterSanders, @Danderns, @Nazi Space Spy, and so many others for the help, support and suggestions with my earlier work on the series. I appreciate it so much!

    The premise behind Hail, Britannia is "What if Britain treats the Thirteen Colonies differently?" and "What if the events of the 1760s and 1770s lead to reconciliation rather than revolution?" There isn't any one specific Point of Divergence, instead several alterations throughout the 17th and 18th centuries lead up to the modern day.

    These PODs include but are not limited to: heavier Gaelic, Dutch and French settlement of North America in Nova Scotia, New York and the Great Lakes region; Sophia of Hanover living a couple of months longer; Frederick, Prince of Wales being exiled to British America in 1737 after deceiving his parents about the birth of his eldest child; King George II dying early in 1751; and numerous others.

    The Hail, Britannia series sits halfway between a Type II and Type III scenario on the Sliding Scale of Alternate History Plausibility. I'm trying to follow the PODs through logically, but at the same time exploring scenarios with OTL individuals, and including fictional characters when necessary.

    The main purpose of this thread is to serve as a repository for me to post updates about the Hail, Britannia universe that involve things other than Wikiboxes, such as lists, maps and the occasionally history textbook-style instalment. This will allow me to more easily amend previous posts if the canon changes. However I will still be posting in the Alternate Wikibox thread from time to time.

    Although this thread is primarily for me to post about the universe, I want you all to feel that you are more than welcome to ask questions, make comments and provide suggestions about how I can expand and improve the world of Hail, Britannia, whether in this thread or by sending me a message.

    Ground Rules For Contributing:

    1) This is not meant to be a Shared World-style thread. It is my personal timeline/series, meaning I retain ALL final creative control over the series. However I do, as mentioned previously, welcome suggestions and contributions from all of you in order to help build the world.

    2) Don't post anything (infoboxes, news bulletins, lists etc.) withought running your ideas past me first. There may be elements of established canon that you don't know about (mainy because I haven't posted it yet!)

    3) I reserve the right to amend anything at anytime. If I want to change an aspect of the series that your post touches upon I will politely ask that you change it. I'm not doing this to be difficult.

    4) Please don't post anything deliberately inflammatory or offensive.

    5) Any Wikipedia Infoboxes not tagged with a Threadmark are not canon. I would like it if any Wikipedia Infobox posts not done by myself include an in-universe description just like I have been doing on previous threads. No Description = Not Canon.​

    Now let us begin with the traditional renditions of the Royal and Imperial Anthems of the United Kingdom and Empire of Great Britannia:

    Hail Britannia, God bless thee!
    Hail, her people, strong and free,
    Who fight and bleed in freedom’s cause,
    Who fight and bleed in freedom’s cause,
    And when the storm of war has gone
    Enjoy the peace your valour won.

    Hail Britannia, we expound!
    Hail, her matchless beauty crowned!
    March on Britannia, in the joyful throng,
    Defend the right and right the wrong,
    And let our Empire always be
    Loyal, united, and forever free.

    God save our gracious Queen!
    Long live our noble Queen!
    God save the Queen!
    Send her victorious,
    Happy and glorious,
    Long to reign over us:
    God save the Queen!

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    Pre-Thread Posts
  • And since Lei has changed the link in his sig, I'll post a list of past works he has done in the Wikipedia threads for people to peruse...

    Hail, Britannia (pre-thread)
    UK SDP leadership spill, 2004 & leadership election, 2011
    American Theatre of World War I
    Federation of India
    Oregonian general election, 2011
    Kingdom of Hanover; Hanoverian general election, 2012
    Kingdom of Scania; King Valdemar V; Crown Prince Christoffer
    National Republic of China (1927-1947)
    Florida; Floridian general election, 2013; Floridian, Texan & Californian Spanish
    Britain-in-America; North American Dutch; Daniel Taylor; Isaac Brock; Taylor-Brock family; Dukedom of Manhattan
    Kingdom of Hawai'i; Hawaiian general election, 2015; King Kūhiō; Native Hawaiians
    Hawaiians in the United Kingdom (Hawaiian British)
    Russian America; Province of Alaska; Orthodox Church in America; Alaskans; North American Russian; Russian-American Company
    Mexican Empire; Mexican federal election, 2013; Emperor Agustín V; President of the Government; Josefina Vázquez Mota
    First Minister of Florida; Order of the Star of Florida; 2015 Floridian independence referendum; Viceroy of Florida; Carlos López-Cantera; Juan Taylor-Brock y Menendez
    Dominion of Newfoundland; Newfoundland general election, 2016; Newfoundland Gaelic; New Labrador Party; Order of Newfoundland

    Kingdom of the Californias; Californians; Californian general election, 2013; King Ramón IV; Wasatch Autonomous Region; Jon Huntsman Jr.
    Nova Scotia (& 2013 provincial election); New Brunswick (& 2014 provincial election)
    Dominion of Canada; Canadian federal election, 2015; United Democratic Federation; Canadian Alliance; Progressive Conservative Party; Alaskan Uprising; North American French
    George Washington; Marquessate of Mount Vernon; Washington family
    Commonwealth of New England; New England federal election, 2015; Liberty Party of New England; Conservative Party of New England; New England Gaelic; United Kingdom imperial election in New England, 2015
    Commonwealth of Missouri; Missouri federal election, 2014; Amy Klobuchar; Progressive-Farmer-Labor Party of Missouri; Progressive Conservative Party of Missouri
    United Kingdom of the Cape; Cape federal election, 2013; Annalie Gwabini; King Willem VI Themba; Capelanders; Provinces and autonomous regions of the Cape
    Republic of Texas; Texans; Texan presidential and legislative elections, 2014; President of Texas; Prime Minister of Texas; Texan states; Texas-United Kingdom relations
    Common Travel Area
    Gibraltar; Victoria-on-the-Rock; Tetuan; 2015 Gibraltarian general election
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    Index of News Articles
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    I've decided that it would probably be best to establish an Index of News Articles so that we can easily find them as the thread becomes larger. They will be listed here by chronological order with their news outlet and author:

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    Index of Imperial Constituencies & MIPs
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
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    Nations of North America (by Kanan)
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    So I'm back :D

    Sorry for the long absence, but work has been a complete nightmare and although I've broken up for the Summer holidays, I've needed to take some time away from this project to get my head straight in real life.

    But before I answer your questions and get back to more regular (fingers crossed) updates, it's time to celebrate the ONE YEAR ANNIVERSARY of this thread :)

    Many thanks to everyone who has followed, read and supported me with this series over the last year.

    But massive thanks most go to @Kanan who took time out from her busy schedule to make this amazing map of North America.


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    Global Rules of the Road
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    Yes. Also, everyone should drive on the correct (i.e. left) side of the road. ;)
    Indeed. and it seems that most places do given the reach and influence of the UKE.

    You just had to ask:

    NOTE: I will expand the description for this over the next few days. But I don't have time to do it now...


    The terms left-hand traffic (LHT) and right-hand traffic (RHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road. 73 countries currently use LHT, with 68 states exclusively using RHT, only Portugal and the Netherlands have non-uniform driving rules in their territories, as the overseas regions of Macau and Suriname respectively use LHT. Most of the countries with LHT were formerly part of the British colonial empire, whilst many of the countries with RHT were subject to French rule during the Napoleonic conquests.

    LHT is used by a majority of countries in North and South America, Africa, Oceania and East Asia, whilst RHT countries are mainly located in Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. The British and Portuguese were responsibly for the introduction of LHT in the Americas and Africa during the colonial era, although prior to 1876 many parts of Britain-in-America used RHT. The construction of the Pan-American Highway in the mid-20th century led most Latin American countries to standardise their driving laws, and over the course of the century most of the continent switched to LHT. French Guiana and the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, French Polynesia and the French and Dutch West Indies (excluding Suriname), are the only territories in the New World to continue to use RHT.

    In Africa, most countries used the traffic laws of their colonial power, although Dutch Angola and Portuguese Mozambique both used LHT due to the influence of neighbouring British and Brazilian territories. The French and Savoian colonies of North and West Africa used RHT. Adamawa, Somalia, and Madagascar all had non-uniform driving laws in their territories until the mid-20th century as a result of their status as condominiums between multiple colonial powers. Wehran, the Comoros, and Reunion remain the only RHT territories on the continent, the latter two are part of France, as a result of French colonial influence. Most previously RHT states switched to LHT in the 1970s, to bring them into line with the more numerous LHT states, beginning with Nigeria. Egypt had predominately used LHT, as a result of British influence, but the Suez Canal and western border regions used RHT until the government standardised in 1983. Morocco had previously used LHT in the major cities, whereas RHT was common in the southern and interior deserts.

    British and Japanese influences has resulted in all of South and East Asia using LHT, with Manchuria and Korea all adopting LHT in the early 21st century and British, Dutch and Portuguese colonies in Southeast Asia using the system. The Philippines used LHT when it was a Spanish colony, whilst Thailand adopted it due to British influence in neighbouring Burma and Malaya. The countries of former French Indochina all adopted LHT after independence due to being surrounded by LHT states, and the only part of East Asian to still be RHT is the French territory of Guangzhouwan. From the 1930s to 40s, Nationalist China adopted RHT, and the territories it conquered in Asia were forced to convert to RHT before reverting at the end of the war.

    Cyprus and Abyan are the only two countries to have switched to RHT in the late 20th century, the former due to its close ties to Turkey and Greece, both of which use RHT, and the latter due to the extensive land borders with Yemen, Nejd and Oman, all RHT states. Cuba is the only state to currently be contemplating a switch to LHT, due to the extensive trade with British and Latin America, and the large number of LHD vehicles in the country.

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    Map of Human Development Index
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    As part of my efforts to generate complete facts and world data, I've compiled a full list of each country based on its Human Development Index score. And seen as this is primarily a graphical timeline, I figured I'd share the results in map form.

    As you can see, when compared to OTL, Africa and the Middle East are significantly more developed than OTL, with a particular emphasis on a more developed and peaceful Arab world. Generally worldwide life expectancy, education and per capita income are all higher than OTL.


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    Members of the United Nations Security Council (31 October); UN Regional Groupings; G5 Nations
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    so which are the 5 powers ITTL? UKE, France, USSR, Japan and Brazil?

    Also, I assume the 5 powers are the recognized nuclear weapon states and permanent UN security council members like OTL. Which is the other non-NPT nuclear power ITTL?

    Yep, those are the "Big 5" with India and China as the next 2. All 7 have permanent seats on the Security Council, with the "Big 5" being the NPT recognised nuclear powers, whilst India and China tested their nukes after their UNSC membership and the signing of the NPT, and therefore are non-NPT nuclear powers.


    Membership of the United Nations Security Council is held by the seven permanent members and twelve elected, non-permanent members. Prior to 1966, there were six elected members, and prior to 1971 there were five permanent members, the victorious powers of the Second World War. After 1966, the number of elected members was expanded to ten, with each member holding their place on the Council for a two-year term, and half of these places contested each year.

    At the UN's founding in 1945, the five permanent members of the Security Council were the Empire of Brazil, the Kingdom of the French, the Empire of Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United Empire. While the original five permanent members have in essence not changed since 1945, there has been one major seat change since then. After the reformation of the Soviet Union in 1991, the new Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics was recognised as the legal successor and maintained its position on the Security Council. France's seat was originally held by Charles de Gaulles' Provisional Government until 1946 when it passed to the French Union until 1958 when the union collapsed. France maintained its seat as there was no change in its international status or recognition, although many of its overseas possessions eventually became independent.

    The five original permanent members of the Security Council were the victorious powers in the Second World War and have maintained the world's most powerful military forces ever since. They annually top the list of countries with the highest military expenditures, and they are also the only nations officially recognised as "nuclear-weapon states" under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In 1971, the Federation of India and the Federal Republic of China were both granted permanent seats on the Security Council with veto power, as part of the detente period between Britain and the USSR, although Japan abstained from the vote on China's membership. At the same time the number of elected members was expanded to twelve, with an additional member for the Eastern and Western European groups.

    Several conventions govern the election of the non-permanent members; one of the elected Commonwealth members is an African country; one of the African members is an Arab country; and the members of the Asia-Pacific group are elected one from the Middle East and one from South and East Asia. To ensure geographical continuity, a certain number of members is allocated for each of the six UN geopolitical regional groupings:
    - the African Group; 12 member states, with 2 non-permanent members
    - the Asia-Pacific Group; 24 member states, with 2 permanent and 2 non-permanent members
    - the Commonwealth Group; 47 member states, with 2 permanent and 3 non-permanent members
    - the Eastern European Group; 20 member states, with 1 permanent and 2 non-permanent members
    - the Latin American and Caribbean Group; 11 member states, with 1 permanent and 1 non-permanent member
    - the Western European Group; 29 member states, with 1 permanent member and 2 non-permanent members​



    Reform of the United Nations Security Council has been an ongoing issue since the formation of the UN in 1945, with the two key issues being the veto power held by the permanent members, and the size and membership composition of the Council. In its history the Security Council has been expanded twice, the first in 1966 with the doubling of the number of elected members, and the second in 1971 when India and China became permanent members, with full veto power, and the addition of two new elected members.

    One proposed measure is to increase the number of permanent members, which, in most proposals, would include the G5 Nations; Capeland, Egypt, the European Union, Iran, and Mexico. Each of these countries have figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN's establishment. Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members, however their bids are often opposed by their economic competitors or political rivals. All of the G5 nations support one another's bids for permanent seats, as do Japan, the United Empire and the Soviet Union. India supports Capeland, and China supports Egypt and Iran, although both countries have taken neutral stances on expansion of the Security Council, while Brazil opposes the membership of Mexico. Surprisingly, France opposes the potential addition of the European Union as a permanent member, with representation at the UN, as it would undermine France's pre-eminent role with the EU and likely result in France losing its permanent seat.

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    Nuclear-armed states; Weapons of mass destruction
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    I suppose when you're as big as the United Empire, you won't have as many moral quandaries to face in such a situation, and if anyone spoke up about it immediately, you could just tell them to shush it, especially when it comes to civilian casualties! Going from Hiroshima and Kokura/Nagasaki OTL to Shanghai and Tianjin TTL really is quite the leap in that regard, and I'd imagine that the debates on the bombing TTL are much more fierce than they are OTL.

    Indeed. My assumption here is that the Allies accepted that any conventional invasion of China would result in an astronomical number of casualties! Far in excess of what it might have taken to invade Japan IOTL. So the higher number of civilian casualties was seen as “acceptable” to avoid the massive loss of military personnel. The fact that major Chinese cities of the period were much more populous than OTL Japan does also mean higher casualties, but the shock and awe tactic was key to their strategy.

    The debates are definitely much fiercer than OTL. However, one could thing is that there was no analogue to the Cuban Missile Crisis, other than a brief standoff when the Soviets seemed to be stationing nukes near to China, Manchuria and Japan. The much higher civilian death toll of the atomic bombings means that ITTL there is a much stronger movement for gradual nuclear disarmament, led by Japan. Since the end of TTL’s Cold War, the British and Soviet nuclear stockpiles have been gradually reduced to smaller than OTL, whilst Japan and Brazil have only a handful between them, and India and China have comparable numbers to OTL India and Pakistan.

    @Wolfram should find this interesting:


    There are seven sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons, and are therefore confirmed to be nuclear-armed states. Five are considered to be nuclear-weapon states under the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; in order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United Empire, the Soviet Union, Japan, France, and Brazil. Since the NPT entered into force in 1970, two states, namely China and India, that are not recognised nuclear-weapon states have conducted nuclear tests. Mashriq and Hasa are generally understood to possess nuclear weapons, but neither country acknowledges their existence, instead maintaining a policy of deliberate ambiguity. Neither country is know to have definitively conducted a nuclear test, and one possible motivation for the policy of nuclear ambiguity is deterrence with minimum political cost. States that formerly possessed nuclear weapons are the former Soviet republic of Ukraine and the Communist government of Poland, and both dismantled their arsenals after the end of the Cold War.

    The original permanent members of the UN Security Council, with the exception of Brazil, are known to have detonated a nuclear explosive before 1 January 1967. The United Empire developed the first nuclear weapons during the Second World War, in cooperation with California and Texas as part of the Tube Alloys "Islington" Project, partly out of fear that the Axis Powers would develop them first. Britain tested the first nuclear weapon, code-named "Lion", on 9 October 1945, and remains the only country to have used nuclear weapons in war, devastating the Chinese cities of Shanghai and Tianjin. The Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon ("RDS-1") in 1949, developed partially with information obtained via espionage during and after the Second World War. The Soviet Union was the second nation to have developed and tested a nuclear weapon, and the direct motivation for Soviet weapons development was to achieve a balance of power during the Cold War. Japan tested its first nuclear weapon ("Ni-Go") in 1952, becoming the third country to develop and test nuclear weapons, and its programme was motivated to have an independent deterrent against the Soviet Union, while also maintaining its status as a great power. Since the end of the Cold War, Japan has engaged in a unilateral policy of nuclear reduction, disarming 170 warheads, and has adopted a "no first use" policy. In 1960, France tested its first nuclear weapon ("Gerboise Bleue") becoming the fourth nuclear-armed state. It was motivated by diplomatic tension with both the Soviet Union and the United Empire, and a need to retain great power status during the post-colonial Cold War.

    India and China, having both joined the UN Security Council as permanent members in 1971, became nuclear-armed states in 1974, the first nuclear tests conducted after the entry into force of the NPT. India conducted a test on 18 May 1974 ("Smiling Buddha"), with China testing its first nuclear device ("First Lightning") five months later on 16 October. Both countries sought to obtain nuclear weapons to secure great power status, develop an independent deterrent, and gain a level playing field with the rest of the Security Council. Although both countries have since signed the NPT, neither is recognised as a nuclear-weapon state. India has declared a policy of no first use, whereas China has stated a first strike policy, only if the Chinese Armed Forces are unable to halt an invasion or a nuclear strike is launched against China. Brazil tested it first nuclear weapon device on 27 April 1987 ("Trinidade") at the Emperor Afonso Test Range in Pernambuco, becoming the seventh country with confirmed nuclear weapons. Brazil was the last member of Security Council to become a nuclear weapons state, having maintained an option to pursue them under the NPT, however the country maintains the world’s smallest stockpile, which is estimated to be fewer than 100 warheads as of 2015. Like Japan, Brazil has adopted a "no first use" policy, and maintains a small number of deployed warheads on land- and air-based delivery systems.

    Mashriq is widely believed to have developed nuclear weapons throughout the 1960s and 70s, but has not acknowledged its nuclear forces. In response to Mashriq's nuclear weapons program, Hasa began its own programme to develop or acquire nuclear weapons. The government of Hasa is believed to have used espionage to gain intelligence from the Indian and Chinese nuclear weapons programmes throughout the late 1970s and 80s. Hasa is believed to have gained its first functioning nuclear weapon in the late 1990s, with many believing defectors from the dissolution of the Soviet Union smuggled a nuclear weapon into the country. Mashriq is a party to the NPT while Hasa is not. Both countries engage in strategic ambiguity by refusing to confirm or deny a nuclear weapons program or arsenal, and this policy of "nuclear opacity" has been interpreted as an attempt to get the benefits of deterrence with minimal political cost. Independent estimates suggest that Mashriq and Hasa have approximately 20 and 10 intact nuclear weapons respectively. While numerous states have pursued nuclear weapons research, including California, Texas, Argentina, and Egypt, most discontinued these programmes during the 1970s and the Cold War. Only two states have possessed nuclear weapons before voluntarily surrendering control of them; Poland and Ukraine, both of which inherited Soviet nuclear weapons at the end of the Cold War, which were transferred to the Soviet Union in 1996.

    Iran and Nigeria are the only known countries to currently be pursuing nuclear research, with the potential to develop nuclear weapons. Iran's nuclear weapons programme dates back to the 1960s with the Cold War alliance between the United Empire and the Shah of Iran, receiving basic nuclear facilities and beginning to develop civilian nuclear power. Iran has repeatedly asserted that its nuclear research is exclusively for peaceful purposes, and there is no conclusive evidence that Iran has made any attempt to produce nuclear weapons since 1993. However, since the 2013 military coup, some intelligence agencies believe that Iran has resumed its alleged nuclear weapons design work, supported by its Soviet and Chinese allies in CSTO. Nigeria has publicly pursued nuclear research since the 1974 military coup, although originally for peaceful purposes since 1990 Nigeria has allegedly pursued practical military applications for their nuclear technology. In 2000 President Ali Saibou publicly declared Nigeria's nuclear weapons programme, with the goal of "resisting white colonial imperialism". The imposition of sanctions against Nigeria limited their weapons programme, and the outbreak of the Nigerian Civil War and the subsequent Commonwealth military intervention has effectively halted their development of nuclear weapons. However concerns remain about the security of Niegria's enriched uranium and its nuclear research sites.

    Since the end of the Cold War, global nuclear stockpiles have been reduced, with many nuclear warheads being decommissioned and dismantled and their fissile material recycled for use in nuclear reactors. From a high of nearly 70,000 active weapons in 1985, as of 2015 there are some 12,000 nuclear warheads in the world. Several Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties have been signed between the United Empire and the Soviet Union, reducing the use of strategic offensive arms and limiting the number of deployed nuclear warheads. Both countries have agreed to continue to reduce their arsenals with the signing of the fifth Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in 2012, Japan has pledged to unilaterally disarm its nuclear arsenal by 2050 and Brazil maintains its small nuclear arsenal as a deterrent.


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    Flags of the Antarctic claims
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor

    Tominami Dependency [遠南領, Tōminami-ryō]

    Brazilian Antarctic Territory

    Bellingshausenia (Soviet Antarctica)
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    Nobu Shirase - First person to reach the South Pole
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    Following up the Antarctic claims, here's the first person to reach the South Pole ITTL. Thanks to @Turquoise Blue for bringing his existence to my attention. I'd never heard of a Japanese Antarctic expedition IOTL, so it was interesting to hear about it.


    Nobu Shirase (白瀬 矗, Shirase Nobu; 20 July 1861 – c. 17 January 1921) was a Japanese army officer, explorer and a key figure of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. He led the first Japanese Antarctic Expedition, which became the first expedition to reach the South Pole in 1911. He established the first Japanese claims in Antarctica on King Edward VII Land, now part of the Tominami Dependency. Shirase disappeared in 1921 in the Ross Sea, while leading a second expedition to consolidate Japanese claims to the area.

    Shirase had developed a passionate and enduring interest in polar exploration since youth, inspired by tales of European explorers. In 1881 he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Imperial Japanese Army. During his military service, Shirase participated in the 1893 expedition to the northern Kuril Islands to establish a permanent Japanese settlement. Althought the venture was poorly organised and unsuccessful, it provided him with useful training for future polar exploration. He went on to serve in the Russo-Japanese War. Shirase had long intended to lead an expedition to the North Pole, but tensions between Russia and Japan, along with Roald Amundsen's planned expedition [1], caused him to switch his attention to the south.

    Able to attract modest government support for his Antarctic venture, backed by Sigenobu Okuma, a prominent politician and advocate of scientific exploration, Shirase launched from Tokyo in the converted fishing vessel Kainan Maru, on 29 September 1910 [2]. Four months later, the expedition arrived at the eastern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf, at the Bay of Whales, on 12 January 1911. Shirase established his base camp there, and using skis and dog sleds created supply depots along a line directly south to the Pole. Unbeknownst to Shirase and his expedition, Robert F. Scott was leading the British Terra Nova expedition with the intent of also reaching the South Pole. While Shirase was unaware of the competition, Scott was determined to beat him to the Pole, calling the Japanese expedition their "rivals". Favouring Inuit-style furred skins over heavy wool clothing, Shirase and a small group set out on 22 September and arrived at the South Pole on 3 December, two and a half months before Scott's group. Shirase renamed the Antarctic Plateau as "Emperor Meiji's Plateau" [3]. The team returned safely to base camp on 19 January 1912, making their way off the continent and to Sydney, Australia, where Shirase publicly announced their success and telegraphed news to Tokyo.

    Shirase and his companions were treated as heroes on their return to Japan, given a triumphal parade through the streets of Tokyo and Shirase was invited to give a personal account of his experiences to the imperial family. Japanese national interest in Antarctica waned over the following years, but Shirase's memoir, published in 1914, kept the continent in the national conscience during the First World War. In 1919, Shirase began planning a second expedition, with the support of the Japanese government, to consolidate Japan's claims to Antarctica as part of the Nanshin-ron doctrine [4]. In July 1920 the Kainan Maru set sail for Antarctica. Shirase disappeared on or around 17 January 1921 while sailing in the Ross Sea. It is believed the Kainan Maru became trapped in pack ice and was slowly crushed, and that Shirase and his crew either died on the ship or when the sea ice disintegrated. The wreckage of the Kainan Maru has never been found. Owing to Shirase's significant accomplishment in polar exploration, several places in the Antarctic are named after him, notably the Shirase-Scott South Pole Station, operated by the British-Commonwealth Antarctic Program, which was jointly named in honour of Shirase and his rival.

    [1] - A slight Point of Divergence, ITTL the expeditions of Frederick Cook and Robert Peary either never take place, fail, or never claim to have reached the North Pole. Therefore Amundsen doesn't feel the need to divert to Antarctica, and becomes the first person to reach the North Pole. Amundsen ITTL is remembered as an exclusively Arctic explorer and figure.
    [2] - With government backing, Shirase's expedition is able to leave earlier, and hence arrive in Antarctica in time to make landfall and start his planned polar trek.
    [3] - Yes this is a direct parallel to Amundsen's renaming to "King Haakon VII's Plateau" IOTL.
    [4] - The Nanshin-ron doctrine is the main philosophy of Japanese expansion ITTL, especially with their gains from Germany after the First World War.
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    United Kingdom and Empire of Great Britannia
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    So here it is. The 2 Year Anniversary of the Thread and the 4 Year Anniversary of the Series :)

    Thanks as always for your continuing support! I really think this series has gone from strength to strength through your contributions and support.

    But without further ado, perhaps the most anticipated wikibox of this entire series - The United Empire:


    The United Kingdom and Empire of Great Britannia (U.K.E.), commonly known as the United Empire (UE), the United Kingdom (UK), the Imperial Federation, the British Empire, or simply Britain, is a transcontinental sovereign state comprising 32 constituent countries, and various overseas possessions. At 26.3 million square kilometres (10.1 million sq mi), it is the largest country in the world by surface area, covering nearly one-fifth of the Earth’s inhabited area, and the third most populous, with over 410 million people as of the 2011 census. Seven constituent countries are located in Europe, fifteen in continental America and the Caribbean, four in Oceania, three in Asia, and three in Africa, stretching across fifteen official time zones. The British overseas possessions are scattered throughout the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United Empire make it one of the world's megadiverse countries.

    The origins of the modern British state are traced by many historians to 1603, when the Three Kingdoms – England, Scotland and Ireland – were united in personal union when James VI, King of Scots inherited the English and Irish crowns from Queen Elizabeth I of England. The Union of the Crowns tied the three kingdoms closer together under a single monarch, although each country remained a separate political entity with their own political, legal and religious institutions. Tensions over religious and civil issues led to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the mid-17th century leading to the Interregnum, the republican Commonwealth, and the subsequent Restoration, all of which helped establish the three kingdoms as constitutional monarchies with political power centred on the Parliament, a fact consolidated by the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The development of naval power, particularly in England, led to the acquisition and settlement of overseas colonies, particularly in North America. In 1607, the first permanent English settlement had been established in the Americas at Jamestown, in what is now Virginia. Throughout the 17th century the British Empire began to take shape with the settlement of Bermuda, the New England colonies, and Carolina, as well as the seizure of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, renamed to New York, and the establishment of sugar plantations across the West Indies. The African slave trade was extremely profitable, and formed the basis of the growing British colonial empire in the West Indies and North America, providing labour in the financially lucrative sugar plantations. A failed Scottish colony on the Isthmus of Panama was a financial disaster for Scotland, and contributed to the eventual political union of the two countries.

    In 1707, the kingdoms of England (which included Wales) and Scotland were united by the 1707 Acts of Union to form the single kingdom of Great Britain, whilst Ireland remained in personal union. After the accession of George I to the British throne in 1714, the kingdom was in personal union with the Electorate of Hanover, a state of the Holy Roman Empire. The early years of the unified kingdom were marked by the Jacobite risings, which sought unsuccessfully to restore the Catholic monarchs of the House of Stuart to the British and Irish thrones. The final rising ended in defeat at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746, ending any significant backing of the Jacobite cause and leading to the brutal suppression of the Scottish Highlands. Following the death of George II in 1751, the resulting succession crisis between his two sons, Frederick and William, the former having been exiled to North America, threatened to drive the country to civil war. On 16 July 1751, after receiving news of his father’s death, the British American colonies proclaimed Frederick as Emperor of All Britain, and following his return to London, the British Parliament proclaimed him as King of Great Britain. In 1753, the Crown of Virginia Act raised the Colony of Virginia to the status of kingdom, in personal union with Great Britain, but with similar legislative independence to that of Ireland.

    Victory in the Seven Years’ War in 1763 led to the emergence of the British Empire as the world’s preeminent colonial power, with the 1763 Treaty of Paris transferring much of the French colony of New France to Britain, as well as Spanish Florida, and the Third Carnatic War in India reducing French control to a handful of enclaves. Although France held its Caribbean islands and the colony of Louisiana in continental North America, its future as a colonial power effectively ended after the war, leaving Great Britain as the world’s dominant power. During the 1760s and early 1770s, relations between the British colonies on the east coast of North America – later known as the United Colonies – and Britain became increasingly strained as a result of British taxation of the colonies without representation in Parliament. The American Colonial Unrest began with the assertion that “no taxation without representation” was a violation of the guaranteed Rights of Englishmen, and British American political leaders sought redress from Parliament. Attempts by the British military to suppress the growing movements for self-government in the colonies, and the colonists’ violent responses to attempts to enforce laws of the British Parliament almost led to the outbreak of war in the colonies, culminating with the uprisings at Lexington and Concord. Delegates from the British American colonies met at a colonial congress in Philadelphia, and adopted a “Petition to the Emperor”, which sought self-government for the colonies and representation in London. The passage of the First American Reform Act of 1777 laid the foundations of the modern British form of government, with the British Parliament legislating for limited self-government in the colonies, whilst the colonies would send members and peers to sit in the Houses of Parliament. The 1781 Williamsburg Convention, convened between representatives from Great Britain and the colonial leadership, agreed to the creation of the Colonial Congress as a subservient parliament to the British House of Commons, with gradual self-government granted to the British American colonies. On 4 March 1783, the United Colonies of Britain-in-America was created as a semi-autonomous confederation of provinces and territories in personal union with Great Britain.

    The late 17th century saw further colonial expansion, with British America no longer receptive to the transportation of convicts, the British government turned to the newly discovered lands of Australia, with the first shipment of convicts arriving in 1788 and claiming the eastern part of the continent for Britain. The transport of convicts to the Australian colonies continued to the 1860s, and they became profitable exporters of wool and gold. Ireland gained a greater degree of self-government in 1782, with Henry Grattan becoming the kingdom’s first prime minister, although the island remained closely tied to the British Empire. The outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, followed by the Revolutionary Wars (1789-1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), drew the British Empire into a struggle for global pre-eminence with the French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, which lasted for nearly a quarter of a century before the final defeat of Napoleon by a coalition of European powers. Following the wars, Britain was a major beneficiary with the acquisition of Louisiana, Malta, Mauritius, several Caribbean islands and the Dutch Cape Colony, securing its position as the world’s preeminent military power and turning the country’s colonial ambitions towards Africa and India. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the early 19th century, the importance of slavery and the African slave trade to the British economy declined. Abolitionist movements in Great Britain and North America pushed Parliament to ban the slave trade in 1807, with slavery itself abolished throughout the Empire on 1 August 1834. The abolition of slavery almost led to full-scale civil war in the Carolina colonies, due to their dependence on the institution for labour and industry, but the British government compensated slave-owners. The Industrial Revolution continued to change the political and social landscape of the country, with political power gradually shifting from landowning aristocracy to the new mercantile and industrialist middle classes. Unchallenged at sea, the British Empire was the principal naval and imperial power, acting as the global hegemon and policeman, and by the end of the Mexican War in 1848 British territory had expanded to include North America, India, large parts of Africa and Oceania. Alongside formal control through its colonies and protectorates, such as California and Texas, British dominance of world trade meant the Empire effectively controlled the economies of many regions.

    In the midst of Britain’s “imperial century”, unresolved issues from the 1760s and 1830s in North America led to the outbreak of the Republican Rebellion in several of the British American colonies in 1848. Although short-lived, the uprisings resulted in the dissolution of the Colonial Congress in 1852 and the beginning of the confederation of the American colonies into larger dominions of the British Crown. This process consolidated continental British America into eleven dominions, which, following growing concerns in London about the possible fragmentation of the Empire, adopted the 1876 Acts of Union, merging the British American dominions, excluding Newfoundland, with the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland to form the United Kingdom and Empire of Great Britannia. In 1858, British India came under the direct control of the new British Imperial Parliament, as the British Raj, with Queen-Empress Victoria crowned Empress of India. Revitalised, several periods of successive British imperial expansion saw victory in the Boer Wars and the Scramble for Africa, and by 1914 the Empire had expanded across much of Africa and parts of Asia to cover more than a quarter of the world’s land area and nearly half a billion people. In 1901, the Commonwealth of Australia was admitted to the Union, followed in 1907 by Newfoundland and New Zealand, and plans were drawn up for the accession of Patagonia and Britain’s South African colonies.

    In 1914, at the outbreak of the First World War, Britain quickly invaded and occupied most of Germany’s overseas colonies and territories. The British Empire provided invaluable military, financial and material support to the Entente during the war, with British and colonial soldiers serving in Europe and the Middle East theatres. Closer to home, British Americans fought with distinction in the Mexican theatre, which culminated with the collapse of the Mexican Republic. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919, the British Empire reached its greatest extent, with many German and Ottoman colonies and territories transferred to British control. However, the high fatalities of trench warfare caused the loss of much of a generation of men, with lasting social effects in the nation, such as the 1928 granting of suffrage to women, and a great disruption in the social order and contribution to the economic and social unrest in Britain leading up to the Great Depression. The 1930s were a period of considerable economic and industrial hardship, as well as political and social unrest, throughout Britain and the Empire. During this period, Britain strengthened its alliance with Japan, in the hopes of reducing military commitments in the Pacific Ocean as the issue of imperial security was a serious concern in Britain as militaristic governments rose to power across Europe. The 1931 Statue of Westminster agreed the rights of Patagonia, Capeland and the Philippines to set their own foreign policy as “autonomous Communities within the British Empire”, establishing their legislative independence and beginning the transition of the British colonial empire into the modern Commonwealth of Nations. In 1935, the British Raj gained de facto legislative independence from the Empire as a self-governing dominion, marking a further step in the evolution of the colonial empire into an association of states. In 1937, the East Asian War broke out when Kuomintang China invaded British and Japanese territories along with Korea, forcing Britain into a war in the Pacific, Sir Walter F. George adopted a policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany, in order to avoid fighting a war on two fronts and preserve the British colonial empire.

    Nazi Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939 led to Britain’s declaration of war in 1939, marking the official outbreak of the Second World War. Although the British declaration included the crown colonies, it did not automatically commit the semi-independent dominions of Patagonia, Capeland, India, and the Philippines, although all soon declared war on Germany, followed by the British client states of California, Texas and Egypt. After the Fall of France in June 1940, the British Empire stood alone against Germany and in September, the Kuomintang government of China officially joined the Axis powers, leaving Britain as the only country militarily opposing them. Over the course of the war Britain led Allied efforts in every global military theatre, with Commonwealth forces totalling close to 30 million serving men and women fighting German, Italian, Chinese and other Axis armed forces across Europe, Africa, Asia, and in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Throughout the course of the war, the British Commonwealth suffered nearly half a million military deaths as their forces engaged the Axis powers across the globe, most notably in the three-year siege of Singapore where the island fortress held out against Chinese invasion. The United Empire emerged from the Second World War as one of the two global superpowers, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Though Britain and the empire emerged victorious, the effects of the conflict were profound, both at home and abroad. Allied forces occupied much of Europe and the United Empire found itself jockeying with the Soviet Union for power during a geo-political conflict later known as the Cold War. At home, the aftermath of the war severely weakened Britain’s economy and industrial capacity, leading to successive Social Democratic and Liberal governments nationalising industries and public utilities, and establishing the modern welfare state, which triggered sustained economic expansion and recovery in the 1950s and 60s.

    The rise of anti-imperial and anti-colonial sentiment in Britain and across the empire meant that the British Empire’s days were numbered. The 1949 London Declaration, which recognised India’s intention to replace the British monarch with a native head of state after the death of King-Emperor George VI, whilst remaining part of the Commonwealth, represented a significant step away from a colonial empire to a free association of equal states. Motivated by a policy of containment and anti-communism towards the expansion of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa, the 1950 Houston Agreement established the Common Defence Pact, a military alliance led by the United Empire and its close allies in opposition to the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. Throughout the Cold War, the Empire and the Soviets engaged in several proxy wars, notably the Chinese Civil War, the Second Indochina War, and the Malayan Emergency, and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, though the two countries avoided direct military conflict. The 1960 Treaty of Mumbai established the Commonwealth Economic Community, a continuation of the imperial preference policies of the interwar period, which continues to be the largest global free trade area and economic bloc in the world and secured the continued economic dominance of Britain, even as its political control over the colonial empire dissolved. Overseas, the British began the process of decolonisation gradually compared to the rapid collapse of the French colonial empire, with the transition of its African and Asian colonies first to associated states and then to fully independent sovereign states. Throughout the 1960s most British colonies were granted a degree of self-government, with many smaller colonies federalising, as in Katanga, or merging with larger dominions, as in Southern Africa, and by 1980 all of Britain’s major colonies had gained independence. On the world stage, the 1979 Iranian Revolt led to a strain in British relations with Iran, escalated by the 63 British hostages taken when nationalists stormed the British Embassy. Although the hostages were released after seven months, the incident did irreparable damage to Anglo-Iranian relations and led to Iran becoming more aligned with the Soviet Union.

    At home, the United Empire experienced sustained economic expansion and rapid growth, aided by the construction of the Motorway System across North America. Constitutional changes brought home rule to Scotland and Wales in 1950 and England in 1967, whilst the Empire admitted several new dominions from former colonies including Malta in 1955, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Gibraltar and Mauritius in 1964, Jamaica and the West Indies in 1972, and Hong Kong and Fiji in 1984. From the late 1960s, Louisiana suffered communal and paramilitary violence (sometimes affecting other parts of North America) conventionally known as the Troubles, that lasted until the signing of the Saint-Louis "Good Friday" Agreement of 1999. Throughout the 1960s and 70s the growing Civil Rights movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, particularly in Carolina and the Ohio Country, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader. His assassination in 1971, along with a combination of court decisions and legislation, culminated in the 1978 Civil Rights Acts, which sought to end racial discrimination and enforce equal rights laws upon the entire Empire, which almost resulted in Carolina’s secession from the Union. Following a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the 1970s and 80s, which saw the onset of stagflation, Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government introduced radical free-market oriented reforms, involving deregulation of the financial sector and labour markets, contributing to the growth of London and New York as world financial hubs. Whilst the economy boomed through deregulation and the inflow of substantial revenues from the Empire’s oil and gas reserves, many of the country’s manufacturing industries collapsed and a series of bitter strike actions heralded the death knell of the state-run coal industry.

    The Soviet Union’s 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and the 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated the “Space Race”, a competition between the two rivals during the Cold War, in which a British-led Commonwealth mission landed a man on the moon in 1966. The Soviet Union launched the first space station in 1969, followed by the British in 1973, whilst the United Empire established the first manned lunar base in 1971, followed by the Soviets in 1974. Since then both countries have maintained a permanent presence in Earth orbit, since 2000 as part of the International Space Station, and on the lunar surface, alongside several dozen countries and organisations. The late 1980s brought a “thaw” in relations with the USSR, and its reorganisation in 1991 finally ended the Cold War and led to a warming of relations between the two superpowers. British-Soviet cooperation resulted in a cosmonaut participating in the 1993 Mars landing, and the international Hermes Mars missions have been an important part of international cooperation since then. Despite the peaceful end to the Cold War, with democratic revolutions and elections contributing to the end of communist governments in Europe and Africa, unrest in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990 when Hasa under King Fahd invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Abu Dhabi, the later three members of the United Gulf Emirates. As both Kuwait and the UGE were allies of Britain under the Common Defence Pact, the United Empire and a military coalition launched the Gulf War in response to the invasion, which successfully expelled Hasanian forces and restored the status quo ante bellum. The Gulf War marked the beginning of a period of British overseas military interventions, including in the Somali Civil War, where the Commonwealth was sporadically involved throughout the 1990s, and the Third Balkan War, where a Franco-British bombing campaign led to the 1999 Svernitsa Accords which ended the conflict.

    The outbreak of the War in West Africa in 1991, with a coup that toppled the elected government of Sierra Leone, an independent Commonwealth realm, began Britain and the Commonwealth’s military involvement in the West African conflict. Sierra Leone was stabilised in 1998, with a British peacekeeping force remaining in the country, and in 2001 the country and Empire voted to admit Sierra Leone to the Union alongside the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 2002. On 11 September 2001 (“9/11”), the United Empire was struck by a terrorist attack al-Qaeda hijackers commandeered seven airliners to be used in suicide attacks. Two planes struck the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in New York, a third struck the Palace of Westminster in central London and the fourth into the Pentagon in suburban London, killing 4,172 victims. Passengers and crew successfully retook control of two of the three remaining planes, and they crashed in Allegheny, Columbia and West Berkshire, England respectively, whilst air defences brought down the seventh plane outside of Fredericksburg when it targeted the Triskelion. In response, Prime Minister George W. Bush announced a “War on Terror”, and in October the United Empire and CDP invaded Somalia to end the civil war, which had provided a haven for al-Qaeda and its leader Osama bin Laden, and eliminate the alleged chemical weapons in the country. In the Arabian Peninsula, tensions between Nejd and Hasa erupted into war over control of vital oil reserves and unresolved border tensions and the Saudis support for Islamic extremists, forcing British involvement in the region. Despite initial successes in both theatres, the continued overseas deployment of the British military fuelled international protests and led to the collapse of the Bush government under domestic and international pressure. The Nejd-Hasa War ended in 2011 under a negotiated ceasefire, leading to the withdrawal of British forces from the region, whilst in Somalia the country was reorganised as a unitary republic in 2005, although Commonwealth troops have remained in the country to the present day as part of the ongoing insurgency, much as in West Africa. On 22 July 2019, the formerly independent State of Accra, a Commonwealth realm in West Africa, and Tierra del Fuego, a former British territory incorporating the Falkland Islands, were admitted to the Union.

    A multicultural country, the United Empire is the world’s oldest surviving confederation, although it is a constitutional monarchy and representative democracy with many traits common to a federal state. The United Empire is a founding member of the Commonwealth of Nations, United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other international organisations. The United Empire is a highly developed country, ranking highly in measures of socioeconomic performance, with the world’s largest economy by nominal GDP and second largest by PPP, and the British economy is largely post-industrial, dominated by the service and knowledge-based industries, although the manufacturing sector remains the second largest in the world. The United Empire is the world’s foremost military power, and is the leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.

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    Republican Rebellion (1848-1851)
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    Any chance we could have a bit more on the Republican Rebellion? It seems like a pretty important moment which, IIRC, we haven't had an infobox on yet... (Obviously, if there has been one and I've missed it then please feel free to call me an idiot.)

    So got this finished :) Quite happy with it, but I'd be lying if I said I hadn't been inspired somewhat by @lord caedus and the American Commonwealth's Republican Uprising.

    Enjoy :)


    The Republican Rebellion, also known as the American Rebellion, the American Revolt, or in the British Home Isles as the American Betrayal, is the term used to refer collectively to the various republican movements that took place between December 1848 and August 1851 throughout Britain-in-America, mainly along the East Coast, and attempted to either break away from Great Britain or overthrow the colonial government of British America and institute a republican government. Although considered part of the European Revolutions of 1848 and often presented as a singular conflict, historians widely agree that the rebellion had different causes in the various provinces, states, colonies and regions where fighting occurred. The disparate nature of the republican movements across the colonies led to little to no communication or aid between the many American republics that rose and fell during the uprisings.

    Essentially a liberal bourgeois revolution in nature, some of the major contributing factors were dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, and the upsurge of American nationalism after the Mexican War. The American republics generally agreed on the aim of overthrowing the monarchical system of limited responsible government in the colonies, although their methods and ultimate goals differed greatly. An influx of radical republican refugees from Europe, fleeing the revolutions of 1848, brought the bourgeois ideals of revolution to the northern colonies, while in the south their liberal ideals fanned large-scale xenophobic sentiments amongst existing settlers. The Sons of Liberty, a paramilitary revolutionary secret society dating from 1765, played a major role in the creation of many of the American republics.

    In the southern colonies, republicans were angered by the passage of the 1833 Slavery Abolition Act, which ended slavery throughout the British Empire, freed slaves and deprived slaveholders of their workforce. The decision of the Imperial Parliament to enforce the abolition of slavery upon the colonies without their consent, and the limited self-rule granted to the British American colonial government, caused resentment in the southern colonies. A further issue was the terms of the Treaty of Toluca[1], which ended the Mexican War, that established Texas as an independent republic and limited the expansion of southern influence. Along the Gulf Coast, republican uprisings were sparked by linguistic tensions between French, English, and Spanish speakers along the coast from Acadiana into western Florida, where the majority group discriminated against the minority. A similar situation existed in the Canadian provinces and the Saint Lawrence region, where tensions and dissatisfaction amongst the marginalised minority groups led to republican uprisings.

    The New England colonies had come to harbour many revolutionary immigrant populations, most notably the Irish fleeing the Potato Famine, who were vehemently anti-British in their political views. Radical republicans fleeing the 1848 revolutions in Europe helped the oppressed lower classes create the New England republics, which sought democratic reform and an improvement in living and working conditions. Republican rebellions in Maryland, New Jersey and Delaware originated due to similar situations in those colonies, with a desire for improved wages and increased self-government. In the Ohio Country, republican rebellions were widespread in white settled areas, and generally resulted from dissatisfaction with existing systems of government and poor relations between settler communities and the existing Aboriginal states. Smaller republican risings occurred in the sparsely populated territories west of the Mississippi, but these were ephemeral and put down by local law enforcement without the need for external intervention.

    The rebellions are generally said to had begun on 10 December 1848, when coordinated efforts by the Sons of Liberty, led by Canadian politician William Lyon Mackenzie organised the proclamation of the republics in Atlanta, Charleston, Savannah, and several other southern secessionist republics – which eventually became known as the Southern Confederacy. Word of the rebellion spread quickly across the colonies, and soon republican revolutions broke out in several cities, including New Orleans, Boston, Baltimore, Pensacola, and Losantiville[2]. Although William L. Yancey, as President of the Southern Confederacy, was regarded as the de facto leader of the American republics, the disparate nature of the republicans led to very little cooperation between the nascent republics.

    With the British Empire preoccupied by the end of the Mexican War, and the occupation of the unstable early Second Mexican Empire, the republicans found success throughout the winter of 1848-1849 whilst the British Army and the Royal American Corps reorganised and redeployed back home to the colonies, aided by Texan volunteers. British soldiers would spend much of 1849 putting down the republics along the Gulf Coast and in modern Missouri and Louisiana, aided by the Texans who formed the historical antecedent to the modern Texan Brigade[3], and moving into territory controlled by the southern republics. In the northern colonies, the Canadian, New England and Chesapeake republics were defeated by January 1851 through the efforts of British forces from Great Britain and colonial militias. Throughout 1850 and 1851, British American soldiers put down the republics, with the urban nature of much of the fighting resulting in many civilian casualties, and thousands were displaced as a result of the rebellion. Aboriginal forces fought alongside colonials in the Trans-Ohio, defeating the republics over the winter of 1851 as their supplies dwindled, whilst the Royal Corps of Rangers were deployed to great effect throughout the colonies in reconnaissance roles and as guerrilla soldiers behind republican lines.

    The rebellion ended on 18 August 1851, when the surviving southern republican leadership surrendered after the burning of Atlanta by Sir Zachary Taylor and the fall of Charleston to Sir Winfield Scott. Yancey surrendered to Scott outside the city, hoping to avoid a similar fate in Charleston, and whilst he was executed along with many other republican leaders for treason, his actions spared the city. Following the rebellion, over 15 thousand republicans were rounded up and forcible exiled to British colonies in Australia and Patagonia[4]. Over the course of the 2 years and 8 months of the rebellion, nearly 400 thousand people were involved in fighting, with over 70 thousand estimated to have been killed and nearly three times that number having been wounded or displaced due to the conflict.

    Historians generally agree the rebellions were a significant event in the political and social evolution of the British Empire[5]. It marked the end of attempts to re-establish slavery in the American South, the decline of republicanism as a widespread ideology in Britain-in-America, and the dissolution of the British American colonial compromise, with the signing of the Anglo-American Compromise. The Sons of Liberty was outlawed, and its members were hunted down and executed, although many members and republicans fled south to New Granada, where they became the ancestors of the Confederados[6]. In the Ohio Country it spurred the formal recognition of the de facto governmental structures established in the territories between the native, mixed and settler states, part of the wider process of British American Confederation that led to the 1876 Acts of Union.

    [1] – TTLs version of the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo. The Treaty of Toluca ended the Mexican War and recognised the independence of Texas and California as protectorates of the British Empire. It was followed by the Treaty of Merida, that established the Second Mexican Empire and reintegrated the republics of Yucatan and Central America into Mexico.
    [2] - The OTL City of Cincinnati.
    [3] - The Texan Brigade is the collective name which refers to units in the modern British Army that are composed of Texan soldiers, numbering 6,490 strong in April 2019, and draws its heritage from Texan volunteers that originally served with the British Army during the Mexican War and the Republican Rebellion. All Texans who serve with the British Army are assigned to a unit in the Texan Brigade, and are granted British citizenship after their service ends.
    [4] - This explains the widespread republican ideology present in Australia and Patagonia compared to its relative absence from Britain and America.
    [5] - Alt Historians ITTL generally regard the Republican Rebellion as the most likely point for British America to break away from the Empire and form a republic. The most famous alternate history story based on this Point of Divergence is the TV series Confederate, that imagines the Southern Confederacy successful forming a presidential republic similar to the OTL United States; the Confederate States of America.
    [6] - These exiles numbered nearly 20,000 and settled in New Granada, which was then the Granadine Confederation. Their descendents, the Confederados, are a direct parallel to the OTL Confederados in Brazil, and played an important role in the country's transition to, and retention of, a presidential-style republic.
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    British Monarchs and Imperial Prime Ministers
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    @LeinadB93: Perhaps post the list of Prime Ministers here? :)
    I've noticed hints here and there. Layton, Lim, etc, but I'd also dig seeing a comprehensive list.

    Here you go, the Monarchs and Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and Empire (U.K.E.) and its predecessor states:


    Monarchs of Great Britain and the Commonwealth (1701–)
    1701–1714: Anne Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland until 1707, then of Great Britain and Ireland
    1714–1714: Sophia [1]
    1714–1727: George I Elector of Hanover
    1727–1751: George II [2]
    1751–1783: Frederick I [3] Emperor of All Britain; King of Virginia after 1753 [9]
    1783–1817: George III King of Hanover after 1814
    1817–1821: George IV [4]
    1821–1830: Frederick II [5]
    1830–1837: William IV Last British King of Hanover
    1837–1901: Victoria Queen of the Dominions beyond the Seas after 1856; Empress of India after 1858
    1901–1910: Edward VII​
    1910–1936: George V​
    1936–1936: Edward VIII [6]
    1936–1952: George VI Head of the Commonwealth after 1949; Last British Emperor of India
    1952–2020: Elizabeth II​
    Heir apparent: Charles, Prince of Chesapeake and Wales [7]
    Heir apparent: William, Prince of Appalachia [8]

    [1] - Sophia of Hanover lives slightly longer until 8 October 1714.​
    [2] - George II suffers injuries at Dettingen, and a combination of these and a fever lead to his early death.​
    [3] - Frederick I "the Great" was exiled to British America in 1737 for preventing his parents from being at the birth of his first child. He was stripped of the title of Prince of Wales, and created Prince of Chesapeake. He gained popularity amongst the colonists and upon his father's death was proclaimed King of Great Britain and Ireland, and Emperor of All Britain at the White Palace (OTL White House) in Fredericksburg (OTL Washington D.C.).​
    [4] - Dies earlier due to his heavy drinking and unhealthy lifestyle.​
    [5] - Second son of George III. Lives slightly longer and ascends to the throne after his brother's death. Restores the prestige of the monarchy.​
    [6] - Abdicates after Curtis, Vandenberg and the Dominion First Ministers refuse to support his marriage to Wallis Simpson, a twice divorced woman from Columbia.​
    [7] - The title of Prince of Chesapeake was created in 1737 by King George II for his son Frederick during his exile. Upon Frederick's accession as King-Emperor he mde his eldest son, the future George III, Prince of Chesapeake and following the death of his brother, William Augustus, Prince of Wales, a tradition which continues to the present day. The holder is also Grand Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay and Duke of Illawarra.​
    [8] - The title of Prince of Appalachia was created in 1762 after the birth of the future George IV. Since then it has been held by the heir apparent of the heir apparent. The current holder, Prince William, is also Duke of Cambridge, Marquess of Strathearn, Earl of Carrickfergus, Viscount Armidale, and Baron Anglesey.​
    [9] - The Colony of Virginia was raised to the status of Kingdom by the 1753 Crown of Virginia Act as thanks for their proclamation of Frederick I as King and Emperor. It retains the title of Kingdom to the present day.​
    Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and Empire of Great Britannia (1876–)
    11. 1876–1880 Benjamin Disraeli (England) (Conservative majority) [1]
    12. 1880–1881 Sir Samuel J. Tilden (Columbia) (Conservative majority)
    13. 1881–1886 Sir William Gladstone (England) (Liberal majority)
    14. 1886–1889 Sir John C. Breckinridge (Virginia) (Conservative majority)
    15. 1889–1892 Adlai Stevenson I (Ohio Country) (Liberal minority)
    16. 1892–1896 Cornelis Vanderbilt II (Columbia) (ConservativeImperial Unionist majority coalition) [2][3]
    17. 1896–1906 Sir Joseph Chamberlain (England) (Imperial UnionistConservative majority coalition)
    18. 1906–1908 Arthur Balfour (England) (ConservativeImperial Unionist majority coalition)
    19. 1908–1915 Sir Wilfrid Laurier (Canada) (Liberal majority, then Wartime Coalition) [4]
    10. 1915–1919 David Lloyd George (Wales) (Wartime Coalition, then Liberal minority)
    11. 1919–1922 Robert La Follette Sr. (Ohio Country) (Social DemocraticProgressive minority coalition) [4]
    12. 1922–1926 Austen Chamberlain (England) (Conservative majority)
    13. 1926–1931 Arthur Henderson (England) (Social DemocraticLiberalProgressive majority coalition)
    14. 1931–1936 Charles Curtis† (Missouri) (Conservative majority) [5]
    15. 1936–1937 Arthur H. Vandenberg (Ohio Country) (Conservative majority) [3][6]
    16. 1937–1940 Sir Walter F. George (Carolina) (Conservative majority)
    17. 1940–1945 Winston Churchill (England) (Wartime Coalition)
    18. 1945–1946 Harry Truman (Missouri) (Wartime Coalition) (1st)
    19. 1946–1950 Clement Attlee (England) (Social DemocraticLiberal majority coalition)
    18. 1950–1955 Sir Harry Truman (Missouri) (Liberal minority) (2nd)
    20. 1955–1964 Sir Robert Menzies (Australia) (Conservative majority, then Conservative–Social Credit majority coalition)
    21. 1964–1968 Sir Jacob Javits (Columbia) (ConservativeSocial Credit majority coalition)
    22. 1968–1974 Norman Kirk† (New Zealand) (Social DemocraticProgressive majority coalition)
    23. 1974–1976 Barbara Castle (England) (Social DemocraticSocialist LabourProgressive majority coalition) [7]
    24. 1976–1979 Sir Pierre Trudeau (Canada) (LiberalProgressive majority coalition) [4]
    25. 1979–1981 Flora MacDonald (New England) (ConservativeHeritage majority coalition) [8]
    26. 1981–1984 James Carter (Carolina) (LiberalSocial DemocraticProgressive majority coalition)
    27. 1984–1990 Margaret Thatcher (England) (Conservative minority)
    28. 1990–1993 George H. W. Bush (New England) (ConservativeLibertarian majority coalition)
    29. 1993–1995 Paul Tsongas (New England) (LiberalSocial Democratic majority coalition)
    30. 1995–2001 Richard Gephardt (Missouri) (LiberalSocial Democratic majority coalition)
    31. 2001–2004 George W. Bush (New England) (ConservativeSocial Democratic majority coalition, then ConservativeHeritage minority coalition)
    32. 2004–2010 Sir Henry Hayes (Ohio Country) (ConHeritage minority coalition, then ConLbtProgressive Conservative majority coalition, then minority coalition)
    33. 2010–2011 Jack Layton† (Canada) (Social DemocraticLiberalGreen majority coalition)
    34. 2011–2018 Sylvia Lim (Singapore) (Social DemocraticLiberalGreen majority coalition)
    35. 2018–2018 Luis Fortuño (Puerto Rico) (Conservative minority, with Liberal and Progressive Conservative support) [9]
    [1] - Disraeli sat in the Imperial Council of Lords as the 1st Earl of Beaconsfield.​
    [2] - Vanderbilt sat in the Imperial House of Commons despite being the 3rd Earl Vanderbilt (most American Peers didn't sit in the Imperial Council untl 1923).​
    [3] - Vanderbilt and Vandenberg have been the only Dutch-speaking Prime Ministers.​
    [4] - Laurier, La Follette and Trudeau have been the only Francophone Prime Ministers.​
    [5] - Curtis is the only Prime Minister of Aboriginal American descent.​
    [6] - Vandenberg sat in the Imperial Council of Lords as the 1st Earl Vandenberg of Grandstad.​
    [7] - Castle was the first female Prime Minister.​
    [8] - MacDonald has been the only Gaelic-speaking Prime Minister.​
    [9] - Fortuño is the first Spanish-speaking Prime Minister.​

    And a bonus one, the election navbox for the U.K.E.:

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    Queen Sophia of Great Britain
  • LeinadB93

    Monthly Donor
    So to tide you all over whilst I wrap up a few write ups, I thought I'd share an infobox for the first non-OTL British monarch of this timeline.

    Credit to Wikipedia for a lot of this.


    Sophia (14 October 1630 – 8 October 1714), commonly known as Sophia of Hanover, was Queen of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until her death. She was also the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698. A granddaughter of James VI and I, she succeeded her first cousin once removed, Queen Anne, to the thrones of Great Britain and Ireland. Her reign, one of the shortest in British history, marked the end of the Stuart period and the beginning of the Hanoverian era.

    Born to Frederick V of the Palatinate, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, and Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland, in 1630, Sophia grew up in the Dutch Republic, where her family had sought refuge after the sequestration of their Electorate during the Thirty Years' War. Sophia's brother Charles Louis was restored to the Palatinate as part of the Peace of Westphalia. Sophia married Ernst August of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1658. Despite his jealous temper and frequent absences, Sophia loved him, and bore him seven children who survived to adulthood. Initially a landless cadet, Ernst August succeeded in having the House of Hanover raised to electoral dignity in 1692. Therefore, Sophia became Electress of Hanover, the title by which she is best remembered. A patron of the arts, Sophia commissioned the palace and gardens of Herrenhausen and sponsored philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz and John Toland.

    In 1701, the Parliament of England passed the Act of Settlement, which named Sophia as heir presumptive to the English thrones, in the event of neither King William III and Queen Anne having legitimate issue. Sophia would leave Hanover the following year, and would reside in London where she became a prominent and popular figure of the royal court. She ascended to the throne upon the death of Queen Anne on 1 August 1714, as the first and only monarch of the House of Palatinate-Simmern. Despite having enjoyed good health for much of her life, at the time of her succession Sophia had begun to suffer the effects of her advanced age, and she died two months later on 8 October. She was succeeded by her son, George I, and her body was buried at the Herrenhausen Gardens in Hanoverstadt, the creation of which she had guided. Sophia was one of the last British monarchs to be buried outside of the Home Isles, her son George I was also buried in Hanover, and her great-grandson Frederick I was buried in Fredericksburg, Maryland.
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