A Prince Survives
From “Independência ou Morte: A History of the Empire of Brazil” by Paulo Branco

The birth of Pedro’s son and heir apparent, Dom Alfonso, in 1845, was celebrated throughout the Empire. Alfonso was even nicknamed “o príncipe perfeito”(the perfect prince), just like his father “o magnânimo”(the magnanimous). However, the future Alfonso I’s childhood was not all sunshine and rainbows. On June 11th, 1847, the then two-year-old prince experienced an epileptic attack while playing in the palace library. Luckily, Alfonso’s mother Empress Teresa Cristina was in the vicinity, and managed to bring the prince to the court physician. Dom Alfonso miraculously survived. After the incident, the Emperor became increasingly protective of his son, which some historians believe may have affected Alfonso’s later reign. Had the Prince Imperial not been so lucky, who knows how history may have changed.

**********
The Empire of Brazil has always interested me. It was a monarchy in a continent of republics, and was a relatively stable emerging great power in a region known for its caudillos and civil wars. However, the Empire was overthrown in a coup, and Brazil would spend the rest of its history as a republic with a tendency towards corruption and instability, no different than the hispanic countries that surrounds it. While the reasons for the Empire’s decline are numerous, its fall was accelerated by Emperor Pedro II’s lack of interest in ruling his country. It is believed that Pedro’s disillusionment with being Emperor was caused by the death of his son and heir apparent Alfonso from epilepsy. In this timeline, Alfonso survives and Pedro never looses interest in ruling, forever changing the history of Brazil and the world.
 
A Nation at a Crossroads
From “An Economic History of Brazil” by João Cardoso

Brazil at the beginning of Pedro II’s reign was a largely agrarian nation. In particular, coffee became Brazil’s primary export. The coffee industry came to be controlled by slaveholding “coffee barons”, who became extremely influential in Brazilian society[1]. The Paraíba Valley in southern Brazil became the center of the coffee industry. The coffee barons grew their coffee on vast plantations with the use of slave labor. Many in Brazil’s aristocratic class believed that the Empire should base its economy off of agriculture and plantation slavery.

However, the Emperor had a different idea on Brazil’s future. In 1850, the importation of slaves was prohibited(with the strong “encouragement” of the British Empire) and Emperor Pedro began the process in which Brazil was to industrialize. The vast nation became increasingly interconnected with the introduction of the railroad, the electric telegram, and the steamship[2].

During the 1850s, Pedro began to move further towards the abolition of slavery. In 1854, Pedro would introduce the Law of the Free Womb, declaring that all children born to slaves on Brazilian territory would be considered free and would have all the rights of Brazilian citizens[3]. Pedro would continue to industrialize Brazil, with factories opening in major cities such as Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Recife. The coffee industry took another major blow when slavery was abolished throughout much of southwestern Brazil, including the Paraíba Valley, as a result of the Emperor’s industrialization efforts. The feeling among the coffee barons became increasingly hostile towards the monarchy, and many began calling for a republic. However, despite the feelings of anger among the coffee barons, at this point few were willing to commit an act of treason against the Empire. All this changed on December 5th, 1861, when Emperor Pedro issued the Manumission Act, abolishing slavery throughout Brazil[4]. Just three days later, a council of coffee barons met in Recife, where they declared the Republic of Brazil[5], and the parts of Brazil who had held on to slavery recognized the new republic as the nation’s legitimate government. Pedro II now found himself the Emperor of a nation at war with itself.





[1]The coffee barons played a prominent role in deciding some of Brazil’s government policies, particularly those related to the coffee industry such as railroad development and credit financing

[2]All OTL events, for now

[3]The first major derivation from OTL. A similar law called the Law of Free Birth was passed IOTL in 1871

[4]IOTL, Brazil abolished slavery in 1888, making it one of the last countries in the world to do so. Pedro wanted to abolish it earlier, but because of the Paraguayan War, the issue was pushed back. ITTL, with greater amounts of industrialization and a more active Emperor, abolition happens much earlier.

[5]Slaveowners tend to resort to drastic measures when their “peculiar institution” is threatened. See for example the American Civil War, or the overthrow of the Brazilian monarchy IOTL. The main reason for this is that slavery plays an almost omnipresent role in the economies and institutions of slaveholding societies.
 
Last edited:
The Butterfly Flaps its Wings
From “Independência ou Morte: A History of the Empire of Brazil“ by Paulo Branco

Following the declaration of a Brazilian republic in Recife in 1861, Emperor Pedro II sent a small army led by the Duke of Caxias[1]. Caxias and his forces soon found that the locals generally surrendered without much of a fight, and, more often than not, actually sided with the Imperial troops against the Republic. While the slaveholding aristocratic class wanted a republic, the common people almost universally respected the Emperor and hated the coffee barons. The Republic’s small farmers took up arms for the Emperor as soon as the republic was declared, and the slaves followed suit as soon as the Duke of Caxias and his forces arrived. Thanks to the support of the local population, Caxias managed to take the Republic’s capital of Recife in little less than a week. The Five Days’ War, as it came to be known, brought forth the official end of slavery in Brazil. But the Empire’s troubles were far from over. A new threat was emerging too the south, and that threat’s name was Francisco Solano López.

From “Maximilian I: Mexico’s Austrian Emperor” by Hernando Alvarez

Battle of Puebla would be the turning point of the war. The French General Charles de Laurancez ordered a full assault of the fortified Cerro de Guadalupe, which was defended by Mexican General Ignacio Zaragoza. The battle ended when Zaragoza was killed by a stray bullet, and the French forces took the city. Brigadier General Porfirio Díaz would try to defend Puebla, but would eventually retreat to the French’s next target; Mexico City.

Laurancez would lead his troops towards Mexico City, where Díaz’s forces were already waiting. The Battle of Mexico City was one of the bloodiest battles in Mexican history, with the Mexican republicans fighting to the bitter end to defend the capital. Despite fierce resistance, Laurancez was eventually able to take the city. Benito Juárez would unsuccessfu try to flee the country, while Díaz would retreat northward and continue to fight against the Empire for five years after the war ended, before being shot by a irate rancher who tired of Díaz’s habit of stealing his cattle[2]. Maximilian von Habsburg would be crowned Maximiliano I de Habsburgo, Emperor of Mexico. And with Mexico secured, Napoleon III turned his attentions northwards.

From “History of the Confederate States” by John Walker

On January 15th, 1863, French Emperor Napoleon III recognized the Confederacy as an independent country and sent troops to fight alongside the Confederates. Napoleon’s reason for joining the war are generally accepted to have been that he wished to use the Confederacy as bulwark against the United States, who he feared would try to overthrow Emperor Maximilian I, whom Napoleon had established as the puppet ruler of Mexico.

The French troops arrived just in time for the Battle of Vicksburg, which raged from May 18th to July 3rd of 1863. The combined French and Confederate forces managed to repel the Union siege, and resulted in the failure of the Union’s Anaconda Plan strategy. Roughly a month after the battle’s end, the British joined the war on the side of France and the Confederacy, and the powerful British navy successfully dismantled the Union blockade. The United States was having an election at the time, and with the Confederates having defeated the Union at Vicksburg and two of the most powerful countries in the world on their side, President Lincoln’s support plummeted.

The Democrats nominated pro-war George McClellan for President and anti-war George Pendleton for Vice President. McClellan and Pendleton would eventually win the election, and with the Democrats’ victory, the issue of continuing the war became the most divisive issue between them. McClellan attempted to continue the war effort, but his decisions cost the Union greatly. He fired Ulysses S. Grant, whom he saw as an incompetent alcoholic who lost at Vicksburg, as Commander of the Union Army, and replaced him with Daniel Sickles[3]. Sickles campaigned deep in to Confederate territory before he reached the capital of Richmond, where he was repelled and sent running northward. McClellan found himself forced to negotiate with the Confederacy, and on June 5th, 1865, the United States officially recognized the Confederacy as an independent country. To the American people, McClellan came to be viewed as a traitor who let the south get away, and public opinion soon turned staunchly against him.

From “The War of the Triple Alliance[4]” by Paulo Branco

The events leading up to the war were numerous, but the main one was the result of the Uruguayan War. Uruguay fell into civil war between the Paraguayan-supported Blanco Party and the Brazilian-supported Colorado Party. In a combined offensive against the Blancos, Brazilian and Colorado troops advanced through Uruguayan territory. On February 20th, 1865, the Blancos capitulated. Paraguay’s dictator, Francisco Solano López, was furious. On October 12th, 1864, López began his simultaneous invasion of Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina[5], and the bloodiest war in South America’s history had begun.

[1]Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias led Brazil to victory against Paraguay IOTL and is generally regarded as one of Brazil’s best historical military officers

[2]A fitting end to Porfirio Díaz

[3]Controversy seemed to follow Sickles wherever he went

[4]The War of the Triple Alliance is another name for the Paraguayan War

[5]Yes, López was that crazy. He declared war against three countries much larger and more powerful than his own in OTL, too, and it went just about a well as you might expect.
 
I'm glad there is an active TL about the Empire of Brazil.
I always wonder what Brazil could have been if there was less apathy on the part of Pedro II.
Perhaps the author can tell more about immigration and industrialization.
What measures were taken to encourage the immigration of specialized people and who led the industry in Brazil.
 
Very interesting! As a suggestion, adding a brief description to the title could get more people into this timeline; something like "Legacy of the Magnanimous: A Brazilian Empire TL".
 
Perhaps the author can tell more about immigration and industrialization.
What measures were taken to encourage the immigration of specialized people and who led the industry in Brazil.
Brazil is starting to industrialize. With the abolition of slavery, there will be much more industrialization. As for immigration, the primary group of immigrants to Brazil are from Southern Europe. Many immigrants who came to the United States in OTL will wind up in Brazil, especially Southern European and Catholic ones.
 
The Madness of López
“I want to shoot that Paraguayan bastard myself!”
—Dom Alfonso, Prince Imperial

From “Independência ou Morte: A History of the Empire of Brazil“ by Paulo Branco

Few historical figured can be said to be as peculiar as Francisco Solano López, the 19th century Paraguayan dictator of dubious sanity who almost wiped his own country off the map in his failed war of conquest against three much larger and much more powerful enemies. Even before Paraguay’s near complete depopulation[1], the war already caused controversy in Brazil, as the respected Duke of Caxias was rejected to command the Brazilian forces in favor of the then 19-year-old Dom Alfonso, Prince Imperial. In practice, however, Caxias(who had been made a high-ranking General in the Brazilian army) was the de facto commander of the Brazilian troops, at least in the beginning of the war.

As the war began, López’s forces invaded Brazil. As the war dragged on, Argentine and Brazilian forces began to beat back the Paraguayans. In the February of 1868, Allied forces reached the Paraguayan capital of Asunsión. López, however, fled northward and continued a guerilla campaign. Dom Alfonso, now 23 years old and having gained full control over Brazil’s army, refered to the Paraguayans in his letters as “the most deplorable, wicked race that the Devil could ever have shitted into this world.” Dom Alfonso showed little mercy to the Paraguayan guerrillas, infamously burning down numerous villages in his hunt for López. Alfonso held a chauvinistic opinion of the Paraguayans, referring to them as “the miscegnated sons of lazy Spaniards and savage Indians” in reference to Paraguay’s mestizo heritage[2].

López would continue to avoid capture until the war’s end in 1877[3]. Towards the war’s end, López’s forces began raiding villages and forcibly conscripting their inhabitants, and even began forcibly conscripting enemy POWs. As the war raged on, it became clear to everyone except López that Paraguay was loosing. The Paraguayan guerrilla forces experienced mass defections, and López became extremely unpopular. On Christmas Eve of 1877, López began to realize how dire the situation was, and decided to lay siege to Asunción. The Battle of Asunción, which raged for three days, resulted in the Paraguayans being defeated and López captured. Dom Alfonso would order the entire city burned to the ground. López was taken to Rio de Janeiro, where he was put on trial and executed. According to many primary sources, López started laughing as he was being hanged. The treaty of Buenos Aires was signed with the intention that Paraguay would never become a threat again. Paraguay was forbidden from having a military, or even a functioning government, and was placed under the management of the Allied governments for “the duration of its existence.” Paraguay would be run by a conglomerate of international interests without a government of its own until the Great War, when the country would descend even further into chaos.





[1]In OTL, around 90% Paraguay’s male population had died in the war, to the point that López would go around the capital of Asunción pointing a gun at any man he could find and telling him to go to war. By the end of the war, only 12% of Paraguay’s population is male, and polygamy was briefly legalized because their were so few men. Even today, over a hundred years later, Paraguay’s gender demographics are still skewed towards women.

[2]Even by Latin American standards, Paraguay has a strong indigenous influence, with the native Guarani language being co-official with Spanish

[3]In OTL, López was killed in action in 1870, but Argentine and Brazilian troops would occupy the country until 1876
 
Last edited:
I'm interested to see more of this! Will Brazil's monarchy and parliament become more akin to Britain or Prussia as time goes on?
Based on Dom Alfonso's actions, my bet's on Prussian model
 
“the most deplorable, wicked race that the Devil could ever have shitted into this world.” Dom Alfonso showed little mercy to the Paraguayan guerrillas, infamously burning down numerous villages in his hunt for López. Alfonso held a chauvinistic opinion of the Paraguayans, referring to them as “the miscegnated sons of lazy Spaniards and savage Indians” in reference to Paraguay’s mestizo heritage[2].
ok alfonso not peace and love like his father. He will probably want to increase Brazilian territory, perhaps breaking the oligarchs.
The treaty of Buenos Aires was signed with the intention that Paraguay would never become a threat again. Paraguay was forbidden from having a military, or even a functioning government, and was placed under the management of the Allied governments for “the duration of its existence.” Paraguay would be run by a conglomerate of international interests without a government of its own until the Great War, when the country would descend even further into chaos.
It would be kinder to Paraguay in this state if it were divided with Argentina, or annexed entirely by Brazil
 
López would continue to avoid capture until the war’s end in 1877[3]. Towards the war’s end, López’s forces began raiding villages and forcibly conscripting their inhabitants, and even began forcibly conscripting enemy POWs. As the war raged on, it became clear to everyone except López that Paraguay was loosing. The Paraguayan guerrilla forces experienced mass defections, and López became extremely unpopular. On Christmas Eve of 1877, López began to realize how dire the situation was, and decided to lay siege to Asunción. The Battle of Asunción, which raged for three days, resulted in the Paraguayans being defeated and López captured. Dom Alfonso would order the entire city burned to the ground. López was taken to Rio de Janeiro, where he was put on trial and executed. According to many primary sources, López started laughing as he was being hanged. The treaty of Buenos Aires was signed with the intention that Paraguay would never become a threat again. Paraguay was forbidden from having a military, or even a functioning government, and was placed under the management of the Allied governments for “the duration of its existence.” Paraguay would be run by a conglomerate of international interests without a government of its own until the Great War, when the country would descend even further into chaos
If the Paraguayan War started at the end of 1864 and lasted until 1877 with the capture of Solano López, it means that there were almost 13 years of war compared to the 5 historical years, and the last one was extremely problematic, I imagine the difficulty that will be to deal with all this time of war. I believe it would be much more beneficial to annex the entire region east of the Paraguay River to Brazil and create a new kingdom or duchy with the western region that comprises the Paraguayan Chaco.
This new country could be in personal union with Brazil and would have a mainly indigenous population and have a strange mix of Paraguayans and Brazilians.
The lands of the eastern region could be used as a reward to the military, using as a replacement for payment of salary for land ownership, which would satisfy the military and bring relief to the public coffers.
 
Last edited:
If the Paraguayan War started at the end of 1864 and lasted until 1877 with the capture of Solano López, it means that there were almost 13 years of war compared to the 5 historical years, and the last one was extremely problematic, I imagine the difficulty that will be to deal with all this time of war. I believe it would be much more beneficial to annex the entire region east of the Paraguay River to Brazil and create a new kingdom or duchy with the western region that comprises the Paraguayan Chaco.
This new country could be in personal union with Brazil and would have a mainly indigenous population and have a strange mix of Paraguayans and Brazilians.
The lands of the eastern region could be used as a reward to the military, using as a replacement for payment of salary for land ownership, which would satisfy the military and bring relief to the public coffers.
it's a good solution. We'll see what Alfonso does next. He would be almost 33 at the end of the war, so much of his life was basically war. Honestly, I imagine he would be a more cruel, expansive and merciless individual. Especially comparing himself to the father who had a dream of being a teacher.
I think he's likely to flatten any coup d'etat attempt. He would probably have a greater loyalty from the army due to having fought alongside them. We will see how he deals with internal power struggles in Brazil. If it is more diplomatic or is it more like Bismarck who used bully as a form of diplomacy.


The ideal for Brazil to be a great power would be the control of these regions. The control of the rio la plata in particular is extremely important.
If Brazil holds on to Uruguay, takes Paraguay, and grabs Argentina Mesopotamia, you've unlocked a maritime highway into the Brazilian interior. parts of bolivia will simply come due to the control of the rio de la plata, from what I can remenber bolivia never won any war, losing to paraguay after the war of the triple alliance. the control of the rio de la plata + the amazonian river + one of the most fertile lands in the americas.
1648673192299.png

After that, Brazil would just have to sit down and industrialize and basically the nation is ready to be a great power
 
Will Mexico be involved in the TL?
hopefully it will . Mexico would be a good way to reduce America's power, as it is a nation with a lot of future power, if it develops
Butterflies have caused Maximilian to win against Juárez. Mexico will indeed play a prominent role later on.
it's a good solution. We'll see what Alfonso does next. He would be almost 33 at the end of the war, so much of his life was basically war. Honestly, I imagine he would be a more cruel, expansive and merciless individual. Especially comparing himself to the father who had a dream of being a teacher.
I think he's likely to flatten any coup d'etat attempt. He would probably have a greater loyalty from the army due to having fought alongside them. We will see how he deals with internal power struggles in Brazil. If it is more diplomatic or is it more like Bismarck who used bully as a form of diplomacy.


The ideal for Brazil to be a great power would be the control of these regions. The control of the rio la plata in particular is extremely important.
If Brazil holds on to Uruguay, takes Paraguay, and grabs Argentina Mesopotamia, you've unlocked a maritime highway into the Brazilian interior. parts of bolivia will simply come due to the control of the rio de la plata, from what I can remenber bolivia never won any war, losing to paraguay after the war of the triple alliance. the control of the rio de la plata + the amazonian river + one of the most fertile lands in the americas.
View attachment 730014
After that, Brazil would just have to sit down and industrialize and basically the nation is ready to be a great power
While this scenario would be ideal for Brazil, their wartime allies of Argentina and Uruguay would never agree to it as it would result in Brazil becoming too dominant at their own expense. Since Pedro is still Emperor, he’s going to want to maintain the existing balance of power and prevent any new wars after the last one had been so bloody. Alfonso, on the other hand, wants to annex Paraguay, settle it with Brazilians, and reduce the rest of South America to groveling puppet-states. Once he ascends to the throne, the postwar system will completely collapse as Alfonso tries to cement Brazil’s position as the sole hegemonic power in the Americas.
 
Butterflies have caused Maximilian to win against Juárez. Mexico will indeed play a prominent role later on.
good maximilian was a good ruler. The Empire of Brazil and the Empire of Mexico were ideal allies to keep the USA out of Latin America.
While this scenario would be ideal for Brazil, their wartime allies of Argentina and Uruguay would never agree to it as it would result in Brazil becoming too dominant at their own expense.
absolutely, if brazil manages this, goodbye any chance of being minimally independent.
Of the two, the only one that really matters is Argentina. With all due respect to uruguay, the population of brazil in 1877 was 11.2 million, and that of uruguay was about 400,000 people. It was a nation that was created as a way of separating brazil and argentina, an example would be something like belgium. it existed for practical reasons, nothing more. if brazil or argetina had become strong enough, it's goodbye to the country.
argentina is more difficult to defeat, but an alliance with chile should make an eventual war a lot easierm. The country's biggest weakness is its capital, similar to the Ottoman Empire, if the capital is taken over, the country kind of dies. If the war followed in a similar way in relation to the contribution, Brazil has a much more veteran army than Argentina. This army committed several atrocities repeatedly to the point of being commonplace.
Alfonso proved to be a merciless individual in the Paraguayan war. if he wants what you said, to have a hegemony, the destruction of Bueno Aires, even if partial, destroys Argentina's chance to do something in the future. If Mesopotamia, the most fertile area of Argentina, is taken away, she will need to buy food from Brazil to support herself. is submission in all but name
Since Pedro is still Emperor, he’s going to want to maintain the existing balance of power and prevent any new wars after the last one had been so bloody. Alfonso, on the other hand, wants to annex Paraguay, settle it with Brazilians, and reduce the rest of South America to groveling puppet-states. Once he ascends to the throne, the postwar system will completely collapse as Alfonso tries to cement Brazil’s position as the sole hegemonic power in the Americas.
I hope he doesn't go into depression so soon, I think it's likely in 1 or 2 years he'll retire to become a college professor, explore egypt, translate several arabic tales that became popular due to his translation. that was something he did a lot, if he liked something from another culture he would translate it himself and introduce to the nation. He spoke German, Italian, Spanish, French, Latin, Hebrew and Tupi-Guarani. and he could read Greek, Arabic, Sanskrit, and Provencal. He translated books from Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, French, German, Italian and English to portuguese.He is the enlightened absolutist leader that should exist in theory.
or maybe he will stay in power longer, fearing that his son, a person he hasn't seen in 13 years who has a reputation for being cruel to his enemies (destroying the capital and several Paraguayan cities), throws the country into a new war. A discussion between the two would be very interesting, with alfonso they want his father to abdicate so that he can start preparing the country for a hegemonic war. With the father feeling sad about losing the son he knew.
 
Last edited:
Alfonso’s Ascent
From “Independência ou Morte: A History of the Empire of Brazil“ by Paulo Branco

After the end of the Paraguayan War, the Brazilian Army became increasingly dissatisfied with Emperor Pedro II’s rule. The Emperor sought to replicate the liberal[1] systems of government that had been adopted in Western Europe and the United States. Many of the Army’s officers disapproved of the Emperor’s liberal ideas. In contrast, Pedro’s son and heir apparent, Dom Alfonso, was an avowed reactionary nationalist and militarist. In addition, Alfonso had led the Brazilian forces during the Paraguayan War, and in the process earned the firm respect of the Army. Pedro, meanwhile, became increasingly disinterested in ruling.

On January 8th, 1880, Emperor Pedro II abdicated the Brazilian throne. Dom Alfonso would be crowned Emperor Alfonso I. Alfonso’s coronation is considered one of the turning points of Brazilian history. The new Emperor would radically alter the path that Brazil would take. Alfonso alienated Brazil from its neighbors, and adopted a policy of rivalry with the United States, another emerging power in the New World. Alfonso believed that Brazil needed to cement its position as the hegemonic power in the Americas. In order to do this, Alfonso believed that Brazil must first become the sole power in South America after a war with Argentina. Brazil would then defeat the United States in another war, and exert its hegemony over the Americas. However, Alfonso did not yet believe that Brazil was powerful enough to achieve this goal. The new Emperor’s belligerence caused Brazil to become increasingly disliked by the Empire’s neighbors, and so he began to seek allies elsewhere.

From “Maximilian I: Mexico’s Austrian Emperor” by Hernando Alvarez

Towards the end of Maximilian’s reign, Mexico became increasingly close to Brazil and the Confederacy, all of whom shared the common goal of preventing the United States from expanding its sphere of influence. On July 10th, 1885, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, and the Confederacy joined to form the Quadruple Pact with the intention of limiting the United States’ power. However, the United States sook allies of its own.

From “American Policy in the 19th Century” by Edward Smith

By the time of the 1868 election, President McClellan was deeply unpopular. The Republicans nominated former Secretary of State William H. Seward to run against McClellan. Seward would defeat McClellan in a landslide victory, and would again defeat Democratic nominee Benjamin Gratz Brown in 1872. Seward’s presidency saw the United States adopting a hardline anti-Confederate stance, but was otherwise largely uneventful. In 1867, the Republicans would nominate James G. Blaine, who won against Democratic candidate Thomas A. Hendricks. Blaine would win re-election against Democrat Allen C. Beach in 1880. Blaine’s presidency was defined by the growing geopolitical rivalry between the United States and the increasingly belligerent Empire of Brazil, led by the ever-ambitious and reckless Emperor Alfonso I. The rivalry between the United States and Brazil would become intertwined with European geopolitics, as a complicated system of alliances formed. This system of conflicting alliances would explode during the Great War.

[1]”liberal” in this context referring to the political ideas of the Enlightenment, the British constitutional monarchy, and the American and French Revolutions, not its 21st Century meaning
 
So the army got a leader who really values it in the figure of Afonso.
I hope it doesn't backfire, as the great war will be far worse than anything afonso witnessed while serving in the Paraguayan War.
 
Blood and Iron
“It seems that the peace established at Vienna is being unravelled right before our eyes!”
—Sergei Mironov

From “The Franco-Prussian War” by Jean-Pierre Boulanger

The aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War would have radical affects in both France and in Germany. In Germany, the war’s aftermath would see the creation of the Prussian-led German Empire with Wilhelm I as Emperor and Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. In France, the Bonapartist regime was overthrown by the republican Government of National Defense. In Paris, workers and national guards revolted and formed their own government, the Commune. The Commune, under the leadership of Auguste Blanqui[1], set out to unite France under its government, as did the Government of National Defense, led by Adolphe Thiers. The French Civil War would result in a decisive Communard victory, and would establish a new government with Blanqui as the Premier-Administrateur[2]. During the Civil War, Blanqui would act as an authoritarian, but would gradually relinquish more power to the people following the Communards’ victory.

From “Recollections on the Past Century” by Sergei Mironov

I was, to be truthful, most disappointed by the events that have transpired in France. While the Commune had the potential to establish a true government of the people, it failed the moment that they appointed that authoritarian blowhard Blaqui as their leader. Indeed, I believe the Communards shall be remembered by history as successors to the Jacobins; a reminder how not to have a revolution.

From “Alexander II: The Liberator Emperor” by Nikolai Petrov

The Russian constitution of 1885[3] was perhaps the greatest of Alexander II’s reforms. The constitution transformed Russia from an outdated autocracy to a constitutional monarchy. The constitution would create a legislature, the Duma, divided into an upper house(the Sobor) and a lower house(the Veche). Boris Chicherin, a respected jurist and political philosopher, and the Mayor of Moscow, was elected the first Prime Minister of Russia. 1886. It was with the 1885 constitution that Russia transformed into a modern superpower.

From “The Age of Bismarck: Europe Before the Great War”

The League of Three Emperors, or Dreikaiserbund, was an alliance between the German, Russian, and Austro-Hungarian Empires pioneered by Otto von Bismarck. The Dreikaiserbund was intended to keep the balance of power in Europe, and to prevent a war between Germany and either Austria or Russia. To combat the influence of the Dreikaiserbund, Britain and France’s internationally isolated Communard government turned to each other. Britain and France would join to form the Entente Cordiale, later joined by the Ottoman Empire, rivals to both Russia and Austria-Hungary[4]. The geopolitical struggle between the Entente and Dreikaiserbund in Europe would spread to the Americas, in which the Empire of Brazil and the United States had competing spheres of influence. The United States, which had a large German population and hated the British for supporting the Confederacy during their War of Independence, was naturally drawn towards the Dreikaiserbund, while the Brazilian-led Quadruple Pact alligned with the Entente in response. The Entente and Quadruple Pact would join to form the London Accords, while the Dreikaiserbund would be joined by the United States and Argentina to form the Continental Alliance. The stage for the Great War had been set, and now all it needed was a spark to light the fire.

[1]IOTL, Blanqui was arrested before he could join the Communards’ Revolution. ITTL, he happened to be in Paris rather than Bretenoux during the Communard Revolt, and successfully organized the Commune’s leadership

[2]First Administrator

[3]Alexander II’s assassination was butteflied away

[4]ITTL, the Ottomans and Austro-Hungarians remain rivals over the Balkans
 
Last edited:
On January 15th, 1863, French Emperor Napoleon III recognized the Confederacy as an independent country and sent troops to fight alongside the Confederates.

The French troops arrived just in time for the Battle of Vicksburg, which raged from May 18th to July 3rd of 1863.

How do those troops get there? March overland through Texas? 900 km?

Also, for French troops to operate in Mexico and the US, France has to control the Gulf of Mexico - otherwise they have no communications with the homeland. And I very much doubt that the French navy of 1861 is capable of that.

If ITTL they are, then that naval operation should be described first.

In any case, with France recognizing the CSA (and declaring war on the US) in January 1863, the campaigns of 1863 would be very different from OTL, and it's very unlikely there would be a siege or battle of Vicksburg at the same time as OTL.

But setting all that aside, it's still not clear how this French army woukd raise the siege of Vicksburg, when they can't cross the Mississippi (which is controlled by Union gunboats).

Incidentally, the "Anaconda Plan" was never a formal strategy of the Union. It was a general concept put forward by Winfield Scott in 1861, but never adopted. Scott wanted to drive down the Mississippi and blockade the coasts, thus encircling and strangling the CSA, while remaining on the defensive in Virginia. But instead the Union attacked repeatedly in Virginia; that was the Union's primary effort.
 
Top