African Yugoslavia: A West African Story

I'm very curious to see what effects Mali's existence has had on the rest if Africa, such as what inspirations Nigeria or DR Congo adopted, or if former French Equatorial Africa tried to pull a Mali themselves. Would Mali be seen as inspiration for Anti-apartheid activists, or a source of reactionary fervor in Portuguese Africa?
Also to be clear, Mali does not include Guinea and Mauretania, but does include Senegal, Soudan, Cote DIvoire, Burkina Faso, Niger, Benin & Togo?

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I'm very curious to see what effects Mali's existence has had on the rest if Africa, such as what inspirations Nigeria or DR Congo adopted, or if former French Equatorial Africa tried to pull a Mali themselves. Would Mali be seen as inspiration for Anti-apartheid activists, or a source of reactionary fervor in Portuguese Africa?
Also to be clear, Mali does not include Guinea and Mauretania, but does include Senegal, Soudan, Cote DIvoire, Burkina Faso, Niger, Benin & Togo?
Mali actively has had a mixed impact on Africa as a whole. In west Africa Mali, Nigeria, Ghana and Algeria have formed a pseudo-OPEC and various monetary unions, as my next post will talk about actually.

Guinea-Bissau especially will be closely aligned to Mali economically and politically, irl they joined an economic Union with some of the ex-French colonies. Ghana was also influenced by Mali heavily, Nkrumah wasn’t forced off his position of power as he has strong Mali backing. Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania will see their own “pink waves” last far longer and Democratic Socialism is a stronger force in Africa.

Yes Mali contains those territories as mentioned, with The Gambia signed on as a Confederation.
Part 12: Brave New World

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Brave New World

Mali would emerge from the Burgundy Revolution a new nation. While Mali had been struggling the outside world was rapidly changing. The 70’s had seen an oil crisis in 73, followed by a western economic recession. This presented Mali an opportunity to assert itself abroad, and expand economically.

Internationally, Sankara would be forced to deal with several different conflicts boiling over at once.

In 1975, Mali would help negotiate the peace between Nigeria, and Biafra serving as a neutral middle ground, and helping fair justice be received by both parties, but especially for the losing Biafrans.

Secondly, the Economic Community of West Africa States would be founded, Mali, recently independent Guinea-Bissau(who would follow a socialist path similar to Mali), Ghana, and Nigeria would all sign the Treat of Ouagadougou which would see the formation of this new Economic Community. ECOWAS would help propose cooperation and integration of west African nations through economic and customs unions.

In North Africa, Mali would strengthen its ties to Algeria, setting up military drills, and closer economic ties as they both had mutual military interests in the suppression of the Terrorists and Criminals.

Sankara would also pressure reform on the Republic of Ghana, while Mali had kept Nkrumah in power, following his stepping down in 1970, Alhaji Imoru Egala had taken over as the nations president. While Ghana had followed the Triumvirate in style of economic and government policies, Egala opposed Sankara. Thus Sankara would begin applying political, social, and economic pressure on Ghana to reform, supporting popular demonstrations, and military unrest. Eventually by 1985, Egala would submit to popular pressure, and Ghana would be reorganize in the Socialist Federal Republic of Ghana adopting many of Sankara’s policies.

1978, would see the collapse of the Mauritanian State as its Islamic socialist leader Moktar Ould Daddah would lose his tenuous grip on power following black moor riots, a loss in Western Sahara, and protests from left wingers within his own one party state. Eventually his own half brother Ahmed Ould Daddah would coup Daddah ending his rule. The new Daddah would strengthen ties to its neighbors, officially abolish slavery, and transform Mauritania to a one party dominant system, and allowing opposition groups into government.

Thomas Sankara and his diplomats would also receive the President of the USA, Jimmy Carter in 1980. While there they would discuss foreign policy. The USA while supportive of Democratization, and offsetting OPEC, they looked on Mali’s intervention in Western Sahara and Morocco as troubling, seeing it as a domino effect of spreading their ideology. Malian diplomats would reassure the diplomatic Carter that there would be no expansions of any kind, and that these were merely backing the democratic will of the people. To further ease American fears, Algeria, and Nigeria would sell oil at lower prices to America helping them deal with the crisis OPEC had caused years earlier. This would; however, put the West African nations at odds with the Middle East, these tensions would remain high until the 90’s.

Economically, Sankara would embolden a new 5 Year Plan:

Mali would be forced to react to OPEC raising their prices by 10 percent. Offshore drilling in the Benin, and Ivorie Basin for petroleum while in the Senegal Basin and Ivorie Basin, Mali would begin natural gas exploration.

Private ventures would explode in SR Azawad as Italian, and American companies would begin exploration of the Taoudeni Basin under the payroll of the Malian government. These companies would also receive work in SR Aïr where they would explore natural gas and oil production in the Termit Basin. Both of these ventures would offer an interesting opportunity for integrating the Tuaregs into society. Many of these nomads would become mercenaries or workers as the government and companies-cooperatives would be desperate to protect their excavation equipment, and find workers acclimated to the local climate. While this wouldn’t end all tensions, government reinvestments into the economy of the SR’s and democratization would see a remarkable cool down in tensions, and finally the integration of many into society in general.

Mali, Algeria, Ghana and Nigeria would form a mutual economic bloc, and a counter to OPEC influence in North West Africa. Nigeria, Algeria and Ghana outproduced Mali oil wise more than the nation could ever hope to hold up. So Sankara pursued a 3 Economic

Pillars Policy, Consumer Goods, Heavy Industry, and Agriculture.

Agriculture: Following the adoption of Green Revolution techniques, mechanized technology, water conservation, crop rotation, and the use of more drought resistant and high yield crops, like sorghum, cassava, sweet potato, pearl millet, cowpea, dwarf durum wheat, and groundnut, agricultural production within Mali had taken off. Increasing in some places up to 200% even beyond pre-drought levels Mali was quickly cementing itself as the breadbasket of Africa, following the fall of Rhodesia.

Industrially, Mali while lacking large amounts of iron still imported a lot from Nigeria, Ghana and Algeria, this would allow Mali’s industry to boom. In the realm of consumer goods Mali would create numerous new cooperatives pioneered by entrepreneurs or even local towns. Textiles, Cigars, Food Processing, Trucks, Radios, Electronics, Information Technology, Pharmaceuticals, consumer automobiles, and Paper. The Malian economy would boom providing not only consumer goods to the populace but also other nations. The only side effect was the growing size of certain cooperatives which would be known as the Malian Mega-Coops and would cause significant strife.

In heavy industry, Heavy Trucks, small arms, Railroad equipment, construction materials, ore, steel, and oil refineries would rise in major cities.

All of these industrial developments would have the side effect of creating a rapidly growing Service Industry, as well as increasing average income and market access.

The government would expand its railways and road systems into more rural areas, as well as expanding electricity access allowing more Malian’s to connect across the nation. The government would facilitate this by using conscription and militia’s to help these generally unprofitable ventures.

Besides the economic measures Mali would deepen its ties abroad, buying more military equipment from the Soviet Union, while selling uranium off to other nations like the United States or Britain, and deepening economic and political ties to India.

Militarily, Mali would send aid and supplies to Western Sahara, while also backing Algeria if a war with Morocco erupts which would erupt in 1976-1980. The Western Sahara War sprung up over the status of Western Sahara with Algeria and Mali backing the socialist Polisario Front. Mali and Mauritania would face nearly coming to full scale war as Mauritania backed Morocco in the war. Border skirmishes would erupt between the two; however Mauritania would pull back from the border, but the threat of French intervention stopped Mali from pursuing any further gains. This war would culminate in a Western Saharan victory, as well as the ultimate collapse of the Moroccan Monarchy. The pressures of the Years of Lead, a major war loss, and a lack of help from the international community would cause the fragile government to collapse in on itself. This would begin a period known as the Moroccan Civil War in which numerous coups and counter coups would take place, eventually culminating in the creation of a Leftist Assembly by Ali Yata who would establish the People’s Democratic Republic of Morocco, as a multi party democracy of various leftist groups.

Politically 1975-1980 would see Mali transition into a full council socialist state with workers councils sending their first representatives to local, SR, and Federal Councils. 1980 would see Sankara elected by the Federal Council unopposed beginning his second term as Chairman of Mali.
Politically 1975-1980 would see Mali transition into a full council socialist state with workers councils sending their first representatives to local, SR, and Federal Councils. 1980 would see Sankara elected by the Federal Council unopposed beginning his second term as Chairman of Mali.
Luxembourg :
That's my Boy!

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What's the relationship between Mali and France?
Not very good. Mali kicked France out, refused to adopt the West African Franc system, and beat the Mauritanians into a collapse. It’s fair to say relations aren’t the greatest. However, Mali has strong relations to the UK and America so that’s why france hasn’t coup’d or destabilized the region like irl.

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Next post will be a tad controversial but I think it’s fine
Part 13: Social Revolution

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The Social Revolutions

Mali had begun its growth economically, politically, and internationally into one of Africa’s leading powers. Yet socially, Mali hadn’t advanced at nearly the same pace as other nations around the world. While the caste system had been officially abolished many people still found themselves in the same profession as their parents, many youths remained frustrated and disgruntled with the lack of liberation from social normality, and women faced much discrimination.

The Malian Women’s Organization would be founded in 1960 to push Women’s Rights within Mali. Various marches, protests, and even violence would lead to one major violent clash between protestors, counter protestors, and police would lead to over 100 deaths, and thousands injured. The event would be infamously known as the Bamako Bloodbath of 1982, and the dead martyred. The entirety of 1982 known as the Year of Reactionaries would leave hundreds of women dead, and even for the conservative cause the murder of women, would be considered too much and they would begin to fall back on their protests and demands. This would make the eventual transition and creation of protections by the government easier.

Homosexuality would be a different issue entirely. From the 70’s, Malian knowledge and consciousness of homosexuals really came from ethnic tribes, and events in their allies in America. Out of fear of events like Stonewall in America, different police groups or vigilantes would launch raids on secret gay areas, and meeting spots, with many being brutally killed or attacked. In 1980, Sankara would recognize the aids epidemic being one of the first African leaders to do so. This would; however, have the unintended effects of increased attacks on gays who were blamed for causing “Gods Wrath”. 1982, would once again see increased attacks and violence, the entire year being known as the Year of Reactionaries.

The rights of the disabled in Mali was one of the biggest issue the nation faced. The disabled often were discriminated against or killed forming an underclass within Mali. In a society and culture that had been starting to be built and shaped into emphasizing work, those who were unable or fell behind faced harsh social and economic pressures with many falling into economic poverty. During the Year of Reactionaries multiple hospitals or poor shelters would be attacked with many of homeless, old, or disabled residents beaten or even killed.

The Elderly and Homeless had formed another class of impoverished people within Mali. Called No Collars, like the disabled they would face systematic persecution as the new social classes which were based upon occupation heavily attacked those who were considered lazy, or infirm. During the Year of Reactionaries, homeless shelters would be attacked, and many elderly people harassed by angry middle aged reactionary groups, who had grown tired of taking orders from, minding, and paying for homeless and elderly members of society.

Prostitutes would also face attacks during this period. Mali would have numerous sex workers especially in the major cities of Mali, and mining towns. With the growing aids crisis, retribution attacks upon prostitutes became incredibly common with numerous vigilante groups attacking and burning secret brothels.

As the Year of Reactionary (1982-1983) raged throughout the nation, the Federal Council would know it needed to act. Sankara as Chairman would order the ISB to begin infiltration and bringing down of larger reactionary groups. This included the Group for Social Renewal, Traditional League, and Fundamentalist Front. The ISB and National Gendarmerie would cooperate and have their own members climb higher and higher within the ranks of these groups becoming more well known and meeting leaders of the various organizations. They would organize raids upon these groups leading to numerous high profile arrests of group leaders during the 1986 period.

While their groups would be severely weakened these reactionaries would surge and attempt The Second and Third Year of Reactionaries (1987-1988) and 1989-1990) respectively. This would be in response to high profile arrests, and new laws passed by the Federal Council. To the groups surprise they were quashed by Police (who had been brought to heel by state pressure), state militias, and even large bands of young protestors and paramilitary groups.

With immense social-political pressure these groups began to collapse, less radical members returned to normal life, while hardcore members found their leaders arrested, and their political leverage stunted. These events had a profound affect on Mali, even social conservatives, and apathetic moderates became more positive towards reform, and young people had become radicalized and energized having seen themselves as carrying out a Third Revolution against capitalist social norms.

In 1987, Thomas Sankara with threats, wrangling, and favors being provided was able to secure enough votes to change the Malian Constitution. While the council was forbidden from abolishing the constitution or removing parts of it (this was done to protect economic socialism) they could; however, add amendments as long as it did not contradict anything in the constitution. This amendment would be officially called, The Universal Declaration of Rights and Protections. It would also be more colloquially be called the Sankara Amendment.

Provisions of the Amendment:

Section 1: Duties of the State

•Hereby this amendment is a cornerstone of democracy in Mali. It enshrines the rights of all people in our country and affirms the democratic values of human dignity, equality and freedom.

•The state must respect, protect, promote and fulfil the rights in the Amendment.

•The rights in the Amendment are subject to the limitations contained or referred elsewhere in the Amendment.

Article 2: Application

•The amendment applies to all law, and binds the legislature, the economic, the executive, the judiciary and all organs of state.

•A provision of the Amendment binds a natural or a juristic person if, and to the extent that, it is applicable, taking into account the nature of the right and the nature of any duty imposed by the right.

Article 3: Equality

•Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law.

•Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms. To promote the achievement of equality, legislative and other measures designed to protect or advance persons, or categories of persons, disadvantaged by unfair discrimination may be taken.

•The state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth.

Article 4: Marriage and Civil Unions

•Marriage is defined as between by whichever temple, church, or mosque providing the marriage.

•For those who are homosexual or heterosexuals not conforming to a certain religion they may be allowed to obtain a civil union, unless they find a church, temple, or mosque that will provide them a marriage. Such civil unions which may be applied for by homosexual or heterosexual are thus granted the full protections and benefits as marriage.
Article 5: Dignity

•Everyone has inherent dignity and the right to have their dignity respected and protected.

•Everyone has inherent dignity and the right to have their dignity respected and protected.

•All work is subject to dignity of labor. All jobs are important and valued in society in their own way. Discrimination against some workers for their employment is strictly prohibited.

Article 6: Life and Death

•Every law abiding, and upstanding citizen deserves and shall be provided the right to life.

•Those who take another’s life unjustly or commit another heinous crime, their life’s may be deprived, up until the point of their release, whether that be through death or release from prison.

•In matters of abortion, women may not have an abortion unless sufficient danger is posed to women’s well being, this including loss of her life, economic ruin or mental collapse.
Article 7: Security

•Everyone has the right to freedom and security of the person, which includes the right –

(a) not to be deprived of freedom arbitrarily or without just cause;
(b) not to be detained without trial or warrant
(c) to be free from all forms of violence from either public or private sources; without just cause
(d) not to be tortured in any way; and
(e) not to be treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading way.

•Everyone has the right to bodily and psychological integrity, which includes the right –
(a) to make decisions concerning reproduction;
(b) to security in and control over their body; and
(c) not to be subjected to medical or scientific experiments without their informed consent.

Article 8: Slavery

•No one may be subjected to slavery

•Those imprisoned may be subject to forms of hard labor.

Article 9: Privacy

•Everyone has the right to privacy, which includes the right not to have –

(a) their person or home searched;
(b) their property searched;
(c) their possessions seized; or
(d) the fruits of their labor seized.

Article 10: Freedom of religion, belief and opinion

•Everyone has the right to freedom of conscience, religion, thought, belief and opinion.

•Religious observances may be conducted at state or state-aided institutions, provided that –

(a) those observances follow rules made by the appropriate public authorities;

(b) they are conducted on an equitable basis; and

(c) attendance at them is free and voluntary.

•This section does not prevent legislation recognising –

(a) Marriages concluded under any tradition, or a system of religious, personal or family law; or

(b) Systems of personal and family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons professing a particular religion.

(c) Recognition in terms of paragraph must be consistent with this section and the other provisions of the Constitution.
Article 11: Freedom of expression

•Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, which includes –

(a) freedom of the press and other media;

(b) freedom to receive or impart information or ideas;

(c) freedom of artistic creativity; and

(d) academic freedom and freedom of scientific research.

•The right in subsection does not extend to –
(a) propaganda for war;
(b) incitement of imminent violence; or
(c) advocacy of hatred that is based on race, ethnicity, gender or religion, and that constitutes incitement to cause harm.

Article 12: Assembly, demonstration, Picket and Petition

•Everyone has the right, peacefully and unarmed, to assemble, to demonstrate, to picket and to present petitions.

•Everyone may also strike when they desire to.

Article 13: Freedom of association

•Everyone has the right to freedom of association.

Article 14: Political rights

•Every worker is free to make political choices, which includes the right –

(a) to participate in the activities of, or recruit members for, a council position and
(b) to campaign for a council position or cause.
(c) Every citizen has the right to free, fair and regular elections for any legislative body established in terms of the Constitution.

•Every worker has the right –
(a) to vote in elections for any legislative body established in terms of the Constitution, and to do so in secret; and
(b) to stand for public office and, if elected, to hold office.
Article 15: Citizenship

•No citizen may be deprived of citizenship

Article 16: Freedom of movement and residence

•Everyone has the right to freedom of movement.

•Everyone has the right to leave the Republic.

•Every citizen has the right to enter, to remain in and to reside anywhere in, the Republic.

•Every citizen has the right to a passport.

Article 17: Discrimination Protections

•Every minority is protected from persecution whether legal, social, economic, or political.

Politically, Sankara would take massive hits from the so-called social revolutions, Three Year of the Reactionaries, and passing equality legislation.

In 1990 especially Sankara would nearly lose his seat as Chairman, only winning by 251-249. He would; however, not be finished and would prepare executive enforcement of his new equality laws.

Police reforms, ISB and National Gendarmerie expansion, plus increasing social access to lawyers, and lobbyists on their behalf would help Malians such as women or other minorities access new opportunities for legal defense.

Afterthought: Howdy another two days and another post. This one is covering the winding down period of Sankara’s chairmanship. His popularity waning a bit as his reforms are unlikely to be felt until years for now. He’ll retire in the year 2000 from politics, having irrevocably shaped politics in Mali for better or for worse.
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How's Niger and other Francophone nations in Africa doing? I'm sure the standardization of Mande would see Ajami and Boko receiving attention, which might see greater unity between the Hausa in Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger.