List of Alternate Monarchs and Aristocratic Lineage

Introduction Post
Similar to the "List alternate PMs or Presidents" this is a thread to post your own list of alternate monarchs of Kingdoms or aristocratic lineage of titles in a peerage.

List can be as long or short as you like, with as many or as least foot note information that you would like to give. Also similar to the "LaPMoP" the list does not have to be based solely on an alternative event, it could be an analogy or could be slightly/completely ASB.

They can be formatted into a bullet point list or into a family tree. I hope that these list will help the writers get ideas out that they haven't formed full time lines with and encourage others to look into expanding their knowledge on aristocratic lineage and candidate branches, as well as just the main stream royal families

I know that it the last site, we had a "Monarch List" thread that turned into a game between people, who ended up posting make either a national hero or evil dictatorial villain, with numerous different people attributing to a single list.

I have post this in "Before 1900" due to this is the period in which monarch and aristocratic titles were created, however similar to the "LaPMoP" you can go after this time, for example:
In 1955, Winston Churchill accepts the offer of a Dukedom
List of Dukes of London
1955-1965: Winston Churchill, 1st Duke of London
1965-1968: Randolph Churchill, 2nd Duke of London
1968-2010: Winston Churchill, 3rd Duke of London
2010- : Randolph Churchill, 4th Duke of London

So without any more gassing, please begin posting.
5 sons of Mary, Queen of Scots goes ... my favorite timeline, I may write one day ...

Mary I Stuart (1542 – 1587)

. Francis II Valois (1544 – 1560)

. Francis III (1560 - ? )

. Edward VI Tudor (1537 – 1562)

. Henry IX (1562 - ? )

. Henry Stewart (1545 – 1567)

. James VI (1566-1625)

. James Hepburn (1534 – 1578)

. Adam (1568 - ? )

. Patrick (1568 - ? )

. Phillip II Hapsburg (1527 – 1598)

. Phillip III (1571- ? )
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Mary I Stuart (1542 – 1587)

. Francis III (1560 - ? )

. Henry IX (1562 - ? )

. James VI (1566-1625)

. Phillip III (1571- ? )
Interesting, Mary, Queen of Scots becomes the mother of four kings from four different Kingdoms. How does 1572 Europe look with four half brothers controlling England, Scotland, France and Spain?
... well it would make for interesting dynastic roots and alliances.
Not to mention ATL French and English marraiges assuming Scot's and Spanish marraiges go per OTL.
Perhaps Kynan could step in to devine what may happen ...
Well are these all seperate timelines? Because If Mary managed to marry all of these men at some point, there would be 1 king of 2 titles at some point, whether it be Scotland and France, Scotland and England or Scotland and Spain. And if these are in the same timeline, how does Mary not gain a reputation as the woman who kills her husbands, considering she's a queen who seems to quickly go through 5 husbands, 3 of them kings. She's gonna have somewhat of a 'black widow' legend attached to her.
You actually cannot have any but her firstborn son become King of Scotland. The entire appeal of Mary, Queen of Scots as a marriage prize was that her child by whomever married her was guaranteed at least Scotland (in the case of France if she only had female children) and most likely 2 thrones (in the case of Spain/England in a personal union) and possibly 3, once the Tudor line dies. It doesn't make sense to have what you have there, unless you James VI manages to stage a revolt from under his older brothers.
I like the "black widow" analogy, makes for historical conjecture (ALT or OTL)
Im actually more sympathetic toward Mary, young, fertile, unlucky in love, always looking to make her kingdom stronger.
What drives a woman, a Queen, in the 16th century to marry with a highly divisive kingdom ?
Just read - Madeleine Binghams - Scotland under Mary Stuart, an account of everyday life -

I think, and this is where better scholars here are welcome to debate (including yourself, Kynan),
that Mary's value and attraction lay that she was a Queen, and whomever married to her, could add her kingdom to his.
Not to mention she was apparently a hottie for those times !!

There are several historical royal women that have left progency as heads of royal and then aristocratic families.
And this senario just pushes the envelope ... but thats what we do here at althist right ?
Take 2: Mary, Queen of Scots has three sons who wear crowns goes ... my favorite timeline, I may write one day ...

Mary I Stuart (1542 – 1587)

. Francis II Valois (1544 – 1560)

. Francis III (1560 - ? )

. Edward VI Tudor (1537 – 1562)

. Henry IX (1562 - ? )

. Henry Stewart (1545 – 1567)

. James VI (1566-1625)

. James Hepburn (1534 – 1578)

. Adam (1568 - ? )

. Patrick (1568 - ? )

. Phillip II Hapsburg (1527 – 1598)

. Phillip III (1571- ? )

You actually cannot have any but her firstborn son become King of Scotland. The entire appeal of Mary, Queen of Scots as a marriage prize was that her child by whomever married her was guaranteed at least Scotland (in the case of France if she only had female children) and most likely 2 thrones (in the case of Spain/England in a personal union) and possibly 3, once the Tudor line dies. It doesn't make sense to have what you have there, unless you James VI manages to stage a revolt from under his older brothers.

What about this then:
Mary I Stuart (1542 – 1587)

. Francis II Valois (1544 – 1560)

. Charles IX of France and I of Scotland (1560) M. Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain (1567-1597)
. Charles X of France and II of Scotland (1586- ? )
. Francis (1587 - ? )
. Henri (1588 - ? )
. Maria (1560 - ? )
. Isabella (1587 - ? )

. Louis (1588 - ? )

. Catherine (1560 - ? )

. Edward VI Tudor (1537 – 1562)

. Henry IX (1562) M. Elizabeth of Denmark (1567-1597)
. Edward VII (1591- ? )
. Elizabeth (1592– ?)
. Margaret (1593– ?)
. Mary (1595– ?)
. Jane (8 July 1596- ?),
. Henry (1597– ?)
. John (1599– ?)
. Frederick (1602– ?)
. Christian (1609– ?)
. Anna (19 May 1612)

. Phillip II Hapsburg (1527 – 1598)

. Phillip III (1571) M. Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574–1616)
. Phillip (1601- ? )
. Carlos (1603–1604)
. Diego (1605– ?)
. Ferdinand (1608– ?)
. Maria (81610- ?),
. Isabella (1611– ?)
. Carlos (1616– ?)
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That one definitely makes MORE sense, but I would still question how ITL Mary managed to get Phillip II of Spain after 2 marriages that ended with only 1 son each. I do see, especially if she only had 1 sickly son with Francis, Edward marrying her with the hope little Charles would kick the bucket. I do concede it might happen after, say, Philip already has an heir who will simply die so that Mary's son can take the throne.
Take 3: Mary, Queen of Scots, three sons of three different kingdoms
Ok so, in this timeline Anna of Austria dies after the birth of Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias. Secure with a somewhat healthy heir at this point, Philip manages to contract a marriage to the Queen of Scots. They marry in 1573.

Mary, Queen of Scots (b.1542: d.1587) m. Francis II of France (b.1544: d.1562) (a), Edward VI of England (b.1537: d.1565) (b), Philip II of Spain (b.1527: d.1598) (c)

1a) Charles X of France, I of Scotland (b.1563: d.1609) m. Eleanor de' Medici (b.1567: d.1611) (a)

1a) Marguerite de Valois (b.1585)

2a) Francis IV of France, I of Scotland (b.1588)

3a) Robert de Valois, Duke of Évreux and Ross (b.1590)

4a) James de Valois (b.1593: d.1594)

5a) Anne de Valois (b.1596)​

2b) Edward Tudor, VII of England (b.1564: d.1603) m. Catherine Michelle of Spain (b.1567: d.1599) (a)

1a) Mary Tudor (b.1587)

2a) Elizabeth Tudor (b.1588)

3a) Edward Tudor, VIII of England (b.1589)

4a) Miscarriage (c.1591)

5a) Margaret Tudor (b.1593: d.1593)

6a) Henry Tudor, Duke of York (b.1595)

7a) Anne Tudor (b.1596: d.1599)

8a) Miscarriage (c.1597)​

3b) Margaret Tudor (b.1565: d.1566)

4c) Philip III of Spain (b.1575: d.1643) m. Maria Anna of Bavaria (b.1574: d.1616) (a)

1a) Catherine Eugenia of Spain (b.1599)

2a) Miscarriage (c.1601)

3a) Philip IV of Spain (b.1602)

4a) Ferdinand of Spain (b.1605: d.1606)

5a) Isabella Michelle of Spain (b.1606)

6a) Miscarriage (c.1607)

7a) Joanna of Spain (b.1609: d.1622)

8a) Charles of Spain (b.1611)

9a) Maria Anna of Spain (b.1615)​

5c) Diego of Spain (b.1576: d.1578)

6c) Joanna of Spain (b.1579: d.1590)​
Something we've created in this is that Poland now will have at least one long running Valois King in the OTL Henry III of Spain, and most likely more, particularly if he marries better than OTL fertility wise
Mary, Queen of Scots (b.1542: d.1587) m. Francis II of France (b.1544: d.1562) (a), Edward VI of England (b.1537: d.1565) (b), Philip II of Spain (b.1527: d.1598) (c)
2b) Edward Tudor, VII of England (b.1564: d.1603) m. Catherine Michelle of Spain (b.1567: d.1599) (a)
Would Protestant England allow Edward Tudor to marry Catholic Catherine of Spain, when as I showed there are prominent Protestant princesses in Europe
Would Protestant England allow Edward Tudor to marry Catholic Catherine of Spain, when as I showed there are prominent Protestant princesses in Europe

Not really, but if Edward dies pretty young as he does here, the heir is the child of a Catholic who marries one of the most fervent Catholics in Europe. If this all goes through ITL I can see this child ending up much like Mary, Queen of Scot in terms of religion, Catholic but not zealous. With Elizabeth there as a Protestant but again non-zealous spinster aunt, I can see little Edward Tudor marrying not for religious matrimony but for the best political match. However, I do see the issue in Edward VII of England marrying Catherine Michelle. She's going to be his sister in the eyes of the church. Tbh, I'd probably change that to maybe
Independent England and Scotland, before the First Union of the Crowns
The Imperial and Royal house of Great Britain and Ireland

House of York-Plantagenet - England to First Union of the Crowns

Edward IV (1461 to 1492) m Elizabeth Woodville
Edward V (1492 to 1527) m Anne Duchess of Brittany
Edward VI (1527 to 1548) m Margaret of Anjouleme
Richard III (1548 to 1568) m 1) Elizabeth of Scotland 2) Eleanor Hapsburg of Brabant

Edward IV survived his illness in 1483 to reign until his death in 1492. Edward V saw initial success in the War with France of 1509 however the collapse of the Duke of Brabant's advance into French territories saw English forces pushed back to the coast. A forced treaty supported by the Papacy saw English gains limited to retaining Calais, La Rochelle and Brittany. Edward VI's court became a centre of humanist and new learning in the 1530s due to the influence of the Queen. England's ties with Rome and good relations with Brabant saw an increased weakening of ties with Rome though the royal couple remained traditional in their relationship with the church. However greater demands for reform were made and the King intervened to limit the church's attacks on heretics.
Richard III was largely educated by Thomas Crammer (he began life as an Oxford cleric before being appointed to chaplain to Queen Margaret rapidly rising to become first Bishop of London, then Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York by 1547) and he was much closer in view to the Protestant thinking emenating from Germany and the Low Countries. Crammer's influence on Richard III was largely blamed for England's final breach with Rome - In 1549 Crammer guided legislation through Parliament establishing Richard as Head of the Church in England. Further reforms in 1550-1555 dissolved the monastic institutions and abolished the Papal supremacy. His marriage to Elizabeth of Scotland daughter of James V (died 1554) was relatively happy despite the Queen's traditional Catholicism. Her death in childbirth in 1554 in midst of the Royal Supremacy row was seen as hardening Richard's attitude. In 1557 Richard remarried to Eleanor daughter of the Duke of Brabant - the new Protestant Queen proved a loyal supporter of her husband's religious policies and was a keen promoter of education.

Scotland to First Union of the Crowns.

House of Stewart

James IV (1488 to 1518) m Cecily of York
James V (1518 to 1560) m Claude of France (dau of Louis XII)
James VI (1560-67) m Agnes dau of Earl of Lennox
Robert IV (1567-69) m Margaret dau of Duke of Bourbon

James IV spent much of his reign in conflict with England and in alliance with France - after his death in 1518 control of his 15 year old son James V rested with his widow Queen Cecily who in two years restored relations with her English nephew resulting in a fresh peace treaty. James V remained on relatively good terms with his English uncle. During James V's reign he managed to exert strong control of the Scots nobility and parliament - his reign is regarded as a golden age of Royal Authority in Scots history and relative peace. James V's marriage to Claude of France in 1527 was happy despite her frequent miscarriages and poor health (she produced a daughter Elizabeth in 1530 and a son James in 1538) . His son James VI was initially a contented child but as he matured he became unbalanced, prone to mood swings and often short-tempered he fell under the influence of his distant cousin the Earl of Lennox as a teenager - his accession on his father's sudden death in 1560 prompted a succession crisis as many thought the King was too mentally unstable to produce a child - however Lennox managed to persuade the King to marry his own daughter Agnes in 1565 prompting an uprising by the Scots nobility. Lennox himself managed to crush the rebellion but the King was slowly sliding into insanity and he would die in 1567 without issue. The Scots were divided - Lennox and other leading peers favoured the legal heir Robert Duke of Albany grandson of James IV and nearest male heir and last surviving Stewart - also a devout Catholic. Scottish reformers and some of the southern nobility preferred the sixteen year old Prince of Wales - only son of James VI's sister Elizabeth Stewart. Lennox and his ally's won control and proclaimed Albany King as Robert IV - Richard III of England formally proclaimed his son as Edward I of Scotland and began to prepare for war. After Richard III's death the English army defeated Lennox's army at Norham in July 1569. Robert IV fled to France along with his wife and Edward was formally proclaimed King of Scots - though the Scots Parliament imposed stringent limits on his authority in the Act of Settlement (1569). Scots reformers were delighted with the change of monarch and hoped the King would move to end the country's ties to Rome.
England & Scotland, 1st & 2nd Unions of the Crowns
First Union of the Crowns
England and Scotland

Edward VII and I (1568 to 1580)

Notes: Edward was by nature moderate on religious matters and had no desire to change things radically. He married the Catholic Princess Beatriz of Portugal in 1572 against the advice of his step-mother. The Princess was permitted to retain her religion which proved deeply offensive to the Queen Dowager and many at the English Court. The situation was not helped by the Queen's failure to have a child. Scots reformers governed north of the border in his name and began the process of separating Scotland from the Papacy - resulting in several rebellions on behalf of the Catholic's who would toast "the king o'er the water" in reference to the exiled Robert IV. In 1580 the thirty year old King fell ill and died in November. His death prompted a fresh succession crisis.

Edward's half-brother Henry Duke of Bedford was his heir in England and was duly proclaimed Henry VII. The scots succession was more complicated under the Act of Settlement his heir was his full sister the only other surviving child of Elizabeth of Scotland - Margaret of England (b1549) - Margaret had married 1) 1565 Charles Count of Flanders heir to the Duke of Brabant (d1568) she was married secondly (as part of a peace treaty with France) in 1572 to Henri Duke of Bourbon (cousin to the King of France and nephew of Robert IV of Scotland's wife) the couple had just one surviving son Charles. Catholic Scots rejoiced in Margaret's accession as she had formally converted on her French marriage.

Monarch's following dissolution of Union


Henry VII (1580 to 1619) (half brother of Edward VII) m Anne Plantagenet dau of 6th Duke of York
Richard IV (1619 to 1630) m Anna of Sweden
Henry VIII (1630 to 1660) m Anne I Queen of Scots
Charles I (1660 to 1680)

Henry VII was a gifted and intelligent man whose reign saw a growth in English development and the beginning of colonies in the new world - including the founding of the colony of New England and the town of Bedford in honour of the King's former title. However his son relied heavily on favourites especially his cousin Richard Earl of March (future 7th Duke of York) and Lord Henry Grey (youngest son of the 5th Duke of Exeter). He clashed frequently with ministers and entered a disastrous war with France in 1623 which saw England lose all her remaining French holdings.
Richard had married in 1602 Princess Anna of Sweden but the couple were living separately by the time of his accession in 1619. Many courtiers looked to the Queen and her son the Prince of Wales and an alternative court had built up around them. Relations between the King and the Prince were appalling and had virtually collapsed by the time Prince Edward came of age in 1623. In 1626 Parliament began to exert pressure on the King who refused to dismiss advisors and continued to shower his friends and supporters with lands and titles often at the expense of others. The King's illness which is now thought to be some form of nervous breakdown probably saved him further humiliation. He was initially confined at Windsor in 1627 and died there in 1630. Power passed to the Prince of Wales who effectively became regent until his father's death.
Henry VIII had initially been betrothed in childhood to his distant cousin Anne daughter of Charles I of Scotland - however her Catholic mother broke the match when Anne succeeded her father at just nine years old. The couple's marriage in the end did not take place until 1625 when the Scots Parliament imposed a raft of conditions on the English Prince of Wales.


Margaret II (1580 to 1608) m Henri Duke of Bourbon
Charles I(1608-12) m Marie Stuart dau of Robert IV Duke of Albany
Anne I (1612 to 1665) m Henry VIII of England
Charles I (1665 to 1680)

Margaret II inherited a crown riven by dissent and a rival claimant in Robert IV. Although raised as a Protestant in the English Church she had formally converted to Catholicism on her marriage to the Duke of Bourbon. The Catholic Queen assured her subject of her continuing tolerance for Protestants despite pressure from her husband and the French King. Her weakness enabled her parliament to gain the upperhand forcing her to increasingly limit the ability of her Catholic subjects to worship in peace. A Catholic rising in 1598 in the name of Robert IV was brutally suppressed and the Queen found herself increasingly isolated. By 1600 her only child Charles was the real authority in the land - raised in the Catholic faith he was largely educated by Protestant tutors and formally embraced the Church of Scotland after coming of age in 1594. In 1600 he married Marie of Albany only surviving child of Robert IV - devoutly Catholic the marriage proved unhappy and produced only one child Anne. Charles determined to try and keep the Protestant ascendency relied on key Protestant ministers such as the Earl of Hamilton who in 1609 had arranged the betrothal of the Princess Anne to Henry Prince of Wales. Charles died in 1612 many accussed his wife of poisoning him but she claimed and was granted the regency - she promptly dismissed Hamilton and renounced the little Queen's betrothal to the English Prince. In 1615 she began negotiations to marry the Queen to the Dauphin of France despite English and Scots objections to the match. In 1618 the Scots rebelled again led by Lord Strathmore who managed to detain the Queen Dowager (who would be imprisoned in relative comfort for the next decade of her life) and declared the teenaged Queen Anne of age. in 1625 she finally married the Prince of Wales - with a raft of aggrements limiting the ability of the English King and Parliament to exercise authority in Scotland. Requiring the Queen to spend at least part of the year in Scotland (unless she was pregnant and unable to travel) etc. Despite this her marriage to Henry VIII proved a happy one.

Second Union of the Crowns

Charles I and II (1665 to 1680) m 1) Margaret of Denmark 2) Louise Charlotte dau of Francis IV of France
Mary I (1680 to 1690) m Gaston IV Duke of Lorraine
Elizabeth I (1690 to 1698) m Henry Plantagenet Duke of Gloucester


Charles succeeded his parents to both their thrones. He delighted in art and architecture and completely refurbished several of his residences most notably the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyrood in Scotland and Whitehall in London. His childhood was marked with numerous betrothals to Protestant princesses across Northern Europe but war and conflict in the 1640s and 50s had limited his choices. In 1652 he finally married his distant cousin Princess Margaret of Denmark. However the Princess of Wales died in childbirth in 1657. Negotiations for him to marry a daughter of the King of Sweden had begun in 1659 but were dropped in 1660 after he ascended the throne of England. His mother had retired to Scotland giving him a free reign and in 1661 despite ministerial advice not to he married Louise Charlotte daughter of Francis IV of France. He gave guarantees his wife would not have to convert to the English church and agreed to renounce his claims to French territory. Louise was elegant and well educated and pious, many of her husband's courtiers including his own mother and sisters admired the new Queen - however Parliament and many others were appalled at the idea of a Catholic Queen. Her popularity floundered when she miscarried twice in the following three years. Their son Edward was finally born in 1670 but died in 1676.
Charles lack of an heir prompted a crisis - his heirs were his sisters - Mary Duchess of Lorraine, Elizabeth Duchess of Gloucester and Catherine Countess of Flanders. Parliament favoured two solutions - the King should divorce the Queen and remarry if he refused then an exclusion bill must be passed through both Parliaments excluding Catholic heirs to ensure a Protestant succession (much favoured by the Scots who dreaded a repeat of the pro-Catholic rebellions of the 1590s). It was also helped that the Duchess of Gloucester was married to a Plantagenet distant cousin, lived in England, and was hugely popular - her older sister Mary had married the Duke of Lorraine and had lived abroad for more than 20 years. Charles himself dissolved both Parliaments in late 1678 before they could vote. He also invited his sister Mary and her husband to England to ensure if he died they would be on hand to succeed. His brother in law the Duke of Gloucester had been approached and urged to act against the King to ensure he and his wife succeeded on the King's death but he refused to allow the law to be distorted.
A new Parliament in early 1679 formally issued "An Act of Settlement of the Succession to the Crown of England" (in Scotland it was simply a Bill To Settle the Succession to the Throne in the event of the death of His Majesty the King without lawful issue)
The Act effectively named the Duchess of Lorraine heir in the event of the King's death, she was required to guarantee the Protestant faith, and that all heirs to the crown had to be raised in the Church of England or of Scotland. English troops could not be used to engage in the defence of the Duchy of Lorraine, in the event of her death without issue the crown would be lawfully settled on Elizabeth Duchess of Gloucester and her heirs.
In 1680 Mary succeeded to both thrones (her husband renounced his Duchy of Lorraine to his half brother on her accession) - Parliament imposed further restrictions which Mary was forced to sign to avoid further conflict reducing the crown's ability to govern without Parliament.
Her relationship with her younger sister was poor particularly after the death of Mary's only child in 1696 when Elizabeth was acknowledged as heiress presumptive.
Union of the Parliaments - this had been attempted on numerous occassions first in 1665 the English Parliament had proposed a formal union which was rejected by the Scots, it was again proposed by Charles I and II in 1670 and 1674, The Scots Parliament proposed union again in 1690.
Eventually in 1698 a joint proposal from a special committee proposed a new "Imperial" parliament by merging the two bodies into one (which would sit in alternate years in London and Edinburgh) - in 1698 the bill to abolish the two institutions and create a new British Parliament was passed (it would only sit in the Scots capital on one occasion) - the first Act of the new institution was to declare the monarch of England and Scotland to be Emperor of Great Britain.
Emperors of Great Britain, Kings of Ireland
Emperors of Great Britain, Kings of Ireland

House of Plantagenet

Elizabeth I (1698 to 1710) m Henry Plantagenet Duke of Gloucester
Charles II (1710 to 1747) (grandson of Elizabeth I) m Charlotte dau of Elector Palatine
Edward VIII (1747 to 1790) m 1) Louise dau of King of Sweden m2) Margaret of Prussia
Mary II (1790 to 1804) m John Prince of Denmark

House of Oldenburg-Plantagenet

Edward IX (1804 to 1824) m Helena dau of Duke of Nassau
Charles III (1824 to 1833) m Augusta of Saxony
Catherine I (1833 to 1897) m William Plantagenet Duke of Somerset (male line descendant of Henry second son of Edward VI)

House of Plantagenet

Edward X (1897 to 1906) m Elizabeth of Russia
William III (1906 to 1940) m Margaret of Denmark
Charles IV (1940 to 1961) m The Hon Elizabeth Seymour
Catherine II (1961) m Prince Christian of Hesse cr Duke of Somerset

Notes on the above:

The 18th Century was marked by expansion of Britain's holdings in the Americas however during the late 18th C there was a significant decline in British influence due to poor harvests and civil disturbances. In 1820 the Danish King died and the claimants included Edward IX and his son Charles Prince of Wales - the King was willing to support his cousin Prince Christian of Sweden as the heir (he was the choice of the Danish Parliament but his claim was secondary to the British Emperor) but the Prince would renege on the deal on his accession and involve himself in a disastrous Northern War. The British eventually sued for defeat amidst serious riots at home due to falling prices and rising costs.
Charles III also proved to be a reactionary at home - refusing to countenance further reforms in terms of enlarging the franchise or offering more domestic control to the colonies - riots broke out in British North America in the 1820s - with parts of the country virtually ungovernable - some even called for a republic - this hit trade and manufacturing at home and saw famine. In 1833 Parliament met and following weeks of fierce and violent debate - moderates in Parliament tried to persuade Charles to abdicate in favour of his eldest daughter he refused and eventually Parliament formally declared Charles III to be deposed - the Emperor was forcibly placed under house arrest at Whitehall along with his wife and four daughters. His eldest daughter Catherine just 11 years old was declared Queen and placed in the custody of her aunt the Princess Elizabeth Countess of Salisbury. Catherine would never see her father again - he would die in exile in 1867 in his wife's native Saxony. Parliament acted to suppress disorder and introduced a raft of legislation - liberating business, reducing for all time royal control, and extending the franchise. In terms of the colonies British North America was granted political independence with the establishment of a full colonial Parliament (initially established at Bedford in New England before being moved to the larger New York in 1845). The British Monarch now used the style granted in 1840 by Parliamentary Act - HIM Catherine, Empress of Great Britain, of North America, Ireland and her realms and territories beyond the seas Queen, Duchess of Brittany and Normandy.
Catherine's long reign saw further expansion and the development of colonial interests in Africa and the Far East and although she had little political influence she remained deeply popular. Her grandson William III led the country through the Great War (1911 to 1919) and the end of colonial expansion - full independence to many of the country's colonial holdings throughout the 1930s. A referendum in North America in 1936 would narrowly result in the country retaining the British Monarch as sovereign instead of becoming a republic. A second referendum has long been discussed and it is largely thought the weakening of ties with Britain and the absorption of former colonies belonging to the French and Spanish Crowns mean a North American Republic is not far off despite the high level of popularity of the current monarch Catherine II who has frequently visited her North American Kingdom lastly in her Golden Jubilee year when she received a warm welcome. The current monarch Catherine II married a distant cousin Prince Christian of Hesse in 1950 but declared on her succession the name of the Royal House would remain that of Plantagenet (technically the longest reigning royal dynasty in Europe). Her Imperial Majesty celebrated her Golden Jubilee in 2011.
Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick, succeeds her father and grandfather
Monarchs of Great Britain
1727-1737: George II (House of Hanover)
00 1737: Frederick I (House of Hanover)
1737-1755: Regency of Queen Augusta
1755-1813: Augusta I (House of Hanover)
1813-1843: Frederick II (House of Hohenzollern)
1843-1850: George III (House of Hohenzollern)
1850-1895: Frederick III (House of Hohenzollern)
1895-1906: Frederick IV (House of Hohenzollern)
1906-1939: Frederick V (House of Hohenzollern)
1939-1981: Alexander I (House of Hohenzollern)
1981-0000: Edward VI (House of Hohenzollern)

Consorts of Great Britain
1727-1737: Princess Caroline of Ansbach
1737: Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
1737-1756: Vacant due to Regency
1756-1813: Prince Augustus Ferdinand of Prussia
1813-1843: Lady Elizabeth Sackville
1843-1850: Vacant due to King George III being unwed
1850-1883: Princess Marianne of the Netherlands
1883-1895: Vacant due to Queen Marianne's death
1895-1898: Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
1898-1906: Vacant due to Queen Marie's death
1906-1939: Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia (Known as Queen Alexandria to the British Public)
1939-1981: Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark
1981-0000: Princess Désirée Elisabeth Sibylla of Sweden
Hernando Cortes, dynasty head of House Painala
Basic scenario: The Tlaxcallans decide on remaining neutral instead of joining Hernando Cortes' burgeoning army of Spanish conquistadors and native allies. On a scenario not too dissimilar from the Night of Tears, Cortes' army is routed and forced to flee eastward to the lands of the Tarascan Empire. The Tarascan king is somewhat sympathetic to Cortes' cause as his people are rivals to the Aztecs but is cautious. He forces the conquistador to accept a deal: the Spanish will oblige their specialists to teach the Tarascans to fashion their own guns, steel swords and breed a few horses for the Tarascan ruler and the nobility. In exchange, the King promises to lead an army to subjugate the Aztecs. Cortes accepts.

In the next two to three years, Tangaxuan's network of diplomats and spies builds a web of alliances between the Tarascan Empire and the kingdoms neighboring the Aztec Triple Alliance, minus the Tlaxcallans who are wary of war and do not wish to earn the ire of the Aztecs. In 1524, the newly trained Tarascan Army (with the Spanish conquistadors) mount an invasion and soon its allies follow suit. Many of the Aztec tributaries declare independence and switch their allegiance to Tangaxuan. Ill-prepared for a multi-front war, the Tarascan alliance is victorious despite heavy casualties earned during the siege of Tenochtitlan; many of those conquistadors. Montezuma is captured and executed.

Most of Cortes' chief officers lie dead in battle and so the last tether to mother Spain is severed. Despite being offered the hand of Montezuma's daughter, he decides to marry the native woman Malinalli Tenepal, his lover and chief translator. He is granted by Lord Tangaxuan dominion over the coastal city of Painala and the surrounding districts; his spouse being a member of the former ruling dynasty provided much legitimacy to the former conquistador's reign. He would adopt the name of his newly adopted home; so his descendants would become known as the House of Painala and would rule for two centuries.

Cacique of Painala
1525-1543: Hernando I (House of Painala)
1543-1578: Martin I (House of Painala)
1578-1601: Juan I (House of Painala)
1601-1613: Martin II (House of Painala)
1613-1635: Esteban I (House of Painala)
1635-1654: Hernando II (House of Painala)

Tarascan rule by the 1650s had waned to the point that its tributaries were independent in all but name; the first to declare its independence from Tarascan dominion was the House of Painala. The opportunistic Hernando, with the assistance of Anglo-Burgundian privateers, conquered his neighbors and ruled an enlarged dominion that ruled over a million subjects. The capital was moved from Painala to the more prestigious port of Potonchan, once the home to Mayan lords. Hernando would convert from Roman Catholicism to Calvinism due to currying favor with the daughter of a privateer; it gave him the excuse to seize Church property for the Crown. The next three kings after him would become infamous for their ardent devotion to the Protestant faith; it would cost them the crown.

King of Tlahuasco
1654-1682: Hernando II (House of Painala)
1682-1709: Johann I (House of Painala)
1709-1732: Johann II (House of Painala)
1732-1739: Johann III (House of Painala)

The city of Potonchan was home to the largest Protestant community in the New World outside the lands dominated by European colonists. The unique flavor of Tlahuascan Calvinism was noted by Anglo-Burgundian missionaries. The Tlahuascan ministers who administered the mass were mostly locals, quite different from the colonies whose settler elite dominated all levels of society. However, the rest of the kingdom remained staunch Catholics and resisted efforts by the increasingly Europeanized monarchs and nobility to impose the Protestant faith on them.

From the 1720s onwards, there were multiple Catholic rebellions against the Tlahuascan Crown. Johann III gained the moniker of "The Butcher" after he sent royal troops to the former royal capital of Painala, seized by Catholic rebels who refused to convert to the Protestant faith. Thousands were massacred, including innocent women and children. A few survived, among them Joaquin Chijpiriharikua, who would escape into the inner jungles for sanctuary from the royals.

It was in the jungle that Joaquin would receive a vision from the Virgin Mary. Whether it was true or not, Joaquin would inspire thousands to raise up arms against the Painala monarchy. Through the use of hit and run tactics, Joaquin would seize control of plantation by plantation, acquiring guns, horses and extra manpower from the workforce, hurting the kingdom's economy. The monarchy would eventually fall in 1739 when the rebels captured Painala. The nobility and Johann III's family would find sanctuary in London, while Johann III stayed behind to be captured. He was executed just after Joaquin was proclaimed by the people as the new King of Tlahuasco.

1739-1793: Joaquin I (House of Chijpiriharikua)
1793-1820: Joaquin II (House of Chijpiriharikua)
1820-1851: Joaquin III (House of Chijpiriharikua)
1851-1867: Felipe I (House of Chijpiriharikua)
1867-1891: Pedro I (House of Chijpiriharikua)
1891-1935: Pedro II (House of Chijpiriharikua)
1935-1942: Felipe II (House of Chijpiriharikua)
1942-1969: Joaquin IV (House of Chijpiriharikua)
1969-now: Maria I (House of Chijpiriharikua-Acachto)
Rakoczi dynasty as King of Great Britain
This thread seems perfectly usable and I wanted to do my own spin on an idea I found interesting a while back - Mipp's concept of a Rakoczi dynasty in Great Britain. With the main difference just being King Fred marrying a different niece of the Earl of Arlington (and he seems more likely to be chosen as king if he does have some reasonably early heirs floating around).
Henriette Marie of the Palatinate (b. 1626: d. 1660) m. Sigismund Rakoczi (b. 1622: d. 1652) (a)​
1a) Frederick I Sigismund of the United Kingdom (b. 1652: d. 1717) m. Isabella Carr (b. 1669: d. 1692) (a)​
1a) Isabella Rakoczi (b. 1688: d. 1710) m. Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia (b. 1688: d. 1740) (a)​
1a) Frederick Sigismund of Prussia (b. 1707: d. 1708)
2a) Frederica Isabella of Prussia (b. 1709: d. 1758)
3a) Stillborn boy (c. 1710)​
2a) William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1690: d. 1722) m. Louise Albertine of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (b. 1694: d. 1773) (a)​
1a) Isabella Rakoczi (b. 1715: d. 1791)
2a) William V Frederick of the United Kingdom (b. 1717: d. 1779)
3a) Henry Rakoczi (b. 1718: d. 1718)
4a) Henrietta Rakoczi (b. 1719: d. 1723)
5a) John Henry Rakoczi, Duke of York (b. 1720: d. 1804)
6a) Louise Rakoczi (b. 1721: d. 1723)
7a) Sigismund Rakoczi, Duke of Gloucester (b. 1723: d. 1759)​
3a) Elizabeth Rakoczi (b. 1692: d. 1693)
4a) Emily Catherine Rakoczi (b. 1693: d. 1757) m. Christian Ludwig II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1683: d. 1756) (a)​
1a) Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1716: d. 1784)
2a) Ulrike Catherine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1722: d. 1812)
3a) Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1724: d. 1777)
4a) Stillborn girl (c. 1729)
5a) Emily of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1731: d. 1774)​
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Ali Pasha of Ioannina‘s Greek Kingdom
Basic scenario: Ali Pasha of Ioannina is persuaded by his advisors not to switch sides to the British and instead demand the French for his own slice of the Ottoman Empire: continental Greece. Ali Pasha's realm joins the Corsican colonel's Continental System and musters his army to prepare for an invasion and dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire is, to put it mildly, very ill-prepared for a multi-front war and quickly succumbs to the combined Russo-French-Albanian armies. The Ottoman Sultan is captured and forced to come to terms: they were harsh.

Constantinople and the surrounding territories are ceded to the Russian Tsar. Crete goes under French rule while the remaining islands are divided amongst the French protectorates of Samos, Rhodes and Naxos, ruled by local Greek potentates friendly to Napoleonic hegemony. The Illyrian Provinces incorporate the Ottoman province of Bosnia and becomes an autonomous South Slavic kingdom. Pro-Russian puppet rulers are installed in Serbia, Bulgaria, Wallachia and Moldovia. Cyprus was to be made a puppet state and given to one of Napoleon's marshals but the British seized control of it before French troops could land and take the island from the Ottoman garrison. Kicked out of Europe, Ottoman rule in North Africa and the Middle East would eventually collapse, leaving a multitude of weak states seeking favors from Napoleon to protect themselves from an ascendant Egypt.

Ali Pasha moves the capital of his expanded realm to Thessalonica. His rule gives mixed reactions amongst his new subjects. Although the Greeks are glad to be rid of the Ottomans, some wonder if much has changed with a Muslim Albanian lording over them; the anti-Ali faction lobby Napoleon to overthrow Ali and install his son as King. Napoleon ignores them as he's busy solidifying French hegemony in Europe to care about the concerns of a few Greeks. Others are much more appreciative of Ali's efforts to make Greece great again, such as his transformation of Thessalonica into a city that would eventually rival Vienna and Paris as an educational and cultural mecca.

King of Greece
1810-1835: Ali I (House of Tepelenlis)
1835-1842: Mahmud I (House of Tepelenlis)

Mahmud, Ali's eldest son by his favored Greek concubine Kyra Vassiliki, inherited the Greek throne. His short rule was marked by the continuation of his father's policies to expand Thessalonica and turn it into something worthy of envy. Mahmud attempted to bridge the religious divides in his kingdom by creating a a synthesis between the predominately Muslim landowning class and the Christian mercantile elite without much success. In terms of foreign policy, he was cautious and declared neutrality during the Crimean War between France and Russia: it would be his downfall. Napoleon II gave his tacit support to the Greeks overthrowing Mahmud and replacing him with his younger brother.

Although he was officially a Muslim, Ibrahim was a practicing Orthodox Christian like his mother. It was part of the reason why he gained the throne; he offered to baptize his children and raise them as proper Christians in exchange for recognizing him as King.

1842-1876: Ibrahim/Avraam I (House of Tepelenlis)
1876-1891: Ibrahim/Avraam II (House of Tepelenlis)
1891-1904: Avraam III (House of Tepelenlis)
1904-1930: Alexander I (House of Tepelenlis)
1930-1934: Constantine I (House of Tepelenlis)*

The Tepelenlis are overthrown by Equalist elements in the army. A people's republic is declared. The reigning monarch Constantine is offered the chance of exile in Paris or execution. He chose exile; the coup plotters decide to execute him and most o the royal family. Greece remains under Equalist rule until the 1970s: monarchists demand the restoration of the Tepenlenlis but the surviving scion Alexander II refuses, preferring a quiet life of retirement in France. Greece becomes a democracy.
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