Why the Chinese play cricket (The Pax Imperialis)

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: After 1900' started by Miss Construction, Nov 26, 2017.

  1. Threadmarks: Introduction

    Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    The Pax Imperialis (The Peace of the Emperor). Or why the Chinese play cricket
    (For my beloved daughter)

    This one of those "the sun never sets" British Empire timelines. However what comes out at the end will very definitely not be the British Empire. Nor is it the Indian Empire or any other Empire. It's a defuse global federation called the Imperial Commonwealth. This Commonwealth grows to become the world's sole hyperpower, with a distributed economy spread over five continents. However while its global nature is its greatest strength, it is also its greatest weakness. Though it has immense power, it is extremely hard for it to focus its power.

    The point of divergence is Gladstone's Landlord and Tenant (Ireland) Act isn't diluted. This brings forward the split between the radical and whig factions in the Liberal party, increasing the pace of reform. However the butterflies spread fairly quickly and start to reach outside the bounds of the Empire in odd ways. However significant changes don't start to show up until the 20th century, hence its in the post 1900 threads.

    I try to wait at least 24 hours between posting updates to allow time for people to comment. For anyone coming in "late," I always update each entry if I make alterations. So all you need to do is follow the bouncing ball through the threadmarks. There are some "design notes" which go into greater depth about the underlying reasons for what's happening, amazing comments and suggestions, a wonderful running commentary by a follower on what's happening and some really weird utterly irrelevant chatty stuff. But all you need to do to get a grip on the timeline is go through the threadmarks.

    There are a lot of abbreviations and terms which may be hard to keep track of, certainly FAR too many to remember. I periodically post an updated list of them and threadmark it. So if you run across an abbreviation or term you don't understand, all you have to do is look it up. They same applies to alliances. This is a multi polar world and it can be hard to keep track of whose allied with whom. Also past about 1920, do not assume anything is like the OTL. The timeline changes slowly, but it changes beyond all recognition. Some very important points to remember

    1) The Imperial Commonwealth (abbreviated CW throughout the timeline) is a vastly different state from the OTL British Empire. It has a totally different geopolitical outlook, focusing on the Far East not Europe. Its involvement in Europe is primarily to keep the European powers from interfering in the east by keeping them focused on Europe. It also abandons traditional imperialism, instead using soft power to create client states.

    2) The relative power of the CW and US is basically reversed. By 1940 the CW economy is twice the size of the US. This chapter on the relative GNP of the world gives some indication of economic power of various states


    3) By the mid 30s India has a modern industrialised economy and has throughly been integrated in the CW political structure. I recommend reading the threadmarked chapter on Indian development


    4) Italy is also a very different place. By the 40s it has the fourth largest economy in the world and one of the most efficient militaries. It's explained in these two chapters



    5) Poland is also quite different. Not only does it include all of OTL Poland but all of Galicia, Silesia and half of East Prussia. It also received considerable CW investment in the 30s to build up as credible rival for the Franco-Russian Entente

    Constructive criticism is VERY welcome. This timeline has a lot of personal importance to me. I want it to be the best it can. I've even enlisted the help of one my clients who happens to be a history professor specialising in the late Victorian and Edwardian period (he was surprised but very happy to help lol).

    So while I really love people telling me what I'm doing right. Feeds my ego no end and keeps me writing this. What I really want is people to tell me what I'm doing wrong, to rip it to shreds, point out mistakes and where things don't make sense. I will listen and incorporate suggestions. So thank you for both the good and bad.

    But if you think something can be done better, is poorly thought out, horrendously wrong or just plain sucks, please say so. I've been called more nasty names than you can probably imagine, I'm no delicate flower. But please also say why. I will listen.

    I should point out while I am developing this as a serious timeline. I also keep in mind its use as an RPG setting. Hence the oddities such as airships, dual battalion British cavalry regiments, gyrodynes and domesticated zebras. These are intended never to move beyond novelties. The number of airships in this timeline is economically unsustainable. There will not be regiments of zebra cavalry. Gyrodynes however will achieve some limited military use in special forces operations, such as is suitable for RPGs. These things will exist on the fringes where they have no real effect on the timeline.

    This timeline was originally intended to have the Japanese playing cricket. However this timeline is growing organically as I incorporate the very valuable criticism being given. I might still be able to swing the Japanese around to a gentleman's game, but the focus is now China.
    Last edited: Feb 6, 2019
  2. Threadmarks: 1870-79

    Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    ~1870-1879: One tiny step

    15th February 1870: British Prime Minister William Gladstone presents The First Irish Land Bill to parliament. The bill is fiercely debated, polarising parliament between the liberal and conservative factions.

    March 1870: With demand for rubber growing dramatically in Europe, US entrepreneur George Church proposes a railway in the Amazon jungle to improve access to the rubber producing regions.

    April 1870: A captive breeding program is begun aimed at domesticating the Grévy's Zebra.

    July 1870: The Second French Empire declares war on Prussia and the North German Confederation.

    July 1870: Gladstone's Landlord and Tenant (Ireland) Act is finally passed. Despite attempts by conservatives to restrict its effect, it gives security of tenure, prohibits excessive rather than the conservatives desired exorbitant rents and provides government loans to purchase their land even in the event of an unwilling seller. The Act will see the start of the split between the Whig and Radical elements of the Liberal Party as a number of whig liberals defect to become the Independent Whigs.

    August 1870: The Elementary Education Act introduces a formal system of state education in Britain.

    September 1870: The Prussians decisively defeat the French Army at the Battle of Sedan, all but guaranteeing victory in the war. However French Emperor Napoleon III is captured and the Empire overthrown, leaving no legitimate government for the Prussians to negotiate with.

    January 1871: King Wilhelm of Prussia is proclaimed Emperor of Germany in Versailles.

    January 1871: The British and US government agree to attempt to settle a number of outstanding grievances over fishing rights, Canadian border disputes and outstanding claims from the American Civil War. Canadian Prime Minister John MacDonald is included on the negotiating committee.

    February 1871: After the fall of Paris, an armistice is signed bringing an end to the fighting in the Franco-Prussian War.

    February 1871: Tsar Alexander II of Russia gifts the Zoological Society of London with three breeding pairs of wild Tarpans.

    March 1871: Communist revolutionaries declare the Paris Commune, rejecting the authority of the French government.

    April 1871: Gladstone openly expresses the British government's opposition to any French territorial losses without the approval of the local population in the wake of their defeat by Prussia.

    May 1871: The Treaty of Frankfurt is signed ending the Franco-Prussian War. France is forced to cede Alsace-Lorraine and is forced to pay an unprecedented indemnity of five billion gold francs.

    May 1871: The Treaty of Washington is signed settling many of the disputes between Britain and the US. The British agree to compensate the US for damage done by British build Confederate raiders during the Civil War and the US to compensate Canada for damage in the Fenian Raids, though neither side is required to acknowledge blame or apologise. A joint US Canadian Fisheries Commission is established to regulate the Halifax fisheries and the US pays $5.5 million directly to Canada for access to Canadian waters while the Vancouver border dispute is sent to arbitration by King Christian IX of Denmark. Canadian opposition to the Treaty is assuaged by a supposedly unrelated British loan to finance the construction of a trans Canadian railway. Despite disquiet at having to accept US access to their fisheries, the otherwise generally favourable outcome of the Treaty does much to strengthen pro Imperial feeling in Canada.

    May 1871: French troops crush the Paris Commune.

    November 1871: In the wake of the French defeat by Prussia, British Secretary of State for War, Edward Cardwell begins a series of reforms to professionalise the British army.

    February 1872: Three breading pairs of Quagga are established at London Zoo in an attempt to ensure the sub species survival.

    May 1872: The French begin a massive program of development, funded extensive loans, to modernise and repay its war indemnity.

    October 1872: The arbitration committee established by King Christian of Denmark decides in favour of Canada in the Vancouver border dispute.

    May 1873: The Vienna stock market crashes, triggering the first wave of the Long Depression. The crash will rapidly spread to Germany, causing the collapse of an investment bubble created in the wake of French war representations.

    June 1873: The Irish University Bill that would remove the requirement for faculty members of Trinity College in Dublin to be Anglicans is defeated. Gladstone resigns as Prime Minister and the Conservatives under Benjamin Disraeli form a minority government with support from the Independent Whigs.

    August 1873: Chancellor Bismarck of Germany negotiates the League of Three Emperors with Austro-Hungary and Russia to ensure France's diplomatic isolation.

    September 1873: France repays its war indemnity to Germany two years early, due to the end of the boom sparked by the increased cash into the German economy.

    September 1873: The New York stock market crashes, deepening the growing Long Depression.

    March 1874: Disraeli, unwilling to continue his minority government, calls new elections. He wins a narrow majority as the Liberals lose several seats to Independent Whigs. The election also sees sixty Irish nationalists of the Irish Parliamentary Party elected.

    January 1875: Chinese Emperor Tongzhi dies and is succeed by his nephew Zaitian as Emperor Guangxu.

    November 1875: The British purchase a 44% share in the Suez canal.

    January 1876: Large numbers of British immigrants begin to arrive in Argentina and Chile to exploit the plains of Patagonia for sheep farming. The farming industry will grow, greatly increasing the prosperity of both nations and lead to further development of Patagonia in Argentina, further encouraging economic growth.

    March 1876: The Long Depression has resulted in a sharp rise in protectionism in Europe and the US. Lord Carnarvon, British Colonial Secretary, institutes a policy of developing and expanding the Empire to provide an alternative market for British goods. The first goal is the absorption of Southern Africa.

    June 1876: Despite opposition from the Dowager Empress Cixi, British Ambassador Thomas Wade is able to convince her co-regent, Dowager Empress Ci'an to send the young Emperor Guangxu to Britain for his education.

    August 1876: The British entrepreneur Henry Wickham smuggles the seeds from rubber trees out of Brazil to establish rubber plantations in Malaya.

    November 1876: The Imperial Capital Act is passed providing incentives for investment in the development of infrastructure and economic development the Dominions.

    April 1877: The Russo-Turkish War begins. The war will result in an Ottoman defeat and the emergence of independent Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.

    August 1877: The Colonial Capital Act provides encouragement for investment in Britain's African colonies similar to the Imperial Capital Act.

    February 1877: Disraeli orders a British fleet into the Black Sea to prevent a Russian takeover of Constantinople.

    March 1878: The Treaty of San Stefano ends the Russo-Turkish War with a Russians victory.

    June 1878: Concerned by Russian gains in the Russo-Turkish War, the great powers call a conference in Berlin. The resultant treaty limits Russian gains and recognises the new states of Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.

    March 1879: Disputes over the Atacama desert between Bolivia, Chile and Peru explode into war when Bolivia and Peru ally to gain control of this resource rich region, beginning the War of the Pacific.

    May 1879: The railway to the upper Amazon rubber producing regions is completed. This allows for far greater extraction to meet the European demand for rubber.

    June 1879: Disraeli's policies of encouraging the development of Imperial markets is beginning to show dividends as the British economy starts to recover from the Long Depression. The increasing importance of Imperial markets gradually leads to refocusing of British attention away from Europe towards the Empire, particularly the huge market of India. This trend will greatly strengthen Britain's policy of "splendid isolation" and avoiding European entanglements.

    October 1879: The Chilean navy destroys the Peruvian fleet in the Battle of Angamos. The overwhelming Chilean victory ensures naval superiority, allowing them to suipply their army in the Atacama, giving them a decisive advantage in the War of the Pacific.

    October 1879: Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the Dual Alliance promising benevolent neutrality if the other is attacked.
    Last edited: Sep 24, 2019
  3. hugh lupus Known to some....thankfully

    Sep 3, 2011
    land of the long white cloud
    Yes so more money/interest in Africa (Aus NZ?)
    Which means less money for where?
    USA, South America?
    Nice concept
    Ferd42 and Miss Construction like this.
  4. AvatarOfKhaine Eldar God of War

    May 22, 2017
    Craftworld Herefordshire
    Nice to see V3, hopefully the third times the charm.

    I personally still want to get to the subtitle and Japanese cricket along with the rest, it's a very inventive subtitle and sparks the imagination.
    Miss Construction and Kiwigun like this.
  5. Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    Yep, more focus on the Empire, less elsewhere. The big loser is the USA, with a slow fall off of British capital.
    Llamastrangler likes this.
  6. Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    The ripples don't really start to show up outside the Empire until the second decade of the twentieth century. There will be a Great War but it should take a different course. From then on, the evil butterflies start to bite.

    Btw butterflies are evil because they lure unsuspecting people such as my sort of partner (what she is to me and I am to her is REALLY complicated) to walk into buildings as she gazes on their supposed beauty. See truly evil.
    Ferd42 likes this.
  7. DAv Middle Class... sorry

    Apr 17, 2006
    Third version, hopefully go well. Be interested to see what goes down and how it'll contrast to earlier takes on the timeline.
    Miss Construction likes this.
  8. Spartan-G257 Rule Britannia

    Jan 20, 2016
    living inLand of the Scots fromLand of the Angles
    Third times the charm
    Miss Construction likes this.
  9. theg*ddam*hoi2fan Beware of the Leopard

    Jul 1, 2014
    Under a bridge, handing out business cards
    Miss Construction likes this.
  10. Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    Thank you, glad to be back. I had a personal issue to deal with. I'm resorting to my usual method of writing poetry to sort that now :)
    theg*ddam*hoi2fan likes this.
  11. Threadmarks: 1880-89

    Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    ~1880-1889 The seed is planted

    March 1880: The Liberals under Gladstone win a landslide victory in the British general elections. Gladstone begins his second ministry, concentrating on social and educational reforms. Gladstone appoints a cabinet favouring the radical elements of the Liberal Party over the considerable number of remaining whigs, including the appointment of Joseph Chamberlain as Colonial Secretary. Chamberlain will continue his predecessor Carnarvon's policies of encouraging the economic development of the Empire to provide a market for British goods.

    June 1880: The Chilean's destroy the remnants of the Bolivian and Peruvian armies, assuring victory in the War of the Pacific.

    July 1880: Keen to capitalise on the Chilean experience in the Battle of Angamos, the Royal Navy offers to assist the Chileans with further navy assistance and training. This will lead to greater non political professionalism in the Chilean navy.

    August 1880: Compulsory primary education is introduced in the UK.

    September 1880: The first cricket test match is played between All England and All Australian teams.

    October 1880: Julio Roca becomes president of Argentina. This begins the domination of Argentina by the National Autonomy Party which will last for decades. President Roca embarks a program of development of Argentina's agricultural and mining industries which will greatly increase the countries prosperity.

    December 1880: The First Boer War breaks out over the British desire to fully absorb the semi independent Boer republics.

    January 1881: Irish nationalist leader Charles Parnell allies with Colonial Secretary Chamberlain to prevent the passage of Secretary for Ireland William Forster's Coercion Bill seeking to suspend habeas corpus in Ireland. This is the beginning of Chamberlain and Parnell's working relationship.

    March 1881: After a string of sharp defeats, Gladstone has come to believe the expense of conquering the Boer's will far outweigh any benefit. A face saving peace treaty is signed giving the Boers full independence with only a nominal statement of British sovereignty. The defeat in the war will lead to extensive reforms in the British army by Secretary of War Hugh Childers, bringing major improvements in equipment, organisation and tactics.

    June 1881: Negotiations between Argentina and Chile over Tierra del Fuego and control of the straits of Magellan. Despite Chilean willingness to cede territory due to the ongoing War of the Pacific, British concerns over maintaining communication with the Empire lead them to convince the US that having one nation in sole control of the area is vital.

    July 1881: The Technical and Scientific Scholarships Act establishes government scholarships for "worthy candidates of sober morals and modest means" to foster scientific and technical education amongst the working and middle classes.

    July 1881: The Childers Reforms group existing British infantry and cavalry regiments into dual battalion regiments. The system has one battalion for home service feeding recruits to keep the other imperial service battalion up to strength.

    August 1881: Parnell fails to prevent the passage of the Second Irish Land Act despite its perceived flaws in failing to provide significant increases in assistance for tenants to purchase land. The act does however, greatly improve the security of tenure and further prevent excessive rent increases.

    August 1881: The Mahdi of Sudan rebels against Egyptian control starting the Mahdist War.

    September 1881: The Treaty of Buenos Aires settles the boundary dispute between Argentina and Chile, awarding Tierra del Fuego and control of the Straits of Magellan to Chile. This settlement causes huge resentment in Argentina and sparks a naval arms race between the two nations.

    November 1881: The Dowager Empress Ci'an dies unexpectedly. Despite her efforts Prince Gong, supported by British Ambassador Thomas Wade, is able to prevent the Dowager Empress Cixi from recalling Emperor Guangxu from his education in Britain due her being sick.

    January 1882: The first coal powered electric power station comes into operation in London. The success of the station leads to the Electricity Supply Act giving encouragement for further stations to be opened.

    May 1882: Parnell, with Chamberlain's support, brings about an agreement on rent abatement in Ireland. Five days later radical Irish Nationalists attempt to assassinate the new Chief Secretary for Ireland Lord Frederick Cavendish. Parnell gains much support in both Ireland and England for his vocal condemnation of the attack.

    July 1882: The British capture Alexandria securing the Suez canal.

    August 1882: The Married Women's Property Act enables women to totally control any property they own in their own right.

    September 1882: British troops occupy Cairo making Egypt a de facto protectorate.

    February 1883: Chinese Emperor Guangxu enters Eton college.

    June 1883: Now fully in control of Egypt, the British become involved in the Mahdist War, sending British officers to command Egyptian troops in the conflict.

    August 1883: Viceroy of India, Lord Ripon introduces the Libert Bill reforming the Indian legal system. It includes provision for greater native involvement in the Indian civil service and for Indian judges to hear cases involving Europeans. The bill provokes widespread opposition both in the Westminster parliament and amongst European settlers in India. However, the bill gains the support of Chamberlain and passes with little modification. The modified act allows full participation in the civil service for Indians of "suitable education" and that Indian judges may try cases involving Europeans but that Europeans may demand a jury of 25% Europeans in such cases.

    October 1883: The War of the Pacific finally draws to a formal close with Chile gaining total control of the Atacama desert. This victory firmly establishes the Chilean position as one the leading South American nations.

    March 1884: British general Charles Gordon is besieged by a large Mahdist army in Khartoum.

    20th April 1884: The breading pairs of Quagga located in London Zoo have produced a small herd of sixteen individuals, ensuring the Quagga's survival.

    May 1884: The Education in India Act establishes government schools in India to provide suitable education for Indians to enter the civil service.

    June 1884: After the intercession of Queen Victoria herself, an expedition under General Garnet Wolseley is dispatched to relieve Khartoum.

    June 1884: The Representation of the People Act equalised urban and rural representation in Westminster and abolishes multi member constituencies.

    November 1884: The Berlin Conference divides Africa into European spheres of influence.

    January 1885: Wolseley's expedition successfully relieves Khartoum. However the British withdraw after extracting Gordon and leave the Sudan to the Mahdists.

    March 1885: Metis people under Louis Riel stage an uprising in Saskatchewan. Despite some initial success, the uprising is defeated and Riel captured. Though sentenced to death for treason, his sentence is commuted to life penal servitude after many appeals for clemency.

    July 1885: With the Imperial markets now growing in importance and the British now well out of the Long Depression, the Imperial Development Act is passed. Its intent is to encourage the industrialisation of the Dominions in an effort to further their economic integration. The Act provides loans as well as incentives for private investment.

    November 1885: The relief of Khartoum has resulted in a surge of support for the Liberals and Gladstone is comfortably returned to power. Notably, the radical liberal faction makes significant gains.

    December 1885: With the completion of the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway, Premier MacDonald uses the Imperial Development Act to secure a large development loan for Canadian industry.

    December 1885: Gladstone proposes an Irish home rule bill despite widespread opposition within his party. He takes the time to consult with his party which results in modification to the bill, limiting the competency of the proposed Irish assembly. The modified bill passes the Commons only to be defeated in the Lords. As a result of the bill, many whig liberals split to join with the independent forming the Unionist Party, but the radical unionists, especially Chamberlain remain.

    January 1886: As a result of the split in the party, Gladstone loses a vote of no confidence and resigns, being replaced by William Harcourt. Harcourt abandons Irish home rule in favour of Chamberlain's Imperial federation while Chamberlain is successful in convincing Parnell to reframe his nationalist ambitions within the structure of the proposed Imperial federation.

    February 1886: Parnell's acceptance of the Imperial federation has split the Irish Parliamentary Party. However the Parnellite faction wins enough seats to allow Harcourt to continue in power despite the Liberal defections to the Unionists.

    June 1886: The British begin reforming and retraining the Egyptian army along British lines. The new army is intended to include twelve dual battalion infantry regiments, two dual battalion cavalry regiments, and ten artillery batteries. The new army is similar to the Indian with British officers in command of Egyptian troops.

    September 1886: Chamberlain successfully gets India included in the Imperial Development Act.

    March 1887: As a result of widespread Irish land protests, an attempt to suspend trial by jury is introduced by the Conservatives and Unionists with backing from the whigs within the Liberals. The bill is narrowly defeated as Chamberlain rallies the radical unionists in the party to oppose it. The defeat of the bill strengthens Parnell's position with the nationalists despite his failure to support the land protests.

    August 1888: The Local Government Act gives women the vote in local body elections throughout the United Kingdom.

    October 1888: Rhodesia is established by the British South Africa Company.

    December 1888: The introduction of the new rimless 0.303" service round highlights British industry's inability to produce a modern smokeless powder. The resultant Cordite Scandal results in the creation of the National Development Board to ensure British industry remains abreast of technology. This is followed by the Technical Education Act later in the year, further encouraging engineering and scientific education.

    May 1889: The Conservatives force through the Naval Defence Act mandating the two power standard that the Royal Navy be equal in strength to the next two most powerful navies. The Act brings about a program of regular continuous naval construction.

    July 1889: The first annual conference of Imperial heads of government to coordinate Imperial policy is held. The venue, Ottawa, is deliberately chosen over London in an effort to emphasise the Dominions improved status in the scheme. Future conferences will rotate throughout the Dominions, with London not hosting until 1897.

    August 1889: The Egyptian army, retrained and reequiped by the British, defeats an attempted Mahdist invasion of Egypt.

    November 1889: A conservative coup deposes Emperor Pedro II of Brazil and establishes a republic.
    Last edited: Jan 25, 2018
  12. Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    Just posted the 1880s. The ripples start spreading outside the Empire in the 1890s
    Gladsome and Jkdelta38 like this.
  13. merlin Well-Known Member

    Feb 17, 2007
    Some interesting changes, though there are probably a lot more than I noticed, 'Married Women's Property', curious about a short Boer War - would the 'press' stand for that!? Like the idea of having a 'friendly' Egyptian Army - interesting to see where the butterflies of that go. Curious, too about the Quagga - a personal hobby-horse (pun intended), or will that have any significant effect later?
    sarahz and Miss Construction like this.
  14. AvatarOfKhaine Eldar God of War

    May 22, 2017
    Craftworld Herefordshire
    Love the survival of Gordon, as Brian Blessed would say; Gordon's ALIVE!
  15. Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    It keeps Gladstone in power, it's a massive change
  16. Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    The war is only round one. The Boer will not defy the will of the Empire long bwahaha.

    And the survival of the quagga is sort of a very vague teaser for something much later.
    Last edited: Nov 28, 2017
  17. Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    And the butterflies attack
  18. Threadmarks: 1890-99

    Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    ~1890-1899: The African queen

    March 1890: The Liberal government in Manitoba halts public funding for Catholic schools, provoking a crisis with Canada's francophone population.

    July 1890: Britain cedes Heligoland and the Caprivi Strip to Germany in return for a free hand in Zanzibar and the transfer of the Ruandi-Urundi region.

    January 1891: Tensions between the liberal President Jose Balmaceda of Chile and the conservative congress reaches a head. With the army loyal to Balmaceda, Congressional leaders attempt to rally support in the navy. However the navy refuses to become involved. Eventually the US mediates a settlement that imposes congressional limits on the presidents power. This will eventually evolve into a true parliamentary democracy. However, the congress also demands reforms in the army with a US military mission. These will lead to a non political army similar to the navy.

    July 1891: The Melbourne Imperial Conference rejects Chamberlain's proposed Imperial customs union, supporting a far more limited Imperial preference scheme instead.

    August 1891: France and Russia enter into a defensive alliance.

    January 1892: Khedive Tewfik of Egypt is succeeded by his son Abbas II. The new Khedive immediately attempts to assert his independence from the British.

    March 1892: In the scheduled general election several radical left wing groups unite to form the Labour Representation Committee under Keir Hardie and George Lansbury who align with Chamberlain and the radical liberals. This, along with the collapse of the Irish Parliamentary Party vote due to its split allows the Liberals to retain their majority despite more whig defections to the Unionists. In the same elections, Joseph Chamberlain's son, Austin is elected as a member for the Liberals.

    June 1892: The England vs Australia test cricket match becomes an annual event.

    August 1892: The US adopt the 0.30-30" M1892 Springfield Krag as their standard infantry rifle.

    January 1893: Khedive Abbas II of Egypt launches a campaign to oust the British from Egypt. Hundreds of British officers with Egyptian army units are murdered. The British under Brigadier Herbert Kitchener hold Alexandria with British and loyal Egyptian units, supported by the ships of Admiral George Tyron's Mediterranean fleet. The British public is outraged by the slaughter of the British officers.

    June 1893: Kitchener, reinforced with additional troops launches an offensive toward Cairo.

    August 1893: Admiral Tyron, is appointed First Sea Lord. He institutes a program of training reform, designed to encourage initiative in officers. He institutes his TA signalling system greatly increasing initiative and flexibility in the Royal Navy.

    September 1893: Cairo falls to Kitchener's forces. Khedive Abbas flees to the Ottoman Empire. The British install his uncle Hussein as Khedive. The Egyptian army is placed under much tighter British control.

    October 1893: In order to further foster British industry, Harcourt introduces tariff reforms limiting free trade. The measure is passed but sees the defection of the many whig liberals to the Unionists. Harcourt, disillusioned by the continued political infighting, resigns and Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister, committed to the radical "Newcastle program" of social reform.

    November 1894: The Australia vs New Zealand test cricket match is held in Adelaide.

    May 1894: Further reforms in India remove the racially weighted jury system of 1884 and introduce compulsory primary education for Indians.

    August 1894: The Sino-Japanese War breaks out over control of Korea.

    September 1894: Compulsory education in the UK is extended to age 13.

    December 1894: French artillery officer Captain Alfred Dreyfus is convicted of treason for passing information to Germany. Very little evidence is presented on his trail, and racist attitudes due to his Jewish heritage play a large part in his conviction.

    January 1895: The Indian army is reformed and unified. Several regiments are selected for "Indianisation" whereby Indian officers will be posted in at the bottom of the command structure and British officers wasted out through natural attrition. Several public school type colleges are set up in India to provide education for potential candidates and the Indian Military Academy is opened in Derha Dun to train native officers for the Indian army as it is considered "unsuitable" that Indians should train with European officers.

    March 1895: Seeking to regain control of Sudan, an Anglo-Egyptian army under Kitchener is dispatched to reconquer the region.

    April 1895: The Sino-Japanese War ends with an overwhelming Japanese victory and the annexation of Formosa. However Russia, with the support of France and Germany intervenes to prevent Japanese dominance in Korea.

    June 1895: The continued failure of British industry to supply adequate quantities of cordite to the army leads to the Chemical Industry (Support) Act designed to encourage the growth of the British chemical industry.

    July 1895: President Kruger of the Transvaal Republic imposes heavy tariffs on goods from the Cape Colony and Natal using the railway passed the Vaal river. The British colonies respond by offloading goods at the river and transporting them by wagon to Johannesburg.

    July 1895: In an attempt to modernise their army after the Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese form the New Armies equipped with modern weapons.

    August 1895: President Kruger responds to the use of wagons to circumvent the rail tariffs by closing the fords across the Vaal river.

    August 1895: Major Georges Picquart, a staff officer on the French General Staff is dispatched as a military observer to the growing South African Crisis.

    September 1895: Backed by the Orange Free State, Cape Colony Prime Minister Cecil Rhodes demands an end to all forms of protectionism by the Transvaal.

    November 1895: As the Transvaal has refused to end protectionism Prime Minister Rhodes of the Cape Colony declares war, starting the Second Boer War. The Orange Free State declares its neutrality.

    December 1895: The initial invasion of the Transvaal is defeated at the Battle of the Vaal River. Chamberlain dispatches further troops as reinforcements.

    January 1896: The Transvaal moves over to the offensive, invading Natal. The British forces are rapidly forced back.

    March 1896: With it becoming clear the British intend to annex the Transvaal, the Orange Free State abandons its neutrality and enters the war in support of the Transvaal.

    May 1896: The British Dominions agree to commit troops to the war in South Africa.

    June 1896: Canadian Prime Minister Charles Tupper narrowly wins the federal election and reaches a compromise in the Manitoba Schools Question. Tupper continues the Canadian Conservatives pro-Imperial policies, though still opposing full Imperial federation.

    August 1896: The Boer offensive in South Africa is finally halted.

    August 1896: Franchise in the UK is extended to women on the same basis as men. The remaining whig liberals desert the party as a result. In what will become known as the Petticoat Election, Chamberlain's Liberals, buoyed by the new women's vote win a comfortable majority. The Unionists however win more votes than the Conservatives, though fewer seats. In a highly controversial move, Chamberlain creates the post of Secretary of State for the Dominions then appoints New Zealander Richard Seddon to the position. Seddon is raised to the Peerage and resigns as Premier of New Zealand to allow him to become the first cabinet minister from the Dominions.

    November 1896: The British resume the offensive in South Africa.

    January 1897: Premier Tupper agrees to fund the establishment of a Canadian navy, initially to consist of two cruisers. However, the ships are to be built in Canadian yards, with the British assisting in funding the expansion of the necessary shipbuilding infrastructure. In the interim, the British supply an old cruiser to train the personnel.

    February 1897: The British take Johannesburg.

    February 1897: Seeking to stymie British control of Sudan, the French dispatch a small force of 300 men under Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand to establish a French protectorate over Southern Sudan.

    March 1897: The Electrical (Supply) Industry Act introduces national standards electricity supply in the UK.

    April 1897: The British army makes the Maxim MG standard issue, with two being assigned to each infantry battalion.

    June 1897: The British occupy Bloemfontein ending organised Boer resistance. However the Boers go over to guerrilla warfare.

    August 1897: The British annex the Boer republics.

    September 1897: The Quebec, a challenger class cruiser is laid down in Halifax for the Canadian navy.

    October 1897: The British under General Kitchener destroy the Mahdist army taking Khartoum. Kitchener is made Baron Kitchener of Khartoum.

    November 1897: The French recall Marchand's force in response to the British conquest of Sudan.

    January 1898: The US battleship Maine explodes in Manila harbour. Popular opinion in the US blames Spain and calls for war.

    February 1898: Over Egyptian objections, Sudan is made a British protectorate.

    March 1898: Germany passes its First Fleet Law meant to strengthen its navy. This goes largely unnoticed in British strategic planning.

    March 1898: The French adopt the canon de 75 modele 1897, the first quick firing artillery piece as their standard field gun.

    March 1898: Russia leases Port Arthur from China for 25 years.

    April 1898: Former Khedive Abbas of Egypt convinces the Ottomans to launch and invasion of Egypt, starting the Anglo-Ottoman War.

    April 1898: The US declares war on Spain, starting the Spanish-American War.

    May 1898: The Ottoman invasion of Egypt is defeated at the Battle of Suez.

    June 1898: With China's total defeat in the Sino-Japanese War, the Emperor Guangxu begins a program of radical reform.

    June 1898: In response to the Russian lease of Port Arthur, Britain signs the Treaty of Shanghai with China whereby considerable new territory is ceded permanently to the British to expand Hong Kong and it is granted a lease on Weihaiwei as long as Port Arthur remains in Russian hands.

    July 1898: The Irish and Welsh regiments of foot guards, each of two battalions, are raised to recognise their participation in the Second Boer War.

    August 1898: The Spanish-American War comes a close with the US in control of Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. All three become the first US colonies.

    September 1898: British forces land at Gaza opposed by Ottoman forces. The landing is a fiasco resulting in heavy casualties.

    September 1898: Chinese conservatives lead by the Dowager Empress Cixi stage a coup bringing an end to Emperor Guangxu's reforms and placing him under house arrest. Support from Yuan Shikai, commander of the Beijing Army, is vital to the success of the coup.

    December 1898: The British introduce a scorched earth policy in South Africa to defeat Boer guerrillas. Under the policy, Boer civilians are interned in camps to deprive the guerrillas of support.

    February 1899: British forces are withdrawn from Gaza.

    June 1899: Compulsory education in the UK is extended to 15 years of age.

    June 1899: The Treaty of Beirut ends the Anglo-Ottoman War. Egypt and Cyprus become British colonies as does Sudan.

    July 1899: The British surrender their right of extraterritoriality in Japan, marking their recognition of Japan as modern nation.

    August 1899: Work begins on the Cape to Cairo railway. The intention is to use ferries on Lake Tanganyika to bridge the missing link through German East Africa.

    September 1899: As a result of the failed landing at Gaza a through investigation into amphibious warfare methods is initiated by the Royal Navy.

    October 1899: The Boers finally surrender to the British. The Treaty of Vereeniging provides for Boer self government within ten years and substantial funds to rebuild the farms destroyed during the war.
    Last edited: Feb 6, 2018
  19. Miss Construction Queer lady of the night

    Feb 8, 2017
    Auckland, New Zealand
    Oh yeah, off to Auckland for a week then back to windy Wellington for a day before heading to Christchurch for three days. So no guarantees how I'll post during the next two weeks.
  20. Baron Bizarre Is probably thinking about his next meal...

    Mar 18, 2010
    Interesting stuff.
    Miss Construction likes this.