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Eyes Turned Skyward : Chapters

This page serves as a record of all major posts for the Eyes Turned Skyward timeline by e of pi and Workable Goblin. As of January 2015, Part IV of the timeline is in progress, covering up to the present day, and the end of the timeline. The original thread and comments can be read on the forum here.


Chapter 1: introductory “DBWI” (Caution: significant portions have been retconned since original posting.)

Chapter 2: Initial POD in 1968–Low appointed as administrator.

Post 3: Shuttle cancellation. Instead, development will focus on continued Skylab-based space stations, including developing Saturn 1C, Apollo Block III, and Aardvark unmanned cargo craft.

Chapter 4: Planetary Exploration post, covering Mars and some Voyager.

Chapter 5: Apollo 18 Mission to Hyginius

Chapter 6: Skylab launch, accident, and initial recovery efforts.

Chapter 7: Skylab 2 launch and Skylab repairs.

Chapter 8: ASTP I, Skylab 3 and 4 discussion. Skylab 5 mission and Skylab end-of-mission and deorbit.

Chapter 9: ELDO, ESA, and Europa 1/2 development and operations.

Chapter 10: Skylab research and lessons for Spacelab.

Chapter 11: Modifications made during conversion from Skylab-B to Spacelab.

Chapter 12: ESA participation in Spacelab, beginnings of the European Research Module, and initial plans for Europa 2 successor.

Chapter 13: Space advocacy part I: birth of the National Space Organization.

Chapter 14: transitions from Apollo to Spacelab including LC39 conversions, first launches of the Saturn 1C, and selection of the Twenty Freaking New Guys in 1977.

Chapter 15: Space advocacy part II: Gerard K. O'Neill, space colonization, and the Lunar Society.

Chapter 16: ELVRP I (Expendable Launch Vehilce Replacement Program) and the Delta 4000.

Chapter 17: ESA update: Europa 3 design, the Seat Wars, and the creation of the Block III+ Apollo.

Chapter 18: Spacelab launch and ASTP II mission.

Chapter 19: Hubble program start, selection of Kodak for main optical equipment.

Chapter 20: Spacelab missions 1978 through 1979, Spacelab 4-Spacelab 7. Launch of the first ESA astronaut, Ulf Merbold, and addition to the station of the Airlock Module and the European Research Module.

Chapter 21: ELVRP II and the need for a new DoD Heavy. NASA added to program as junior partner.

Interlude 1: A Brief Moment of Culture�Star Trek: The New Voyages. Guest post by Brainbin

Chapter 22:ELVRP II Proposals and selection of the Saturn Multibody for America�s new heavy launch vehicle.

Chapter 23: Soviet Update 1: Mishin out, Glushko in. Selection of the Vulkan launcher, the TKS crew capsule, and the MOk station as the main programs for the Soviet space program.

Chapter 24: Vulkan progress, MOK delays, and creation of Salyut 7. Initial round of Vulkan launches in 1982 and results of the �Vulkan Panic.�


Chapter 1 - Arrival of the first Japanese astronaut to Spacelab.

Chapter 2 - ESA's new launch vehicle Europa 3, in detail.

Chapter 3 - President Reagan's space policy, Carl Sagan to the rescue of the planetary probe program, and VOIR.

Chapter 4 - Japan's first step into space, the Japanese launch vehicles N-1, N-2 and H-1.

Chapter 5 - The Grand Tour, Pioneer 10 & 11 probes and the Voyager 1, 2, 3, 4 probes.

Chapter 6 - NASA's post-Spacelab study for Starlab, new US spacesuit developments, president Reagan's idea of Freedom.

Chapter 7 - How Starlab became space station Freedom and details the next planned US space station.

Interlude 2 - Vulkan Panic, or, How TV and cinema dealt with it. Guest post by Brainbin

Chapter 8 - The Soviet Mars Mission, from Mars 2 to 13, in detail.

Chapter 9 - US Mission to Mars. Pioneer Mars, Mars Reconnaissance Pioneer, the Mars Traverse Rovers.

Chapter 10 - 1980 to 1983. NASA: Delta 4000 premiere, Spacelab mission 8-15, Spacelab “garlic” incident. Soviet program: Vulkan & TKS premiere, Salut-7/DOS-8 station.

Chapter 11 - Voyager 2, 3 and 4's visit to the outer planets (Uranus, Neptune and Pluto).

Chapter 12 - Comet probes: Helios-Encke and The Halley Armada: Newton/Kirchhoff, Gallei 1/2 and Suisei/Sakigake.

Chapter 13 - The Strategic Defense Initiative.

Chapter 14 - More Spacelab Mission, Europa 3 & Minotaur are go, Begin of FREEDOM program, Spacelab 28 launch accident.

Chapter 15 - Exploration of Venus, the Cytherean.

Chapter 16 - The impact of the direct broadcast of US television by satellite in 1980s.

Chapter 17 - The commercial Space flight in 1980s.

Chapter 18 - And Now for Something Completely Different: The Lockheed L-1011 Aircraft.

Chapter 19 - The Triumph of the Galileo Mission.

Chapter 20 - The Spacelab 28 Review Board and last missions to Spacelab.

Chapter 21 - The Hubble Space Telescope Program (1972-1995).

Chapter 22 - The Kirchhoff probe's second mission to Comet Tempel 2.

Chapter 23 - The Mission to the asteroids: NASA NEAP, ESA Piazzi and Soviet “Grand Tour” program.

Chapter 24 - The new generation Space Telescope after Hubble (post 21).

Chapter 25 - The assembly of Space Station Freedom and slow death of Soviet space dreams…

Chapter 26 - Which way to go ? The struggle for a US space program under NASA, the Lunar Society and the National Space Organization.

Chapter 27 - The beginnings of the Chinese Space Program.

Chapter 28 - Birth of Project Constellation.

Chapter 29 - The Exploration Report, the Roadmap for NASA's future.

Chapter 30 - Finale of Part II: Robert Zubrin strikes Back!


Chapter 01 - The Post-Cold War space program.

Chapter 02 - The Lunar Reconnaisance Pioneer.

Chapter 03 - American Launch Services Inc.'s “newest” rockets.

Chapter 04 - The X-40 program or Grumman Aerospace Corporation's Starcat.

Chapter 05 - From OOE probe over ISPM probe, to Odysseus' and Telemachus' flight to the Sun.

Interlude 3 - The Quiet Years. Guest post by Brainbin.

Chapter 06 - The Gore administration and the chaos at NASA.

Chapter 07 - The Artemis program design, in detail.

Chapter 08 - The Russian space program and its international partnerships.

Chapter 09 - The Cassini Probe program.

Chapter 10 - European launcher developments in the 1990s.

Chapter 11 - Commercial satellite communications from 1965 to the end of Cold War.

Chapter 12 - The Moon in preparation of the Artemis program.

Chapter 13 - A look at Indian and Chinese space activity, and operations aboard the Mir and Freedom space stations during the 1990s.

Chapter 14 - The 1994 Christmas Plot, the deadliest single terrorist attack in world history.

Chapter 15 - The improvement of American railway infrastructure.

Chapter 16 - Progress and developments in the Chinese space program and in NASA's Artemis program.

Chapter 17 - The Fobos-Grunt mission.

Chapter 18 - Boeing-Grumman, its competition and the Artemis program test flight.

Chapter 19 - The growth of mobile satellite communications in the US and Europe.

Chapter 20 - The Artemis 4 cargo lander flight.

Chapter 21 - Lockheed's problems: The aging Titan III and the X-33 program.

Chapter 22 - Astronomy Updates: The Leavitt X-Ray Telescope and what's next.

Interlude 4 - The cultural effects of the Christmas Plot.

Chapter 23 - The Comet and Asteroids Pioneer Program.

Chapter 24 - CAPP Missions, launch and landings.

Chapter 25 - Final chapter of Part III, The manned Artemis 4 mission to the Moon.


Chapter 1 - Intro, Christmas Special, Top Gear races a rocket!

Chapter 2 - Space politics at the turn of the Millennium.

Chapter 3 - NASA's plans for the future.

Chapter 4 - Star Launch Services shake up the commercial launch market with a bold new concept.

Chapter 5 - US unmanned probe plans.

Chapter 6 - Freedom operations and the Artemis 5 moon mission.

Chapter 7 - Russian plans and the Artemis 6 moon mission.

Chapter 8 - US unmanned probes in the early noughties.

Chapter 9 - Commercial reactions to StarLaunch Thunderbolt, including Northrop TransOrbital Services.

Chapter 10 - Artemis 7, 8, and 9 missions visit the lunar farside and South Pole.

Chapter 11 - US astronomy in the early noughties.

Chapter 12 - A change of President and NASA Administrator leads to a change of plans in the US and beyond.

Chapter 13 - “This IS Rocket Science”, a look at what might have been.

Chapter 14 - Russian plans for planetary exploration and lunar partnership.

Chapter 15 - Artemis continues, plans for Orion.

Chapter 16 - ESA's unmanned space missions.

Chapter 17 - Orion Expedition 1.

Chapter 18 - The Planetary Science Community Strikes Back.

Chapter 19 - Reusable space vehicles.

Chapter 20 - Space based astronomy in the 21st century.

Chapter 21 - US unmanned exploration.

Chapter 22 - NASA after Orion, Saturn-II.

Chapter 23 - Japanese space probes.

Chapter 24 - New space stations for Russia, China and the US.

Chapter 25 - Asian space exploration.

Interlude #5 - Look Up and See the Future.

Chapter 26 - Lunar base planning, commercial moves.

Finale - Future plans.

See Also

timelines/eyes_turned_skyward_chapters.txt · Last modified: 2020/02/15 18:25 by eofpi