Lusitania

Donor
To me, the Portuguese gains in Africa look self-explanatory.
Africa is understandable, but there are other parts of the world that are a little more divergent from our own. The Indian civil war seemed to divide the subcontinent so we might need a rough map for the new Indian nations and how Portugal relates to them. Also, Indonesia appears to be a mess and who knows what happened to Spain? I see that Portugal finally gained Olivenza but Galacia is it's own nations? Can't wait to see how that went down.
Yes all will be explained in the world section.

Feliz Natal!

I really hope galicia will someday join the federation, i can understand it will be particularly harder for it than other members as it has been traditionally integrated in the spanish economy for centuries, but ideally that seems like the best thing for Galicia.

Also hope Casamance breaks away and either enters the federation or becomes a closely associated state.
what I can say in both cases is that there an alignment of the federation and its friends in the future. As for Casamance we will see how it fares in the 1960s.
 
1950s - World

Lusitania

Donor
1950 – 1959 (cont)

World

In 1952 the UK became the third nuclear power followed by France who developed theirs in 1958. In 1952 the US developed the Hydrogen Bomb a weapon much more devastating than the nuclear bomb. This was followed by Soviets in 1955 and the UK in 1957. For the whole decade, the world lived under nuclear threat and was subject to diplomatic push and witnessed several military actions that became known as the Cold War as the two superpowers; US and Soviets vied for global domination and influence.

In the late 50s a new third group emerged called the non-aligned movement which strived to maintain neutrality and peace between them and the superpowers. Its influence was limited though as most countries either sided with Soviets and USA in the global cold war, to many people’s surprise the Portuguese Federation applied to join the group and indicated it was prepared to discuss its participation in NATO as part of the application. But the members of group feeling Portuguese Federation represented the forces it sought to reject rejected Portuguese Federation application. This angered the Portuguese who saw the non-aligned movement as the perfect organization to resist both the Soviet and USA continued diplomatic and economic pressures.

The state of Israel became a beacon for millions of Jews around world and thousands of Jews from all parts of the world migrated there. Israel’s “Law of Return” granted automatic citizenship to any Jew migrating to Israel. Majority of all Jews living under Arab rule migrated to Israel and countries like Iraq and Iran witnessed their entire Jewish population leaving while rest of Arab states and North African Muslim majority colonies saw the migration of close to 90% of their Jewish residents. Portugal’s new Jewish population also began migrating to Israel. Portuguese government granted any Portuguese Jew who migrated to Israel with dual nationality and ability to move between the two countries at will. By the end of the decade about 50% of the Jews living in Portuguese Federation migrated to Israel. Portuguese Federation’s continued unwavering support of Israel was strengthened by extensive economic support and economic projects of mutual interests such as agriculture and electronics with Israel. Several joint Portuguese Israeli enterprises were started. Military support and sale of military equipment also occurred in secret prior to Suez Canal Crises and openly after.

In the US, the 50s were characterized by the baby boom and strong economic growth especially in USA, Canada and other western countries. The US government was transferred to the Republicans with the election of Eisenhower as president who continued America First policy and dominance of western world both economically as well as militarily. The American government’s opinion on Portuguese Federation changed slightly as the country’s economic strength was noticed but as the decade progressed become more antagonistic towards Portuguese Federation since the Federation was not seen as a reliable partner. Portuguese Federation’s continued interventions and meddling in East Asia, Indian Subcontinent, Spain and Africa drew continuous American government criticism. The Portuguese government countered that Portuguese non-white citizens had more rights, economic and educational opportunities than non-white citizens in America. Meanwhile the US “tolerated” Portuguese Federation due to its continued anti-communist stand and need for strong allies. Even so the US showed its displeasure with Portuguese Federation by blocking several sales of American technology and the setup of satellite factories in the Federation. In the US anti-communist hysteria reached new highs as politicians, entertainers and government employees were investigated and blacklisted. In 1959 the US admitted both Hawaii and Alaska as the 49th and 50th states.

The Soviet Union development of Nuclear weapons put Western Europe on edge and made the western world completely reliant on the US nuclear defense umbrella. In 1953 Stalin passed away and Khrushchev became Soviet Union’s new leader. Even so during the 1950s tensions with West continued to escalate. In 1956 Khrushchev began releasing millions of political prisoners but did not tolerate any criticism or descent within the Soviet Union or from its communist allies. The Soviet Union and its Eastern Europe communist allies rebuilt their worn torn economies and made crucial steps in industrialization and economic growth. Hampering them was the inefficient central planning model.

In 1954 France suffered two major blows to its colonial empire. In Algiers, Algerian Muslims began a rebellion against French rule. Meanwhile France was forced to withdraw completely from Indochina after their defeat to Vietnamese Communists. French Indochina was divided into four separate countries: Laos, Cambodia, South Vietnam and North Vietnam (Communist). In 1956 France together with UK attacked Egypt after that country nationalized the Suez Canal. The attack was opposed by both the Soviet Union and US; and US financial and diplomatic strength forced the French and UK to withdraw from Egypt. The Arabs responded by imposing an oil embargo on Britain and France luckily the Portuguese Federation was able step up and increase its oil sales to both countries. The French 4th Republic government was not able to withstand criticism of the crises and collapsed. WWII hero Charles de Gaulle became the President of France but demanded additional presidential powers. In 1957 the French 5th Republic was founded with De Gaulle as its first president. He quickly dissociated France from US, removing France from NATO.

In 1958, he created the French Community and demanded that all French Colonies either choose more autonomy with the French Community or outright independence and no French support. All French colonies except Guinea chose to belong to the French Community. When Guinea descended into civil war and anarchy the following year, De Gaulle let the situation deteriorate to provide other French colonies an example of what happens without French support. De Gaulle then sent French troops into Guinea to “establish order”. The plan backfired on the French because they did not send enough troops into Guinea to “restore peace” and the French suffered over 1,000 casualties and were forced to withdraw from all parts of Guinea except around the capital. When in 1959 Guinea joined the French Community, it was a much smaller version of the original colony.

At same time, former French protectorate of Morocco tried to push the Portuguese out of North Africa. Its forces were badly defeated, and it was forced to cede additional land in the peace negotiations. A direct result of the Moroccan-Portugal War was the wave of anti-European demonstrations and attacks. The remaining French colonists and the small Moroccan Christian community fled Morocco and after some altercations settled and took over the Moroccan enclave of Tangiers. De Gaulle was then faced with either supporting the refugee’s demands that Tangiers become part of France or opposing them which would anger the French in Algiers and France but supporting them would hurt France with Algiers and other French colonies. In the end, De Gaulle decided to support the refugees and negotiated with Morocco for its transfer to France. France provided Morocco with financial, military and other support which helped Morocco, but the diplomatic situation resulted in France losing much influence throughout Africa and Arab world. The Portuguese war against Morocco and the Portuguese Guinea insurgency support made De Gaulle question France’s relationship with Portuguese Federation and several military and civilian projects were cancelled at end of decade. In 1959 France became the 4th nation to explode a nuclear bomb achieving one of De Gaulle objectives of no longer needing to live under US nuclear umbrella.

In the UK, the conservatives returned to power in the 1951 elections and Winston Churchill became the Prime Minister. In 1953, he suffered a stroke and Anthony Eden became the new prime minister. In 1955 Eden led the Conservatives to victory in the election. In 1956 following the Nationalization of Suez Canal by Egypt, the UK and France launched a military operation to retake control of the canal. The US threatened the UK financially and UK was forced to back down. British influence in the Middle East diminished and the US and Soviet Union became the dominant powers in the Middle East following the Suez Canal Crises. The Suez Crisis caused Eden the leadership of the conservative party and he was succeeded by Harold Macmillan. British – American relationship during the conservative’s term was regarded as most important foreign relationship and British became associated as pro-US by other European countries and lost much influence in Europe especially in France. In Africa, the UK granted several of its colonies independence with Libya becoming independent in 1951, Sudan in 1958 and Ghana in 1957. In 1952 British King George VI died and was succeeded by his young daughter Queen Elizabeth II.

During the Korean War, Japan was granted independence by US but remained very much dependent on US militarily for protection and continued aligned with US foreign policy.

In 1955 the Soviet Union and its Eastern Europe Communist countries formed the Warsaw Pact as a counter to NATO. In 1959 the first cracks in the Soviet dominance of Eastern Europe appeared. Hungary’s communist government broke with Soviet model and attempted to give their citizens greater freedoms. The Soviets afraid that the defiance would spread sent in its forces and replaced the Hungarian government. Over 350,000 Hungarians fled the soviet crackdown and oppression. The Portuguese Federation accepted close to 25,000 Hungarian refugees. In 1959 the Soviets began the Space race with the first manmade object into space, the “Sputnik” satellite was successfully launched. Later in year Soviets also tested their Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). The Americans responded by founding National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to take an American into Space. Within two years both countries were launching satellites into space and NASA was first to send and safely retrieve animals into Space.

In Europe ten countries (France, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Austria, Czech, Basque and Catalonia) formed the European Economic Community in an attempt to provide Europe with same economic leverage as US and Soviet Union.

In 1959 Cuba was seized by communist rebels under the command of Fidel Castro.

The World Section of the 1950s will include the following sections:


The world section is where we discuss the major events that transpired throughout the world and also where we discuss what is happening in countries that linked, allied or crucial to the Portuguese Federation. Questions/ Comments?

We will start with India next.
 
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1950s - World - Indian Subcontinent

Lusitania

Donor
1950 – 1959 (cont)

World (cont)


Indian Subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent continued to be rocked by civil war for about half of the 1950s only emerging from war in 1955 fragmented and bitterly divided. The British people and government watched in horror at the jewel of the British Empire descended into nationalistic, religious and ideological war. Over 100 million people were displaced in the fighting and over 5 million people were estimated to have died due to war, disease and starvation.

Repeated United Nations resolutions and attempts to bring about peace in the Subcontinent were ignored by the warring parties till the people were exhausted and the countries weary of war. In 1954 a general cease fire went into effect and over the summer after several small and major violations the parties finally agreed to start peace negotiations. On 10 February 1955, the Indian Peace Treaty was signed by the eight warring parties (Republic of India, Kingdom of Baroda, Democratic Union of India, Peoples Republic of Travancore, Tamil Nadu, Kingdom of Mysore, Kingdom of Hyderabad, and Pakistan) and three observers (UK, France and Portuguese Federation).

Baroda
From 1950 to 1952 the Kingdom of Baroda was locked in a battle with communists on three fronts: Kutch (Mandav Hills and Halar Plains, North - Eastern border Danta and Abu Hills and in south in the Rajpipla Hills. In 1951 Kingdoms of Hyderabad and Baroda signed mutual defense treaty. From January to April 1952 the combined attack by Indian Nationalist forces from north and Baroda forces from South defeated the communists in the north and east leaving the two armies facing each other and unfortunately tempers flared leading to the two forces exchanging fire and several border skirmishes broke out. Peace returned to the border between the two countries when the Indian army was forced to withdraw most of forces from the border to deal with losses in Central province and the fall of Nagpur to the communists.

In the Kutch, Baroda forces pushed the communists out of the Manday Hills and Halar Plains but were unable to defeat their entrenched positions in the Gimar Hills. In June 1952 Marasha Pratap Singh Rao Gaekwad king of Baroda requested assistance from Portuguese Federation and in July 1952 Portuguese 3rd Infantry Division arrived in Diu from Angola. On 10 August 1952 Portuguese 3rd Division launched Operation Bahadur. The communists were taken by surprise and by 31st of August the last communist position in the Gimar Hills was eliminated. This left the Kingdom of Baroda in control of the entire Kutch and allowed it to move additional troops to the eastern front. On 20 September 1952 Marasha Pratap Singh Rao Gaekwad and Democratic Indian Prime Minister Vinayak Damodar Savarkar signed a non-aggression and cooperation agreement. They pledge to assist each other in fighting the communist rebels and opposing Nationalist India aggression.

In October 1952 Baroda forces attacked communist forces in the Chota Udaipur Hills pushing the communist east and into the path of the advancing Indian Nationalist forces. Meanwhile in the south the Portuguese 3rd division attacked the communist forces in a series of battles. Portuguese defeated and liberated the cities of Jawhar, Dahanar and Mahim where Portuguese forces finally made contact with the Democratic Union Indian (DUI) forces which were moving north. There was an uneasy truce between the Indian / Commonwealth forces and the Portuguese forces. On 10 November 1952 Portuguese forces withdrew north when Army of Baroda arrived.

From 1953 to 1955 when the Indian peace treaty was signed the two states, Kingdom of Baroda and DUI, lived in an uneasy truce along their border while still coordinating their forces on several occasions against both the communists and Nationalist India.

Democratic Union of India (Bombay)
In 1949 when General Cowasji Jehangir situated in Pune took up the mantel of defending democracy in India and several former India opposition leaders flocked to his side and together they formed a democratic Indian state providing a glimmer of good news for the western powers especially UK. The emergency of General Jehangir and Democratic India was greeted with hope and calls for British and Commonwealth support grew louder in UK. The socialist party of Clement Atlee fell in a motion of no confidence and in early elections during autumn of 1949 the conservatives under WWII leader Winston Churchill won a majority. UK immediately ordered additional British naval ships and aircraft carrier to the Indian Ocean.

UK support, both militarily and financial provided Democratic India with the legitimacy and impetus to move against the communists. During 1951 they are able to reach Portuguese forces who had been operating outside of Goa’s borders in order to protect it from communist attacks. They reached Belgaum and Baljipur to the south and east reaching Mysore and Hyderabad borders. In the north, they gradually pushed the communist forces toward Bombay. On 19 October 1951 British and commonwealth soldiers (UK, South Africa, Canada, Australia and African troops) attacked Bombay. The city was easily taken as most communist forces were fighting in south. The liberation of Bombay was a huge moral boast to the Democratic India, but the communists refused to surrender and continued fighting. As 1951 came to a close, Democratic Indian forces were able to link up with commonwealth troops from Bombay.

The situation in Western India during 1952 was complicated with several kingdoms fighting nationalist India and everyone was fighting the communist threat. A decision was made to negotiate non-aggression treaties with all Indian states till the communist threat was eliminated with hope that a union could be negotiated later. In 1952, Democratic India with the assistance of the commonwealth launched amphibious attacks in Malabar while at same time continuing to push the communist rebels north. In October, they reached the border of Baroda and careful to keep peace between the two parties continued north attacking the communists. France, Italy and most of western Europe recognized the Democratic India and provided it with weapons and support. In Malabar, Calicut was liberated on 12 March 1952 and Bangalore on 10th of April, thus defeating the last major communist rebel groups in South Kanara allowing the DUI forces to continue to push the remaining communist forces south towards Travancore.In Eastern Indian subcontinent the nationalist forces in Madras were in disarray during the spring of 1953. They had lost ¾ of their territory to Mysore and Hyderabad as well as the Tamils. In June 1953 Omandur Ramasamy Reddy, a politician under house arrest in Madras was instrumental in convincing General Kodendera Subayya Thimayya, commander of Nationalist Southern Army to switch allegiances to Democratic India. The negotiations were successful and on 29 September 1943, all lands controlled by Nationalist forces south of the Hyderabad Godavari officially became part of DUI. Meanwhile in Malabar in April 1953, Democratic forces and Travancore forces clashed at Shoranur. On 12th of May, DUI armed forces once again tried to break through Travancore defenses but were unable. In August 1953, DUI forces and Tamil Nadu forces clashed on the outskirts of Coimbatore but like Mysore before them they were forced to withdraw and return to Malabar. In the north in December 1953, DUI forces defeated the last communist forces facing them and reached the Nationalist forces close to Indore. The meeting of the two India forces was very tense and both regarded the other with suspicion and resentment.On 5 January 1954, Democratic Union India held its first elections in which the Nationalist Party received the most votes and M. A. Ayyangar became the country’s first Prime Minister.

Hyderabad
On 15 August 1950, Hyderabad forces defeated the Indian IV army at battle of Akola and the state of Berar was occupied and annexed by Nizam of Hyderabad.[1] For rest of the year and all of 1951 Hyderabad forces launched several offensives against communist rebels within Hyderabad. In October 1951 to the west Bellary was occupied and contact was established with Mysore to the south. At end of 1951 the communists have been defeated and pushed out of the country. On 10 January 1952, Indian Nationalist forces attacked Hyderabad again using Central Province and Bastar as base, they launched an attack on Hyderabad with 250,000 troops code named Operation Polo. The Indian forces made good progress in the first week advancing over 50 kilometers but on 16th of January the Hyderabad forces stopped the Indian advance and gradually pushed the Indian forces out of country. On 10 February 1952, nationalist forces were defeated at the battle of Nagpur and on 12th of February lost the battle of Kutru in Bastarfor. In the east on 16th of March, nationalist forces lost the battle of Godavari and Hyderabad was able to cut off the Nationalist forces in Madras from Nationalist India. On 1 June 1952, Nationalist forces attacked Hyderabad again in the 2nd battle of Nagpur but were unable to take the city and withdrew again on 15th of July. In October Hyderabad repulsed two attempts by Nationalist forces from Madras to link up with forces from north. The attacks from south ended when the rebels in Madras attacked Indian Nationalist forces forcing the South Nationalist army to withdraw south and deal with new threat.

Mysore
Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar the ruler of Princely State of Mysore was at first a strong supporter of a unified India but with threats to him and all of India from the communists he slowly came to the conclusion that the best way to help India and the people of Mysore was to defend it from those wishing to destroy it. In 1948, any hope he had of a united India was dashed by the declaration of General Cariappa as president with dictatorial powers and imposition of martial law. For next two years, he used his immense wealth to arm and train Mysore’s armed forces.

In 1949, a non-aggression pact and peace treaty was signed with its neighbor to the North, Hyderabad. Both countries were landlocked, but an agreement was made with Portuguese Federation to use its ports to transport weapons and materials. In 1950 Mysore with the support of Portuguese armed forces and navy seized the port of Karwar in North Kanara after both Mangalore and Calicut fell to communist forces. From 1950 to 1952 Mysore forces along with DUI Indian forces battled communist forces in South Kanara and Malabar. Democratic forces with British assistance went around Mysore occupied areas in North Kanara and landed in Madras. Mangalore and Calicut as well as most of state of Madras was liberated by DUI and communist forces withdrew towards Travancore. In January 1953 the Kingdom of Mysore annexed the state of Coorg and all Kanara between Karwar and Kandapur. From 1951 to 1952 Mysore conducted raids into Coimbatore and Salem against communists operating from those provinces. In October 1952, they were forced to withdraw due to the uprising of nationalist Tamil forces. In March 1953 Mysore and Hyderabad forces defeated nationalist forces in the battle of Anantapur.

Tamil Nadu and Travancore
From 1948 to 1950 Tamil Nadu and most of Southern India was under the control of India Nationalist forces. In 1949, communist rebels both from Travancore and recruited from within Tamil Nadu began attacking nationalist forces as well as civilians. In 1951 Travancore and Tamil Communists announce formation of People’s Federation. This caused great concern in Mysore and the region was beset by continued raids by Mysore troops. In 1952 R. Govindasamy Moopanar a local landowner and former politician organized the first opposition against the communists and Mysore. By middle of year armed groups were able to defeat several isolated communist forces and established a free Tamil Nadu. Over next few months the area under their control gradually increased and in October the Tamils rebelled against Mysore occupation and liberated Coimbatore. In 1953 clashes with communist forces along Travancore border led to a several battles when Travancore army moved further into Tamil Nadu. In April, the arrival of Democratic Indian forces along Travancore northern border forced it to withdraw most of its forces from Tamil Nadu. In May 1953 Tamils in Salem revolt against the Nationalist Forces that had just suffered a huge defeat at the hands of Hyderabad in the battle of Anantapur and Nationalist Forces retreated back towards Madras in disarray.

Several diplomatic attempts were made by leaders of Democratic Union India for the Tamils to join DUI, but the Tamils decided to ignore the diplomatic move. Then on 12th of August DUI tried armed response by sending an army of 15,000 soldiers from Malabar into Coimbatore. The Tamils hindered their progress by destroying bridges and attacked them with hit and run tactics. On 20th of August, the Tamils cut off the Indian army and launched an attack. After two days of combat the DUI forces requested a meeting and a cease fire was negotiated. The DUI forces were allowed to withdraw but were only allowed to take their personal weapons, supplies and enough transports to carry the injured and dead.

In Travancore V. S. Achuthanandan consolidated power and received weapons and support from the Soviet Union. Thousands of communist agents and armed men were sent to the neighboring Indian provinces. In 1949 two merchant ships off the coast of Travancore were sunk by unknown submarine, suspicion was automatically put on either UK or Portugal, but both denied any of their submarines were in the vicinity.

In 1950 a UN resolution passed the UN due to the Soviets boycotting the General Assembly placing a blockade on Travancore and authorized member states ships of enforcing the blockade to inspect all ships and seize all weapons. The Portuguese Federation, UK and France provided the Naval force to enforce the blockade.
In 1951 Travancore communists were able to establish control over much of Coimbatore, Tinnevelli and Madras. This drew Mysore into Coimbatore and subsequently a Tamil nationalist uprising. From 1952 to 1953 Travancore Communist insurgent forces suffered major setbacks in neighboring provinces. Plans to send regular soldiers which could invite further Imperialistic military action was ruled out when DUI forces arrived along Northern border and Achuthanandan afraid they would invade pulled all his troops back into the country. An uneasy truce with both Tamils and Democratic Union India was observed for remainder of year and into 1954 when an official cease fire is announced.

Nationalist (Republican) India
Nationalist Indian forces had been effectively reduced to half their strength by the 1948 Communist revolt. Over the next two years the Nationalist forces rebuilt and re-armed. At same time, opportunistic and backstabbing Pakistan decided to attack India while it was at its weakest. Nationalistic forces were easily defeated by Pakistan in both Bengal and Kashmir. India faced with widespread communist insurgency and potential loss of the Central Province requested terms with Pakistan. The loss of Kashmir and half of Bengal hurt the country both politically but more importantly the people’s morale and support for the government.

The declaration of Independence by several Princely States was not viewed as important by government and the priority continued to be the defeat of the communist rebels. In 1949, the communists were defeated in the Central province and Indian Nationalist forces moved north along the Ganges river and into Northern India. In 1949, the loss of Bombay to the communist was even a greater shock to the government and President Cariappa faced his first coup attempt. The decision to not worry about the Princely States became a major decision blunder when Hyderabad defeated the Nationalist forces in Berar and occupied the province in 1950.

During 1951, Nationalist forces were rebuilt and several operations in Punjab and other areas were successfully completed and those areas brought under Indian control. In 1952 India planned the invasion and annexation of Hyderabad code named Operation Polo. Over 250,000 troops were used in the operation. The invasion started correctly, and Indian forces made good progress, but then Indian forces began experiencing problems and, in several places, were forced to retreat. The attack was stopped, and then Indian forces were in full retreat so that by end of January they had been pushed back into India. In February, its forces were shattered and suffered over 50,000 casualties and troop desertions. To make matters worse Hyderabad cuts off the Indian Southern Army by occupying the entire Godavari River delta.

Communist rebels took advantage of India’s setback by launching several major attacks both in the countryside and in major Indian cities including the capital New Delhi. For the rest of 1952 to 1954 Indian forces were pre-occupied with major sweeps against communist forces and its supporters, during this time they mostly ignoring the Bombay Indians traitors as well as Hyderabad and rest of Southern India. In the Madras, the Southern Indian National Army was under constant attacks from communists and subsequently Mysore and Tamil separatists. In September 1953 India received a major boost when the US recognized it as only legitimate government of India and agreed to provide it with substantial military aid. The US recognition was too late to save Southern Indian territories and the last southern lands under Indian control switched allegiance to the Bombay government when General Kodendera Subayya Thimayya witched allegiance to DUI. President Cariappa and the rest of Indian government and military continually refused all heeding and demands for a cease fire and rebuilt Indian forces for the next battle against Southern India.
On February 10, 1954, Pakistan announced the signing of a series of peace treaties as well as mutual defense agreements with the other Indians states. Thus, increasing the risk of fighting Pakistan if India attacked any of its southern neighbors. A power struggle ensued within the Indian government and military command. On 5 March 1954, President Cariappa was deposed, and General Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri was proclaimed as President. On 10 March 1954, India announced that it was willing to enter into cease fire agreement and negotiate an end to the war.

Cease Fire and Peace Treaty
On 2 April 1954, a cease fire went into effect, and over the next several months several attempts were made to broker a peace treaty, but the precursor of a union advocated by Democratic Union India and the demand that Baroda, Hyderabad and Mysore borders return to pre-1948 made negotiations impossible to start. During summer of 1954 demonstrations in many cities throughout the subcontinent for peace were held.

On 12 September 1954 representative from all eight nations and four observers (US, UK, France and Portuguese Federation) met in Cairo to negotiate a peace treaty. The negotiations were acrimonious and hostile at times and several breaks were ordered for the representatives to return to their respective countries and clarify several difficult points. On 10th of December, a peace agreement framework was agreed upon and the final text agreed on 20 January 1955.[2] On 10 February 1955 the Peace treaty was signed by all eight countries as well as Portuguese Federation and France who continued to have possessions on the subcontinent, signing the agreement was UK also which had historical ties to the subcontinent and whose monarch was the head of state of two of the states.[3]

Indian Subcontinent – Post Peace
Portuguese Federation had in many ways guaranteed its continued presence on the Indian Subcontinent. The Kingdom of Baroda had been initially supported only by Portuguese Federation and as it grew and proved it could defend itself it received additional support and recognition from other countries.

From 1953 onward, Portuguese Federation and Kingdom of Baroda established several joint agreements to develop Baroda’s resources as well as the Portuguese Federation provide assistance to deal with the internal refugee problem it faced. During the early years up to third of Baroda’s armed forces were former Portuguese forces and the Portuguese Federation provided large number of weapons, supplies and financial support to Baroda. Included in the support was the deployment Portuguese 2nd Division to solidify Baroda’s control over its territory. Many nations criticized Baroda for rewarding the Portuguese Federation by allowing it to triple the size of Diu as well as increasing the size of Daman to unite its three areas.

In the south Goa’s borders were also affected. Following Democratic Union of India arrival close to Goa borders where the Portuguese armed forces were patrolling in India, Portuguese Federation pulled its troops back except in several strategic areas in Belegavi. The occupation of the areas continued to be a source of animosity and anger by DUI. The continued occupation of all lands between Goa border and Kali River were also not recognized by DUI. Although those territories had been placed under Portuguese administration and control in the 1950 Portuguese Federation-Mysore agreement.

France continued to control and govern its French Territory on the subcontinent, with both Pondicherry and Mahé being claimed by DUI.

For the remainder of the 1950s the two major economic powerhouses in the subcontinent were Mysore and Hyderabad who had suffered the least damage to its territory and both had secured access to the coast.
From 1955 to 1959 over 50 million people displaced by the war gradually returned to home. The exception was the Hindus from Bengal and Kashmir who feared returning to live in a Muslim country.


Daman 1955 (Pre-1948 border in Green)

Diu 1955 (Pre-1948 border in Green)

Goa 1955 (Pre-1948 Border in Dark Green)

Indian Subcontinent 1955

[1] Till 1903 the province of Berar was under the Jurisdiction of Nizam of Hyderabad until it was taken by the British.
[2] The Kingdom Hyderabad returned all occupied territory in the Central Province, and Bastar. Its conquests in Berar, Godavari, Western Madras and Bellary were all recognized. The kingdom of Mysore kept its conquest in Madras, Coorg and Kanaba. Travancore’s borders were recognized at pre-1948; it was forced to withdraw all troops from Tinnevelly, Madura and Coimbatore. Tamil Nadu were established composing of Coimbatore, Timnnevely, Madura, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Salem and South Arcot to Pondicherry. The Kingdom of Baroda’s territory in the south and east was established along its zone of control with Democratic Union of India and in the north with the Republic of India. The Democratic Union of India territory was established as all lands it controlled in the former Bombay Presidency, South Kanaba, Malabar and all lands it controlled along the Bay of Bengal. Pakistan’s conquests in the war of 1948 were recognized. The Republic of India zones of control were recognized along with several border areas returned in peace treaty by the Kingdom of Hyderabad.
[3] The Democratic Union of India and Tamil Nadu’s head of state continued to be the British Monarch like Canada, Australia and New Zealand.


We now conclude the Indian Subcontinent war, 0ne that had a devastating effect on the people and countries. Since this war started in 1946 readers may wish to review the events during the first half of the war (1946-1949) in post 230.

Note: The Indian Subcontinent emerged from the war battered and divided, for some like those in southern countries it would mean they would be able to rise higher than iOTL and these countries in the yeas that follow would offer its citizens a standard of living higher than iOTL. While the largest of the countries Republic of India would actually fare much worse and be subject to corruption, continued communist insurgency and lower standard of living than iOTL. The two foreign countries namely Portuguese and French would be viewed as the countries who escaped the worse effects of the war and both would take great pains in integrating their respective enclaves into the metropolitan home country. Meanwhile the various countries were left to pickup the pieces some with greater ability than others.. Questions/ Comments?

We will continue with the next two sections of the world on January 19.
 
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Why in the world would Portugal support anti colonial rebels in Guinea against the French given their own situation? That makes no sense.
 

Lusitania

Donor
Why in the world would Portugal support anti colonial rebels in Guinea against the French given their own situation? That makes no sense.
I see where you get that impression. But Portuguese federation and France fought against same enemy just separately. Portuguese fighting in guinea was through a proxy group while France invaded guinea directly. Confused.... sorry but if we look iotl at history of guinea we get a picture of who came to power in late 1950s and the kind of destabilizing and anti-Portuguese regime he established in guinea. The war by France and Portuguese backed forces was against him. We will have guinea full story up in future.
 
How is it that Portuguese is able to continue expand itself post-ww2 without being called out for it?
My guess is that they are getting called out on it. Portugal is acting in a blatantly predatory fashion, waiting for nations to fall apart before swooping in and picking up chunks for themselves. They expanded their holdings in India during the Indian civil war, took several islands from Indonesia during the Indonesian civil war, and claimed towns in Spain during its second civil war.

The reason no real consequences has happened yet is because, in a weird way, its not worth it for anyone. The US won't do anything because all the new territory grabs are not in areas that America really care about (notice that Portugal is staying the hell out of Japan) and the US still prefers to keep Portugal around as a possible ally against the Soviets so they tolerate Portuguese annexation adventures...for now. Washington says a lot of disparaging remarks, but with no serious actions behind them.

Likewise, the Soviet Union sees Portugal as small fry and have much bigger worries with China, Western Europe, and their new rival the USA. Compared to Britain or France, who cares about some puny state in Iberia? (I'm guessing that they will change their mind on that later in the plot.) The Union will say that Portugal is just another imperialist state that will succumb to world communism but its not like they share a land border. The Soviets might send some communist agitators to the Federation every now and then but the Portuguese security forces are good at rooting out foreign agents so its mostly a waste of money.

Britain and other European powers are in no position to criticize Portugal during all the economic and societal troubles they're going through right now so they're keeping their mouths shut.

So for the time being, Portugal has a lot of freedom for territorial shenanigans. The opportunities will dry up in a few years so I don't blame Portugal for acting now while the iron is hot.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
How is it that Portuguese is able to continue expand itself post-ww2 without being called out for it?
My guess is that they are getting called out on it. Portugal is acting in a blatantly predatory fashion, waiting for nations to fall apart before swooping in and picking up chunks for themselves. They expanded their holdings in India during the Indian civil war, took several islands from Indonesia during the Indonesian civil war, and claimed towns in Spain during its second civil war.

The reason no real consequences has happened yet is because, in a weird way, its not worth it for anyone. The US won't do anything because all the new territory grabs are not in areas that America really care about (notice that Portugal is staying the hell out of Japan) and the US still prefers to keep Portugal around as a possible ally against the Soviets so they tolerate Portuguese annexation adventures...for now. Washington says a lot of disparaging remarks, but with no serious actions behind them.

Likewise, the Soviet Union sees Portugal as small fry and have much bigger worries with China, Western Europe, and their new rival the USA. Compared to Britain or France, who cares about some puny state in Iberia? (I'm guessing that they will change their mind on that later in the plot.) The Union will say that Portugal is just another imperialist state that will succumb to world communism but its not like they share a land border. The Soviets might send some communist agitators to the Federation every now and then but the Portuguese security forces are good at rooting out foreign agents so its mostly a waste of money.

Britain and other European powers are in no position to criticize Portugal during all the economic and societal troubles they're going through right now so they're keeping their mouths shut.

So for the time being, Portugal has a lot of freedom for territorial shenanigans. The opportunities will dry up in a few years so I don't blame Portugal for acting now while the iron is hot.
Good point, but to properly asses the Portuguese actions since WW2 and world reaction we need to both list its expansions and world reaction.
Note: this may include information on upcoming posts.

lPortuguese expansion since WW2 (by date of expansion)
1) Portuguese East Asia - occupied in 1945 but due to Indonesia war of independence and civil war only became international diplomatic issue at end of war during peace negotiations. Their future plus independence of Portuguese aligned Bali and Lombok were deferred by UN during peace talks due to inability of Indonesia, East Indonesia and south Molucs each having claim and refusing agree on compromise. Portuguese East Indies and dutch New Guinea were deferred for future negotiations. The favorable part for the Portuguese is that Portuguese East Indies were being integrated slowly into the federation, 1/4 of its population had moved to rest of federation and its standard of living was 2-3 better than any of its neighbors. Added to fact they had witnessed 10 years of peace and development while rest of firmer Dutch East Indies had been affected by war. There was no widespread support within Portuguese East Indies for Portuguese to leave (add to that strong security presence) So while communist China, and Soviets were prepared to get UN to sanction the federation the US by 1955 was willing to use its veto not because it liked federation but because it was a strategic partner in the fight against communism.

2) Macau - size doubled in last years of Chinese civil war. This was a diplomatic agreement between Portugal and nationalist China. In essence Portugal bought rest of Macau by giving nationalist China tens of millions of $ in weapons and ammunition. Both Portuguese made weapons and surplus WW2 weapons that was bought on market by the federation was given to nationalist China. While communist China objected to the treaty in the 1950s Portuguese federation occupation and annexation was recognized by many countries as legitimate. Now the federation also made sure it was supporting anti communism were possible. (More on that later)

3) Indian subcontinent - Portugal occupied several small enclaves around Goa at onset of the war by mutual agreement with Mysore who it provided with both political and military support in its fight against communist forces (Mysore also occupied and annexed several areas around it including northern Malarbar giving it sea access). In the early 1950s the federation sent its forces into kingdom of Baroda that owed much of its existence to Portuguese support both financially and militarily. So it decided to let the federation expand both Diu and Daman.

The subject of Portuguese presence in the Indian subcontinent was a very heated topic at the peace negotiations. Both Republic of india and Democratic Union of India were opposed to not only Portuguese gains but Portuguese presence. Fortunately for the Portuguese and to a lesser degree to French the two “Indias” also demanded baroda, Mysore and Hyderabad borders revert their 1946 position. This was opposed by the 3 countries.The portuguese and French were then able to form an alliance with the 3 Indian countries and both republic and democratic India were forced to back down. They then switched to force the Portuguese to revert to their original borders but the alliance held steady and Portuguese borders were recognized in the peace treaty.

4) Spanish Morocco, Spanish Sahara and Spanish Africa - another treaty between Portugal and another country. One that benefited both parties. This action /expansion actually the one that Portugal received the most flak over in both Europe, US and UN. One that was certain to result in sanctions or condemnation by UN. The only thing that saved the Portuguese “toucinho“ bacon was the outbreak of the Korean War.

therefore the Portuguese decided it needed to send a strong anti communism message. It sent a full division to fight in Korea. It’s navy including its air craft carrier were sent to support the Korean War.

Secondly it sent another division to Germany to support NATO deterrence against communism.

So we can say that Portuguese paid for its “conquests” in blood and sweat. Did all these actions resulting Portugal /Federation escape unscathed? No but it’s actions meant it gained some support and while its actions were frowned on they were not publicly condemned.

This of corse put the Portuguese and Morocco on direct path to conflict when morocco gained its independence from France. The resulting war between the two went federation’s way, together with strong Portuguese population in these regions resulted in the Portuguese ability to portray themselves as victim and gain much sympathy in the west but we’re condemned by communist countries and in Middle East.

5) Olivença - another territory gained in peace treaty following the Spanish “ 2nd civil war”. The war left Spain much smaller as several parts of it. (You know of Galicia, but there are others) gained their independence. Spain retaliation against the Portuguese as a result of its support for Galicia Declaration of Independence resulted in many Spanish border regions being occupied by Federation. As part of peace treaty these occupied regions including Badajoz were asked if they wished to stay part of Spain or join Portugal. This occurred at same time as revolting regions also voted. Every Portuguese occupied region voted overwhelmingly 80% + to stay part of Spain except Olivença which had special status to the federation since 1950 was more integrated into Portuguese economy than rest of Spain. they voted 60% to join Portuguese Federation. A huge shock to Spanish.

Lastly these would signify the last of Portuguese official expansion. Any future “re-alignment” happened by neighboring countries government aligning themselves to federation which by 1959 included Galicia, Guinea Boke, Lombok and Bali.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
Damn, India looks like it will be a mess for years to come.
Actually while it does look different the Indian subcontinent can be seen as mixed bag.

Republic of India - its the largest and most populous state in the Indian Subcontinent. An American ally and right wing nationalist dictatorship with Hindu nationalism as main group it supports. Rights of Muslims is harsh and other groups such as Sikhs and Christians also face discrimination. It is also the poorest and least developed of the countries with the largest number of poor. Peace with its neighbors does not mean peace internally as it will be fighting communist insurgencies for decades.

Democratic Union of India - democracy aligned with British commonwealth and western democracies. It is a parliamentary democracy with British monarchy as its leader similar to Canada. It provides religious freedom to all its citizens. Biggest hurdle to DUI is that country is split into 3 areas. They will be the primary advocates of trying to unite the southern Indian countries.

Hyderabad / Mysore - constitutionalist monarchies with local king as head of state. Both countries rich and its rulers are spending majority of their fortunes to develop their respective countries. Both aligned with west and very good relationship with the Federation. Whom they see as an ally and trading partner.

Baroda - the least politically stable country due in part to perception it’s rulers having been supported by federation from onset. It is the country on the sub-continent with largest number of Portuguese political, security and military advisors. Also one of the primary areas of Portuguese investment. While they participate in all Indian trade, security and political conferences and are signatory to the treaties trying to link the southern Indian nations the country's leaders realize their situation and hesitant to stray too far from federation. They are a limited democracy. With greater democratic rights on local and provincial level (as long as these elected officials limit their efforts and scope to their elected role in local and provincial affairs). The National Assembly advised the government but true power rests with the king and his advisors. Like Mysore and Hyderabad economic development is its primary objective.

Tamil Nadu - constitutionally monarchy with British monarchy as its head of state , similar to DUI. Majority of its citizens are Tamils which worries its neighbor to the south, Sri Lanka with its large Tamil minority. Very supportive of economic and mutual defense treaties to assist in its recovery from devastating war.

Travancore - communist country aligned with Soviet Union. Lost 20% of its population during war due to starvation, repression of those it felt were a threat to it. Almost all educated people, business owners and previous ruling class were either killed with rest having escaped. Attempts to export its revolution to neighboring countries has left its borders with both DUI and Tamil as heavy armed. Since peace treaty it has turned its attention inward and giving North Korea competition as most repressive communist state.

Pakistan - larger version of the country iotl with west Pakistan having all of Kashmir while East Pakistan having parts of Bengal. The biggest event was that over 80% of Hindus in these conquered areas were forced out during the war. Politically and militarily aligned with Soviet Union (due to Republic of India being aligned with US).

Note: while US has diplomatic relations with southern Indian states (except Travancore) it’s relationship with republic of India prevents it from aligning and selling military hardware to them.

Tamil and others join non-aligned movement but they look upon Western Europe ( including Federation) as primary sources of political, military and economic support / investment.

Republic of India beligerante and hostile attitude to its neighbors and all southern Indian countries along with its continuing military and security forces buildup has resulted in mutual defense treaty between southern Indian countries and Pakistan. Sort of like NATO, attack one you attack all. (Travancore not part of the treaty)
 
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Wow, what a beautiful mess. On the other hand, OTL India has had a hard time keeping itself together sometimes so while it doesn't look promising now, the sub-continent will probably be more stable after a few decades. Maybe even Travancore might survive to the modern day (but I doubt it).

And as bad as India is, I suspect that China, Africa, and the East Indies will be even worse.
 

Lusitania

Donor
Wow, what a beautiful mess. On the other hand, OTL India has had a hard time keeping itself together sometimes so while it doesn't look promising now, the sub-continent will probably be more stable after a few decades. Maybe even Travancore might survive to the modern day (but I doubt it).

And as bad as India is, I suspect that China, Africa, and the East Indies will be even worse.
Yes it is different and like India iOTL there will be uneven development and growth. But that for future posts.

As for rest of world stating it is worse is too general and misleading. While there have and will be conflicts in world the 1950s was generally peaceful. Based on the areas that I outlined we cover in world section and other posts I made here is the state of worconflicts that arose in 1950s.

1) Europe - following WW2 and the iron curtain conflict Europe is pretty much stable with the exception of “2nd Spanish Civil War” and Hungarian crises the rest of continent continues rebuilding. Even communist countries are involved in rebuilding.
2) North & South America - 1950s was a relative peaceful decade with growth and development occurring through the two continents.
3) Australia and pacific islands - relative peaceful, Australia military is preoccupied with the circumstances and political situation north of it with the Indonesian war of independence occurring in the 1st half of 1950s.
4) south East Asia - two areas of concern are the Malaysian conflict which Britain and Commonwealth are involved fight communist rebels and the various factions/groups fighting each other in the former Dutch East Indies. French Indochina splinters as iotl só no difference there in the 1950s. Rest of countries develop iotl.
5) China - still intervened in Korean War and Mao launches his ill fated experiments. There will be a change in its relationship with Soviets in late 1950s but that for future post. Nationalist China that is twice it’s size iotl with the inclusion of Hainan island will mean it has greater potential but the 1950s it is dealing with great political, economic and security issues as it tries to integrate millions of refugees from mainland on the two islands. Sporadic artillery attacks from mainland China’s occur like iotl but more dangerous due relative closeness of Hainan island to mainland.
6) Middle East - the biggest conflict is the Suez that occurs like iotl. Rest of region is like iotl with continued development of its oil and gas and Soviets and US completely replacing France and British influence in region. With Soviets having greater influence in Sunni countries while America primary ally being Iran. Not that simple but for now we leave it like that.
7) rest of Asia - we already covered Indian Subcontinent, rest is as iotl.
8) Africa - as can be expected the presence of Portuguese federation is causing major political and diplomatic ramifications throughout the continent with those countries closest being those most Affected. We know the Portuguese are involved in two conflicts with two of its recent independent neighbors (Morocco and Guinea). These conflicts along with france’s ongoing war in Algeria will have major implications in the 1960s. In Southern Africa Portuguese development and presence becomes a major political and diplomatic for the region. While rest of Africa continue moving towards independence like iotl. Note: 1960s will be Africa’s decade not the 1950s.

Hope this little summary helped or better wet your appetite for what is to come.
 
1950s - World - China / Korea

Lusitania

Donor
1950 – 1959 (cont)

World (cont)


China – Korea
In 1950 the Nationalistic China under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek had retreated to the islands of Taiwan and Hainan. Mainland China was under the control of the Chinese Communists led by Mao. Both governments claimed to represent all of China and that they were the country’s legitimate government. Western nations including the Portuguese Federation continued to support the nationalist side and the Nationalist Chinese still represented China at the UN. While Soviet Union and other communist countries recognized Mao and the Chinese Communists as the leader of China.

On 5 April 1950, the communists launched the amphibious assault of Hainan. The battle pitted six Communist divisions against eight Nationalist divisions. The Communists were able to establish several beachheads on the northern part of the island but by 15th of April the Nationalist had pushed the Communists back into the sea destroying about half of the craft Communist Chinese had used to cross the strait. On 20th of April Communists launched a second assault but due to lack of amphibious ships they decided to use fishing boats ferry across the troops. The Nationalist navy entered into the battle and the second invasion of Hainan was turned back.

Serious logistic problems as well as lack of weapons plagued Communist forces as well as requirements to send troops to the western part of country to deal with the few remaining independent Nationalist and Tibetan resistance forced Mao to postpone a 3rd invasion till August 1950 while Chinese Communist army re-organized and new landing craft were built. The planned 3rd invasion of Hainan was called off as both the islands of Hainan and Taiwan came under US protection with the arrival of the US 7th fleet in the South China Sea.

In the spring of 1950, the Soviet Union protested the exclusion of Communist China at the UN and withdrew its ambassador.

On 25 July 1950, North Korea whose government was communist attacked South Korea in an attempt to unite the Korean peninsula under their rule. The UN recognized the North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83: Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation and dispatch of the UN Forces in Korea. Twenty-two countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the defense of South Korea, with the United States providing 84% of the UN's military personnel. In July, the US 7th fleet arrived in the South China Sea and the US placed both Hainan and Taiwan under its protection.[1] In the first two months, North Korea forces pushed the South Korean forces south to the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many of the North Korean troops. Those that escaped the envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, or into the mountainous interior.

In October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN force which continued until mid-1951. As part of Portugal’s anti-communism response, the Portuguese 4th Infantry Division was prepared and sent to Korea and arrived in December 1950. Portugal also sent the CV Vasco da Gama (ex-HMS Indefatigable) and her escorts. The carrier was paired with the British HMS Glory, Theseus and Ocean and the Australian HMAS Sydney, and tasked with supporting the land forces.

The 4th Division worked side by side with the French army. Portuguese soldiers showed professionalism and bravery and Portuguese officers some of whom were not European showed good judgment and tactics.[2]
Portuguese soldiers interacted very well with troops from France and other nations, providing assistance when required. While opinions of many other country’s soldiers towards the Portuguese troops was very favorable the American overall command took little notice of the Portuguese contribution. After more than a year providing air support, the Vasco da Gama and her escorts returned to the Portuguese Federation when the French Carrier group replaced the Portuguese naval force. For the most part, the UN troops were able to stabilize the front after these dramatic reversals of fortune. The last two years of conflict it became a war of attrition, with the frontline close to the 38th parallel and Seoul changing hands four times. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, and the two Koreas technically continued at war. The end of the Korean War allowed Portuguese Federation to withdraw its troops from the Peninsula and bring them home

[1] When the UN declaration was made the Portuguese government grappled with what would be its best strategy. Some wanted to send a token army unit but President Samedo and Foreign Minister Mata argued that it would be in the country’s best interest to be seen as full-fledged military and political anti-communist ally to both western Europeans and US. Therefore, Portugal’s contribution was increased to a full division fighting alongside the French forces and Portuguese navy ships including Portuguese aircraft carrier

[2] The forces in Korea participated in the Battle of Bloody Ridge and Battle of Heartbreak Ridge.


We include the Korean War, without any major change from IOTL. The events that started the Korean War were set by the outcome of the WW2 in the Far East and the victory of the Communist Chinese. Although there were a few minor changes. We have a Nationalist China that was able to hold on to Hainan Island long enough for the American 7th fleet to arrive and place it along with Taiwan under its protection. The inability of the Communist Chinese in capturing the island from the Nationalist Chinese army was a dirrect result of the communist Chinese forces being slightly weaker as result of fighting the Japanese during WW2 and while they still were able to defeat the Nationalsit forces on the mainland their strength was 80% compared to iOTL at end of war with Nationalist forces. Thus the assault on Hainan was repulsed and Nationalist China controls both Hainan and Taiwain Islands. We also have the Portuguese contribute their forces in the battle against communism. The Portuguese forces were just as effective and its officer corps as good as the other westerm allies. This may see, irrelevant but consider that Portuguese forces were racially integrated and good percentage of the officers were non European. So like the Britiish both the French and other Allies were surprised and confused by the Portuguese. In end the war also provided Portuguese with valuable lessons and Portuguese military doctrine and practice during the remaining 1950s advanced and modernized with lessons learned from the French, British and American forces. Questions/ Comments?

We will return right away with the next section in the world - East Indies.

 
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1950s - World - East Indies

Lusitania

Donor
1950 – 1959 (cont)

World (cont)

East Indies
In March 1950, the Dutch withdrew their last troops from the island of Java and abandoned Jakarta. Dutch troops withdrew to Makassar on the island of Sulawesi. The government of Indonesia was limited to the island of Java, southern Borneo and southern Sumatra. They requested UN recognition of Indonesia as independent country. At same time the governments of Riau and of Aceh also petitioned the UN for recognition.[1] When Indonesia objected to their request the UN rejected all three.

In 1950 Portuguese Federation publicly abandoned all political support for the Dutch and instead began funding and supporting different Indonesian independent groups. Support was publicly given to Riau and the separatists groups in the Moluccas for first time. Meanwhile the Dutch provided support to both the Republic of East Indonesia and the Republic of South Moluccas. On several islands’ battles broke out on between supporters of the East Indonesia and South Moluccas.[2] [3]

In August 1950, Indonesian forces launched an attack on the independent country of Bali. Colonel Gusti Ngurah Rai appealed for help and received assistance from both Australia and Portuguese Federation. Bali forces were able to repulse the Indonesian assault and by 29th of November liberate the last Indonesian held areas of the island. Australian and Portuguese navy began patrolling the channel between Java and Bali in an attempt to prevent Indonesian forces from attacking Bali again.

On the Island of Sumatra Indonesian forces suffered a major defeat at the battle of Pekanbaru from 7 – 10 October 1950. Indonesian army was defeated by Riau and Aceh forces and was forced to withdraw south to Palembang.

In the South Moluccas, Indonesian supporters were defeated, and Republic of South Moluccas forces gained control of over a half dozen major and two dozen smaller islands by middle of 1951.

On the island of Sulawesi, the Republic of East Indonesia captured the northern part of the island from the Minahasa and also received support from people of Tindore, Sula and Halmahera and the majority of the northern Moluccas islands.

In December 1950 Portuguese Federation granted the Republic of Lombok independence on the island of Lombok.

In March 1951, UN special envoy Prince Naif bin Al-Abdullah of Jordan visited all the different groups in an attempt to get approval for a cease fire and final peace agreement. In May 1951, he was finally able to convince the separate groups to meet.

During the summer of 1951 various groups met together to discuss a lasting peace treaty. Meanwhile Indonesia refused to recognize any of the groups and continued to claim all the former Dutch East Indies.

On the island of Borneo, in October 1951 Indonesian forces suffered a major defeat when the East Indonesia forces landed north of the city of Samarinda and captured the city. For next six months, most of eastern Borneo was lost and Indonesia was forced to withdraw south to Banjarmasin. On the western side of the island the Sultan of Pontianak, Syarif Hamid Alkadrie declared his independence. In 1952, the local people the Dayak tired of their homes being used as battle ground by outsiders rose up in revolt against both the forces of the Republic of Indonesia and East Indonesia. Indonesia lost the city of Banjamarsin. Worse Java was soon being swamped by thousands of Javanese who fled attacks by the Dayak and the East Indonesians were pushed back to Samarinda. Fighting intensified during the spring but without any changes in the positions of the various parties and a cease fire was requested by both Indonesia and East Indonesia.

In January 1952, the United Nations recognized the Independence of Republic of Riau, Islamic Republic of Aceh, Republic of Indonesia and Republic of Eastern Indonesia. The status of the other nations was left for future session. Following the recognition of the UN, fighting in the Moluccas intensified during the spring but without any changes in the positions of the various parties. The Republic of South Moluccas was recognized as well as the Republic of Bali. The sticking point was the Portuguese occupation of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Finally, a compromise was reached in which the residents of islands under Portuguese occupation would be allowed to vote on their future. Portuguese Federation agreed to hold referendum if the people of Borneo and northern Moluccas were also allowed to vote. A decision on the fate of the Lesser Sunda Islands was adjourned for future UN vote. The fate of Borneo also divided the delegates with both Indonesia, East Indonesia claiming the island but the Dayak who were also at the negotiations demanded self-rule. Meanwhile the Sultan of Pontianak demanded recognition and refused to be a subject nation again. With neither East Indonesia nor Indonesia in a position to start an armed conflict on the island of Borneo it was agreed that both the Sultan of Pontianak and the Dayak would become independent. The status of Netherland New Guineas was deferred for future discussion.

On 1 June 1952, the East Indies Peace treaty was signed recognizing the Islamic Republic of Aceh, Republic of Riau, Republic of Indonesia, Republic of East Indonesia, Republic of South Moluccas, Dayak Federation, Republic of Bali and Sultan of Pontianak. The Portuguese Indies and the Republic of Lombok along with Netherlands New Guineas were to be referred to as foreign occupied areas and their disposition to be decided by the local peoples.


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East Indies 1952 at end of the Dutch East Indies War of Independence
[1] The leader of Aceh, Teungku Daud Beureueh was finally convinced of Indonesia duplicity in 1949 and sought independence for Aceh instead of supporting Indonesia thereafter.

[2] The Republic of East Indonesia had been created by Indonesia in 1947 and claimed all islands east of Java and Borneo, including the islands controlled by Portuguese Federation. In 1949 after the communist attack on the Nationalist forces in Java and subsequent execution of majority of nationalist leaders the Republic of East Indonesia with its capital in Makassar suffered several revolts as locals on the islands of Seram, Ambon, and Buru sought independence from what they considered leftist governments in Jakarta and Makassar.

[3] Following the declaration of Independence of Bali, the leader of Republic of East Indonesia Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati, who was from Bali lost the confidence of local leaders and was deposed. Kahar Muzak-Kar became the new leader of the Republic of East Indonesia.



The former Dutch East Indies is un-recognizable compared to iOTL Like British India the former Dutch colony collapsed into several countries. Each of the countries were actual countries failed to become independent. The timely communist operation and action served to weaken the Indonesian forces sufficiently for the other countries to gain their footing and become independent. The splitting of the Dutch East Indies into several countries served to help the Portuguese maintain control of the islands they had occupied at end of WW2. Two Portuguese allied countries Lombok and Bali surrounded by hostile neighbors took their first steps as Portuguese aligned and supported countries and would serve as the first of many aligned countries to rely on Portuguese military , Portuguese political support and economic integration with the Federation. Questions/ Comments?

We will return right away with the next section in the world - Spain.
 
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1950s - World - Spain

Lusitania

Donor
1950 – 1959 (cont)

World (cont)

Spain
In 1950 Spain was reeling from ongoing civil strife. Franco had called out the army to quell the riots and demonstrations in December of 1949 but that had not quelled the people’s anger. Spanish people were angry at the continued economic depressed conditions. For the last decade Spain had limped along rebuilding but not growing and the Spanish economy still had not recovered to the pre-civil war level and unemployment continued to be very high. Amongst the youth over 50% were unemployed. The reason that things were not worse was that tens of thousands had left Spain with its neighbor Portuguese Federation being one of the primary recipients of Spain’s brightest.

The political and foreign debt fiasco of 1948-1949 and the humiliating terms of an almost bankrupt Spain being forced to give up its last colonies had driven the people into the streets. On 19 January 1950 Franco declared martial law and imposed a curfew. Sporadic attacks on police and security forces using hit and run tactics became an everyday occurrence. For the remainder of the year Spain teetered on the verge of civil war and thousands of Spanish were arrested. Tens of thousands fled west to Portuguese Federation or east to France. By the summer things had settled down and in September Martial Law and curfew were relaxed with last special curfew laws lifted in December. In 1951 the 150,000 Spanish refugees in both the Portuguese Federation and France finally left the refugee camps with majority emigrating to USA and other Americas countries, Europe with the Portuguese Federation accepting about 20,000 while the remainder returned to Spain.

In 1952 Spain received a very huge economic boost and political support. The US 10-year agreement with Portuguese Federation for the lease of Lajes and Beja airbases was up for renewal and the US wanted to diversify the US bases locations and not be dependent on only one country. In February 1952, Spain and US signed the Spain – US agreement providing the US with naval and marines base at Rota in the Province of Cádiz as well as three airbases (Morón Air Base, Zaragoza Air Base near Zaragoza and Torrejón Air Base near Madrid). Spain in return received 5 billion dollars along with continued financial support. The Spain – US agreement was a huge shot in the arm for Franco’s government and several large reconstruction and development projects which were desperately needed by the country were started. Thousands of Spaniards were employed, and economy improved greatly.[1]

On 8 October 1952 during a military parade in Madrid on the anniversary of Spanish Civil victory there was an assassination attempt on Franco. While troops were passing in front of Franco, Spanish politicians and generals two soldiers stepped out of formation and sprayed the stands where Franco stood with bullets. They were gunned down as fast as Franco’s security detail and fellow soldiers could react but by then over 23 people had been killed and 61 injured including Franco as one of those injured. The assassination attempt put Spain’s fragile economic recovery in jeopardy as Franco instituted wide range political and military purge against any who were perceived at being anti-Franco. Thousands fled Spain again with the most dramatic escape being hundreds of Spanish soldiers escaping into Portuguese Federation from Leon and Galicia. Franco demanded that Portuguese Federation return all escaped “criminals” instead it arrested all the soldiers and other fleeing Spanish but allowed them to seek refugee status. Franco moved several army units to the Portuguese border but was forced to back down when notified by US that an attack on NATO country would be viewed as attack on the whole organization and would put Spain - US agreement in jeopardy. Portuguese Federation returned the military hardware to Spain and allowed the former Spanish soldiers and civilians to either apply for residency in Portuguese Federation or find alternative destinations. In all about 40% stayed in Portuguese Federation with the rest choosing the US and other countries to emigrate to. Spain recalled its ambassador in protest and for the next three years Portuguese Federation and Spain had little to no diplomatic contact and no economic trade between the two countries.

On 3 August 1955 while Franco and his wife vacationed on the Spanish town of Sada in the state of Galicia paramilitary forces attacked his secure villa. Franco’s security team along with all staff were killed. Franco and his wife were captured and were executed while being filmed. The group who carried out the attack did not reveal themselves or talk and the only statement made during the filming was a sign in the background that Franco was being executed for the crimes he had perpetuated against the Spanish people. For the next several weeks anarchy reigned in Spain as various factions within the military and government all claimed to be Franco’s rightful successor. By end of August two primary candidates had emerged, General Agustín Muñoz Grandes and General Joaquín Planell Riera, both members of Franco’s government.

While military units aligned themselves with either of the two leaders the Spanish people became despondent at the prospect of a new civil war. Demonstrations and riots broke out in many cities and towns. In the Basque region, several military units were overpowered, and Basque nationalists began seizing power. By the end of October most of the provinces of Álava, Biscay and Gipuzkoa were in Basque hands, at first Spanish officials in Madrid were very slow to react and by time they began organizing a response to the Basque revolt they had already moved into Navarre. In November Catalan nationalist and Galician Nationalist also rose up and many military units in those regions either joined them or withdrew. From September to November, Europe watched in horror at the prospect of a second Spanish civil war while Spanish troops maneuvered to battle for the control of Spain and against regional nationalistic groups. On 5th of December, troops loyal to General Agustín Muñoz Grandes stationed in Leon and Asturias attacked Galicia while on 7th of December several units loyal to General Joaquín Planell Riera attacked rebels along Portuguese border who retreated into the Alentejo and Algarve Portuguese provinces. At same time General Agustín Muñoz Grandes troops also attacked the Basque and Catalonian forces in the east. While in Castile the two adversaries to the government in Spain clashed on the outskirts of Toledo, and south of Valencia.

Portuguese forces along the border responded to the Spanish attack with artillery fire of their own. On 12th of December Portuguese 1st armored and 2nd mechanized divisions attacked Spanish troops along the Portuguese border south of the Tagus River. Several border towns including the city of Badajoz were occupied. In the north along the border with Leon the Portuguese 3rd infantry division also pushed the Spanish forces back to prevent continued border attacks.

On 19th of December at the emergency meeting of NATO, Portuguese Federation’s demand for NATO support was agreed. On 20th of December NATO issued a formal warning to Spain ordering it to stop all attacks on the Portuguese Federation. On 21st of December, France issued a guarantee and diplomatic support for the Basque and Catalan regions. The US strongly urged all sides to refrain from further military action and to move all troops back to barracks. The two Spanish competing military leaders stopped their current military actions and attempted to assess what to do next. On 25th of December in what became known as the Christmas movement millions of Spanish took to the street after morning masses singing and praying for the war to end. When by midafternoon thousands of troops joined in the movement the Spanish government and both generals decided to call a truce and build a national reconciliation government. In a national radio address a cease fire was announced, and all troops ordered to return to their barracks (except for troops required to guard the frontier). The announcer also announced that King Juan III would be re-instated as the King of Spain and that the cortes would draft a new constitution. The people returned to their home both hopeful and weary of the government. A cease fire between Spain and the three breakaway provinces was announced as well against the Portuguese Federation.

In February 1956, a new constitution was hurriedly approved by the cortes which combined the previous constitution and added a few new items i) King Juan III as the head of state (figure head only) ii) devolution of regional administrative powers to provinces. On 15th of February, the nation voted 69% in favor of the new constitution but the areas under Galician, Basque and Catalan forces control did not participate.[2]

On 20th of February representatives from Spain, the three breakaway regions as well as Portuguese Federation and France met in Geneva. An agreement was reached to hold a referendum on the three regions’ future as well as the areas under Portuguese control.[3] On 5 March 1956 a referendum was held in the Galicia, Basque and Catalan asking if they wished to continue being part of Spain as autonomous regions. In the Portuguese occupied areas, the referendum question simply asked the voters if they wished to remain part of Spain. Several European countries objected to the hurried vote and their inability to send monitors to monitor the referendum as agreed but Spain demanded the vote take place as fast as possible.

In the Catalan, Basque and Galician controlled regions, the vote was tallied by province and a simple majority of over 50% was required. In Catalan controlled provinces to the shock of Spain and the delight of the Catalan leaders in Barcelona all the provinces voted in favor of leaving Spain and forming the Republic of Catalan. The provincial votes in favor of independence were: Huesca 59%, Zaragoza 70%, Barcelona 89%, Girona 81%, Lleida 79%, Tarragona79%, Castelon 51% and Teruel 52%.[4] In the Basque areas the vote was more lopsided in favor of independence with the lowest vote of 89% voting in favor of independence, the actual numbers were: Álava 97%, Biscay 98%, Gipuzkoa 99% and Navarra 89%. In the west, Galicia also rejected Spain and voted overwhelming for independence, with the four provinces voting as follows: Corunna 69%, Lugo 71%, Ourense 69% and Pontevedra 65%. The Spanish government was not prepared for such a strong rejection and many conservative and nationalist voices in Madrid advocated the invasion of those regions to bring them back into Spain. In Portuguese occupied Spain, the Spanish fared much better with all regions voting over 80% to return to Spain including the city of Badajoz which voted 75% in favor. The only shock was the vote by the county of Olivenza which voted 61% in favor of returning to the Portuguese Federation.[5]

The regional votes were a huge shock to the people of the Iberian Peninsula, with people in Catalan, Galicia not really sure what the vote meant and what lay ahead for them. In the Basque regions celebrations went on into the night. On 31 March 1956, the Kingdom of Spain, the Republic of Galicia, the Republic of Basque and the Republic of Catalonia signed the Iberian Peace Treaty and Spain recognized the three independent countries. All three immediately requested membership in the UN.

On 1st of April, the Portuguese and Spanish signed the Badajoz Accord, which transferred Olivenza to the Portuguese Federation. A non-aggression treaty was also signed between the two countries and they pledged to exchange ambassadors. Although economic relationship was still not in the cards Spain did provide authorization to create a transportation corridor (road and rail) between Portuguese Federation and Basque allowing Portuguese imports and exports to Europe to cross Spain unhindered.[6] [7]


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The Iberian Peninsula in 1956
[1] In 1952 the US renewed the lease for Lajes Airbase but the lease for Alentejo airbase was terminated and the American Military personnel moved to Spain.

[2] The French, Italian and other European government’s recognition of the three regions to decide their own destiny as well France’s protection to the Basque and Catalan people put Spain on direct path to war with the rest of Europe. On 15th of February, the same day as the announcement of the Spanish referendum Portuguese Federation announced it was providing Galicia with similar guarantee.

[3] Spain at first balked at the idea of having Portuguese occupied regions also having a referendum but with the majority of the residents being nationalist Spanish supporters it felt confident that a resounding vote to return to Spain would be a great slap in the face of Portuguese Federation.
[4] Much was made of the Spanish majority provinces under Catalan control such as Huesca, Castelon and Teruel voting to leave Spain but future historian attributed it to desire by the people to live in a democratic country and be free of oppression.

[5] This had been the only part of Spain that Portuguese Federation desired and the Portuguese government decided to continue occupying the Spanish border areas in order for force a vote and to regain its lost county. The actual vote was expected to be much lower in favor of returning to the Portuguese Federation. The economically depressed area largest economic activity was many of its resident working illegally in the Federation especially in Beja large industrial area.

[6] The rail issue continued to plague Portuguese Federation since there existed three different gages: Portuguese gage, Spanish gage and European gage used in France and elsewhere in Europe and all were different. Portuguese rail locomotives and railcars were forced to change gage at Spanish border and again at French border greatly increasing costs and time. It would not be until 1965 that Portuguese locomotives and railcars would be able to automatically switch between the three gages.

[7] The Portuguese Federation / Galicia – Basque corridor which following the Suez Canal Crises took a more important aspect with the building of the Portuguese Federation – Luxemburg pipeline. In return Spain received billions of dollars in aid to authorize the building of an “auto-estrada”, railway and pipeline through Northern Spain. The Spanish allowed the railway to be constructed through Spain using Portuguese gage but not European gage. This road and rail corridor had no connection with Spain and all people and vehicles had to either get off in Portuguese Federation or the Basque Republic. A special unit of Spain’s national police was created to police the corridor (paid by Portuguese Federation).


The country of Spain during the 1950s under Franco never really recovered its prestige and nationalist pride following the 1949 Portuguese-Spanish deal. Spanish people felt that the government and its leaders had led them down and failed the country. Who the executioners were no one ever found out but it was the springboard for the disintegration of Spain. The rest of Europe led by France were the major supporters of the splintering of Spain. The Europeans thought that the Spanish would wake up and overthrow its rightwing government and embrace democracy but they figured wrong and failed to understand the strength of the military, police in keeping control of the people and their willingness in letting the peripheral parts of the country leave if it meant they continued to control the remainder of the country. The politicians and military of Spain also failed in understanding the desperation of the people in their desire for freedom and better lives.

The Portuguese played their part perfectly, the victim to Spanish aggression, even though the Portuguese military was better equipped and stronger then the Spanish forces sent against it. They let the Europeans split Spain apart, received Olivenza (we got Olivenza back) which with Ceuta pretty much erased three centuries of Spanish dominance. Lastly they gained a third Portuguese aligned country, Galicia. To provide the Galicians with incentive to kick the Spanish to the curb the Portuguese promised them open border, investment in Galicia, military alliance and support.

The Spanish after everything that happened were in shock, so too was the rest of Europe who scrambled to support both Catalonia and Basque. The Europeans afraid that Spain would collapse further and the peninsula suffer from more war jumped on the Portuguese suggestion to provide Spain with large economic boost. The Portuguese paid the Spanish 3x the value of the corridor and when the Portuguese offered to build the oil pipeline the French, Italians and rest of Europe provided Spain with large amount of money to allow the country to rebuild. From 1956 -1966 Spanish unemployment was reduced by 80% and the country witnessed major growth with both industry and government infrastructure spending alleviating the crippling economic malaise that had existing in the country since the Civil war. Questions/ Comments?

We will return February 2 with World - Africa.
 
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I always believed that Olivenza should have been returned to Portugal after the treaty of Vienna on 1815. But it didn’t, which always perplexed me since it was Portuguese and then the Spanish conquer it in 1801; the Portuguese with British help then in the Peninsular War basically occupied all of Iberia, but still the region was not given back to Portugal, which for me, personally, was stupid.
Portugal should have gotten it back!
 
The rail issue continued to plague Portuguese Federation since there existed three different gages: Portuguese gage, Spanish gage and European gage used in France and elsewhere in Europe and all were different. Portuguese rail locomotives and railcars were forced to change gage at Spanish border and again at French border greatly increasing costs and time. It would not be until 1965 that Portuguese locomotives and railcars would be able to automatically switch between the three gages.
I have a observation. The break-of-gauge between Portugal (1664 mm) and Spain (1672 mm) always allowed interoperability of trains between both countries.
 
I wonder if those assassins from Galicia realized how much chaos they would cause when they killed Franco? Regardless, Portugal now has a firmer grasp on Iberia. Will Spain rename themselves into the Kingdom of Castile or is that too much already?

I'm sure Portugal will be pleased with their newly recognized islands in Indonesia, but I wonder how they will use them. Will they be used for for tourism, naval yards, and for nuclear bomb testing?
 
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