Affiliated States of Boreoamerica thread

Vermont
Very general overview map of Vermont.

In the world of the ASB, Vermont represents an area where the colony of New Hampshire illegally gave grants to settle in Dutch territory to some of its citizens and to some bands of Abenaki.[*1] In a classic divergence of interests, the British government refused to support the settlers, who spent decades fighting off Dutch officials on their own in a slow-paced conflict that was a constant threat to Anglo-Dutch relations.

In the 1760s, the conflict came to a head. Britain confirmed its recognition of Dutch authority in the land west of the Connecticut River, in effect disowning the Vermonters. The settlers formed a militia, the Green Mountain Boys, and then a republican government. This was probably a bluff meant to force Britain to re-assess the situation, but it drew the attention of French Canada. The French welcomed any disunity among their English rivals and were at the same moment stirring up trouble between Virginians and Pennsylvanians in the Ohio country.[*2] The Canadian governor extended recognition and friendship to the new republic, and after that there was really no going back.

Vermont is often compared with Upper Connecticut and Watauga, all small English-speaking states that began as independent settlement projects without support from the mother country. Its tradition of stubborn self-reliance is considered the "north pole" of the quintessence of New English culture; the "south pole" is represented by Martha's Vineyard with its his history of tolerance, sensible compromise, and a nautical tradition.

Today Vermont, like the rest of New England, is mostly English-speaking; but the southwest around Bennington has become largely Dutch, while the northern borderland has many French speakers from Canada. Memfremagog is about 50%-50% French and English. The Abenaki language has not fared particularly well here, since they intermarried with the ENglish and their children largely abandoned the Indian language; but some important pockets remain. St. Johnsbury in particular is known for its Abenaki culture; most road signs and shops in town are bilingual.

[*1] In the world of the ASB, it would be madness for settlers to begin a project without bringing along some friendly Indians. Without them they couldn't hope to defend a wide area by themselves, and the Indians' family connections in nearby villages would help them smooth over conflicts with their neighbors.
[*2] Another feature of the ASB is the intense rivalry among the English-speaking colonies. Today, descendants of those colonists identify as different ethnic groups, usually called "stocks," the most prominent of which are Yankee, Pennamite, Virginian, and Carolian. Those identities to an English speaker are at least as important as the distinctions between Canadiens, Adadiens, and Métis to a French speaker.

ps - Vermont is the most obvious clue that the ASB is not a strict alternate history project. It is highly convergent in a world that began to diverge from ours in the early 17th century.

vermont FLAT.png
 
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Facinating concept of a Federation! I know you said no more provinces but I wish you'd reconsider - I'm very interested to see what other places you could come up with if you keep going!
 
Facinating concept of a Federation! I know you said no more provinces but I wish you'd reconsider - I'm very interested to see what other places you could come up with if you keep going!
Well, no more than the curernt 50. but I plan to explore more of the 50 in detail, and hopefully by doing that I can learn more about the overall history - what if any role is served by the home countries, the monarchs, etc.
 
It kinda reminds me of a bigger, more Nativized version of IB's North American League TBH; not that that's necessarily a bad thing, just noticing similarities. So would this be a whole, independent country by modern day, or just an assembly of beholden colonies and Native chiefdoms like in IB (something that honestly bothers me more than the butterfly slaughter it implies)?
 
It kinda reminds me of a bigger, more Nativized version of IB's North American League TBH; not that that's necessarily a bad thing, just noticing similarities. So would this be a whole, independent country by modern day, or just an assembly of beholden colonies and Native chiefdoms like in IB (something that honestly bothers me more than the butterfly slaughter it implies)?
Yes, you're right, and as an Ill Bethisad member I've tried to avoid taking any ideas directly from the NAL, though some influence has probably been inevitable. My premise has always been, "What if the cultures and dynamics of the 18th century were never swept away?" And I know IB in general has some similar impulses, to preserve things that were lost. But I think the NAL is actually bigger than the ASB, since it ended up getting Rupert's Land.
 
New map, though it's small.

In an earlier post I alluded to the "English stocks;" that is, the different English-speaking ethnic groups that formed in the 18th century in the different colonies, and which then spread westward.

The stocks are very different. They are not all the same color, and they do not all speak English. What they have in common is a British colonial heritage. These different cultures emerged in the early days of the colonies. Conflict between colonies, regions, and peoples helped make them distinct. For example, rivalry over land in Alleghenia helped to define the identities of Virginians and Pennamites, while the Low Carolians and Piedmonters emerged partly through political rivalries within Carolina.

It's important to stress that the English stocks are ethnic divisions. Each group shares a common history and culture. Many people in the ASB, especially in the western states, identify as belonging to or descended from one of the stocks even though they don't speak English. At the same time there are many English speakers that do not identify with any of these groups, and instead trace their heritage to Ireland, Europe, or one or more Indian nations. The groups have by and large maintained their separate identities, though obviously intermarriage between stocks is common enough because of the lack of a language barrier. Comparisons are often drawn to the distinct French ethnicities, the most prominent of which are Canadiens, Acadiens, and Métis.

This map shows which ethnic group is most prevalent among the "English" population in all parts of the ASB. It's important to stress that the "English" groups do not form a majority in most of the ASB. In some places, like Cuba, the population is very small indeed; but this map shows which stock is largest within that population.

The ASB generally recognizes nine English stocks:

Newfers: The people of Newfoundland trace their origins to England, Scotland, and Ireland, and in the isolation of their home they formed a distinct culture.

New Scots: The only one of the stocks without an English language heritage, they are descendants of Scottish Gaelic people who settled in Nova Scotia and the Acadias in the 18th and 19th centuries. By and large they have maintained their language, but in heavily English-Speaking regions, the New Scots have adopted English. A considerable number moved to Canada in the 19th century, and their descendants there have largely switched to French. This language difference is why the map shows them in a different color than the others.

Yankees: In the ASB, a Yankee is a descendant of the colonial English settlers of New England. Yankees have been a very influential force in Boreal America's history as merchants, sailors, shipbuilders, industrialists, and settlers. They were instrumental in carrying English influence into the Great Lakes, which was French territory. Yankee communities can still be found along the Lakes, especially in the state of Upper Connecticut. Yankees also provided the manpower for the colonization project along the Red River of the North, the present-day state of Assiniboia.

Pennamites: Pennsylvania was a colony with lots of people and wealth but with no ability to extend its territory, hedged in by areas of Dutch, Iroquois/Shawnee, and Virginian influence. So the colony spread its influence through commerce and migration rather than physical expansion. Pennamite merchants (together with Métis elites) were instrumental in organizing the Ohio country.

Virginians: The people of the Chesapeake were historically the most numerous of the English stocks. They are the only group to successfully colonize a large western territory: Upper Virginia, stretching along the south bank of the Ohio. Some Virginians moved into the French-dominated lands even further west, where they tended to stick to the river valleys. In Maryland, the term Baymen refers to the same ethnic group.

Piedmonters: Piedmonters are the descendants of Scotch-Irish settlers in the southern Appalachians. Their music, language, and cuisine are all famously distinct. The Piedmonters were also a westward-driving people, but their smaller numbers and relative poverty placed limits on their conquests. Piedmonters founded the state of Watauga. Others migrated into western lands without creating new polities. A few settled as far as the hills of Arques, where their descendants can be identified by their Scottish surnames in this French- and Osage-speaking region.

Blacks: This group is descended from African slaves in the states of Virginia and Carolina. They are also known for their food and cuisine, which have been influential throughout the southern mainland ASB. Many freed or escaped Blacks moved west into Cherokee and Muscogia, while others were moved there through the slave trade. East Florida became the home of another prominent free community, which intermarried extensively with the Seminol people there and now speaks mostly Seminol or Spanish. The term Main Black or Mainland Black comes from Florida, and it distinguishes this stock from more recent arrivals from the Bahamas. Another term is Carolian, since Blacks constitute a majority of people in Carolina and define that state's distinct culture.

Low Carolians: They are descendants of the white planters of coastal Carolina. In Carolina itself they are mostly a minority group, though there are a number of old, venerable Low Carolian communities. They are most prominent in West Florida, where they were the main force behind an aborted British settlement project.

Bahamians: Another African-descended stock. They have much in common with other English-speaking Caribbean communities. Many Bahamians have moved to coastal parts of Seminol in recent years.

English stocks flat.png
 
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Does the Pennamites have Welsh ancestry?
Yes, the Welsh Quakers were one of the "root populations" of the Pennamites. By and large they blended in to their neighbors. A few small Welsh-speaking communities still exist - not in the original Welsh Tract, but in an isolated part of Allegheny and Poutaxia, founded by descendants of the original Quaker settlers. These two states are some of the most diverse in the confederacy; every valley seems to speak a different language.
 
Yes, the Welsh Quakers were one of the "root populations" of the Pennamites. By and large they blended in to their neighbors. A few small Welsh-speaking communities still exist - not in the original Welsh Tract, but in an isolated part of Allegheny and Poutaxia, founded by descendants of the original Quaker settlers. These two states are some of the most diverse in the confederacy; every valley seems to speak a different language.
Poutaxia? :confused:
 
Poutaxia? :confused:
Ah! So sorry; on the older maps it's called "Delaware." It's the land around the upper Delaware River, OTL northeastern Pennsylvania. Historically it was disputed territory. Many Lenapes lived there and claimed it. The Iroquois claimed it as the core homeland for the dependent Shawnee people. Pennsylvania wanted to expand into the area and claimed it under the terms of its charter. Even Connecticut had designs on it. In the end, a local government was organized by mixed Dutch-Lenape traders and leaders of free Black communities; its purpose was to resist Pennamite expansion and Iroquois raids.

I honestly can't remember where the name comes from anymore. :eek: I think it is the name of the river in one of the Indian languages. In English, the state is often called "Delaware." Otherwise, pronounce it "Poutaksha."
 
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Dominion of New England
The first new map in a long time - The Dominion of New England:

"Dominion New England," also called "Royalist New England" or "Tory New England," descends from those colonies that did not reject the English monarchy in the late 18th century. Its unification, and the treaties that bound it in friendship to "Republican New Enlgand," are a part of the ASB's origin story.

The Dominion does not encompass everything that is considered New England, which includes Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Meanwhile, "Greater New England" includes all parts of North America heavily settled by Yankees, including St. John's Island and Upper Connecticut on Lake Erie, along with smaller traditional Yankee communities throughout the North.

The lozenge symbol on the map is the official logo of the country; there is also a coat of arms and flag used to represent New England.

... This does clarify further what the ASB is. Monarchy is still around for some states, though others had some kind of revolution. There are tighter federations within the broader Confederation, which probably implies some other interlocking structures as well (not unlike Schengen, the EU, the Eurozone, et cetera).

dominion flattened.png
 
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Hey! :D

So the ASB is back? Cool!

How do state governments function? Is there a wide variety, with some having parliamentarism and others presidentialism, with even others having special ways?
 
Sweet, good to see this back!

I did have a question over your "English Heritage" map a bit upthread. It reads that the Scots-Irish generally went to the Piedmont region, in the foothills. Would this include Lowland Scots? These colonists were/are a totally different animal than the Highlanders who spoke Gaelic, instead of Lallans or Scottish English like the Lowlanders did. I'd personally bet they collocated in the Piedmont given their closer ties to the Ulstermen who preceded the Scots-Irish.
 
Illinois
Something I wrote months ago but did not share here:



ILLINOIS
ORIGINS OF THE ETHNIC ILLINOIS

The Illinois are a hybrid people. They are considered one of the Métis peoples of North America, because their heritage is both French and indigenous; yet they are a different ethnic group from the Métis proper, or Canadian Métis. The language of the Illinois is French, but their dialect contains words and phrases from the language of the ancestral Illinois, or Inoca.

The original Inoca confederacy united several Algonquian tribes. In the first half of the 1600s, it was the dominant power in the present-day states of Illinois, Upper Louisiana, and Arques, as well as the southeastern part of the Upper Country. A series of wars between the Iroquois and their neighbors brought many refugees into this region; the refugees created new alliances that threatened the rule of the Inoca. By the 1660s the confederation was still powerful, but its influence extended no further than the borders of the present-day state, and this influence was diminishing. During this time, the first French traders began to move through the Illinois country.

French habitants began to build farming villages around 1700, with the first appearing next to the existing Inoca villages of Cahokia and Kaskaskia. By then, the confederation was facing serious threats from Iroquois raids, ongoing friction with newcomers to the region, and diseases brought by the French themselves. With their power and their numbers declining, the Illinois had to rely more on their alliance with the French. Illinois villages that did not have adjoining French forts shrank or disappeared. The core of the confederacy shifted to the line of towns in the Mississippi Bottom, the ribbon of flat, fertile soil to the east of the river. The modern Illinois people came from the mixed settlements that took shape there.

Both the Illinois Indians and the French habitants contributed to the emerging culture. The French brought their language and the Catholic religion. The Indians brought styles of clothing and housing suited to life in the bottom lands and up on the prairie. A form of communal land ownership characterized the settlements, a practice known to the French and acceptable to the Indians. Such Illinois cultural elements as food, music, and dance styles truly were new combinations not seen elsewhere in America or Europe.

By the second half of the eighteenth century, the lines between French and Inoca were already blurring. A great many habitants had family from both cultures. Local leaders had dual roles, as French colonial administrators and confederation chiefs. "Les Illinois" came to be recognized as a unique, mixed-blood, French-speaking ethnic group. Ethnic Illinois began to migrate across the Mississippi River and elsewhere, bringing a sense of Illinois identity with them.

FROM CONFEDERATION TO STATE

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the French administration officially called Illinois Haute-Louisiane, treating it as a northern extension of their colony in Louisiana. But Illinois had broad de facto autonomy. For one thing, there was the sheer distance between Illinois and the centers of French power in New Orleans and Quebec. In addition, local administrators' roles were merging with the roles of confederation chiefs, encouraging them to have a "national" outlook often different from the colonial French point of view. Finally, Illinois was able to exploit rivalry between Louisiana and Canada to win more local control over its affairs.

In the 1760s France built St. Louis on the other side of the Mississippi River to be a new center of trade and administration, one that would be more subservient to colonial rule than the precocious Illinois. This served to divide Haute-Louisiane in two: a nearly independent "Illinois" east of the river, and a much more reliable colony of "Upper Louisiana" to the west. Subsequent French settlement focused on Upper Louisiana. Other settlements east of the river, most notably Peoria, became dominated by Franco-Illinois and allied Indians from other groups such as the Potawatomi.

The foundations for the modern state of Illinois were laid in the early 19th century. Neighboring peoples acknowledged Illinois's borders and its independence from both Upper Louisiana and the Upper Country. A great meeting began to occur in Peoria that brought together administrators, leaders of Illinois habitants, allied village chiefs, and representatives of English settlers. This meeting evolved into a government. In 1839, Peoria became the sole capital of the state when most functions of government ceased in Kaskaskia (the French center) and Vandalia (the English center).

ETHNICITY AND LANGUAGE

The ethnic Illinois were the foundation of the state, but from early times it incorporated others of different language and ethnic backgrounds. The Potawatomi of the upper Illinois River valley were effectively part of the state by 1800 or so. A short time later, growing settlements of Virginian English speakers in the prairies and hills above Kaskaskia became allies, fully integrating into the state in 1839. The Sauk-Fox confederacy, centered north and west of Peoria, was incorporated shortly after that. Further diversity in the early years came from additional French settlers (mostly people of Canadian background coming from the Upper Country and Upper Louisiana), German immigrants, Pennsylvanian and Virginian land speculators, and freed and runaway slaves.

French has always been the only province-wide official language. English, Meskwaki, Potawatomi, and German have deep roots in Illinois and are spoken in some communities. Old Illinois, or Inoca, is no longer the language of the ethnic Illinois. The same language is spoken by the Wea and Miami people in the state of Ohio, so some speakers live inside the borders of Illinois. It is still used in personal names, place names, and inscriptions. As stated, a number of terms have been borrowed into the local French, such as nal, "cicada," and aquime, "chief", which today can mean "sir", "respected elder", "teacher", "member of a local council", and so forth.

Do you mind making a map for Maryland in the ASB?
This was actually on my mind for the next one. Maryland's borders are swelled just a little in all directions. In OTL Maryland Colony lost just about every land dispute it ever had; in TTL things went slightly better. The far west is more than just a triangle barely hanging on, for example.

Hey! :D

So the ASB is back? Cool!

How do state governments function? Is there a wide variety, with some having parliamentarism and others presidentialism, with even others having special ways?
Why, it never went anywhere! Yes, there is naturally huge variation in the state governments. To the point where Southern New England, it appears, has kept the monarchy while most other colonies have not. And I am next to certain that one or more states recognize the Jacobite claimant. Massachusetts and most other ex-English colonies have presidential systems, while southern New England, I am sure, has adopted a Westminster-style parliament. I want to read more about how modern Native American polities governed themselves - particularly the Cherokee pre-Removal and the Haudenosaunee today; because these will form the basis for their corresponding governments in the ASB.

Sweet, good to see this back!

I did have a question over your "English Heritage" map a bit upthread. It reads that the Scots-Irish generally went to the Piedmont region, in the foothills. Would this include Lowland Scots? These colonists were/are a totally different animal than the Highlanders who spoke Gaelic, instead of Lallans or Scottish English like the Lowlanders did. I'd personally bet they collocated in the Piedmont given their closer ties to the Ulstermen who preceded the Scots-Irish.
The short answer is yes. The longer answer is that some of that needs to be re-worked as I develop Nova Scotia and the Acadias. I have it filled up with Yankees and Highlanders, per OTL. However, almost everywhere I have been using the term "English" over "British" because part of the back story in my mind is that the Act of Union never occurred and Britain came out of the Civil Wars weaker than in OTL; that partly explains the lack of British and Anglo-American dominance. I think that Nova Sotia will end up as a true Scottish colony, and this will change some of what I've written, both about the ethnic groups (the "stocks") and about the political history of Acadia. This is the reason that nothing on the English stocks has yet made it into the official canon (which lives on my website, http://karnell.weebly.com/the-asb.html).

But yeah, some Scots would still be immigrating to the English colonies, and many Yankees would still move into Nova Scotia, even in this scenario.
 
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I'll also request to whatever mods might see this: this is more of a "maps and graphics" thread. It started before the forums split up and never got moved because it's one of the smaller threads. But it doesn't really belong here.
 
I'll also request to whatever mods might see this: this is more of a "maps and graphics" thread. It started before the forums split up and never got moved because it's one of the smaller threads. But it doesn't really belong here.
I reported your post to make sure they see it.

Anyway, quite interesting re state givernments. I assume there are no ASB-wide politicial parties?
 
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