The Scramble for Africa
From “A History of Imperialism” by Heinrich Straußmann

One of the most common misconceptions about European imperialism in Africa is that it accomplished anything. Africa was conquered for national pride, and was maintained through brutal repression. African colonies were incredibly difficult to control, serving as little more than a waste of money that offered native rebellions and not much else.

The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 decided which European countries got which parts of Africa. In the end it was decided that Africa would be divided between the following empires;

Britain: The British were given control over the southern part of Africa, where they would commit numerous atrocities against the locals. They were also given Egypt, Somalia, Nigeria, the Gold Coast, northern Azania[1], Gambia and East Africa.

Belgium: Belgium was given control over the Congo. They would commit atrocities against the native Congolese.

France: The French were given control over a vast swath of west Africa knowns as France Africaine(African France).

Germany: The Germans were given Namibia, Kamerun, the southern part of Azania, and Madagascar.

Italy: The Italians were given Libya and Eritrea.

Russia: The Russians were given Djibouti[2]

Portugal: The Portuguese were given Angola and Mozambique

By the end of the conference, Ethiopia and Liberia were the only independent countries in Africa.

From “The Bloody Union Jack: The British Empire’s Legacy of Murder” by Nikolai Vasiliyev

The Boer Genocide is often seen as a precursor to the atrocities that would happen in Sorbia, the Confederacy, and India during the Twentieth Century. Triggered by the discovery of diamond and gold deposits in the Boer republics; the Orange Free State and the South African Republic. The British invaded and occupied the Boer republics, only to be met with resistance from the Boers, who engaged in guerilla warfare.

The British forces, led by Cecil Rhodes[3], came to the conclusion that the only way to defeat the Boers was to reduce their population to the point where they could not put up any resistance. The British would begin the process of rounding up Boer civilians and killing them. The Boers were interned in military camps, which British propaganda referred to as “refugee camps” but came to be known as “death camps”, where they would then be assigned a number and shot one by one.


Before the war, the Boer population was around 967,941. By the end, it was down to less than a thousand. The revelation of the genocide shocked and appalled the British population. In the 1900 election, Conservative Prime Minister Marquess of Salisbury was defeated by Liberal Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. Cecil Rhodes was forced to retire as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony in 1901, and would die of heart failure a year later. The genocide officially ended with Campbell-Bannerman’s election. Despite this, the United Kingdom still refuses to recognize the genocide, and in the Cape it is actually celebrated and Rhodes is considered a national hero. Boerstad has continually pushed for Britain and the Cape to recognize the genocide, their efforts supported by the Russian Empire and its allies.

From “A History of Imperialism” by Heinrich Straußmann

The Italo-Ethiopian War was the attempt of Italy to conquer Ethiopia. The Ethiopians, supported by Russia, would defeat the Italians. The war would have tremendous effects in both Europe and Africa. In Africa, it signaled the first time that an African military had defeated a European one. However, Ethiopia would become a de facto Russian puppet until the country’s national realignment in 1964.

From “Asia in the Nineteenth Century” by James Franklin

The Hispano-Japanese War would signify the first time that a non-European power would decisively defeat a European one(not counting the Italo-Ethiopian War, which was widely seen as Russia bailing the Ethiopians out). In 1898, the Philippines declared independence from Spain. The Empire of Japan, a rising power in the region, took interest in the conflict. Japan invaded the Philippines, ostensibly to help the Filipinos. However, the Japanese soon revealed their true intentions, annexing the Philippines and replacing one foreign imperialist with another. The Filipinos would wage a guerilla campaign against Japan until they were defeated in 1902. Japan would soundly defeat the Spanish, who ceded the Philippines and Guam. Spain’s hopes vested in an intervention by the Russians, who feared the rise of Japan, however, the Russian Emperor Alexander II died just before the war started and Russia’s attentions turned inward. The war’s results would shocked Europe, as the predominant attitudes of the time suggested that Europeans were inherently genetically superior, and the defeat of a European nation by an Asian one forced many to question these preconceived ideas.

From “Tanzimat: The Ottoman Empire‘s Transition to Modernity” by Ismail Pasha

The Ottoman Empire’s reconciliation with Russia was made easier by Sultan Abdul Hamid’s own Russophilia[4] and the new Emperor Alexander III’s desire to avoid any more pointless wars. Russia would officially renounce its claim to “Tsargrad” and would begin to pursue a pro-Ottoman policy. Abdul Hamid would adopt a series of reforms inspired by those of Russian Emperor Alexander II, who turned Russia from a backwards autocracy stuck in the Middle Ages to the superpower that it is today. During this process, Russia would become an active trade partner of the Ottomans.

Abdul Hamid would model the Ottoman Empire’s industrialization off of Russia’s. Over the course of the 1890s, numerous factories would open in the Empire’s major cities. The Ottoman Empire’s industrialization would signal numerous societal changes, as would the Empire’s gradual democratization. Two factions would emerge, liberal, a pro-Russian, secular faction, and a conservative, anti-Russian, traditional Islamic faction. These factions would respectively form the Nationalist Party and the Traditionalist Party.

[1]”Azania“ is TTL’s name for the Swahili-speaking part of Africa, based on a medieval name for Eastern Africa

[2]Russia established a short-lived settlement in Djibouti called “Sagallo” in OTL, but they were kicked out by the French. ITTL, France’s Communard government is less interested in colonial affairs, and so the Russians are more successful.

[3]ITTL, Rhodes managed to avoid the fallout of the Jameson Raid and remain Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, to disastrous results

[4]Despite political tensions between Constantinople and Saint-Petersburg, Abdul Hamid was in fact very much a Russophile. He praised the Russian “civilization and authority”, and numerous Russian artists found work at his court. He even suggested for one of his sisters or daughters to marry Nicholas II, although for obvious reasons this never happened.
 
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The Birth of Consortism
From “Sergei Mironov: The Great Visionary” by Giuseppe Sellitto

In order to understand the great genius of Sergei Mironov, we must first understand the environment that created him. Russia in the 19th century was a nation at a crossroads. In 1834, Russia was backwards, autocratic state who’s economy depended on serfdom. In 1885, Russia was a modern, industrialized nation and an emerging superpower. As a result, Mironov saw firsthand the transformation from feudalism to liberalism. In 1858, Mironov moved from his sleepy Siberian hometown of Magadan to Moscow, Russia’s largest city, where he attended university. Mironov was isolated from his peers because of his peasant background and Siberian accent, and as a result spent most of his time reading books. It was through these books that he learned of the great philosophers of the Enlightenment. In particular, Mironov developed a keen interest in Hegel’s philosophy, of which his own would develope as a critique of.

Mironov would support the Communards during the French Civil War, but would become disappointed in the results of their victory as First Administrator Auguste Blanqui would turn France into a dictatorship in a period of French history known as the Commune, which lasted from 1871 to 1921. In response, Mironov would publish his first book, “On the Events in France” in 1871 in which he criticized Blanqui and the ruling Council of Administrators for betraying the ideals of the Commune’s revolution. A year later, Mironov would publish his second book, “Recollections on the Past Century”, in which he reflected on the events of the 19th century up until the point of the book’s publication. In 1875, Mironov would publish his most famous work, “Industriya[1]”, in which he detailed his theory of stages of civilization. Mironov suggested that human society had transitioned from the feudal stage of civilization to the liberal stage of civilization during the Enlightenment. The transition from feudalism to liberalism had resulted in the Industrial Revolution, which Mironov theorized would accelerate the progress of the liberal stage of civilization to the point where it would destroy itself and humanity would enter a third stage of civilization, socialism[2].

In 1882, Mironov would publish a sequel to “Industriya”, “The Consortist Manifesto”, in which he outlined his ideology of Consortism. In “The Consortist Manifesto”, Mironov outlined the distinction between Nation and State. According to Mironov, the “Nation” referred to the people of a country, while the “State” refered to its government. Mironov explained that under feudalism, the Nation was inferior to the State, which was the property of its ruler. Under liberalism, the Nation and State are merged, with the State using the Nation to justify itself. Mironov hypothesized that during the Socialist stage of civilization, the State would be abolished in favor of the Nation. According to Mironov, “a man carries his nation wherever he goes. Even if he changes his citizenship, he has only changed his state, not his nation. A man’s nation is unchangeable.”

From “The Consortist Manifesto“ by Sergei Mironov

There are many ideas already existing as to what a post-state society would look like. The abolition of the state would not mean the abolition of leaders, nor the abolition of hierarchies. Nations would still have leaders and governments. However, they would no longer have borders. In a post-state society, a man’s identity would not be defined by where he was born, but rather who his parents and grandparents were. That is the true distinc between State and Nation. A State is a set of arbitrary lines drawn on a map, while a Nation is an integral part of who you are. Even if a man travels across the world and disavows all connections to his former state, his nation does not change. As the National volksgeist[3] turns increasingly against the State, the Magistarchy[4] will fight back. This will only encourage the Nations of the world to revolt against the State. From this revolution, the liberal stage of civilization will come to an end and the State shall give way to the Nation.

[1]Russian for “the Industry”

[2]Mironov’s definition of “socialism” is a bit different from the contemporary definition. Essentially, Mironov’s definition of socialism is more in line with the utopian socialists.

[3]Consortists take the term “Volksgeist” from Hegel, and use it to refer to the collective will of the Nation to rebel against the State

[4]”Magistarchy” is a term coined by Mironov from Latin “magister”(master) and Greek “arkhos”(rule, government). According to Mironov, the Magistarchy are those who benefit from the institution of the State.
 
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The Korean Crisis
From “From Autocracy to Modernity: Russia in the Age of Reform” by Nikolai Petrov

By the time of the turn of the century, Russia became increasingly concerned over the rising power of Japan in Asia. The Japanese would shock the world in 1898 by defeating a European colonial power, albeit one whose age of glory had already passed, in the Hispano-Japanese War. Japan would proceed to annex the Philippines, starting their own colonial empire. The Japanese were emboldened by their victory against Spain, seeking to gain more colonies. Japan then turned its eyes towards Korea.

For Russia, the idea of a Japanese conquest of Korea was unthinkable. Russia sought to establish their own sphere of influence in Manchuria, and favored an independent Korea to counterbalance Japan’s ambitions. Japan proposed to recognize Manchuria as part of Russia’s sphere of influence if Russia recognized Korea as part of Japan’s, however, the Russians refused, demanding a neutral buffer zone in Korea between Japan and Russia north of the 39th parallel. During the Korean Crisis, war between Russia and Japan was a distinct possibility. However, neither Emperor Alexander III[1] nor Prime Minister Sergei Witte desired a war with Japan, with both considering the growing tensions in Europe to be a more important issue. Witte issued a proposal to Emperor Meiji for a neutral country to help negotiate an agreement between the two great powers. Eventually, the Japanese agreed. It was decided that the Empire of Brazil would serve as the negotiator, seeing as it was a purely American power with little to no interests in Asia[2]. Brazilian Prime Minister Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves proposed the division of Korea into Russian and Japanese spheres of influence. While Alves’ proposal stopped any potential war between Russia and Japan, it really just pushed the Korean issue down a few years. The Korean Question, as it came to be known would finally be solved during the Great War.


[1]Alexander III lived longer ITTL

[2]Brazil’s geopolitical rival, the United States, was also considered, but was rejected due to the Americans having concessions in China and therefore having geopolitical interests in Asia
 
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Thought I should make this;

List of Emperors of Brazil
Pedro II(1831-1880)
Alfonso I(1880-****)

List of Prime Ministers of Brazil
Manuel Alves Branco, 2nd Viscount of Caravelas(Liberal)(1847-1848)
José Carlos Pereira de Almeida Torres, 2nd Viscount of Macaé(Liberal)(1848-1848)
Francisco de Paula Sousa e Melo(Liberal)(1848-1848)
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda(
Conservative)(1848-1849)
José da Costa Carvalho, Marquis of Monte Alegre(Conservative)(1849-1852)
Joaquim Rodrigues Torres, Viscount of Itaboraí(Conservative)(1852-1853)
Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná(Conservative)(1853-1856)
Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias(Conservative)(1856-1857)
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda(
Conservative)(1857-1858)
Antonio Paulino Limpo de Abreu, Viscount of Abaeté(Conservative)(1858-1859)
Ângelo Moniz da Silva Ferraz(Conservative)(1859-1861)
Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias(Conservative)(1861-1862)
Zacarias de Góis(Progressive League)(1862-1862)
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda(Progressive League)(1862-1864)
Zacarias de Góis(
Progressive League)(1864-1864)
Francisco José Furtado(Liberal)(1864-1865)
Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda(Liberal)(1865-1866)
Zacarias de Góis(Liberal)(1866-1868)
Joaquim Rodrigues Torres, Viscount of Itaboraí(Conservative)(1868-1870)
José Antônio Pimenta Bueno, Viscount of São Vicente(Conservative)(1870-1871)
José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco(Conservative)(1871-1875)
Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias(Conservative)(1875-1878)
João Lins Cansação de Sinimbu, Viscount of Sinimbu(Liberal)(1878-1880)
José Antônio Saraiva(
Liberal)(1880-1882)
Martinho Álvares da Silva Campos(Liberal)(1880-1882)
João Lustosa da Cunha Paranaguá, Marquis of Paranaguá(Liberal)(1882-1883)
Lafayette Rodrigues Pereira(Liberal)(1883-1884)
Manuel Pinto de Sousa Dantas(Liberal)(1884-1885)
José Antônio Saraiva(
Liberal)(1885-1885)
João Maurício Vanderlei(Conservative)(1885-1888)
João Alfredo Correa de Oliveira(Conservative)(1888-1889)
Afonso Celso, Viscount of Ouro Preto(Liberal)(1889-1890)
Floriano Peixoto(Conservative)(1890-1893)

Prudente de Morais(Liberal)(1893-1897)
Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales(Liberal)(1897-1901)
Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves(Conservative)(1901-1905)

List of Presidents of the United States
Abraham Lincoln(Republican)(1861-1864)
George McClellan(
Democratic)(1865-1868)
William Seward(
Republican)(1868-1872)
James G. Blaine(
Republican)(1877-1884)
To be Revealed(1885-18**)

List of Presidents of the Confederate States
Jefferson Davis(
Democratic)(1861- 1869)
Alexander Stephens(
Democratic)(1869-1875)
Robert M. T. Hunter(
Democratic)(1875-1881)
Augustus H. Garland(
Democratic)(1881-1887)
James Longstreet(
Reform)(1887-1891)
Fitzugh Lee(
Democratic)(1891-1897)
Benjamin Tillman(
Democratic)(1897-1903)
James K. Vardaman(Reform)(1903-19**)

List of Emperors of Mexico:
Maximilian I(1864-18**)

List of Prime Ministers of Mexico:
José María Lacunza(
Liberal)(1864-1866)
Teodosio Lares(
Conservative)(1866-1867)
Santiago Vidaurri(
Conservative)(1867-1870)
To be Reavealed(1870-18**)

List of Emperors of Russia:
Alexander II(1855-1892)
Alexander III(1892-19**)

List of Prime Ministers of Russia:
Boris Chicherin(Independent)(1886-1893)
Sergei Witte(Independent)(1893-1905)

List of Premier-Administrateurs of France:
Auguste Blanqui(
Communard)(1871-1898)
Jules Guesde(
Communard)(1898-19**)

List of British Prime Ministers:
Marquess of Salisbury(
Conservative)(1895-1900)
Henry Campbell-Bannerman(
Liberal)(1900-19**)
 
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Before the Storm
From “American Policy in the 19th Century” by Edward Smith

Following the end of James G. Blaine’s presidency in 1884, a Republican victory was almost assured in the upcoming election. The Democratic Party was moribund. The majority of the Democrats’ supporters had recently seceded, and the Party increasingly came to be seen by Americans as Confederate sympathizers. In the 1884 election, the Republicans nominated Robert Todd Lincoln, the eldest son of former president Abraham Lincoln, who led the country through much of the Confederate War of Secession. Lincoln won a landslide election against Democrat Grover Cleveland, who only managed to win his home state of New York. Lincoln would win again in 1888, and in 1892, the Republicans nominated Senator Benjamin Harrison. By this point, the Democratic Party was officially extinct, and had been absorbed into the new Populist Party. James B. Weaver, a member of the House of Representatives from Iowa, would run under the Populist Party ticket. The Populist Party was formed by Weaver in 1892 to promote his ideology of agrarianism and bimetallism[1]. Weaver would win a deeply contested election against Harrison, and would win again against Republican William McKinley in 1896. In 1900, the Populists would nominate William Jennings Bryan, who would win against Republican Thomas C. Platt.

From “History of the Confederate States” by John Walker

After four Democratic presidents had led the Confederacy through its early years, War of Secession veteran James Longstreet would run in 1887 under the Reform Party ticket. The Reform Party was founded by Longstreet as a tool for his own political career, and presented itself as the party of the common people[2] as opposed to the planter aristocracy. Longstreet would be incredibly popular with the Confederate populace, at least at first. As Lonstreet’s presidency continued, he became increasingly sympathetic to abolitionism[3], or at least was perceived as being sympathetic. In 1890, a year before the end of his presidency, Longstreet signed the Manumission Act into law, declaring that all people born on Confederate territory after that date would be free[4]. The Act’s signing into law would trigger riots throughout the Confederacy. Groups like the White Man’s League lynched free blacks and anti-slavery whites, more often than not getting away with it. Despite this, many have suggested that the gradual end of chattel slavery was inevitable, as the boll weevil[5] had completely destroyed the Confederacy’s cotton industry, with Europeans and Americans no w buying cotton from Egypt, India, or other places. In addition, the Confederacy’s reliance on slavery had turned it into an international pariah considered an embarrassment by its few allies[6].

The Democrats would reassert control with the election of Fitzhugh Lee, nephew of Robert E. Lee, in 1891. Lee and his successor, Benjamin Tillman, would establish a system of institutionalized segregation that made it seem as if the era of chattel slavery had never ended. The system of bonded labor, in which those in sever debt would be required to work off their debts, would develop under these two presidents[7]. It was plainly obvious that the Confederates had simply changed from calling their forced black labor “slaves” to calling them “bondsmen.” The main difference between the old system of slavery to the new system of bondage was what the slaves/bondsmen were being put to work on. Confederate slaves were almost entirely used for agriculture, particularly the growing of cotton. Bondsmen, on the other hand, were used for industrial labor, as the old planter aristocracy were forced to industrialize as it became clear to everyone that the old days when cotton was king were never coming back. Bondsmen worked in the factories from sun-up to sun-down, with the leading cause of death amongst them being the horrible working conditions and life-threatening machines that they were forced to accept as just another part of life. Blacks and whites were forbidden from even the most basic of social interactions, and any blacks, free or bonded, who violated the strict segregation would be immediately lynched by the White Man’s League.

In the 1903 election, Reform Party candidate James K. Vardaman would be elected President. Just as Longstreet opposed slavery, Vardarman opposed bondage, just for different reasons. Vardarman believed that free white labor couldn’t compete with bonded labor. However, Vardarman was no friend of blacks, advocating for the use of eugenics to gradually eradicate them from Confederate society. Not even a year into his presidency, Vardarman passed a law requiring that bondsmen could only have one child. He would then pass a series of laws, among other things, requiring all free blacks too be sterilized and encouraging bondsmen to get abortions[8]. Vardarman even proclaimed at a rally in Atlanta in 1905 that “soon, the n***ers will be forever eliminated from our borders!” News of Vardarman’s ethnic cleansing eventually spread beyond the Confederacy’s borders, and caused international outrage. Many Confederate blacks found themselves fleeing northwards to the United States on the Underground Railroad, a network that had existed since before the War of Secession that helped blacks escape northward to freedom. These refugees often found themselves forced into working-class jobs and poor conditions, but many managed to better their lives. While the United States was just as racist as any other country at the time, the recent stream of refugees managed to earn Confederate blacks the sympathy of a decent portion of Americans. In 1907, American President William Jennings Bryan declared that “the Confederate States cannot be allowed to continue to exist as an independent country!“ Confederate-American relations were the worst they had been since the War of Secession. The Great War was inevitable, all it needed was for the powder keg to be lit.

[1]The position in favor of monetary units being based around two metals, typically gold and silver

[2]”The common people” of course referring to the common white people, and not the millions of people who continue to be enslaved

[3]Longstreet would become a Republican IOTL and supported reconstruction and slightly(emphasis on slightly) better treatment of southern blacks. While having him abolish slavery might seem like a stretch of the imagination, he’s the only Confederate figure who would even consider it, and even though the Confederates literally seceded to protect slavery, not doing so would leave their economy in ruins and alienate them from their most powerful ally, the staunchly anti-slavery British, and I want to keep the Confederates around at least until the Great War.

[4]It should be noted that everyone born before 1890 are still slaves, and just because the newly freed blacks aren’t slaves anymore, they still don’t have citizenship and are segregated.

[5]The boll weevil is a beetle that eats cotton buds and flowers that singlehandedly destroyed the southern cotton industry IOTL. In a timeline such as this one where the Confederacy won, the boll weevil would remove what was essentially the sole source of their economy, as well as the only reason that anyone else puts up with them.

[6]Those allies being Brazil, Mexico, and Britain(and its enemies being basically everyone else)

[7]Essentially, former slaves were required to pay their former masters way more money than they had, putting them in severe debt. They would then be required to work away their debt without pay, essentially making it as if they were still slaves. In addition, their debts could be inherited, making it so that their children would be bonded as well.

[8]I felt uncomfortable writing about this. I hope it’s because the Confederate leadership make good villains, as well as generally pathetic excuses for human beings
 
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Bozhe, Tsarya Khrani!
From “From Autocracy to Modernity: Russia in the Age of Reform” by Nikolai Petrov

Nicholas II is considered to have been Russia’s first modern Emperor. He ascended to the throne after his father’s death in 1906, and found himself the rulers of a nation at a crossroads. While his grandfather had democratized Russia and his father had introduced greater industrialization, Russia’s political system was still developing. Russia’s first two Prime Ministers, Boris Chicherin and Sergei Witte, had not belonged to any political party. However, towards the end of Alexander III’s reign, two new political parties had manag to divide the Duma between themselves; the Social Democratic Party and the National Party. The Social Democrats‘ base of support was amongst industrial workers, while the Nationals were popular with the nobility[1], business owners, and in rural communities.

In the 1905 election, National candidate Pavel Milyukov defeated Social Democrat Mikhail Kalinin. Milyukov won the overwhelming majority of the vote, as he was seen as a moderate, while Kalinin was known to have radical socialist sympathies[2]. Despite preferring Milyukov over Kalinin(especially due to Kalinin’s alleged republican sympathies), Emperor Nicholas chose to stay neutral in the election, choosing instead to serve as an apolitical symbol of the nation. Part of the reason for this was that his father, a committed arch-conservative, had conflicted with the Duma on numerous issues, and by the end of his reign, the Duma passed a series of laws limiting the Emperor’s power. However, Nicholas generally enjoyed a good public image, one which would only increase after his marriage to Empress Maria Fyodorovna[3], daughter of Emperor Alfonso I of Brazil. It seemed Russia had a bright future ahead of it.

[1]By this point, the Russian nobility are purely ceremonial, but still have a certain degree of social influence

[2]IOTL, Kalinin would join the Bolsheviks. While he’s considerably more moderate ITTL, he still supports numerous radical positions that alienate a decent portion of the voters.

[3]All foreign-born Empress-consorts of Russia who’s fathers name had no equivalent in Russian took the patronymic “Fyodorovna”, after the Fyodorovskaya icon, considered the patron icon of the Romanov family
 
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Invisible Empire of the South
From “The Righteous Cause of America“ by Jeremiah McClain

As of today, the Confederate States of America is an impoverished backwater, in no small part thanks to the sort of politicians who tend to thrive in such a nation as the Confederacy. In order to understand Confederate politics, we must first understand that our southern neighbor has a strict class system, in stark contrast to the land of opportunity that is America. At the top of the Confederate class system are the planter aristocracy, wealthy landowners who historically made their fortunes in vast plantations. The planters’ interests are represented by the Democratic Party, which despite its name is in fact in favor of aristocracy, slavery, and allowing the planter class to lord over those they perceive to be beneath them. The Confederacy’s current President, Woodrow Wilson, is a member of the Democratic Party. Members of the planter class are trained from birth in the arts of cruelty and tyranny, and are instilled with the false belief that it is their natural birthright to rule over everything and everyone.

Beneath the white underclass. They are not as wealthy or as vain as the planters, nor do they share the same cruel intelligence, but they are just as inclined to tyranny as all Confederates. However, unlike the planters, they have neither the wealth nor the power to act on their tyrannical urges, and thus must resort to mob violence(which is considered a common pastime among them), typically against those of the African race, to sate their cruelty. These people, if they can even be called that, possess a debilitating stupidity resulting from generations of inbreeding. Like all Confederates, they are obsessed with the supposed “purity” of their ancestry, and thusly prohibit themselves from mating with anyone outside their immediate family. This tradition of incest has turned them into an unruly horde of ape-like creatures who only be considered “human“ by the most generous definition of the word and, as has been mentioned, almost universally have severe cognitive defects[1]. However, they make up for their stupidity with their strength in numbers. Politically, these ape-men are represented by the Reform Party, who favors the replacement of the old system of plantation slavery with a strict system of racial segregation that would simultaneously depose the planters, while still keeping the black Confederate population down. Former Confederate President James K. Vardaman was a member of the Reform Party, who further refined his Democratic predecessor Benjamin Tillman’s strategy of manipulating poor whites’ fear of colored individuals to get elected, a strategy currently used by incumbent President Wilson.

Beneath them are the Confederate blacks. Although the Confederacy freed its slaves under President Longstreet, slavery is still technically legal, and blacks who are found to have violated the country’s tyrannical laws are swiftly re-enslaved. It is unknown how many people are enslaved today. Centuries of slavery have left the Confederacy’s black population with a strong desire for freedom, and many risk their lives trying to flee to America. They are not considered citizens, and thus are not allowed to vote, and therefore are not represented in the Confederacy’s legal system.

The current President of the Confederacy is one Woodrow Wilson. Wilson is a miserable creature who seems to sustain himself solely on his hatred of others. Under Wilson’s leadership, the Confederacy has become increasingly aggressive towards the United States. Wilson has allied with the equally wretched despots who rule Mexico and Brazil in his struggle to undermine America and the ideals of democracy. Wilson is a loathsome creature, a tyrant of the worst kind. As long of the Confederacy continues to exist, men like Wilson will continue to threaten the American ideals of freedom and democracy, because deep down, that is what scares him. Wilson, and his friends in Brazil and Mexico, are afraid of democracy because it means tyrants like them can’t come to power. And so the United States of America will continue to act as a beacon of freedom, until the last bastions of tyranny are gone from the world.

From “In Defense of my Actions” by Woodrow Wilson

I continue to stand by the position, as do many, that my actions during the Great War were completely justified. However, as I am writing this from exile, it is clear that the victors of this war do not. In particular, my critics have been keen to point to the mass reduction of the Confederacy’s negro popular during the course of the war. I say that such action were completely necessary, as had the extermination campaign not happened, than the n*****s would certainly have collaborated with the Americans[2]. Others have criticized how I have treated American prisoners of war, but it still pales in comparison with the Americans’ crimes during the war[3]. The new Confederate government has, in addition to forcing the American concept of interracial cooperation on the white people of the Confederacy, adopted the position that it was somehow my fault that the war was lost, saying I was incompetent and delusional. In fact, the Confederacy was just about to win when we were betrayed. By our allies, by the revolutionaries who would go on to form the new government, by the colored savages who are now allowed into public society, by my backstabbing military. Now, the Confederate people are forced to live with the consequ of their betrayal, as the Americans turn us into a miscegenated nation along the lines of the Mexicans and Brazilians who claimed to be our allies but betrayed us at the last minute. History will remember me as a martyr for the noble cause of the formerly white Confederacy[4].

**********
If you think that I am projecting my irrational hatred of Wilson onto the timeline, you are mistaken; it’s far from an irrational hatred. I’ve decided that TTL’s version of Wilson will be even more easy to hate than his OTL equivalent. For those of you who don’t realize, “Invisible Empire of the South” is taken from a Wilson speech where he praises the KKK.





[1]Obviously, no single culture or ethnicity is inherently stupid and violent, but propaganda at the time was heavily racialized, even if it’s against racists

[2]Wilson fails to realize that he could have easily prevented them from collaborating by giving them even basic human rights

[3]Here’s a tip; if you’re going to resort to whataboutism, at least have something to compare your actions to that supposedly justifies them instead of just saying “what they did was worse” without specifying what it was that they did

[4]Obligatory disclaimer that the views expressed by certain characters do not reflect the views of the author
 
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Please tell me the CSA didn't get Kentucky again. Its a pet peeve of mine how CSA victories often seem to handwave away impact of the early Union successes in the West.
 
Please tell me the CSA didn't get Kentucky again. Its a pet peeve of mine how CSA victories often seem to handwave away impact of the early Union successes in the West.
The Confederates don’t have Kentucky. The Confederates just barely won ITTL, and have too many internal problems to try to take anything more than what they already have.
 
The Dragon Ascendant
From “Guangxu: The Great Reformer” by Quang Xongzheng

For as long as anyone could remember, China had been the center of wealth, power, culture, and civilization in the world. However, eventually China fell into stagnation while the powers of Europe continued to advance. Eventually, the British Empire emerged as the premier power in both Europe and the world. The British would conquer India, giving them a foothold in Asia just to the south of China. The British wished to have access to Chinese tea, but the Chinese restricted trade with foreign nations. This angered the British, who resorted to illegally selling opium in China in exchange for tea. China’s attempts to stop the influx of illegal British opium resulted in the two Opium Wars, all of which were won by Britain.

China was deeply humiliated in the aftermath of the Opium Wars, and the Chinese state fell into disarray. The state of affairs only worsened with the introduction of the foreign religion of Christianity, brought by European and American missionaries. A Hakka[1] man from Guangdong named Hong Xuiquan converted to Christianity[2] and began alongside his fellow Christians a rebellion against the Qing dynasty, declaring the “Taiping Heavenly Kingdom” with himself as its leader. The Taiping managed to take the city of Nanjing, which they renamed Tianjing, and killed the Empress-Dowager Cixi[3]. However, the Taipings were eventually defeated.

After the devastation wrought by both the European powers and the Taiping, the Japanese, who had recently modernized, fought with China over influence in Korea. The War of Jiawu[4], as it came to be known, resulted in a Japanese victory and highlighted the failure of the Chinese to modernize their military. After China’s repeated humiliation, the young Guangxu Emperor introduced the Hundred Days’ Reform(also known as the Wuxu Reform) to modernize China. The reforms included:

  • The abolition of the traditional examination system
  • Eliminating positions that provided little or no work but still provided salary
  • The gradual transition from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy
  • Building a modern educational system, studying science and mathematics instead of focusing primarily on Confucian texts
  • Modernizing China’s military, as well as adopting modern drill and training methods
  • Applying the principles of capitalism to strengthen the economy
  • Establishing Peking University as a place where the sciences, liberal arts, and the Chinese classics could be studied
  • Establishing a naval academy
  • Rapid industrialization of China through manufacturing, capitalism, and commerce
  • Utilization of unused military land for agriculture
The reforms were broadly successful. Kang Youwei, a leading advocate of the reforms, was given the title of Imperial Prime Minister. However, Kang’s increasingly radical ideas resulted in the Guangxu Emperor ordering his deposition and replacement with Li Hongzhang in 1898. Following Li’s death in 1905[5], he was replaced with Yikuang, Prince Qing. Under Guangxu’s leadership, China entered the new century newly modernized, and began pursuing ambitions of becoming a great power equal to those of Europe. Only time would tell whether or not it would achieve its new ambition,



[1]An ethnic group in China

[2]Hong’s form of ”Christianity“ was extremely heretical. He claimed to be the younger brother of Jesus.

[3]Ding-dong, the witch is dead!

[4]Known in OTL as the First Sino-Japanese War

[5]Li Hongzhang lives slightly longer ITTL
 
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Dios, Emperador, y Mexico!
From “The Great Commoner: William Jennings Bryan”

Bryan would loose his re-election campaign against Republican Charles Evans Hughes in 1908. Hughes’ term was largely uneventful, however, Hughes’ conservative views alienated the progressive wing of the party. In the upcoming 1912 election, the Republican vote was split between Hughes and California Senator Hiram Johnson, who represented the progressive wing of the party. When Johnson lost the nomination to Hughes, he ran under the Progressive Party ticket. Bryan would successfully win the Populist ticket. Due to the Republican vote being split, Bryan managed to win a non-consecutive second term, just on the eve of the Great War.

From “Los Años Gloriosos: Mexico in the Habsburg Era” by Francisco Zapata

Following the death of Emperor Maximilian I on the first of June, 1891, he was succeeded by his son, Maximilian II. The young Maximilian’s reign was dominated both by the Growing conflict in the New World between Mexico, Brazil, and the Confederacy on one side, and the United States on the other, and by the growth of Mexico’s international prestige. In contrast to his Brazilian and Confederate allies, Maximilian would retain somewhat cordial relations with the United States, at least before the advent of the Great War. Unlike Brazil and its quest for continental hegemony, and the Confederacy‘s desire to remain independent in the face of its revanchistic and much more powerful northern neighbor, Mexico seemingly had little to gain from war with the United States. Maximilian also found Brazilian Emperor Alfonso I and especially Confederate President Woodrow Wilson to be contemptible individuals. Nevertheless, he would stand by his allies when the Great War did come.

Maximilian would sponsor a cultural and artistic revival in Mexico. ”La cultura nueva[1]“, as it came to be known, portrayed Mexico as a successor to both the Aztec and Spanish Empires, and used both Mesoamerican and European imagery. Mesoamerican-influenced artistic styles flourished, and Mexico increasingly came to be portrayed as simply the current link in a chain that also included Imperial Spain, the Aztecs, the Toltecs, and the Mayans. Despite the abundance of Mesoamerican themes, European imagery was also used, particularly in relation to the ruling House of Habsburg. Mexico was also distinguished from its Mesoamerican forebearers by its adherence to the Christian faith, particularly Catholicism, which was distinguished from the Protestantism of the United States. Although Mexico did not receive as many immigrants as some other countries in the Americas, many from Europe did come to Maximilian’s Empire. All this would soon came to a halt. On December 10th, 1912, the Great War had begun.


[1]Spanish for “the new culture”
 
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The Great War Begins
From “History of the Great War from a Consortist Perspective” by Alpaslan Karatay

Most histories of the Great War within the liberated nations tend to focus on how it ultimately led to the Consortist Revolution and the birth of the Compact of Revolutionary Nations. However, few Consortist histories of the Great War focus on the war itself, not just its place in the inevitable expansion of the revolution. Aside from the obvious importance of the Revolution, from a Mironovist-Insanlarogluist perspective, the war’s only purpose according to the principle of Historical Inevitabilism[1] was to pave the way for the Nations’ Revolution and the rise of a Consortist entity. Now, at the risk of sounding revisionist, we should focus on the war itself and not just its place in accelerating the Liberal Stage of Civilization, therefore turning the nations’ volksgeist towards Consortism. I justify myself by saying, we must remember history as it happened, so that we may have definitive proof of Sergei Mironov‘s great, revolutionary theory of Consortism.

After the Franco-Prussian War, the territory of Alsace-Lorraine, which formerly belonged to the French state, was incorporated into the German state. While in our Compact, different nations coexist in harmony, under the Liberal Stage of Civilization, Nation and State are merged, inevitably leading to conflict. In Alsace-Lorraine, members of the French and German nations coexisted, however, do to the land’s ownership by the German state and the French state’s desire to reacquire the territory, the two nations and states fell into conflict. The French state’s revisionistic Communard government continued to claim Alsace-Lorraine as theirs, and French citizens were encouraged to settle in Alsace-Lorraine. One such Frenchman, Jean-Pierre Regnard, settled in Alsace-Lorraine, right next to a farm run by German Wilhelm Stumpf. Regnard caught one of Stumpf’s pigs eating from his garden, and responded by shooting it. Stumpf reported Regnard’s actions to the German police, who arrested him. French newspapers turned the event into a scandal, and the French state demanded that the German state release Regnard, which the German state rejected. When diplomacy failed, the French state declared war on the German state.

From “Winter of Nations: The Great War” by Sir Alfred Baker

Following France’s declaration of war against Germany, allies of the two countries, bound by treaty, would join to help in the war. France was a member of the London Accords, an alliance that also included Britain, the Ottoman Empire, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, and the Confederacy. Germany, meanwhile, was a member of the Continental Alliance, which also included Russia, Austria-Hungary, the United States, and Argentina. German and Anglo-French armies gathered along the Franco-German border, and the fighting quickly devolved into a stalemate dominated by trench warfare.

A combined Austro-Hungarian and Russian force engaged in conflict with the Ottomans in the Balkans. Within the region, Greece, Romania, and Serbia allied with the Russians and Austro-Hungarians, while Bulgaria allied with the Ottomans. The Balkan front would not degenerate into pointless trench warfare quite as fast as the Western front, but would develop its own unique brutality, in which civilians often found themselves involved. While the Western front quickly became a stalemate, the Balkan front saw the Ottomans’ outdated military failing in the face of modernity, with cavalry charges on one side and machine guns on the other.

Brazilian Emperor Alfonso I used the beginning of the war as an excuse to invade Paraguay, which had been largely lawless ever since its defeat in the Paraguayan War, and Uruguay, which had been previously neutral, as his armies moved to invade Argentina. Argentine propaganda made frequent mention of Brazil’s invasion, of a neutral country, and would frequently display exaggerated or even made up stories of Brazilian atrocities in Uruguay[2]. As Brazil invaded Argentina through Uruguay, Argentina would invade Chile, only for a stalemate similar to the one in Western Europe to develop.

While Alfonso was well-known for his belligerent personality and nationalistic views, as well as his infamous inability to keep his mouth shut when he really should, he showed a surprising aptitude for military matters. Alfonso quickly realized that if Buenos Aires fell, then Argentina would fell. Unlike most other leaders during the Great War, Alfonso’s tactics relied on the military theories he developed based on his own experience in the Paraguayan War rather than outdated tactics from the Napoleonic Wars. In addition to strategy and tactics, Alfonso identified a third component of organized warfare; operation. During the Great War, the Brazilian armed forces would adopt a military theory that emphasized suppressing, destroying, and/or disorganizing enemy forces not just at the line of contact, but also throughout the extent of the battlefield[3].

Alfonso’s goal was to knock Argentina out of the war, then turn his attention towards the United States. Along the Mason-Dixon Line, yet another stalemate developed between the Americans and an alliance of Confederates and Mexicans. Although the Confederacy itself did not have the capacity to take on the United States on its own, the influx of Mexican troops from the south gave the Confederates just what they needed to fend off an American invasion. As the war dragged on, the Confederacy’s oppressed black population began to revolt in support of the Americans. President Woodrow Wilson responded to the rebellion by beginning to use measures to, in his words, “reduce the population of the n*****s until there are so few of them that they cease to be a serious threat to our war effort.”

In Asia, the rising power and British ally that was the Japanese Empire invaded several German colonies, as well as Korea, which was contested with Russia. China’s Guangxu Emperor responded to Japan’s invasion of Korea by declaring war, bringing the Great War to Asia. Japan would invade China through Manchuria, but would fail to get any further than that as yet another stalemate developed. Although no one knew it at the beginning, the Great War would redefine the concept of war, and would force the world into a new, different era than the one that preceded it.


[1]The belief in an inevitable march of history through different Stages of Civilization towards a stateless society as outlined by Sergei Mironov

[2]Uruguay being the Belgium of South America is even more of an accurate statement ITTL

[3]Think of Soviet deep operation, but adapted to early twentieth century South America.
 
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Sides of the Great War

London Accords
United Kingdom and its Empire
France
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
Brazil
Chile
Mexico
Confederate States
Japan

Continental Alliance
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Russia
Greece
Romania
Serbia
United States
Argentina
Uruguay
Qing Dynasty
 
The First Years of the War
From “Winter of Nations: The Great War” by Sir Alfred Baker

The first front of the Great War where the stalemate was broken was in Canada. The British quickly abandoned Canada to the Americans[1]. Canada was put under American military occupation, and most of the troops on the Canadian front were moved south to the Confederate front. However, even with Canada, the Americans’ problems were far from over. The British continued to blockade the United States, and a growing resistance developed in Canada against the American occupiers. The Canadian resistance plays a prominent role in contemporary Canadian identity, with revolutionary slogans like “free Canada” and “occupiers go home” still featuring in Canadian society.

Along the South American front, Brazilian troops managed to reach Buenos Aires. Despite the Argentines’ valiant defense of the city, the Brazilians emerged victorious[2]. With the fall of Buenos Aires, the Argentines surrendered. Following the Argentine surrender, Emperor Alfonso moved all of his troops from the Argentine front northward to assist the Mexicans and Confederates against the United States. In the November of 1913, a combined Confederate-Mexican force laid siege to the American capital of Washington, D.C. The Americans eventually abandoned the city, after evacuating their government to New York. President William Jennings Bryan gave a speech shortly after the fall of Washington stating that “America will continue to fight, until all the fighting’s done.” Meanwhile, in Europe, another break in the stalemate would happen, one far more influential in the history after the war.



[1]IOTL, the British planned to abandon Canada in the event of a war with the United States

[2]The Brazilians’ victory was due to a mixture of being more industrialized and Argentina being centralized around Buenos Aires
 
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Still waiting for that sudden but inevitable betrayal of Wilson. (Also, since I didn't respond to the post concerning his speech, I personally have an irrational hatred of the man. And no, I won't actually elaborate as to why, but I'm sure someone would guess.)
 
Still waiting for that sudden but inevitable betrayal of Wilson. (Also, since I didn't respond to the post concerning his speech, I personally have an irrational hatred of the man. And no, I won't actually elaborate as to why, but I'm sure someone would guess.)
Sadly, we’re going to have to wait a while before Wilson receives his comeuppance. I see this makes two of us with a seemingly irrational hatred for Wilson.
 
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