How's Niger and other Francophone nations in Africa doing? I'm sure the standardization of Mande would see Ajami and Boko receiving attention, which might see greater unity between the Hausa in Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger.
Niger is apart of Mali. The Boko Haram will be the biggest issue in the future
 
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Part 14: End of the Sankara Era
1990-2000



The Last 10 Years of Sankara Part 1: Education, Environment, and Healthcare


The last decade of the 20th Century would also be the end of an era for Mali. Thomas Sankara for all his triumphs, bringing democracy and equality to Mali found himself heavily chastised by everyone. Social Conservatives said he had gone too far too soon, Radicals claimed he hadn’t gone far enough, and the Federal Councils grew increasingly tired of him. Many high members of the Council came to Sankara and informed him, the council would most likely grant him a final term, but by 2000 he would have to retire. So, Sankara in his final decade would begin his last major reforms, Education, Environment, and Healthcare.
Militarily, Sankara would avoid most major entanglements. With the government declaring neutrality in the 1st and 2nd Congo Wars, instead preferring to make money instead of fighting wars. With the larger cooperatives firmly pressuring government non-interventionism.



Mali would still participate in some conflicts, mainly the Gulf War, Mali would send about 1,000 Malian soldiers as part of the multi national coalition to boot Iraq from Kuwait. This earned Mali international praise and brought it more into the western cultural and economic sphere. This would be more important to Mali as the fall of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia would shake Mali to its core. Once again more authoritarian forms of socialism had failed while Mali continued to survive and thrive. With the Yugoslav Wars Mali would specifically take in 2,500 Yugoslav refugees who willingly signed up to go to Mali, generally these were more ideological socialist members of the refugee groups. These groups would meld well into Malian society and economy.


The most controversial military activity was the annexation of Gambia. The Gambia had since the 60’s been a Malian Autonomous State, having multiparty parliamentary elections; however with Sankara’s ascension to government he had democratized the nation, and slowly reduced Gambian Autonomy. The Gambian All Socialist Bloc had secured a majority of the seats of parliament in 1995 running on a platform of integration into Mali. So, beginning in 1995, The Gambia began integration into Mali, of course this would not be totally without violence, and riots in Banjul forced the Gambian militia to open fire on rioters. After a long 6 months, 26,000 Gambians had been displaced, killed or imprisoned, with SR Gambia founded shortly afterwards with Worker Councils, and economic socialization coming into full effect.

Socially, Mali experienced major shifts in the 90’s. Denim embroidered jackets and other clothing with colorful patterns that represented ethnic heritage became incredibly popular and a national dress style. This style would become popular among women too pushing the further entrenchment of women as the same as men, especially within the workplace. The white toga style agbada, Dashiki shirts and Kufi Hats. Women, minorities, and other groups faced discrimination but now we’re becoming more represented in Malian society, and government. With electrification reaching 80% and literacy at 90% Malians had access to more and more modern technology like television, and radio, with Ouagadougou being the first place to gain internet in 1998.

Educationally, Mali ensured 85% of its citizens aged 6-17 went to the mandatory public education; however, the government knew it still needed standardization and expansion. The Ministry of Education would promote university level and daycare education for children as a way to encourage the growth of Mali’s academic base while also freeing up parents to work, and a growing service economy with daycare coops. The creation of a common curriculum would further help entrench a common Malian identity, history, and language. More specifics; however, would be left to individual states. Finally, Sankara would subsidize teachers in college making the process less costly for people pursuing a degree, with also the government appealing abroad to neighboring Nigeria, or even its allies India to come teach in Mali.

The Healthcare system in Mali had been extremely subpar. Poor standards, villages that lacked any proper medicine or facilities, understaffing in some areas, and over staffing in others, and exorbitant medical costs plagued the Malian system. By 2020 Mali would have 70 million people, and many of these people would lack access to proper medical care if nothing was done. Sankara would establish the Ministry of Healthcare, it’s first act the establishment of the People’s Public Healthcare which would free and accessible to all citizens of Mali. Expanded vaccinations, and preventative healthcare. The Ministry of Healthcare would also expand into reproductive health ensuring contraceptives and encouraging use for HIV positive people, with a law later being passed arresting people who unknowingly got others sick. While this healthcare would be the most expensive expenditure it would have long term positives for the Malian people.

Finally, came the most ambitious, but maybe most important to Sankara, the environment. The Ministry for the Environment would be founded. The ministry would be tasked with Plan Env.I which would see the afforestation of millions of trees in a project colloquially known as the Green Wall Project. Drought resistant plants and trees would be planted to curb and stop desertification of any lands within Mali. These trees would stretch from Senegal to Niger across the entire Sahel Region, an area that often had. Plan Env.II would see water desalination plants would be built to expand clean water through piping in 17 plants. Plan Env.III would pursue Green Energy for Mali. The main aim was 30% of Mali to be based upon such green energy by 2020.

These costly endeavors would stretch Mali’s finances, and cause Sankara to rely and allow more and more for large mega-cooperatives to expand their economic opportunities and power inwards.


Thus, as 2000 dawned Sankara would step down, and walk out of the National Council for the final time. He had dedicated 25 years to Mali and her people, and now he could finally rest and retire. Sankara would live up until the modern day as a political theorist teacher in the University of Ouagadougou. For better or worse Mali would be forever changed.


Afterthought: So we march closer to the end of our timeline with the end of the Sankara era. So any preliminary guesses as to what the gdp of Mali will be by the modern day?
 
Worker controlled cooperatives still. Forced to pay dividends back to their workers, and workers still elect managers who select CEO/upper management etc.
Are workers who want to join a worker cooperative pay a membership fee/initial capital contribution?
 
Worker controlled cooperatives still. Forced to pay dividends back to their workers, and workers still elect managers who select CEO/upper management etc.
And what are taxes like in Mali? And are Corporations considered entities to shield Workers from legal repercussions?
 
Are workers who want to join a worker cooperative pay a membership fee/initial capital contribution?
Yes of course, there is caps on how much can be charger on initial capital investments. Generally the coop I work you initially buy in, and you pay a stipend directly from your dividends at a fixed rate.
 
And what are taxes like in Mali? And are Corporations considered entities to shield Workers from legal repercussions?
Flat tax rate, pretty fixed in place basic structure is taxing off of base income and then dividends made from the market. 35% on individual taxes. As for your second question, not really? While you elect worker council members they can’t really protect you from legal repercussions, keeping a general level peace is the ideal for all in the council.
 
1990-2000



The Last 10 Years of Sankara Part 1: Education, Environment, and Healthcare


The last decade of the 20th Century would also be the end of an era for Mali. Thomas Sankara for all his triumphs, bringing democracy and equality to Mali found himself heavily chastised by everyone. Social Conservatives said he had gone too far too soon, Radicals claimed he hadn’t gone far enough, and the Federal Councils grew increasingly tired of him. Many high members of the Council came to Sankara and informed him, the council would most likely grant him a final term, but by 2000 he would have to retire. So, Sankara in his final decade would begin his last major reforms, Education, Environment, and Healthcare.
Militarily, Sankara would avoid most major entanglements. With the government declaring neutrality in the 1st and 2nd Congo Wars, instead preferring to make money instead of fighting wars. With the larger cooperatives firmly pressuring government non-interventionism.



Mali would still participate in some conflicts, mainly the Gulf War, Mali would send about 1,000 Malian soldiers as part of the multi national coalition to boot Iraq from Kuwait. This earned Mali international praise and brought it more into the western cultural and economic sphere. This would be more important to Mali as the fall of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia would shake Mali to its core. Once again more authoritarian forms of socialism had failed while Mali continued to survive and thrive. With the Yugoslav Wars Mali would specifically take in 2,500 Yugoslav refugees who willingly signed up to go to Mali, generally these were more ideological socialist members of the refugee groups. These groups would meld well into Malian society and economy.


The most controversial military activity was the annexation of Gambia. The Gambia had since the 60’s been a Malian Autonomous State, having multiparty parliamentary elections; however with Sankara’s ascension to government he had democratized the nation, and slowly reduced Gambian Autonomy. The Gambian All Socialist Bloc had secured a majority of the seats of parliament in 1995 running on a platform of integration into Mali. So, beginning in 1995, The Gambia began integration into Mali, of course this would not be totally without violence, and riots in Banjul forced the Gambian militia to open fire on rioters. After a long 6 months, 26,000 Gambians had been displaced, killed or imprisoned, with SR Gambia founded shortly afterwards with Worker Councils, and economic socialization coming into full effect.

Socially, Mali experienced major shifts in the 90’s. Denim embroidered jackets and other clothing with colorful patterns that represented ethnic heritage became incredibly popular and a national dress style. This style would become popular among women too pushing the further entrenchment of women as the same as men, especially within the workplace. The white toga style agbada, Dashiki shirts and Kufi Hats. Women, minorities, and other groups faced discrimination but now we’re becoming more represented in Malian society, and government. With electrification reaching 80% and literacy at 90% Malians had access to more and more modern technology like television, and radio, with Ouagadougou being the first place to gain internet in 1998.

Educationally, Mali ensured 85% of its citizens aged 6-17 went to the mandatory public education; however, the government knew it still needed standardization and expansion. The Ministry of Education would promote university level and daycare education for children as a way to encourage the growth of Mali’s academic base while also freeing up parents to work, and a growing service economy with daycare coops. The creation of a common curriculum would further help entrench a common Malian identity, history, and language. More specifics; however, would be left to individual states. Finally, Sankara would subsidize teachers in college making the process less costly for people pursuing a degree, with also the government appealing abroad to neighboring Nigeria, or even its allies India to come teach in Mali.

The Healthcare system in Mali had been extremely subpar. Poor standards, villages that lacked any proper medicine or facilities, understaffing in some areas, and over staffing in others, and exorbitant medical costs plagued the Malian system. By 2020 Mali would have 70 million people, and many of these people would lack access to proper medical care if nothing was done. Sankara would establish the Ministry of Healthcare, it’s first act the establishment of the People’s Public Healthcare which would free and accessible to all citizens of Mali. Expanded vaccinations, and preventative healthcare. The Ministry of Healthcare would also expand into reproductive health ensuring contraceptives and encouraging use for HIV positive people, with a law later being passed arresting people who unknowingly got others sick. While this healthcare would be the most expensive expenditure it would have long term positives for the Malian people.

Finally, came the most ambitious, but maybe most important to Sankara, the environment. The Ministry for the Environment would be founded. The ministry would be tasked with Plan Env.I which would see the afforestation of millions of trees in a project colloquially known as the Green Wall Project. Drought resistant plants and trees would be planted to curb and stop desertification of any lands within Mali. These trees would stretch from Senegal to Niger across the entire Sahel Region, an area that often had. Plan Env.II would see water desalination plants would be built to expand clean water through piping in 17 plants. Plan Env.III would pursue Green Energy for Mali. The main aim was 30% of Mali to be based upon such green energy by 2020.

These costly endeavors would stretch Mali’s finances, and cause Sankara to rely and allow more and more for large mega-cooperatives to expand their economic opportunities and power inwards.


Thus, as 2000 dawned Sankara would step down, and walk out of the National Council for the final time. He had dedicated 25 years to Mali and her people, and now he could finally rest and retire. Sankara would live up until the modern day as a political theorist teacher in the University of Ouagadougou. For better or worse Mali would be forever changed.


Afterthought: So we march closer to the end of our timeline with the end of the Sankara era. So any preliminary guesses as to what the gdp of Mali will be by the modern day?
Seems perfectly reasonable to have a GDP PPP Per Capita of more than $6,000 by today; making it wealthier than its other west African neighbours.

Does Mali compete as one nation in the African Nations Cup?
 
Seems perfectly reasonable to have a GDP PPP Per Capita of more than $6,000 by today; making it wealthier than its other west African neighbours.

Does Mali compete as one nation in the African Nations Cup?
So about 420 million gdp ppp by modern day?
 
So about 420 million gdp ppp by modern day?
I would put that as a reasonable low-to mid estimate. It's also possible that with better management and investments in education and health care, that we see massive improvements and Mali could be closer to $12,000, a la North Africa or Gabon - although those countries have massive oil revenues, they have experienced either conflict (North Africa), or lower investments in social spending (Gabon).
 
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I would put that as a reasonable low-to mid estimate. It's also possible that with better management and investments in education and health care, that we see massive improvements and Mali could be closer to $12,000, a la North Africa or Gabon - although those countries have massive oil revenues, they have experienced either conflict (North Africa), or lower investments in social spending (Gabon).
So my rebuttal is Mali is moving into the taudeni basin irl which is suspected to have oil but Mali is too poor and the region too unstable. Also there is natural gas fields off of Senegal, and oil fields off of Ivory Coast. Finally Mali has built up a solid industry and is an economic Union with all Western and northwestern Africa. Plus the 4th largest uranium reserves I’m sure Mali can make due with those profits. I’d say I agree probably a little below 12,000 seems reasonable as long as nothing major destroys Mali by the time reach 2020 the end of our timeline.
 
Afterthought: So we march closer to the end of our timeline with the end of the Sankara era. So any preliminary guesses as to what the gdp of Mali will be by the modern day?
About 4.1k per capita (similar to Indonesia in 2019) would be my low end estimate, 8.8k (so similar to Brazil in 2019) would be my upper end estimate. Both had somewhat unusual paths to their democratic status quo, state guided industrialization efforts, and both are friendly, though not aligned, with the west.

Note: this is using GDP (nominal) per capita not GDP (PPP) per capita because I prefer nominal values, and I looked at at 2019 values because a certain pandemic cause all sorts of mischief in the reported values.
 
About 4.1k per capita (similar to Indonesia in 2019) would be my low end estimate, 8.8k (so similar to Brazil in 2019) would be my upper end estimate. Both had somewhat unusual paths to their democratic status quo, state guided industrialization efforts, and both are friendly, though not aligned, with the west.

Note: this is using GDP (nominal) per capita not GDP (PPP) per capita because I prefer nominal values, and I looked at at 2019 values because a certain pandemic cause all sorts of mischief in the reported values.
I prefer nominal as well. So 8.8 per capita on your estimate, 12 ppp per capita for the other guy. So I’m getting a pretty general area.
 
I prefer nominal as well. So 8.8 per capita on your estimate, 12 ppp per capita for the other guy. So I’m getting a pretty general area.
For nominal I'd estimate between $2000 and $6000.

$6000 would be by 10% the largest nominal GDP per capita in Africa (higher than S Africa). $3400 is where Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt are. $2000 is Angola.

Socialist countries tend to have relatively high PPP compared to nominal (as a feature, not a bug).

Edit: as for nominal vs PPP, they both have their uses. Nominal is a much better indicator of the relative size of two countries economies in the sense of "how many actual dollars does X country have to spend"; PPP is useless for that but gives a much better picture of how much stuff a typical person in said country can buy with their local wages.
 
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S
For nominal I'd estimate between $2000 and $6000.

$6000 would be by 10% the largest nominal GDP per capita in Africa (higher than S Africa). $3400 is where Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt are. $2000 is Angola.

Socialist countries tend to have relatively high PPP compared to nominal (as a feature, not a bug).

Edit: as for nominal vs PPP, they both have their uses. Nominal is a much better indicator of the relative size of two countries economies in the sense of "how many actual dollars does X country have to spend"; PPP is useless for that but gives a much better picture of how much stuff a typical person in said country can buy with their local wages.
So between 6-9 I’ll probably just hit in the middle and go 8 even.

so 560 Billion gdp nominal
With 8,000 as the per capita nominal.

Thanks guys
 
South Africa was over $8,000 per capita in 2011 before the ANC had a billion scandals that destroyed all confidence in the Rand.
Yup, and we dont really know what the ceiling is - the larger economy size, with investments in social spending...Mali could hit economic "take off" and end up with China-style growth rates. It really is in a great location for trade.
 
S

So between 6-9 I’ll probably just hit in the middle and go 8 even.

so 560 Billion gdp nominal
With 8,000 as the per capita nominal.

Thanks guys
Forgive me Mr King, I'm off tomorrow and will be able to re-read in more detail; could you please advise which OTL states became part of the Mali Federation?

Is it all of French West Africa? You had mentioned Gambia as an autonomous state. IOTL, Ghana under Nkrumah flirted with socialism...and were the Portuguese states integrated after the Carnation Revolution?

Again, forgive me
 
Yup, and we dont really know what the ceiling is - the larger economy size, with investments in social spending...Mali could hit economic "take off" and end up with China-style growth rates. It really is in a great location for trade.
The modern day issues for Mali will probably blunt the economic growth from terminal velocity or anything like that.
 
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