Hail, Britannia

Non merci.
Just the political debate of potential Frexit would be interesting to see.

Say the right wing party becomes the third largest party in the next election what would result from that outcome, what if there is a similar scenario to the OTL conservatives 2015 election promises, etc.

Also it would be interesting to see how the Brittany independence movement fit into that situation, does Brittany support Frexit or are they against it and would a independent Brittany effect the situation more?
 
Just the political debate of potential Frexit would be interesting to see.

Say the right wing party becomes the third largest party in the next election what would result from that outcome, what if there is a similar scenario to the OTL conservatives 2015 election promises, etc.

Also it would be interesting to see how the Brittany independence movement fit into that situation, does Brittany support Frexit or are they against it and would a independent Brittany effect the situation more?
I guess Brittany would be slightly like Scotland in that scenario... but there is no populist wave ITTL, so I guess it would happen waaaaaayyyyy differently
 
Please do that at some point as that will send shockwaves across the EU.
Non merci.
Just the political debate of potential Frexit would be interesting to see.
God no!! I just don't have it in me :)

Maybe everyone else votes to reduce the agricultural subsidies. :biggrin:
Say the right wing party becomes the third largest party in the next election what would result from that outcome, what if there is a similar scenario to the OTL conservatives 2015 election promises, etc.
The French political climate being what it is, there is zero chance of either of the two main parties in French politics calling a referendum on France's EU membership. Except for some of the most hardline Eurosceptics, French politicians have accepted that they are stronger as the leading voice of the European Union than they would be outside.

The only way would be if the "Front des Patriotes" won a majority in the Chamber of Deputies. But that's as likely as UKIP winning a majority in the House of Commons IOTL. Even if the FR surged, the left and right would probably rather have a grand coalition than let the nationalists anywhere near the government.

Also it would be interesting to see how the Brittany independence movement fit into that situation, does Brittany support Frexit or are they against it and would a independent Brittany effect the situation more?
I guess Brittany would be slightly like Scotland in that scenario... but there is no populist wave ITTL, so I guess it would happen waaaaaayyyyy differently
But there would be major differences between OTL Scotland and TTL Brittany.
Breton independence is definitely pro-European in it's outlook. So any movement to take France out of the EU would be vehemently opposed by Bretons, specifically Breton nationalists.

Part of the reason Segolene Royal was able to diffuse the Breton independence crisis of 2017-18 was by promising extensive devolution to Brittany - effectively giving it the same independence as New Caledonia whilst still in Metropolitan France - and also saying that an independent Brittany would be forced out of the EU.

So if France voted to leave the EU, Brittany would probably call another independence vote and try to convince the EU to let them remain.
 
Here's a bit of lore from France ITTL: the Front des Patriotes is abbreviated as FP, but some critics prefer to write FDP as it is also a widely-used abbreviation for "Fils de P*te", the french expression for "Son of a B*tch"
 
Monarchs and Prime Ministers of France (since 1871)
A bit of world-building in the form of the heads of state and government of France since 1871. Thanks to @Julio974 for giving them the once over.


Kings of the French (1871–)
1871–1883: Henri V (OTL Henri, Count of Chambord; also Emperor of Nigeria from 1880)
1883–1894: Philippe VII (grandson of Louis Philippe I)
1894–1926: Philippe VIII​
1926–1940: Jean III (died under house arrest after the Battle of France)
1940–1999: Henri VI ("regent" Philippe Pétain in Vichy Regime, 1940-1944; Emperor of Nigeria until 1958; King of Gabon after 1960)
1999–2019: Henri VII​
2019–2020: Jean IV​
Heir apparent: Louis, Dauphin of France

Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of the French (1871–)
16. 1871–1873 Jules Armand Dufaure (Independent)
17. 1873–1876 Albert de Broglie, 4th Duke of Broglie (Monarchist)
18. 1876–1879 Jules Simon (Left Union)
19. 1879–1881 Charles de Freycinet (Left Union)
10. 1881–1882 Léon Gambetta† (Left Union)
11. 1882–1893 Jules Ferry (Left Union)
12. 1893–1897 Charles Dupuy (Conservative)
13. 1897–1901 Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau (Left Union)
14. 1901–1903 Henri Brisson (Radical)
15. 1903–1907 Émile Combes (Radical)
16. 1907–1910 Georges Clemenceau (Radical) (1st)
17. 1910–1912 Aristide Briand (Radical)
18. 1912–1914 Raymond Poincaré (Democratic Alliance) (1st)
19. 1914–1917 Gaston Doumergue (Radical)
16. 1917–1920 Georges Clemenceau (Radical) (2nd)
18. 1920–1928 Raymond Poincaré (Democratic Alliance) (2nd)
20. 1928–1936 Édouard Herriot (Radical)
21. 1936–1938 Léon Blum (SFIO[1])
22. 1938–1940 Édouard Daladier (Radical)
23. 1940–1940 Paul Reynaud (Democratic Alliance)
24. 1940–1944 Pierre Laval (Independent) [2]
30. 1944–1946 Charles de Gaulle (Military) [3]
25. 1946–1948 Vincent Auriol (Socialist)
26. 1948–1950 Robert Schuman (Popular Movement)
27. 1950–1952 Georges Bidault (Popular Movement)
28. 1952–1953 Henri Queuille (Radical)
29. 1953–1958 Guy Mollet (Socialist)
30. 1958–1967 Charles de Gaulle, 1st Duke of Bayeux (Union for the French Nation)
31. 1967–1974 Georges Pompidou† (Union for the French Nation)
32. 1974–1974 Pierre Messmer (Union for the French Nation)
33. 1974–1977 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (Independent Democrats)
34. 1977–1981 Pierre Mauroy (Socialist)
35. 1981–1983 Jacques Chirac (Union for the French Nation) (1st)
36. 1983–1986 Jacques Delors (Socialist)
35. 1986–1990 Jacques Chirac (Union for the French Nation) (2nd)
37. 1990–1993 François Mitterand (Socialist)
38. 1993–1995 Alain Juppé (Union for the French Nation) (1st)
39. 1995–1997 Édith Cresson (Socialist)
40. 1997–2002 Lionel Jospin (Socialist)
38. 2002–2003 Alain Juppé (Union for the French Nation) (2nd)
41. 2003–2009 Nicolas Sarkozy (Union for the French Nation)
42. 2009–2013 Ségolène Royal (Socialist) (1st)
43. 2013–2016 Jean-François Copé (Union for the French Nation)
42. 2016–2021 Ségolène Royal (Socialist) (2nd)

[1] - French Section of the Workers' International / Section française de l'Internationale ouvrière.​
[2] - Under the Vichy Regime.​
[3] - Acting Prime Minister during the Provisional Government.​
 
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A bit of world-building in the form of the heads of state and government of France since 1871. Thanks to @Julio974 for giving them the once over.


Kings of the French (1871–)
1871–1883: Henri V (OTL Henri, Count of Chambord; also Emperor of Nigeria from 1880)
1883–1894: Philippe VII (grandson of Louis Philippe I)
1894–1926: Philippe VIII
1926–1940: Jean III (died under house arrest after the Battle of France)
1940–1999: Henri VI ("regent" Philippe Pétain in Vichy Regime, 1940-1944; Emperor of Nigeria until 1958; King of Gabon after 1960)
1999–2019: Henri VII
2019–2020: Jean IV
Heir apparent: Louis, Dauphin of France
So Gabon is still under the French monarchy? Interesting.
 
You mentioned way back that the title "King of the French" applies to both France and Wehran. Does the French parliament still have the power to pass laws for Wehran, or has that been revoked?
 
So Gabon is still under the French monarchy? Interesting.
Yes it is. Upon reading up on Gabon’s history I discovered that the first OTL President of Gabon - Leon M’ba - was very pro-French. So ITTL, given that anti-colonial sentiment is somewhat more nuanced, Gabon transitions to independence as a realm in personal union with the French Crown. It is one of only two parts of the French colonial empire to remain a monarchy under the French king, but the monarch’s power is non-existent.

You mentioned way back that the title "King of the French" applies to both France and Wehran. Does the French parliament still have the power to pass laws for Wehran, or has that been revoked?
To put it simply, these now have the same status to France, as Commonwealth member states to the United Kingdom.
Indeed, the relationship between the legislatures of France, Wehran and Gabon is much like the OTL legislative relationships between Britain, Canada and Australia. However the French realms send High Commissioners to each other not Ambassadors, and there is a common citizenship as subjects of the French Crown in addition to their national citizenship.

Its worth pointing out that the title of “King of the French” has been reinterpreted to be the monarch of the three Francophonie realms. In addition the monarch is also the Co-Prince of Andorra and the Honorary President of La Francophonie.

I’ve never really liked the name Wehran - so I’m considering changing it to the French State of Mauretania - drawing on the historic name for that region of North Africa. Thoughts?
 
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I’ve never really liked the name Wehran - so I’m considering changing it to the French State of Mauretania - drawing on the historic name for that region of North Africa. Thoughts?
Why not just Oranie/Oranie? That would make the most sense.

If you want an older name, I think Altava could work, it was the name of the last Christian kingdom in Algeria which was invaded by the Umayyad, and whose last king led a revolt against the Muslims, the city of Altava itself wasn’t located exactly in Oran, but it nearby in the wider current oranais region and some of the region controlled by it are today controlled by wehran. It could fit as a name chosen by the pieds Noirs with their siege mindset against the Algerians.
 
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"Wehran" might be a colloquial name, whilst the "French State of Mauretania" might be the official name.
Why not just Oranie/Oranie? That would make the most sense.

If you want an older name, I think Altava could work, it was the name of the last Christian kingdom in Algeria which was invaded by the Umayyad, and whose last king led a revolt against the Muslims, the city of Altava itself wasn’t located exactly in Oran, but it nearby in the wider current oranais region and some of the region controlled by it are today controlled by wehran. It could fit as a name chosen by the pieds Noirs with their siege mindset against the Algerians.
Altava was another potential name I’d come across and one of the two candidates I’m definitely considering. I like the historic parallels and I think early government would use this as a rallying cry - a European state holding out against the Arabs.

It’ll probably come down to a coin toss as to which one wins...

WRT Oranie/Wehran I’m trying to go away from place names derived from the City of Oran and a more broader term for a Pied-Noir nation. TBH the borders may extend eastward along the coast and westward to the OTL Moroccan border - including Chelf and Tlemcen provinces.

Whatever happens, France-in-Africa is going to get redone as I’m not happy with the electoral map...
 
New Hampshire; 2018 legislative election
Merry Christmas :D

Back to continuing the New England series, this time the Granite Province. Much credit to @Turquoise Blue for her input on this province.

Enjoy :)


New Hampshire is a province of New England, bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. The sixth-largest province by area, and the fourth-largest by population, New Hampshire was named after the southern English country of Hampshire by Captain John Mason and has the shortest coastline of any New England province. The province’s nickname – “The Granite Province” – refers to its extensive granite formations and quarries.

Before European settlement, various Algonquian-speaking Abenaki tribes inhabited the area that is now New Hampshire. English and French explorers first visited the area in the early 17th century, and in 1623 the first settlement was established at Odiorne’s Point in Rye (near present day Portsmouth) by a group of fishermen from England. Throughout the 1620s and 1630s several towns were established in the “Upper Plantation”, and in 1639 the towns agreed to unite into a single colony. However, Massachusetts Bay had claimed the territory, and in 1641 the towns reached an agreement to come under the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, while retaining their home rule, although the relationship between Boston and the New Hampshire towns was controversial and tenuous. In 1679, King Charles II issued a royal charter for the Province of New Hampshire, formally separating the colony from Massachusetts Bay. New Hampshire was briefly absorbed into the Dominion of New England in 1686, until its collapse in 1689.

After a brief period without formal government, King William III and Queen Mary II issued a new provincial charter in 1691, and from 1699 to 1741 the governors of Massachusetts Bay were also commissioned as governors of New Hampshire. The colony’s geographical location on the frontier between conflicting French, British and Native American claims in North America placed New Hampshire on the front lines of many military conflicts, including King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, Father Rale’s War, and King George’s War. In 1741, King George II demarcated the border between New Hampshire and Massachusetts and separated the governorship of the two provinces. Conflicting territorial claims west of the Connecticut River between New Hampshire and New York would be further complicated by the issuing of land grants by the New Hampshire government. Theses “New Hampshire Grants” were a subject of contention from 1749 until 1795, when they were reorganised as the colony of Vermont.

During the Colonial Unrest of the 1760s and 1770s, New Hampshire was fiercely opposed to the imposition of taxation without representation in the British American colonies, and the colony established a provisional government in Concord. However, although the colony was sharply divided between Patriots and Loyalists, the provisional government sought redress from the British government. On 14 December 1774, a Patriot militia attempted to raid Fort William and Mary in order to seize gunpowder and weaponry. Although the raid was defeated without casualties, it heightened tensions in the province during the Colonial Unrest. As part of the New England Colonies, New Hampshire sent delegates to the colonial congresses, and the colony was granted formal home rule on 21 June 1782, which merged the provisional and colonial governments, which had been at odds for half a decade, into one institution. New Hampshire sent representatives to the 1783 Williamsburg Convention, joining the newly created United Colonies, and was an important voice in the adoption of the Bill of Rights.

Throughout the 19th century, New Hampshire became a major centre for textile manufacturing, shoemaking, and papermaking, with the construction of numerous mills along the rivers in the province. Industrialisation led to the development of the textile industry, and opportunities for work drew many French Americans to migrate to New Hampshire. In the 2011 census 24.5% of the province’s population claim French ancestry, whilst 5.2% of the population speak French as their first language. Beginning in 1832, the northern border of New Hampshire with Quebec was de facto independent as the “Republic of Indian Stream”, which was only annexed to New Hampshire in 1852 under the terms of the Anglo-American Compromise. Along with the other New England colonies, New Hampshire took part in the series of conferences that led to the creation of the Commonwealth of New England on 1 October 1866.

Throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, New Hampshire became an important manufacturing centre, particular the cities of Manchester and Nashua. The Great Depression hit New Hampshire particularly hard, as major manufacturing industries left New England and the provincial textile industry collapsed. Following the Second World War, New Hampshire’s economy recovered as defence contractors moved into the abandoned mills, and the motorway system connected southern New Hampshire to Greater Boston. The late 20th century saw a major shift in the province’s economic base, away from the traditional manufacturing industries to more service based sectors, in particularly, whilst the northern parts of the province continued to produce lumber, the mountains were developed as tourist attractions, providing skiing and other mountain and winter sports.

By the 21st-century, New Hampshire’s economy is broad and diverse, particularly centred on real estate, business services and manufacturing, with important agricultural and lumber sectors and a thriving tourism industry. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast of British America, New Hampshire’s major recreational attractions include skiing, hiking, mountaineering and other winter sports. New Hampshire is one of the greenest subdivisions within the United Empire, with approximately 32% of the province’s energy consumption coming from renewable sources. Politically the province follows New England norms, with a strong centre-right and centre-left divide, although the libertarian Reform party has been the third party in the legislature since the 1990s. New Hampshire continues to elect members of the legislature based on its town borders, the only New England province to retain that system.


The 2018 New Hampshire legislative election was held on 26 September 2018 to elect, under the single non-transferable voting system in single and multi-member constituencies, the 352 members of the House of Assembly, the lower house of the General Court. Under New Hampshire’s provincial charter, the maximum life of the General Court is set at three years, a unique provision amongst New England’s provinces.

The incumbent majority coalition of the centre-right Conservatives and the libertarian Reform Party, led by Premier Kelly Ayotte and newly-elected Deputy Premier Max Abramson, secured re-election despite winning a narrower majority as both parties lost seats, although the Conservatives gained in the popular vote. Their platform of reduced tax cuts and a shrinking of the provincial government failed to sway voters who were feeling the pressure of spending cuts to services. The oppositions centrist Liberals, under new leader Maggie Hassan, a former Senator, secured an increase in seats in spite of a slight decrease in the popular vote. The Liberals failed to make any major inroads in this election, despite opinion polls predicting a Liberal plurality, and a well-received campaign around incentives to boost industry and grow the economy.

The centre-left Progressive Democrats, under Mark Mackenzie, lost 8 seats, largely in suburban areas to the Liberals. The progressive conservative Moderates, under former federal MP Chris Sununu, gained 4 seats from Reform and the Conservatives, whilst the ecological left-wing Greens, under leader Mindi Messmer, held all seats despite Liberal and Moderate gains in their districts. Following the election, Ayotte was reappointed as Premier, with Abramson as her deputy, whilst Hassan pledged to remain as leader of the opposition and MacKenzie confirmed he would step down as PDP leader.

 
Premiers of New Hampshire
And the obligtory follow up. Thanks to @Turquoise Blue as again a lot of this was her work.


Premiers of New Hampshire (1782–)
11. 1782–1793 Sir John Wentworth ("Wentworthite" Whig majority) [1]
12. 1793–1795 Sir Josiah Bartlett† ("Patriotic" Whig majority)
13. 1795–1802 Sir Alexander Scammell ("Patriotic" Whig majority)
14. 1802–1819 Sir John Langdon† ("Patriotic" Whig majority)
15. 1819–1823 Thomas W. Thompson ("Wentworthite" Whig majority)
16. 1823–1837 Sir George Sullivan ("Wentworthite" Whig majority, then Tory majority)
17. 1837–1844 Sir Anthony Colby (Tory majority)
18. 1844–1857 Sir Franklin Pierce (Liberal majority)
19. 1857–1859 Sir John P. Hale (Liberal majority)
10. 1859–1871 Sir Walter Harriman (Conservative majority)
11. 1871–1877 Samuel Newell Bell (Liberal majority)
12. 1877–1885 Ossain Ray (Conservative majority)
13. 1885–1893 Sir Jacob H. Gallinger (Conservative majority)
14. 1893–1897 Nahum J. Bachelder (PopulistLiberal majority coalition)
15. 1897–1901 Charles Busiel† (LiberalPopulist majority coalition, then LiberalProgressive majority coalition)
16. 1901–1904 Frank D. Currier (Conservative minority)
17. 1904–1915 Robert P. Bass (ProgressiveLiberal majority coalition)
18. 1915–1919 Roland H. Spaulding (Conservative majority) (1st)
19. 1919–1925 Winston Churchill (ProgressiveLiberal majority coalition)
18. 1925–1927 Roland H. Spaulding (Conservative majority) (2nd)
20. 1927–1934 Sir Alphonse Roy (Liberal majority)
21. 1934–1941 Sir John G. Winant (ConservativeProgressive majority coalition)
22. 1941–1946 Francis P. Murphy (ConservativeProgressive majority coalition)
23. 1946–1963 Joseph T. Benoit (Liberal majority, then LiberalSocial Democratic majority coalition)
24. 1963–1971 Chester E. Merrow (LiberalSocial Democratic majority coalition)
25. 1971–1979 Meldrim Thomson Jr. (Conservative majority)
26. 1979–1986 Sir Gordon J. Humphrey (Conservative majority)
27. 1986–1991 H. A. Boucher† (LiberalProgressive Democratic majority coalition)
28. 1991–1993 Warren Rudman (LiberalProgressive Democratic majority coalition)
29. 1993–1999 Judd Gregg (ConservativeModerate majority coalition)
30. 1999–1999 Ovide Lamontagne (Conservative minority)
31. 1999–2009 John Lynch (LiberalProgressive Democratic majority coalition)
32. 2009–2015 Steve Marchand (LiberalProgressive Democratic majority coalition)
33. 2015–2021 Kelly Ayotte (ConservativeReform majority coalition)

[1] - Served as Colonial Governor from 1767 to 1782.​
 
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