List of Alternate Monarchs and Aristocratic Lineage

House of Tudor/Tudor-Hamilton

Elizabeth I
b1533 r1558 d 1603
m 1560
James Hamilton (son of the Earl of Arran) CR Duke of Richmond 1560
b 1532 d 1609


Edward VII
b1562 r1603 d1623
m1) 1585
Princess Margaret of Scotland (daughter of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Lord Darnley twin of King James VI)
b1566 d 1594
m2) 1596
Countess Catherina of Nassau (daughter of William the Silent)
b 1578 d1648

Issue by Margaret of Scotland:

a1) Henry IX
King Henry I of Scots on death of his uncle James VI in 1617
King of Great Britain and Ireland 1624
b1588 r 1623 d1650
Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
b1597 d1661

a2) Elizabeth Mary of England dau of Edward VII and Margaret of Scotland
b 1594
George William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia,

Issue by Catherina of Nassau

b1) James (son of Edward VII and Catherina of Nassau)
Duke of York
Viceroy of Ireland 1630 to 1640
b1598 d1655
m 1622
Christina Marie of France
b1606 d1669

b2) Catherine
b1601 d1670
Frederick V Elector Palatine

b3) Anne
b1604 d1606

b4) Charlotte
b1606 d1629

b5) William
Duke of Gloucester
b1608 d16586
1) 1629
Lady Anne Seymour dau of the Earl of Hertford
b1610 d1640
m2) 1645
Louise Henrietta of Nassau
b1626 d1667

b6)) George
Duke of Clarence


During 1560 pressure mounted on Elizabeth Tudor to marry to ensure the Protestant succession. The Queen was reluctant but allowed negotiations with the Scots peers who had proposed the son of the Earl of Arran himself heir presumptive to the Scots Throne. Many at court favoured the match he was the least foreign option, although a Scot, was of a good age and despite his family's strong Catholic leanings was himself currently a Protestant. Many including Lord Robert Dudley believed the match would never happen but in late 1560 news from France that Mary Stuart was with child (falsely as it turned out) pushed the Queen to the altar. The marriage was initially happy with the birth of a son in 1562 however the Queen's husband soon become unwell with a "distemper of the mind" and was incarcerated in comfort at Windsor for the remainder of his long life.

Edward VII was the adored son of Elizabeth I - extremely well-educated and strong minded with a resemblance it was said to his grandfather Henry VIII and his mother's temper. He was betrothed to a variety of women in his childhood but in 1584 he was formally betrothed to Margaret of Scotland. Margaret was the daughter of Mary I and Henry Stuart Lord Darnley and twin to King James VI. Margaret had initially been educated in the Catholic faith of her mother until Mary I's deposition and murder. During the early years of her brother's minority Margaret was initially in the care of various women of noble birth - some with Catholic leanings but by the time she was ten she was formally separated from her brother and given a more formal Calvinist education. Her childhood meant Margaret was insecure, nervous of strangers and secretive. Her marriage was initially successful and the Princess was devoted to her son - however her relationship with the ageing Queen Elizabeth was poor - and the Queen took complete control of the little Prince Henry - Margaret's husband balked at his mother's exessive control and reluctance to cede power to her son. Rumours of plots to depose the Queen were rife and the couple were constantly looked at with suspicion by the Queen. In 1592 two of Margaret's Scotish lady's were questioned at length over allegations they had heard the mass in secret and did not regularly attend Anglican services. In 1594 the Princess would experience a difficult second pregnancy giving birth to a daughter, Elizabeth Mary, and would die a few weeks later.

Edward VII's second wife was of lower rank being the daughter of William the Silent but was also a devout Lutheran - Catherina of Nassau - was also much more adept at dealing with the ageing Queen Elizabeth - the couple's marriage was relatively happy and in 1604 Catherine was crowned Queen Consort alongside her husband. She would wield immense control over both her own children and step children. It was she who pushed Edward into supporting Protestant Prince's abroad and her modesty in religion appealed to many Protestant sects who found the English Church to still have to many Catholic trappings. Her biggest success would be the network of marriages she arranged in 1614 - her stepson would marry her niece Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatine, her own daughter Catherine would marry the Elector Palatine, her stepdaughter meanwhile would wed George of Brandenburg. The King was less than content with the matches for his daughter's as they were not to men who would one day be King's however both matches were popular with Parliament who was more than content to provide cash for the Princesses dowery's. The King himself was more content with the marriage of his second son, the Duke of York, to a French Princess in 1622 - but the marriage proved unpopular with the rest of the Royal Family.

By Edward VII's accession in 1603 it was also clear that James VI of Scotland would be unlikely to leave an heir - under pressure the King had married a Danish Princess in 1590 but the marriage was not consummated for several years and a shortlived son was born and died in 1601. James seemed unconcerned and in a speech to the Scots Parliament in 1608 he acknowledged that were he not blessed with a child then his nephew Henry of Wales would inherit. Which he did in 1617 - the Scots were not too happy at the idea of union with England but for the next six years Henry I ruled alongside his wife Elisabeth Charlotte in Scotland - her staunch Protestantism proved popular with the Scots - she urged her husband to offer strong support to foreign Protestants. It was Elizabeth Charlotte alongside her step mother in law who persuaded Frederick V of the Palatine to refuse the offer of the Bohemian throne in order to avoid religious war.

Henry IX annd I would return south with his family on his father's death in 1623 and in 1624 the English and Scots Parliaments would confirm the King's new title as King of Great Britain and Ireland - though talks of merging the two parliaments stalled due to English reluctance. Henry IX was a great builder and embarked on a twenty year programme to completely rebuild Whitehall Palace, the main London residence of the King, he was probably motivated by jealousy over his brother the Duke of York's newly built York Palace at Greenwich. In 1630 he appointed his brother James Viceroy of Ireland and dispatched him and his family to Dublin Castle.

The King's youngest brother caused a scandal by eloping with the daughter of the Earl of Hertford (and grandaughter of Lady Catherine Grey) - his mother and wife refused to receive the new Duchess of Gloucester for almost six years and the couple were forced to live away from court for those years - the rift was only slightly healed when the couples eldest child died following a fall however the Duchess was never truly accepted by the Royal Family. After her death in childbirth in 1640 the Duke would mourn for several years before marrying again at his mother's urging to his cousin the Countess Louise Henrietta of Nassau.
Charles ‘III’ of Great Britain (b. 1720: d. 1788) m. Louise of Stolberg-Gedern (b. 1752: d. 1824) (a)
1a) Louisa ‘I’ of Great Britain (b. 1772: d. 1854) m. Maurizio of Savoy (b. 1762: d. 1799) (a)
1a) Louisa of Savoy (b. 1792: d. 1853)
2a) Charles IV Maurice of Great Britain (b. 1793: d. 1862) m. Gasparine of Rohan-Rochefort (b. 1798: d. 1871) (a)
1a) Louisa II of Great Britain (b. 1823: d. 1876) m. William III of the Netherlands (b. 1817: d. 1890) (a)
1a) William IV of the Netherlands (b. 1844: d. 1903)
2a) Wilhelmina of the Netherlands (b. 1846: d. 1931)
3a) William V of Great Britain (b. 1854: d. 1909)​
2a) Elizabeth of Great Britain (b. 1825: d. 1862) m. Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel (b. 1820: d. 1884) (a)
1a) Frederick William II of Hesse-Kassel (b. 1861: d. 1905)​
3a) Augusta of Savoy (b. 1795: d. 1830)
4a) Thomas of Savoy (b. 1796: d. 1852) m. Maria Beatriz O’Donnell y Jorris (b. 1811: d. 1888) (a)
1a) Leopold, Duke of Albemarle (b. 1836: d. 1901) m. Elizabeth Malet Vaughan (b. 1840: d. 1921) (a)
1a) Leopold, 2nd Duke of Albemarle (b. 1865: d. 1945)​
2a) Beatriz of Savoy (b. 1838: d. 1848)
3a) Charles, 1st Duke of Southampton (b. 1840: d. 1914) m. Annette Maria Palk (b. 1851: d. 1884) (a)
1a) Thomas Lawrence, 2nd Duke of Southampton (b. 1874: d. 1941)
2a) Mary of Southampton (b. 1875: d. 1926)
3a) Charles of Southampton (b. 1876: d. 1931)
4a) Theresa of Southampton (b. 1878: d. 1943)
5a) Annette of Southampton (b. 1880: d. 1881)
6a) Isabel of Southampton (b. 1882: d. 1919)
7a) Marina of Southampton (b. 1884: d. 1968)​
4a) Louis, Duke of Lincolnshire (b. 1847: d. 1908) m. Emily Florence Bootle-Wilbraham (b. 1848: d. 1934) (a)
1a) Evelyn Mary of Lincolnshire (b. 1870: d. 1944)
2a) James, 2nd Duke of Lincolnshire (b. 1871: d. 1940)
3a) Maurice of Lincolnshire (b. 1873: d. 1936)
4a) Colin of Lincolnshire (b. 1874: d. 1911)
5a) Edward of Lincolnshire (b. 1876: d. 1951)
6a) Christopher of Lincolnshire (b. 1877: d. 1945)
7a) Kenneth of Lincolnshire (b. 1879: d. 1965)​
5a) Teresa of Savoy (b. 1798: d. 1875) m. Ferdinand VII of Spain (b. 1784: d. 1833) (a)
1a) Ferdinand VIII of Spain (b. 1819: d. 1899) m. Louise Marie Therese d’Artois (b. 1819: d. 1864) (a)
1a) Maria of Spain (b. 1843: d. 1889)
2a) Carlos V of Spain (b. 1844: d. 1903)
2a) Alicia of Spain (b. 1845: d. 1931)
3a) Luis of Spain (b. 1847: d. 1901)​
2a) Carlos of Spain (b. 1821: d. 1883)
3a) Luisa of Spain (b. 1822: d. 1900)
4a) Carolina of Spain (b. 1824: d. 1908) m . Antoine d’Orleans, Duke of Montpensier (b. 1824: d. 1890) (a)
1a) Stillborn girl (c. 1844)
2a) Fernando of Montpensier (b. 1846: d. 1860)
3a) Maria of Montpensier (b. 1847: d. 1865)
4a) Felipe of Montpensier (b. 1849: d. 1851)
5a) Antonio of Montpensier (b. 1853: d. 1917)​
5a) Felipe of Spain (b. 1828: d. 1828)
6a) Stillborn boy (c. 1829)​
6a) Maria of Savoy (b. 1800: d. 1891) m. Frederick Augustus II of Saxony (b. 1797: d. 1854) (a)

A quickie on if the Jacobites barely survive the young pretender - and another generation later (during the tyrannical reign of King Ernest I of Great Britain(Queen Victoria died as an infant)), a rather savvy Charles 'IV' decides "London is worth a mass."​
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Why would Louisa II get the throne over her male uncles/cousins?
At this point Britain has been under Male-preference (as opposed to Agnatic) primogeniture for around 300 years (i.e. ever since Queen Mary I daughters of the king would take precedence over uncles/cousins). The Jacobite claim itself isn't even through a male line by the time Charles IV takes the throne. So logically he has no reason to change succession laws at this point (and pragmatically he'd prefer for his own children to inherit the throne, no offense to Thomas). Just my chain of reasoning anyhow.
At this point Britain has been under Male-preference (as opposed to Agnatic) primogeniture for around 300 years (i.e. ever since Queen Mary I daughters of the king would take precedence over uncles/cousins). The Jacobite claim itself isn't even through a male line by the time Charles IV takes the throne. So logically he has no reason to change succession laws at this point (and pragmatically he'd prefer for his own children to inherit the throne, no offense to Thomas). Just my chain of reasoning anyhow.
Fair points all, but it's not as though there were male Tudors even of the previous generation hanging around when Mary I reigned.
Princess Charlotte, daughter of king George IV of the United Kingdom survived and succeeded her father on the throne.

Charlotte (House of Hanover) (b.1796 d.1856) Queen of UK 1830-1856. m. 1816 to Leopold of Saxe Coburg Saalfeld
  • George (b.1821 d.1869)

George V (House of Coburg) (b. 1821 d. 1869) King of UK 1856-1869. m. 1843 Caroline of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
  • Elisabeth (b.1843 d.1848)
  • Alexandra (b.1845 d.1919)
  • Adelaide (b.1848 d.1911)
  • Augusta (b.1852 d.1933)
  • Mary (b.1857-d.1930)
  • Sophia (b.1860 d. 1912)
Alexandra (House of Coburg) (b.1845 d.1919) Queen of UK 1869-1919. m.1865 Maurice of the Netherlands (Orange-Nassau).
  • William (b.1867 d.1944)
  • Charlotte (b.1869 d.1953)
  • Anne (b.1874 d.1954)
  • Alfred (b.1878 d. 1947)
William IV (House of Orange) (b.1867 d.1944) King of UK 1919-1944. m.1893 Louise of Saxe-Altenburg.
  • Maud (b.1894 d.1985)
  • George (b.1897 d.1978)
  • Henry (b.1901 d.1963)
  • Adelaide (b.1907 d.1986)
George VI (House of Orange) (b.1897 d.1978) King of UK 1944-1978. m.1922 Louise of Sweden (Bernadotte)
  • Edward (b.1923 d.2002)
  • Alexander (b.1926 d.2013)
  • Elisabeth (b.1931)
Edward VII (House of Orange) (b.1923 d.2002) King of UK 1978-2002. m. 1951 Mary Gordon-Lennox
  • William (b.1953)
  • Caroline (b.1956)
  • Thomas (b. 1961)
William V (House of Orange) (b. 1953) King of UK since 2002. m. 1977 Alice Brassey
  • Alexandra (b. 1978)
  • Edith (b. 1981)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
King George II
(1727-1760)*Died [Married Caroline of Ansbach]
(Children: Frederick, Anne, Ameila, Caroline, George, William, Mary, Louisa)
King Frederick I (1760-1784)*Died [Married Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha]
(Children: Augusta, George, Edward, Elizabeth, William, Henry, Louisa, Frederick, Caroline)
King William IV (1784-1805)*Died [Married Princess Maria Doroteia of Portugal]
(Children: Sophia, Caroline, William, Mary, Augusta, George)
King William V (1805-1834)*Died [Married Princess Augusta of Prussia]
(Children: Caroline)
Queen Caroline (1834-1890)*Died [Married Prince Frederick of The Netherlands]
(Children: Wilhelmine, Frederick, Edward, George, William, John, Mary)
King Frederick II (1890-1922)*Died [Married Princess Louise of Denmark]
(Children: George, Caroline, James, Louisa, Mary)
King George III (1922-1937)*Died [Married Archduchess Sophie of Austria]
(Children: Frederick, Arthur, Elizabeth, Henry)
King Frederick III (1937-1970)*Died [Married Princess Marie Louisa of Hanover]
(Children: Anne, Sophia)
Queen Anne II (1970-2005)*Died [Married Prince Karl of Prussia]
(Children: None)
King George IV (2005-2016) [Married Princess Alexandra]
(Children: William, Elizabeth, Caroline, Arthur, Edward)
King William VI (2016-?) [Married Princess Catherine]
(Children: Richard, Mary, Alexander)
House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Alexander III m Marie of Denmark (Marie Feodorovna)
b1845 r 1881 d1894

Nicholas II m Alexandra of Hesse-Darmstadt (Alexandra Feodorovna)
b1868 r1894 d1900

Michael II m 1905 Beatrice of Saxe Coburg Gotha, Princess of Great Britain and Ireland (Marie Alexandrovna)
b 1878 r1900 d1933

Alexander IV m 1929 Catherine Ivanovna of Russia
b1907 r1933 murdered 1949

Paul II m 1955 Natalia Petrovna Galytskova
b1931 r 1949 d2007

Alexander V m Nadia Pavolvna Narishkyna
b1959 r 2007

HIH GD Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia
m 2013
Anna Ahlberg

GD Catherine Mikhailovna of Russia

1) In 1900 Nicholas II of Russia died at Livadia of Typhoid shocking the Russian Empire. His pregnant wife resented his brother's assumption of the throne given that she was confident she was excpecting a son (a posthumous daughter would be born in June 1901).
2) Michael II succeeded at the age of just 22 and would rely heavily on Count Sergei Witte - the Emperor had a more liberal leaning than his brother and after avoiding war with Japan he would begin a slow march to reform with the creation of an Imperial Duma and a limited constitution. He married his cousin, who took the name of her mother on her conversion to the Orthodox church, and the couple were initially happy though Michael II soon took a mistress who would bear him an illegitimate son. Michael effectively remained an absolute monarch but the outreak of war in 1914 saw the Emperor begin to relinquish more power as the government struggled under the strains and pressure of conflict with Austria and Germany. An abortive revolution in the winter of 1916/17 was suppressed but tensions remained and in 1919 Russia held its first free elections under universal suffrage. Russia gained nothing from the Great War but significant debt and a troubled nation - Michael was forced to cede Russian Poland to a newly independent Polish republic in 1919, he authorised autonomy for Finland in 1921 allowing the Fins to proclaim the Grand Duchy as a Kingdom with Michael proclaimed King of Finland. There were also a wave of independence movements in the Baltic regions which were suppressed by the Imperial Government.
Michael is credited as the man who saved the Russian monarchy despite criticism of him for relying too much on some of his ministers and his troubled personal life.
3) Michael was succeeded by his son Alexander (not in Finland which became a Republic) who at 26 was regarded as the image of his grandfather Alexander III. His natural tendency was to preserve the monarchy but he was effectively turned into a figurehead by the staunch right-wing government elected in 1931. The Emperor had married in in 1929 his distant cousin Princess Catherine Ivanovna and unlike his father he was devoted to his wife. His government moved further to the right and in 1936 suspended elections due to the general unrest across Europe - the Emperor objected and refused to open the Imperial Duma in 1937. The conflict between the Emperor and the authoritarian government intensified and in 1938 General Ivan Kuyrakin attempted a complete coup planning to arrest the Emperor force his abdication in favour of his 6 year old son. The coup failed at the last minute and the Emperor ordered Kuyrakin's arrest and began to work with the Duma to reestablish a democratic government with fresh elections finally taking place in 1939. European conflict in the 1940s saw the Emperor work with the government to try and avoid a second conflict eventually though war broke out in 1942 - after the peace of 1946 Russia saw independence movements again emerge in the Baltic regions much to the Emperor's dismay - in 1949 he was shot and killed by a Lithuanian nationalist whilst on a state visit to Warsaw. He was succeeded by his son Paul under the regency of his widow Catherine.
4) Paul II succeeded as a teenager and was largely controlled by his mother the Empress Dowager. In 1955 breaking free of his mother's control he shocked the old guard at court by marrying a commoner and a subject the Princess Natalia Petrovna Galytskova. The marriage was in strict contravention of the Constitution which had incorporated the family rules governing the succession and marriages of members of the Imperial Family but the Emperor had persuaded the government to issue a new Imperial Marriages Act allowing the Emperor to be the sole arbiter of matters governing the Imperial Family. The couple were very happy and the new Empress proved popular with the Russian people - taking a great interest in charity work, healthcare and education. The Imperial couple were highly visible and played a much larger role in the lives of their subjects increasing the popularity of the Crown. Paul also encouraged the government to accept the desire for nationalism in some of the Russian regions. The election of a left-wing government in 1962 saw the Baltic states and the Ukraine granted autonomy whilst remaining part of the Empire. The Emperor was said to have actively encouraged the government to develop a more federal system in order to avoid the empire breaking-up. Though in the 1980s the baltic states did break from Russia completely becoming independent republics. Paul's golden jubilee was celebrated in 1999 and he was succeeded by his son Alexander the present Emperor. The current heir to the throne married the Swedish actress Anna Ahlberg - the couple daughter Catherine became the first Russian Grand Duchess to be in line of succession from birth - after the change to gender blind succession being introduced in 2011.
A family tree of the New Gesdenian monarchy for the ongoing RP (succession is Salic, and I haven't gotten around to including female lines or filling out the offshoot cadet branches yet)

Prince August I of New Gesden (b. 1747: d. 1806) m. Maria Kreszentia of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (b. 1766: d. 1835) (a)
1a) Princess Fredericka Louisa (b. 1786: d. 1786)
2a) Prince Wilhelm I Friedrich (b. 1788: d. 1810)
3a) Prince August Johann Baptist (b. 1789: d. 1791)
4a) Prince August II Franz Maria (b. 1790: d. 1867) m. Marie of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfurst (b. 1791: d. 1863)
1a) Prince Ulrich I (b. 1815: d. 1875) m. Therese of Saxe-Altenburg (b. 1823: d. 1915) (a)
1a) Prince Bernhard I (b. 1841: d. 1900) m. Marie of Hanover (b. 1849: d. 1904) (a)
1a) Princess Theresa (b. 1882: d. 1882)​
2a) Princess Marie (b. 1817: d. 1904)
3a) Prince August Franz Maria, Earl of Elwern (b. 1818: d. 1876) m. Ana Valentina Fernandez de Velasco (b. 1833: d. 1852) (a) Brigitte Soult de Dalmatie (b. 1842: d. 1923) (b)
1b) Princess Karoline (b. 1864: d. 1935)
2b) Prince Ludwig I (b. 1866: d. 1934) m. Alexandra of Anhalt (b. 1868: d. 1958) (a)
1a) Princess Sophia Matilda (b. 1888: d. 1974)
2a) Princess Karoline Antoinette (b. 1889: d. 1929)
3a) Prince August III Franz Maria (b. 1891: d. 1961) m. Charlotte of Waldeck and Pyrmont (b. 1900: d. 1976) (a)
1a) -> Modern Royal Family of New Gesden (House of Walcourt)​
4a) Princess Louise (b. 1827: d. 1887)
5a) Princess Emilie (b. 1834: d. 1883)​
5a) Prince Friedrich, Earl of Wolden (b. 1791: d. 1828) m. Adelheid of Isenburg and Budingen (b. 1805: d. 1873)
1a) -> Cadet Branch of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg-Wolden​
6a) Princess Dorothea (b. 1793: d. 1847)
7a) Prince Karl, Earl of Anders (b. 1795: d. 1844) m. Frances Pinckney Middleton (b. 1813: d. 1865) (a)
1a) -> Cadet Branch of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg-Anders​
8a) Prince Meinrad (b. 1796: d. 1796)​
A bit of a bump, but this really is the appropriate thread and I don't think there's a need to create a new one:

Reconstruction of an old list of mine - Lionel of Antwerp has a posthumous son by Violante Visconti. The boy is named Galeazzo after his grandfather. Galahad of Alba, 2nd Duke of Clarence, is competent, charismatic, and the clear heir of Richard II (superior claim to Henry Bolingbroke), and deposes Richard II instead ITTL. 3 years into his reign, King Galahad hears news that his uncle Gian Galeazzo Visconti who (as OTL) has been waging a campaign to conquer most of Northern Italy for Milan, has died, sparking a succession crisis. King Galahad leads an English expedition and takes control of Milan - even if his claim isn't quite the best, all of England is his power base. Galahad tries to pacify English nobles at home while solidifiying Gian Galeazzo's gains in Milan - by the end of his 39 year reign he has begun to weld the two domains together into one prospering whole and is - near universally - called Galahad the Great. The Prince of Wales predeceases him (and has one daughter), so it falls to Arthur, Duke of Gloucester to inherit both realms and with a crushing victory over French forces (and the final capture of Genoa) to cement himself in history - Englishmen call him Arthur the Lombard while Italians acclaim him as Arthur the Conqueror.

His own (legitimate) son Edward IV is a bit crap. Sometimes called Eddie the Unready, a more accurate description would be "Edward the Died-at-an-Inconvenient-Time" - several marriage deals had fallen through and his own plans for a two-capital system had gone nowhere by the time his horse threw him face first into a tree.

But his own mediocrity is still a lot better than (hoo boy) Edward, Duke of Ireland - a shy third son, as King Edward V he's stiff, paranoid, and generally unpleasant to be around. A few [a lot] of dead nobles later, and one of his brother's bastard sons, the Earl of Rokesley (once just called Arthur of Donnington) is uneasily aware that his head is this close to getting chopped off. Rokesley does a runner, stopping along the way to send a few letters saying "how now, cuz" to the King's (much) younger half-brother John, the Duke of Pavia.

John is holding down the fort in Milan, likes Edward, and is acutely aware that he's fucking everything up. Edward asks him in very mild terms to come to London to answer a few charges, John goes "Sure", and then brings a few condottieri with him. Arthur does his bit too, and what do you know turns out his parents were secretly married and everything. Arthur and John then go on to reign in tandem for another three decades (John prefers Italian climes). The two get along surprisingly well, although Arthur having no kids is probably part of that.

John beats the Pope a few times, outlives Arthur, and when he dies - the Kingdom of England and Milan is a very successful nation indeed. And that's the problem. Because Lancelot of Ireland thinks it's a bit unfair, isn't it, to give all of that wealth, all of that power, to John's feckless grandson? Louis of Lorraine agrees.

So do York and Lancaster.

Kings of England (Pavian):

1377-1399: Richard II
1399-1438: Galahad (the Great)
1438-1450: Arthur II
1450-1457: Arthur III
1457-1486: Arthur III & John II
1486-1493: John II

Kings of England (Irish):

1377-1399: Richard II
1399-1438: Galahad (the Great)
1438-1450: Arthur II
1450-1453: Edward IV
1453-1459: Edward V
1459-: Lancelot I

Dukes of Milan:

1395-1402: Gian Galeazzo Visconti
1402-1438: Galeazzo III Plantaginestra
1448-1450: Arturo I Plantaginestra
1450-1453: Edoardo I Plantaginestra
1453-1457: Edoardo II Plantaginestra
1457-1486: Arturo III Roccialegna & Gian I Plantaginestra
1486-1493: Gian I Plantaginestra

Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence (b. 1338: d. 1368) m. [Elizabeth de Burgh (b. 1332: d. 1363) (a)] Violante Visconti (b. 1354: d. 1386) (b)
2b) King Galahad I of England and Milan (b. 1369: d. 1438) m. Margaret de Loveyne (b. 1372: d. 1408) (a) Mary of Burgundy (b. 1393: d. 1466) (b)
1a) Galahad, Prince of Wales (b. 1395: d. 1429) m. Marie of Harcourt (b. 1398: d. 1476) (a)
1a) Mary of England (b. 1428: d. 1496)​
2a) Nicholas of Clarence (b. 1396: d. 1396)
3a) King Arthur II of England and Milan (b. 1401: d. 1450) m. Eleanor of Aragon (b. 1402: d. 1445) (a)
0x) King Arthur III of England and Milan (b. 1419: d. 1486)
1a) Galahad of Gloucester (b. 1427: d. 1431)
2a) Margaret of Gloucester (b. 1428: d. 1437)
3a) King Edward IV of England (b. 1430: d. 1453)
4a) Joan of Gloucester (b. 1431: d. 1431)
5a) Eleanor of Gloucester (b. 1433: d. 1466)
6a) Prince Arthur of Gloucester (b. 1434: d. 1434)
7a) Maud of Gloucester (b. 1436: d. 1468)​
4b) Edith of England and Milan (b. 1416: d. 1469)
5b) King Edward V of England and Milan (b. 1416: d. 1459) m. Eleanor Bourchier (b. 1417: d. 1474) (a)
1a) Galahad, 2nd Duke of Ireland (b. 1439: d. 1458)
2a) Yolanda of Ireland (b. 1441: d. 1483)
3a) Lancelot, 3rd Duke of Ireland (b. 1453: d. 1522)​
6b) Margaret of England and Milan (b. 1419: d. 1452) m. Louis of Luxembourg (b. 1418: d. 1475) (a)
1a) John of Luxembourg (b. 1442: d. 1506)
2a) Eleanor of Luxembourg (b. 1443: d. 1528)​
7b) King John II of England and Milan (b. 1421: d. 1493) m. Anne Tuchet (b. 1424: d. 1503) (a)
1a) Lionel, Prince of Italy (b. 1444: d. 1479)
2a) Margaret of Pavia (b. 1450: d. 1495)
3a) Anne of Pavia (b. 1451: d. 1455)​
8b) Mary of England and Milan (b. 1426: d. 1472) m. John II, Duke of Lorraine (b. 1424: d. 1470) (a)
1a) Marie of Lorraine (b. 1449: d. 1484)
2a) Isabelle of Lorraine (b. 1450: d. 1501)
3a) Yolande of Lorraine (b. 1452: d. 1495)
4a) Gauvain I of Lorraine (b. 1453: d. 1527)
5a) René of Lorraine (b. 1456: d. 1488)
6a) Louis of Lorraine (b. 1458: d. 1517)​
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John III Vasa of Sweden has two surviving sons with Catherine Jagiellon-Sigismund and John, older is male version of OTL Anna Vasa, as teenager converts to Lutheranism, but still keeps good relations with his younger Catholic brother, who, after death of his uncle by marriage, Stephen Bathory, is elected to the Polish throne, thus there is peacefull split of House of Vasa into Polish and Swedish line, Charles of Södermanland, brother of John III, is executed for treason after failed rebellion against his nephew, Sigismund I of Sweden. PLC and Sweden remained close allies, Poland fought against Habsburgs during 30 Years War, regaining Silesia.

John III Vasa (1537-1592), King of Sweden from 1568, married:
1) 1562: Catherine Jagiellon (1526-1583)
*Sigismund I (1564-1638), King of Sweden from 1592, married: 1592, Christina of Holstein Gottorp (1573-1625)
*John II (1566-1630) King of Poland from 1587, married: 1) 1592, Anna of Austria (1573-1595) 2) 1597, Anna of Holstein Gottorp (1575-1622)
*Isabella (1568-1570)
2) 1584, Gunilla Bielke (1568-1592), children:
*Gustav, Duke of Finland (1589-1620)

Descendants of Sigismund I of Sweden:

Sigismund I (1564-1637), m. 1592, Christina of Holstein Gottorp
*John (1593-1601)
*Sigismund II (1595-1651) King of Sweden from 1637, m. 1618 Elisabeth of France
*Christina (1596-1609)
*Gustav (born and died 1599)
*Stillborn daughter 1604

Descendants of John II of Poland:

John II (1566-1630), m.
1) 1592, Anna of Austria
*John Sigismund (1594-1611) Tsar of Russia (as Ivan V) from 1610, poisoned by boyars.
2) 1597, Anna of Holstein Gottorp
*Catherine (1598-1602)
*Anna (1600-1645), m.1618, Louis XIII of France
*John III Vladislaus (1603-1658), King of Poland, m. 1624, Christine of France
*John Casimir (1602-1608)
*John Gustav (1604-1640), cardinal

ITTL Henry IV of France is not assassinated, he despised Habsburgs, so there are no Bourbon-Habsburg matches during his lifetime, he instead married his children into House of Vasa to create great anti-Habsburg alliance.
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Catherine of Braganza, queen consort of Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, dies during her third miscarriage due to heavy bleeding, and Charles II marries again.

Charles II (29/5/1630-6/2/1685) m. 1662, 1} Catherine of Braganza (25/11/1638–25/2/1668) m.1670, 2} Princess Elisabeth Charlotte of Palatinate [1] (27/5/1652-8/12/1722)
  1. Prince Charles of Wales (2/7/1673–16/3/1676) [Died young]
  2. King Henry IX of England & VII of Palatinate [2] (2/8/1674–2/12/1723) m. 1695, Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst (13/10/1679–11/10/1740)
    1. Princess Elizabeth (30 May 1697–29 November 1703) [Died young]
    2. Princess Charlotte (18/7/1698–13/11/1768) m. 1726 William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland (1/3/1709–1/5/1762)
      1. Lady Elizabeth Bentinck (Welbeck Abbey, 27 June 1735 – 25 December 1825) m. Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath (1734-1796)
        • Thynne linage
      2. Lady Henrietta Bentinck (8 February 1737–4 June 1827) m. George Grey, 5th Earl of Stamford (1737-1819)
        • Grey linage
      3. Henry William Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland [A] (14/4/1738-30/10/1809) m. Lady Sarah Lennox (14/2/1745–19/8/1826 )
        1. William Henry Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland (10/8/1782–29/8/1853) m. Lady Cecilia Olivia Geraldine FitzGerald (3/3/1786–27/7/1863)
        2. Lady Charlotte (11/7/1783–18/3/1863)
        3. Lord Henry of Portland (30 June 1784 – 8 September 1855)
        4. Lord Charles (17 December 1785 – 12 February 1860)
        5. Lord Edward (1787-13 January 1868)
        6. Lord (5 March 1789;–13 October 1853)
        7. Lady Elizabeth (1790–1810)
        8. Lady Sarah (1791–1808)
      4. Lady Margaret Bentinck (26 July 1739 – 28 April 1756) m.
      5. Lady Frances Bentinck (9 April 1741 – March 1743)
      6. William Charles Bentinck, Earl of Plymouth (3 March 1744 – 8 October 1819), m.
    3. Charles III of England & I of Palatinate(14 April 1699– 10 March 1772) m. 1719, Charlotte, Countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg (2 May 1700–1 July 1726)
      1. Henry X of England, VIII of Palatine & II of Hanau Lichtenburg (15 December 1719–6 April 1790)
      2. Charles James, Duke of Wight (11 July 1722 – 21 June 1782)
      3. Charlotte Elizabeth, Princess Royal (11 July 1723 – 8 April 1783)
    4. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (12 March 1701-31 May 1771) m. 1726 Lady Elizabeth Sackville (1711 – 19 June 1729)
      1. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (18 June 1729-6 August 1797)
    5. James (20 September 1702-21 November 1704) [Died young]
    6. William (17 February 1704-8 May 1767) [Died young]
    7. James (27 February 1705-5 March 1705) [Died young]
    8. James, Duke of Hereford (28 May 1706-19 July 1748) m. 1727 to Lady Diana Spencer; 31 July 1710 – 27 September 1735)
    9. William, Duke of Lancaster (28 December 1707-13 August 1763) m. 1727 to .
    10. Robert (b. Gotha, 5 April 1709 – d. Gotha, 10 October 1711) [Died young]
    11. John, Duke of Greenwich (11 May 1711–3 September 1777) m. 1730 to Mary Grey, (daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Kent (1671–5 June 1740)
      1. Elizabeth (30 June 1732-1827)
      2. John, Duke of Greenwich and Kent (8 April 1735-1821)
    12. Elizabeth (23 August 1712-12 November 1712) [Died young]
    13. Robert (b. Gotha, 17 April 1714-10 July 1715) [Died young]
    14. Elizabeth (b. Gotha, 17 July 1715-12 May 1775), m. 1734
    15. Charlotte (15 August 1718–9 November 1718) [Died young]
    16. Charlotte (30 November 1719–8 February 1772), m. 1736
      1. 9 children
    17. Robert, Duke of Northumberland and Doncaster (18 May 1721–29 April 1799)
  3. Elizabeth, Princess Royal (13 September 1676–23 December 1744) m. 1694 George, Elector of Hanover (28 May 1660-11 June 1727) [4]
    1. Ernest Augusts of Hanover (1697- ) m. 1719 [C] Maria Henrietta (22 October 1701 – 11 December 1756)
    2. Elizabeth Charlotte (9 November 1701-28 November 1788) m. 1719 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (39 September 1697-26 October 1764)
  4. Empress Henrietta Maria (30 September 1678- ) m. 1696 Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (26 July 1678 – 17 April 1711)
    1. Maria Josepha Queen of Poland (8 December 1696-17 November 1755) m. Augustus III of Poland (17 October 1696-5 October 1763)
      1. Augustus (18 November 1720–22 January 1721) [Died young]
      2. Joseph (24 October 1721–14 March 1728) [Died young]
      3. Augustus IV of Poland and Saxony (5 September 1722–17 December 1763)
      4. Maria (24 November 1724-27 September 1760); m. 1738 Charles VII of Naples and III of Spain
      5. Henrietta (13 September 1727-1 February 1734) [Died young]
      6. Maria Anna (29 August 1728–17 February 1797) m. 1744 Peter III of Russia (21 February 1728-
      7. Joseph (25 August 1730–21 June 1806) Governor of the Austrian Netherlands (1781–1806) m. Princess Carolina of Orange-Nassau (28 February 1743 – 6 May 1787)
      8. Josepha (4 November 1731–13 March 1767); m. 1747 Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria
      9. Karl (13 July 1733–16 June 1796)
      10. Christina (12 February 1735-9 November 1782) m. Louis, Dauphin of France (1729–1765)
      11. Elisabeth (born Warsaw, 9 February 1736–24 December 1818) m. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (18 June 1729-6 August 1797)
      12. Kasimir, Duke of Teschen (11 July 1738–10 February 1822)
      13. Xavier (28 September 1739–27 July 1812)
      14. Maria Dorothea (10 November 1740–8 April 1826)
    2. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (39 September 1697-26 October 1764) m. 1719 Elizabeth Charlotte of Hanover (9 November 1701-28 November 1788)
    3. Archduke Joseph (29 October 1700 – 4 August 1701) [Died young]
    4. Maria Henrietta (22 October 1701 – 11 December 1756) m. 1719 Ernest Augusts of Hanover (1697-

[1] Elizabeth was a cousin of Charles, via her paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, the second child and eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scotland, England
[2] Named after Charles' younger brother, Henry, Duke of Gloucester, who died in 1660.
[3] A lot of titles were reclaimed from Charles II's illigetimet children on their death, with Henry IX seeing them being offered in the first place as an insult.
[4] As his second wife, following the divorce of Sophia Dorothea of Celle in 1694.

[A] Does not become Prime Minister like OTL 3rd Duke, due to his links to the royal family
Being the youngest son of a monarch, with more heirs and spares then you can count on one hand, led Robert to lead a military life, becoming a renowned general.
[C] The joint royal wedding of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor to his cousin Elizabeth Charlotte of Hanover, while her brother, Ernest Augusts of Hanover married Leopold's sister Maria Henrietta, equalizing an alliance between the Hanover and Austrian Empire, after their older, half sister, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover married to Frederick William I of Prussia, and their older half brother, George II Elector of Hanover married to Caroline of Ansbach, securing a line.
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One of my earliest attempts at a TL involved Victoria of Great Britain being born male, I quickly killed it when all one VERY ANNOYING killjoy would do was complain that I named the male Victoria 'Victor' (it made sense in the TL to me, but apparently it wasn't good enough for this one guy) but I found some of my old notes on where I wanted to take the TL, so here's the family tree of the House of Hannover under the reign of King Victor I of Great Britain and Ireland.

The House of Hannover (Victor of Great Britain and Ireland)
King: Victor of Great Britain and Ireland and Hannover (Victor Alexander George), (b. 24 May 1819 - d. 19 December 1892) Reign (Great Britain and Ireland): 1837-1892, Reign (Hannover): 1837-1865
Queen: Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 11 September 1822 – d. 30 October 1892)

Issue of Victor of Great Britain and Ireland and Hannover and his wife Queen Olga Nikolaevna of Russia
  • George, Prince of Wales (b. 7 May 1841 - d. 4 June 1851)
  • Alexander, Prince of Wales (b. 7 May 1841) (future King Alexander IV of Great Britain and Ireland)
  • Charlotte, Princess Royal (b. 18 February 1843)
  • Prince Edward Victor (b. 8 March 1843 - d. 13 March 1843)
  • miscarriage (August 1844)
  • Princess Nichole (b. 23 October 1846 )
  • Princess Victoria (b. 6 May 1848 - d. 9 September 1881)
  • Leopold, Duke of Clarence (b. 13 June 1852)
  • Princess Louise (b. 12 June 1857)

Issue of Victor of Great and Lady Flora Hastings (illegitimate)
  • Victor Francis, Duke of Windsor (b. 8 July 1837)

Author's Comments: Basically the ideas I had for the TL involved the future Victor I of Great Britain, Ireland and Hannover getting his name during his baptismal ceremony due to interference from the Regent (future George IV) and causing a further rift between him and Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, BUT Victor's father would manage to father a daughter on his wife before dying a year later than in RL of pneumonia, the girl (Princess Victoria Georgina) would marry into the ruling house of Prussia and as part of solving the 'Hannover Question' in regards to German unification, instead of fighting over a scrap of territory that didn't really matter in the grand scheme of things (especially since Britain in this TL was still trying to reform it's military) King Victor would legally pass the crown to his sister and Hannover would eventually be united into Prussia via a personal union, under German succession laws this is illegal... BUT the Great Powers didn't challenge it since the year before Hannover unites with Prussia, they had fought a successful war against Denmark over the Schleswig-Holstein Question. I had ideas that the Prussians couldn't QUITE pull off uniting the German peoples and 'Germany' remained divided between the Prussian protestant states (mostly in the north) and the Austro-Hungarian Empire and it's Catholic states and allies of convenience (mostly in the south).

For the Hohenzollerns however the blood of Victoria Georgina would cause the real problems since a mutation from her mother carried over, introducing Hemophilia into the bloodline of the Prussian Monarchy, and spread to several other royal houses through her daughters.

Instead of Sir John Conroy playing a role in Victor's life, he winds up getting a military posting in the emerging colonial empire of Great Britain, I thought of having him wind up in India and becoming a minor hero, but it wasn't set in stone.

I did decide that since RL Victoria was quite the coquette (compared to RL image of 'We Are NOT Amused') that Victor was going to sleep with his mother's lady-in-waiting Flora Hastings and sire a bastard son on her, just in time to become King and his first 'scandal' would be acknowledging the bastard by giving him a title.

He would have rumors of other dalliances, and unconfirmed rumors of other bastards, but historically there would be little evidence of it.

Instead he marries Olga Nikolaevina, a Grand Duchess of Russia who in RL had no children due to marrying a homosexual King of Wurttemburg, her sister had MANY children so some of the fertility rubbed off on her.

Her first children with Victor were a set of twin boys, George, Prince of Wales and Alexander, Duke of York, however George would have died at age 10 (I hadn't settled on disease or a tragic accident) making Alexander the new heir and future Alexander IV of Great Britain and Ireland; Fun fact, in this TL there would have been a minor controversy over William IV's numeral, would he be the IV or the I since 'Great Britain and Ireland' was a 'new crown', he'd decree that both lists of monarchs for England and Scotland were equally valid but that the highest numeral should be used, a minor quibble that would wind up giving Alexander a more impressive designation thanks to Scotland.

His other children would be three Princesses, a son who died a few days after birth, a miscarriage, and then the unexpected Leopold, Duke of Clarence and Princess Louise.

I had the idea in this TL that the Bonaparte Empire of Napoleon III would survive and that Princess Louise would marry future Napoleon IV as part of a 'realignment' of Britain's alliances in Europe.

In any case since men don't live as long as women I decided to shave a decade off of Victor's lifespan, he dies a couple months after his wife, Queen Olga Nikolaevina, as for their marriage my idea is that it would wind up being very loving and happy, but there would be initial bumps in the road.

At Victor's death all of his living children would have had children of their own (I hadn't worked out who they would all marry besides Princess Louise), and one of the grandchildren of Victor's bastard would be hinted as having a major role in politics as a future Prime Minister.

Princess Victoria (daughter of King Victor) would have died in her early thirties from a pregnancy complication, devastating the family due to it's completely unexpected nature (she would have already had two children with no problems).

EDIT: I forgot to mention the butterflies for the monarchs before Victor.

George IV would have an even more miserable reign than in RL due to Caroline of Brunswick dying a very suspicious death just as George IV's attempts at divorcing her were getting started, causing many to believe that he poisoned his wife (in truth she died after consuming tainted Laudanum, and taking a larger dose than usual), creating a vicious cycle of overeating to comfort himself and being attacked for being a fat wife-killing would-be tyrant (of which only the accusation of being fat is true) and die earlier than in RL, the most miserable of Kings.

Then RL's Frederick, Duke of York and Albany would be King Frederick I very briefly before dying and passing the crown to William IV, whom I already mentioned fiddled with the numerals and unexpectedly bumped the future King Alexander from a I to a IV.

In this TL his daughter Elizabeth lived a bit longer, so Victor was seen as a good backup heir, and possible husband for Elizabeth before she died at a young age of some illness (I hadn't settled on one, I initially thought smallpox but I was toying with tuberculosis).
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In a scenario where Charlotte Hanover, daughter of George IV, is born as a male.

George IV [1] (12 August 1762–16 January 1823) m. Caroline of Brunswick (17 May 1768–7 August 1821)
  1. George V [2] (7 January 1796–1868) m. 21 February 1815, Anna Pavlovna of Russia (18 January 1795-1 March 1865) [3]
    1. George VI [4] ( 19 February 1817–23 November 1890) m. 25 August 1837 Maria Nikolaievna of Russia (18 August 1819 – 21 February 1876) [5]
      1. Mary (9 April 1840-16 February 1914)
      2. George VII (16 October 1841-6 January 1891) m. Alexandra of Denmark (1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925)
        1. King George VIII (8 January 1864-14 January 1891)
        2. William IV (3 June 1865-20 January 1936)
        3. Alexandra, Princess Royal (20 February 1867-4 January 1931)
        4. Princess Caroline (6 July 1868-3 December 1935)
        5. Princess Mary (26 November 1869-20 November 1938)
        6. Prince Frederick (6 April 1871-17 April 1871)
      3. Prince William (4 August 1843-12 August 1923)
      4. Elizabeth (1 April 1845-4 May 1925) m. Alexander III (10 March 1845–1 November 1894)
        1. Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (26 July 1865-29 November 1939)
        2. Emperor George I of Russia (10 July 1867-6 November 1929)
      5. Princess Anne William (8 February 1847-31 August 1901) m. George I of Greece (24 December 1845–18 March 1913)
      6. Prince Nicholas (20 December 1849-24 October 1877
      7. Prince Edward, Duke of (29 February 1852-16 May 1912)
      8. Prince Frederick (9 May 1857-18 November 1859) [died young]
      9. Princess Frederica (11 February 1861-12 February 1908)
    2. Prince Paul, Duke of Gloucester and Monmouth (2 August 1818-29 December 1899)
    3. Prince William, Duke of (13 June 1820 – 14 January 1879)
    4. Prince Frederick (21 May 1822–22 October 1822)
    5. Princess Elizabeth (8 April 1824–23 March 1897) m. 1842 Prince George, Duke of Cumberland (27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878)
    6. Princess Charlotte (18 January 1826-28 February, 1910)
    7. Prince Frederick (11 May 1828-30 May 1914)
[1] George's heavy drinking and indulgent lifestyle had taken their toll on his health by the 1820's. While still Prince of Wales, he had become obese through his huge banquets and copious consumption of alcohol, making him the target of ridicule on the rare occasions that he appeared in public; by 1797 his weight had reached 17 stone 7 pounds. By 1822, he had rose to 25 stone, causing him to suffer from gout, arteriosclerosis, peripheral edema and porphyria. In his last years, he spent whole days in bed and suffered spasms of breathlessness that would leave him half-asphyxiated, he was found dead in his bed in the morning, when the maid dropped the breakfast tray, seeing his bloated purple face at the age of 61.
[2] Prince George of Wales, wanted to give his son a different name to his own father, due to the split between the two royals, however when he saw his young sons face, he was definitely a "George." In his early life, he learnt of the revolution in span and saw the news regarding the Napoleonic war. When news, came that there was to be a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna on November 1814, 19 year old, Prince George of Wales, asked if he could travel with Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, to see the the destruction left by the Napoleonic War, assist with politics and find a bride.
Many politicians and monarchs came forward to nominate their ideal person, these include, but not limited to, Infanta Maria Francisca of Portugal, Archduchess Maria Klementina of Austria and Princess Caroline of Denmark
He found his bride in the form of Anna Pavlovna of Russia, the marriage had been suggested by her brother the Tsar Alexander I of Russia, during the Congress of Vienna, as a symbol of the alliance created. As it had been decided that no member of the Romanov family should be forced to marry against their will, George was invited as an honour guest to Russia (the first British monarch or heir to set foot on Russian soil) before the wedding so that Anna could get to know him and consent to marry him, which she did. At the time of their marriage, it was agreed that Prince George’s children should be raised under the Church of England, while Anna herself, would remain Russian Orthodox.
His reign began at the age of 27,
He died on aged 72, reigning for 45 years and succeeded by his son, George VI.
[3] Anna is the first consort of English and British monarch, to be born the furthest. She was the eighth child and sixth daughter of Paul I of Russia and Empress Maria Feodorovna, being raised by her mother at the summer residence of the Romanovs, Tsarskoye Selo and spent her childhood there with her two younger brothers, Nicholas (future Tsar) and Michael, receiving a broad education, including foreign languages and mathematics, showing great interest in handicrafts and painting.
Anna Pavlovna was shocked over the differences between Russia and her new home country, especially when it came to the class system and the separation between the classes, which was much less strict in Britain, where the distance between royalty and the public was not as great as in Russia, but was able to accustom herself in the knowledge that the walls protected her and her family, she was enjoyed being treated as an equal by George, being allowed time to form charities, such as founding schools for poor women and girls where they were educated in sewing and assisting, Florence Nightingale, in the establishment of two nursing school, one at St Thomas' Hospital in London and the other at Manchester Royal Infirmary.
The marriage had been a happy one, with Anna continuing to profess undiminished love for George and their partnership in life secured a strong family with a mix of liberal and traditional views.

[5] There had been talks about a proposal to Sophie of Württemberg (17 June 1818 – 3 June 1877) cousin on both sides of his parents, A great grand daughter of Princess Augusta of Great Britain (sister to George III) and daughter of Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia (sister of Anna) however Anna was totally against the marriage to a daughter of the sister she loathed and looked at her niece with disdain.
The prince had also fallen in love with Queen Maria II of Portugal and the Algarves, but had been forced to ignore his feelings as the pairs kingdoms and religion would not work in his favour.
The result was in the form of, Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna of Russia (18 August 1819 – 21 February 1876), another cousin on both sides, through her father Nicholas I of Russia (brother of Anna) and mother, Charlotte of Prussia (five generation grandchild of George I) during a visit of with his mother to her home nation in 1836, the young prince again fell in love.
Albert Hohenzollern, first Duke of Prussia, dies suddenly in 1526 leaving no children. According to treaty made by Albert with King Sigismund I of Poland in 1525 title of Duke of Prussia should be inherited by Albert's brothers and their descendants in the case of Albert's childless death. So Albert's oldest brother Casimir Hohenzollern Margrave of Kulmbach goes to Prussia to claim the Duchy. As result he doesn't die from dysentery in 1527 fighting for Hungarian throne for Ferdinand Habsburg, because instead to Hungary he goes to Prussia. Casimir, unlike his brothers, is Catholic, which creates interesting situation-Albert converted to Lutheranism just one year earlier, so Ducal Prussia ITTL would not be as Protestant as IOTL-Catholic Casimir would not impose Lutheranism on his subjects.

Casimir Hohenzollern (1481-1547) Margrave of Kulmbach 1515-1547, Duke of Prussia 1526-1547. m. 1518 Susanna of Bavaria. Children:

. .....1) Maria (1519-1567) m. 1537 Elector Palatine Frederick III

. .....2) Catherine (1520-1521)

. .....3) Albert II (1522-1559), Duke of Prussia 1547-1559, m. 1547 Sophia of Poland. Children:

. ...........1) Sigismund (1549-1553)

. ...........2) Susanna (1551-1593) m. 1575 Elector of Brandenburg John George

. .......... 3) Casimir V (1553-1615), Duke of Prussia (as Casimir II) 1559-1615, King of Poland 1573-1615. m. 1575 Magdalena of Jülich-Cleves Berg. Children:

. .................1) Sophia (1577-1641) m. 1600 Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II

. .................2) Casimir (born and died 1579)

.. .......... .....3) Casimir VI (1580-1635). m. a) 1600 Eleanor of Austria, b) 1608 Maria Magdalena of Austria. Children:

........................1a) Sophia Magdalena (1601-1602)

....................... 2a) Casimir VII (1604-1640) Duke of Prussia, King of Poland 1635-1640. m. 1628 Maria Anna of Austria. Children:

................. ... .........1) Maria Magdalena (1631-1633)

.............................. 2) Anna Maria (1634-1686)

........................... .. 3) Magdalena Sophia (born and died 1638)

....................... 3a) Sophia Eleanor (born and died 1606)

........................4b) Sigismund Ferdinand (1609-1614)

........................5b) Charles I Leopold (1612-1674) Duke of Prussia, King of Poland 1640-1674. m. a) 1643 Maria Renata of Bavaria b) 1669 Theresa Maria of Austria. Children:

..............................1a) Charles Albert (1645-1647)

..............................2a) Casimir VIII (1647-1701) Duke of Prussia, King of Poland 1674-1701

..............................3a) Carolina Maria (1650-1686)

..............................4a) Magdalena Sybilla (born and died 1655)

..............................5b) Charles II Ferdinand (1671-1730) Duke of Prussia, King of Poland 1701-1730

........................6b) John Albert (1614-1658), Cardinal

....................... 7b) Vladislaus (1617-1635)

..................4) Albert (1584-1585)

..................5) Magdalena (1587-1632) m. 1606 Margrave of Ansbach and Kulmbach Casimir William

4) Kunigunde (1524-1558) m. 1559 Ernest of Bavaria

5) Frederick (born and died 1525)

6) Casimir II (1529-1596) Margrave of Kulmbach 1547-1596, m. a) 1560 Barbara of Austria, b) 1576 Sybille of Jülich-Cleves Berg. Children:

......1a) Casimir (1565-1574)

......2b) Casimir William I (1578-1636) Margrave of Kulmbach 1596-1636, Margrave of Ansbach 1603-1636, m. 1606 Magdalena of Poland. Children:

............1) Magdalena Sybille (1607-1608)

............2) Casimir William II (1609-1659) Margrave of Kulmbach

............3) Frederick (born and died 1612)

............4) Albert (1614-1673) Margrave of Ansbach 1636-1673)

......3b) Maria Barbara (1582-1585)

......4b) Sybille (1588-1637) m. 1612. Albert VI of Bavaria.
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Lots of fun butterflies there....
Yes, most significant change is the fact, that Franconian Hohenzollerna ITTL besides elective throne of PLC have also something, which OTL monarchs of PLC lacked since Sigismund III lost Sweden-hereditary duchy under their rule (Ducal Prussia). IOTL sons of PLC kings were legally equall to all other noblemen, king had no right to give them lands or officially made one son his heir, Duchy of Prussia solves that problem (over time Duke of Prussia could become title similar to Prince of Wales in UK). OTL kings tried to get hereditary duchy in neighbourhood of PLC for their sons (Sobieski wanted Moldavia, Augustus II-Livonia) for their sons to secure their election in the future, with poor results, ITTL Hohenzollern Kings of Poland have it from the very start of their rule


Coelwulf I of Merica (King of Mercia, East Anglia and Kent from 821 to 823) in exile with his Welsh Wife Aeron of Annwen
1. Aelfhere the Exile, rebel against King Beorhtwulf.
2. Ælfflæd
Aelfhere the Exile m. _____________
1. ____________, (pretender) Earl of Merica.
Magnus of Livonia, son of King Christian III of Denmark is more capable and less greedy, managed to convince Sigismund Augustus to let him marry Anna Jagiellon. They married during Christmas 1562 and in 1563 40 years old Anna gave birth to their only child, Sigismund. As brother-in-law of Sigismund Augustus, Magnus easily won 1573 election and started Polish branch of House of Oldenburg.

Magnus I (1540-1583), King of Poland 1573-1583, m. 1562 Anna of Poland (1523-1596). Children:

*Sigismund III (1563-1633), King of Poland 1583-1633, m. 1585 Sybille of Jülich-Cleves (1557-1628). Children:

1) Sigismund IV Magnus (1586-1639), King of Poland 1633-1639, m. 1) 1608 Constance of Austria (1588-1632), 2) 1635 Cecilia Renata of Austria (1611-1655)

2) Anna Catherine (1588-1591)

3) Magdalene Sybille (1591-1644), m. 1614 Christian IV of Denmark.