Photos from Featherston's Confederacy/ TL-191



Malcolm Little, Black rights activist and formerly a Private in the US Army, photographed in 1957.

Little rose to prominence when he was in the Army during the Second Great War, when he, in a moment famous in US history, first raised the US flag over the ruins of the Confederate Congress building following the Battle of Richmond, with his famous declaration of "Reduce This!" as he impaled the US flag through the fallen Freedom Party banner becoming a rallying cry for Black Rights activists following the revelation of the full scale of the Freedom Party's atrocities. In the aftermath of the War, as the re-integration of the South began and race relations became an unavoidable issue, Little used his famous status in a series of powerful speeches in communities across the north, Culminating in a famous speech before the newly-built "Roosevelt Column" in Washington DC, where, in his famous "I Have Faith" speech, he called upon the leaders of the USA to "Live up to the Truths that are Self-Evident, that ALL MEN are created Equal."
Arguing for equality and integration rather than Black supremacy as other, more radical speakers had been since before the war, Little was a controversial figure in both white and black political circles. His rhetoric and attitude made him a target of white supremacists in both the north and the south, and several attempts were made on his life during the course of his time as a speaker. The last of these, in 1968, would be successful, as several Freedom Party Guards veterans would ambush Little and an entourage of followers outside their hotel in Memphis. Shot three times in the chest, Little would die the following morning, where the Coroner would famously proclaim "you people, Behold a Martyr."
His funeral in his home city of Omaha, Nebraska, was attended by over 15,000 people, among them Retired General Irving Morrell, then-General of the Army Micheal Pound and, to the surprise of many, former CSA intelligence chief Clarence Potter.
 
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Lulu Mattox.jpg

A photograph of Lulu Mattox (who was Featherston's personal secretary) reading an excerpt of the book Gone With The Wind out loud to everyone present while at Featherston's private retreat (which was known as the cottage by Featherston's inner circle) along the coast of Albemarle Sound in North Carolina, circa 1939.
 
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Photograph of an anti-evolution book sale during 1930's Richmond, moments before the Freedom Stalwarts literally broke it up.

Led by Thomas Theodore Martin, an evangelical activist-later-turned-political prisoner, the introduction of the scientific theory of Evolution was not popular throughout the Confederacy and some leaders, both religious and secular, had some doctrinal and/or moral concerns about it being allowed to be taught in schools. Individual states eventually made their own laws towards the teaching of Evolution. In some states, it was entirely banned, while in others, it could only be taught at the university level. Cuba, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Louisiana were known to have lenient laws compared to the rest of the Confederacy due to a higher Catholic population that had little to no problems with Evolution.

When Featherston became president in 1934, he met a group of Confederate intellectuals, some of which were former members of the Radical Liberal Party, who introduced him to the concept of materialist philosophies, including Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and a strict atheistic interpretation of Evolution. Featherston himself was already a lapsed Baptist by the start of his presidency and was initially drawn to these ideas. While he did express private skepticism about the veracity of some ideas, he nevertheless allowed these people to become high-ranking members of the Confederate Freedom Party and worked closely with Saul Goldman, the Director of Communications of the CSA.

Featherston's favorite concept was that of Evolution, which he made required learning in all levels of education throughout the CSA. A major reason as to why he wanted to make Evolution a state-enforced educational course was that it appeared to prove the idea that Whites were the most evolved type of human, compared to Blacks who were thought of to be more related to that of brute animals. Despite not being sure if Evolution was actually true or not, he noted that it was a useful propagandistic tool to subjugate and eliminate Blacks in the CSA.

Decades after the end of the Confederacy, there still exists a hesitant, if not a staunch refusal , acceptance of Evolution as a fact in the United States among the small Black population. While most of the African-American community is secular, a vast majority of Blacks (mostly from older generations) still refuse to believe in Evolution as true science due to its ideological use against them during Featherston's Confederacy.
 

Photograph of an anti-evolution book sale during 1930's Richmond, moments before the Freedom Stalwarts literally broke it up.

Led by Thomas Theodore Martin, an evangelical activist-later-turned-political prisoner, the introduction of the scientific theory of Evolution was not popular throughout the Confederacy and some leaders, both religious and secular, had some doctrinal and/or moral concerns about it being allowed to be taught in schools. Individual states eventually made their own laws towards the teaching of Evolution. In some states, it was entirely banned, while in others, it could only be taught at the university level. Cuba, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Louisiana were known to have lenient laws compared to the rest of the Confederacy due to a higher Catholic population that had little to no problems with Evolution.

When Featherston became president in 1934, he met a group of Confederate intellectuals, some of which were former members of the Radical Liberal Party, who introduced him to the concept of materialist philosophies, including Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and a strict atheistic interpretation of Evolution. Featherston himself was already a lapsed Baptist by the start of his presidency and was initially drawn to these ideas. While he did express private skepticism about the veracity of some ideas, he nevertheless allowed these people to become high-ranking members of the Confederate Freedom Party and worked closely with Saul Goldman, the Director of Communications of the CSA.

Featherston's favorite concept was that of Evolution, which he made required learning in all levels of education throughout the CSA. A major reason as to why he wanted to make Evolution a state-enforced educational course was that it appeared to prove the idea that Whites were the most evolved type of human, compared to Blacks who were thought of to be more related to that of brute animals. Despite not being sure if Evolution was actually true or not, he noted that it was a useful propagandistic tool to subjugate and eliminate Blacks in the CSA.

Decades after the end of the Confederacy, there still exists a hesitant, if not a staunch refusal , acceptance of Evolution as a fact in the United States among the small Black population. While most of the African-American community is secular, a vast majority of Blacks (mostly from older generations) still refuse to believe in Evolution as true science due to its ideological use against them during Featherston's Confederacy.
Very interesting update and a unique take on the Evolution controversy.
 


Malcolm Little, Black rights activist and formerly a Private in the US Army, photographed in 1957.

Little rose to prominence when he was in the Army during the Second Great War, when he, in a moment famous in US history, first raised the US flag over the ruins of the Confederate Congress building following the Battle of Richmond, with his famous declaration of "Reduce This!" as he impaled the US flag through the fallen Freedom Party banner becoming a rallying cry for Black Rights activists following the revelation of the full scale of the Freedom Party's atrocities. In the aftermath of the War, as the re-integration of the South began and race relations became an unavoidable issue, Little used his famous status in a series of powerful speeches in communities across the north, Culminating in a famous speech before the newly-built "Roosevelt Column" in Washington DC, where, in his famous "I Have Faith" speech, he called upon the leaders of the USA to "Live up to the Truths that are Self-Evident, that ALL MEN are created Equal."
Arguing for equality and integration rather than Black supremacy as other, more radical speakers had been since before the war, Little was a controversial figure in both white and black political circles. His rhetoric and attitude made him a target of white supremacists in both the north and the south, and several attempts were made on his life during the course of his time as a speaker. The last of these, in 1968, would be successful, as several Freedom Party Guards veterans would ambush Little and an entourage of followers outside their hotel in Memphis. Shot three times in the chest, Little would die the following morning, where the Coroner would famously proclaim "you people, Behold a Martyr."
His funeral in his home city of Omaha, Nebraska, was attended by over 15,000 people, among them Retired General Irving Morrell, then-General of the Army Micheal Pound and, to the surprise of many, former CSA intelligence chief Clarence Potter.
Well, you made Malcolm X into a Grade A badass and a true hero/TL-191 Doctor King. Thank you very much for this. Even how he died, with 'Behold a Martyr' sounds kinda biblical.
 
The Forgotten Campaign: The True Story of the Alaskan Front during the SGW Part 1

A Union Soldier in his foxhole at a forward position in American Columbia near the border with Russian Alaska, circa 1941.

When the Second Great War commenced in North America, the Union High Command would strip many of their occupation forces from Canada to go fight the Confederate Forces in the South. However, there were a few regions of Canada where none of the Occupational Forces were stripped from such as American Columbia and the Yukon due to their proximity to Russian Alaska. Those regions would be immediately put under the Pacific Northwest Command with General Hugh Aloysius Drum as it's commander. Drum's forces were 87,000 US Army soldiers backed up an additional 12,000 US Marines 9,000 local Collaborationist Auxiliary Troops, 850 artillery pieces (much of them dating from the First Great War), 1,020 motor vehicles, 36 armored cars, 20 barrels (which were all M2A4 Light Barrels), 66 fighter aircraft (which were P-24 Hawk and the older P-16 Peashooter), 28 A-17 Nomad light bombers, and 16 coastal patrol aircraft of various types. The local naval forces in support with Task Force 36 under the command of Admiral Spruance had the new Battlecruiser USS Constellation, the heavy cruiser USS Northampton, the light cruisers USS Saint Louis and Brooklyn, 13 destroyers, and 7 submarines.

In addition to the various ground forces, there were numerous coastal artillery batteries that were built following the Pacific War in order to protect the coastal regions of American Columbia, Vancouver Island, and Graham and Morseby Islands from a possible Japanese Invasion. Pictured here is a 14 inch gun from Fort Roosevelt on Vancouver Island, circa 1940.

Opposing the Union Military Forces was the Imperial Russian Forces of the so-called Alaskan Front commanded by General Alexi Antonov. By August of 1941, Antonov's forces had included about 105,000 troops, 761 artillery pieces, 896 motor vehicles, and 54 armored cars along with 54 fighter aircraft (which most of them were obsolete Polikarpov I-153 biplanes), 24 Polikarpov R-Z light bombers, and 12 Tupolev SB-2 bombers. The Russians would also have elements of it's Pacific Fleet based out of the port of New Archangelsk in Alaska with the heavy cruisers Pallada and Rynda, the light cruisers Oleg and Izumrud, 15 destroyers (six of which were new destroyers), and 12 submarines.

An illustration of a BA-6 armored car of the Imperial Russian Army in Alaska, circa 1938. The BA-6 was the Russian Forces in Alaska's most advanced armored fighting vehicle (which there were 10 of them in Alaska.) The remainder of their armored forces were made up of older D-12 (12), BAI-M (15), FAI-M (5), and BA-27 (12) armored cars.

The first opening moves of the Alaskan Front would in fact be made by the Union Forces, following about two months of calm on the front which would later be dubbed as the "Phoney War." On October 15th, 1941, the Union Army forces under General Lloyd Fredendall launched an attack into the South-Eastern portion of Alaska with the 18th and 21st Infantry and the 9th Mountain Divisions. At first, the Union Forces made some progress when they captured the settlement of Stakin along with the Marines capturing Chirikov Island* with little resistance and even fewer (around 15) casualties. However, the offensive would stall when the Union Army and Marines made an amphibious landing attempts at Mitkof and Kupreanof Islands, where the local Russian forces under General Lev Dovator. For about a month, the fighting on those two islands proved to be a stalemate until the Union forces there withdrew, with the cost of 544 men killed, 1,932 wounded, 31 captured, and 4 missing along with 24 field artillery pieces lost, 2 armored cars destroyed, 2 fighters and a bomber shot down, and the Destroyer USS Porter badly damaged by R-Z torpedo bombers.

Union Army troops during the Battle of Mitkof Island on Halloween of 1941.

Shortly after the Union withdrawal, General Antonov would order a counter-attack to the north, which had commenced on December 4th, 1941. The Russian counter-offensive would prove to be successful as they were able to reach as far as the shore of Kluane Lake in Yukon. Encouraged by this success, the Russians would launch another offensive to the south, where they made an attempt to retake the south-eastern tip of Alaska from the Yankees. They would successfully reverse most of Fredendall's successes by retaking all of the territory (expect for Chirikov Island.) Then their forces would cross into American Columbia, seizing a small strip of land on Alaska southeastern border. But their further advance would be halted by the Union Army's 9th Mountain Division during the Battle of Mount McLeod.

A photograph of soldiers from the Russian 107th Rifle Division attacking Union positions during the Battle of Mount McLeod on Christmas Eve, circa 1941.

Union Army soldiers defending a trenchline near Clements Lake against an attacking Russian battalion. This was a still from a made for TV American movie about the Alaskan Front during the Second Great War called the Forgotten Front (1988).

Following the Battle of Mt. McLeod, the Russian Offensive would stall, by then, the Russians had have 954 men killed, 1,043 wounded, and 62 missing along with 6 armored cars and 19 aircraft destroyed. At this point, this would only prove to be just the beginning of a bloody side-show.
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* = OTL's Prince of Wales Island​
 
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Malcolm Little, Black rights activist and formerly a Private in the US Army, photographed in 1957.

Little rose to prominence when he was in the Army during the Second Great War, when he, in a moment famous in US history, first raised the US flag over the ruins of the Confederate Congress building following the Battle of Richmond, with his famous declaration of "Reduce This!" as he impaled the US flag through the fallen Freedom Party banner becoming a rallying cry for Black Rights activists following the revelation of the full scale of the Freedom Party's atrocities. In the aftermath of the War, as the re-integration of the South began and race relations became an unavoidable issue, Little used his famous status in a series of powerful speeches in communities across the north, Culminating in a famous speech before the newly-built "Roosevelt Column" in Washington DC, where, in his famous "I Have Faith" speech, he called upon the leaders of the USA to "Live up to the Truths that are Self-Evident, that ALL MEN are created Equal."
Arguing for equality and integration rather than Black supremacy as other, more radical speakers had been since before the war, Little was a controversial figure in both white and black political circles. His rhetoric and attitude made him a target of white supremacists in both the north and the south, and several attempts were made on his life during the course of his time as a speaker. The last of these, in 1968, would be successful, as several Freedom Party Guards veterans would ambush Little and an entourage of followers outside their hotel in Memphis. Shot three times in the chest, Little would die the following morning, where the Coroner would famously proclaim "you people, Behold a Martyr."
His funeral in his home city of Omaha, Nebraska, was attended by over 15,000 people, among them Retired General Irving Morrell, then-General of the Army Micheal Pound and, to the surprise of many, former CSA intelligence chief Clarence Potter.
I like to imagine that this is a doppelgänger of Malcom X instead of a genetic variant in TL-191, due to the fact that while his mother was a Grenadian immigrant, his father would have been a Confederate Non-Citizen Resident in Georgia. They would have never met in this alternate timeline.

It's still a good story and I enjoyed it, Soundwave3591!
 
General History of Hawaii (The Sandwich Islands) in TL-191, 1862-1944
*Semi-short post with a few head-canon ideas.


Map of the Hawaiian/Sandwich Islands in 1854

Beginning on August 26th, 1861, the Kingdom of Hawaii under King Kamehameha IV declared neutrality during the War of Secession. Initially, the Hawaiian government had sympathies with the Union but realized that it did not want to offend them by recognizing the CSA. Britain and France also remained neutral at the start of the war. However, that did not stop some Native Hawaiians and Hawaiian-Born Whites from joining the conflict. A plague was eventually dedicated to those individuals from Hawaii who fought during the American Civil War, another name for the War of Secession. The plaque remains a source of controversy due to allegations that some Hawaiians did fight for the Confederacy, but no evidence has yet emerged to corroborate it. The flag of pre-Featherston's Confederacy still arouses shock and anger to U.S. citizens.


A flaw was detected in the plaque; the years of the War of Secession should read 1861-1862, not 1861-1865.

To this day, all Hawaiian volunteers that have been accounted for joined the Union. The most famous was Timothy Henry Hoʻolulu Pitman, who fought during the Second Battle of Manassas on August 28–30, 1862. Nearly three months later, the Battle of Philadelphia would end in a Confederate victory and the Confederacy was recognized by the British and French. Hawaii may not have admired the CSA due to its support of slavery, but Kamehameha IV eventually decided to imitate the diplomatic actions of Britain and recognized the new nation.


King Kamehameha IV (1855-1863)


Hawaii had many foreigners who wanted to establish their own influence on the island, especially from the Unionists and Confederates. Kamehameha IV wanted to limit his kingdom's dependence on these American nations and increase Hawaiian independence. He had begun to develop good diplomatic relations with the British until his death on November 30th, 1863 from Asthma.



King Kamehameha V (1863-1872)

His successor was his brother, Kamehameha V, who wrote a new constitution and increased the political power of Native Hawaiians. He also encouraged traditional Hawaiian practices, such as Kahunaism.


King Kalākaua (1874-1891)

After the death of King Lunalilo in 1874, Kalākaua became the second Hawaiian monarch to be elected as the King of Hawaii. The election was disputed by supporters of Queen Emma, wife of Kamehameha IV, who believed that she should be the rightful ruler of Hawaii. The dispute would later cause a riot and was put down by British, Unionist, and Confederate military forces who were allowed to be on the island. A treaty was ratified in 1875 that allowed Hawaii to not have import taxes on goods going into the United Kingdom. Initially, the treaty was going to be between Hawaii and the United States, but the king was eventually convinced that it would be better to negotiate with the British. The Hawaiians gave Pearl Harbor to the British in return.

By 1881, there was growing tension between the British, Union, and Confederates. When the Union attacked Confederate territory during the Battle of the Cimarron River (Custer's Raid), the British kicked out Union forces on the island and used it as a launch pad to attack the western coast of the United States. While Hawaii was never technically a British colony (there was an attempt), it has chosen to be strongly associated with the British.


1589750203214.png

American Ships near Hawaii during the end of the Battle of Pearl Harbor

More than thirty years later, the First Great War began and put the United States against the British Empire. The Battle of Pearl Harbor occured in August of 1914 for control of Hawaii. However, the British would lose to the United States. An attempt to regain the islands occurred during the Battle of the Three Navies southwest of Hawaii, but that battle would also end in a U.S. victory in 1916.


The Last Queen of Hawaii, Liliʻuokalani, who reigned from 1891- 1917

The Hawaiian Queen Liliʻuokalani was deposed and exiled to a British merchant ship. Hawaii was, for some reason, renamed the "Sandwich Islands" and became an American territory. To this day, there still exists a sovereignty movement of varying popularity that demands the U.S. government to grant them Hawaiian independence. The current pretender to the Hawaiian throne has mixed feelings on the issue, but enjoys being an American citizen.


American Ships sailing away from Hawaii to face against the British and Japanese during the Battle of the Three Navies

The next major, significant conflict that the Sandwich Islands experienced was during the Second Great War, although it played a defensive role from Japanese attacks. In secret, it was in the Sandwich Islands that a plan was schemed by American officials for the Japanese to stop fighting. Eventually, a conference occurred in Montreal between American and Japanese officials for a cease-fire, in exchange for Japanese conquest and control of the Asian Pacific, in order to keep Russia, Britain, and France busy.

Sources:
https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/upload/More-Info-on-Hawaiians-in-the-Civil-War-Alphabetically-by-Name.pdf
http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2010/May/31/ln/hawaii5310346.html
Why is the British Flag on the Flag of Hawaii?
https://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10524/495/JL14054.pdf?sequence=2
https://www.naval-encyclopedia.com/ww1/naval-battles
http://hamptonroadsnavalmuseum.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-return-of-mayflower-by-bernard.html
 
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I like to imagine that this is a doppelgänger of Malcom X instead of a genetic variant in TL-191, due to the fact that while his mother was a Grenadian immigrant, his father would have been a Confederate Non-Citizen Resident in Georgia. They would have never met in this alternate timeline.

It's still a good story and I enjoyed it, Soundwave3591!
In the manner of this series, I sort of amalgamated Malcolm X and MLK into one character, and his being from Nebraska allowed his placement in the USA. He was also in the appropriate age bracket to end up in the army during this time.
Originally this was just going to be a "wouldn't it be a delightful Historical Easter Egg if Malcolm X was the one to do the "Reichstag flag" equivalent in TL191?" But I decided to go further and evoke both his own and MLK's work as a speaker and caller for change.
 
Now for some Post-War images of the Union (now US) Military

A US Army mortarman wearing an experimental desert camouflage uniform, circa 1982.

=================================================================

* = Following the collapse of the Russian Empire in the late 1940s, Alyaska would become an independent nation in 1948. In 1956, with the fear of Japanese Imperial Expansion in the North Pacific, the Tsardom of Alyaska would form a defense pact with the United States.
Where did you find this picture of a Black man wearing what appears to be a Stahlhelm? I like it a lot.

Oh, and I want to thank you for giving Alaska their independence. :)
 
The Forgotten Campaign: The True Story of the Alaskan Front during the SGW Part 2

A photo of a Union Army soldier manning a forward observation at the foot of Mount Shorty Stevenson, circa Spring of 1942.

Following the battles of Mount McLeod and Clements Lake in late December of 1941, the Russian offensive in American Columbia stalled and had dug in to prepare for a potential Union counter-attack. The Union forces would not launch any counter-attack, and no major land confrontations had occurred the next 4 months. However at sea, a few confrontations between Spruance's Task Force 36 and the elements of the Russian Pacific Fleet under Admiral Vitaly Fokin did occur. The first of which had occurred on December 7th, 1941 when the Union Task Force had attacked a Russian Convoy in the Gulf of Alaska that was carrying supplies to New Archangel for the Russian Ground Forces. The resulting 32 minute sea battle would prove to be inconclusive despite the Russians losing the destroyer Kapitan Belli and a single freighter badly damaged along with electrical system aboard the USS Brooklyn being knocked out. Days later on December 13th, the Russian cruisers Rynda and Izumrud would bombard a Union Coastal Defense Fort on the northern part of Graham Island, the raid would be somewhat successful as the Russians would damage some of the fortification's important structures and knocked one of the 12' batteries out of action.

A pre-war photograph of the Russian destroyer Kapitan Belli, which was a First Great War era Destroyer that was transferred to the Russian Pacific Fleet in 1938.

A photograph of the USS Brooklyn during the early days of the Second Great War, circa 1941. During the Battle, a shell from the Russian destroyer Rastoropny had struck the ship's center section, which consequently knocked out the cruiser's electrical system. As a result, the Brooklyn would spend a month at Seattle Washington undergoing repairs and was ultimately transferred to Task Force 38 stationed in the Sandwich Islands to replace the recently lost USS Topeka, which was a sistership to the Brooklyn.

The next naval confrontation would come on January 2nd, 1942, when the Russians would attempt an amphibious landing on the Queen Charlotte Islands with the cruisers Pallada, Rynda, and Izumrud, 9 destroyers, and 5 transport ships. However, the Union forces with a limited force of 8 PBY Catalina flying boats, 2 gunboats and the destroyers USS Little, Gregory, and McCall would make a determined resistance against the Russians to prevent it's capture. In the ensuing naval battle, the Union Navy would lose the USS Little and USS Gregory and 4 of the Catalinas to the Russians. In return, the Russians would lose two destroyers and the troop ship Stribog along with the cruiser Pallada and Izumrud, 3 destroyers, and two of the troop ships badly damaged.

The Russian Heavy Cruiser Rynda during the Battle of the Queen Charlotte Islands, circa 1942.

A PBY Catalina at Masset Inlet Naval Air Station on Graham Island after the Battle of the Queen Charlotte Islands.

Later that same month, the Imperial Russian Navy would start to deploy it's submarine flotilla along the Union coastal regions of Vancouver Island, Washington, Oregon, and California. Within the first month, the Russians would sink a total of 92,000 GRT worth of Union shipping.

The Imperial Russian Submarine S-51 leaving it's home base at Konstantinovsk, circa May of 1942. Kostantinovsk would go on to be the Russian Pacific Fleet's main submarine base in Alaska during the Second Great War and during the Frozen Conflict, would also become a major base for the US Navy's Submarine Fleet in the North Pacific.

Likewise, the Union Navy's forces in the North Pacific would also deploy their submarine force against the Russian and Japanese forces. These submarines would mainly patrol the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska, which they would interdict with Russian shipping in the region. Around March of 1942, Task Force 36 would receive three new Fletcher class destroyers, the light aircraft carrier USS Fundy, and four escort destroyers of the Edsall class for Anti-Submarine duties.

The USS Sturgeon leaving it's base at Vancouver on to a war patrol in the Gulf of Alaska, circa 1942.

USS Fundy underway off the Alexander Archipelago, circa 1943.​
 
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American Betrayal- The Montreal Conference

Japanese Ambassador to Quebec, Admiral Nomura (left) and Special Envoy Kurusu (right) in Montreal, Quebec, 1942.


When the Second Great War began in North America, the Japanese Empire was not obligated to attack the United States, although it was involved in several diplomatic meetings between Britain, France, Russia, and the Confederacy. Eventually, the military decided to take advantage of the situation once it appeared that the CSA had the upper hand during Operation Blackbeard , the Canadian rebels were attempting to establish their own nation, and Russia was sending naval and land forces to American Columbia. The Japanese invaded Midway on December 7th, 1941 and successfully took it from the United States. Not wanting to engage a war in the Pacific and fearing a Japanese conquest of the Hawaiian (Sandwich) Islands, newly inaugurated President La Follette engineered a plan to divide the Pacific into Japanese sphere of influence and an American sphere of influence.

In return for the Japanese abandonment of Midway and no continuing confrontations with the USA, the Japanese were allowed to control all territory from the East indies all the way to the Russian Far East, not including American and German island territories. At the same time, the Hawaiian Islands were to be under control of the U.S.A. and serve as a "border" between the spheres of influence. The plan was talked between two Japanese ambassadors; one for Quebec and one who was designated as a special envoy. While there were questions as to the fates of Russian America and British Australia & New Zealand, all of that was to be determined when the war ended. The entire plan was agreed upon between the USA and Japan at the Montreal City Hall on November 27, 1942.

This plan was kept extremely secretive that the U.S. Navy was not told of it and were surprised when the attempt to take back Midway in early 1943 was easy because the Japanese military abandoned the island. That same year, the Japanese were already invading the remaining British, French, and Russian territories throughout Asia.

The legacy of this plan is considered very controversial in the history of the USA's relationship with Asia. The agreement is seen as a kind of political abandonment of the USA as an ally to all the Asian nations that fought against Japanese conquest, especially in China. Many leaders in Asia before they were conquered by the Japanese expected the USA to engage their enemy in the Pacific and liberate them once they reached the Philippines. The Chinese leadership has constantly called it a "great betrayal" of trust, however, historians are divided as to whether or not the SGW would have lasted longer had the agreement not been made.

pacifique02.jpg

Light-blue: U.S. sphere of influence; Dark-red: Japanese sphere of influence; Light-red: regions where Japan had variable control.
The Republics of Australia, New Zealand, and State (Tsardom) of Alaska would align themselves politically with the United States.



Inspiration:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_betrayal
 
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The Forgotten Campaign: The True Story of the Alaskan Front during the SGW Part 3

Russian soldiers enjoying a break in the fighting in the Strohn Valley in American Columbia, circa 1942.

During the 4 month lull in the fighting on land, both the Russian and Union forces used this an opportunity to reorganize their forces. The Union forces used this a time to rebuild their battered 21st and 34th Infantry and 9th Mountain Divisions back into full fighting strength as well as to shore up their land and coastal defenses in American Columbia. They Union forces would also obtain some new P-39 Aircobra fighters to replace their obsolescent P-16 Peashooter fighters. The Russians used this time obtain more modern weapons such as the Polikarpov Po-4 fighters* and the T-46 light barrel as well as using this time to arm the Canadian Insurgents in American Columbia and to also form the Canadian Liberation Army, which was comprised of Canadian Expats and led by General Henry Crerar.

A photo of a Russian T-46 light barrel, which the type was the Standard light barrel of the Imperial Russian Army during the first half of the SGW. A total of 24 T-46s would be sent to Alaska alongside 15 BA-10 and 20 BA-20 armored cars.

A Russian Soldier shaking hands with a Canadian from the 2nd Free Canadian Corps, aka the Canadian Liberation Army, which was made mostly of Canadian Expatriates who wanted to liberate their homeland from the Yankees, circa 1942.

A photo of Canadian General Henry Crerar, circa 1941. A veteran of the FGW who fought with the Canadian Army against the Yankees, Crerar would live in Britain during the interwar years as a big Canadian Independence Activist in Europe. In late 1941, Crerar would accept an offer from the Russians to command the 2nd Canadian Corps in Alaska.

On April 9th, 1942, the Russian Army would launch it's offensive by attacking Union positions near Clements Lake and the Sitkine River, which both of their attacks would prove successful, in which the Russians would advance down the Sitkine and Strohn Valleys. On that same day, the members of the Canadian Resistance would launch several successful attacks on Union positions behind the lines, notably in the settlements of Terrace and Kitwanga. Thus interfering with Union Army supply lines in American Columbia and giving the Union Forces in American Columbia a very serious headache. To make matters worse, about a 1,000 men belonging to the collaborationist Canadian Auxiliary Military Police would desert and join the partisans. Two days later on April 11th, the Russian would commit the 98th Paratroop Regiment to the fight by dropping them at New Ayianash. Then of April 15th, the Russians would make an amphibious assault on the Chirikov Islands and at the settlement of Lax Kw'alaams. The Union Army General of that region in American Columbia, General Lloyd Fredendall did very poor job of attempting to halt the Russian advance. Both General Drum and President La Follette would relieve General Fredendall from his post and replaced him Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers.

Four men from the Union 10th Mountain Division making their last stand in a skirmish with Russian mountain troops at Big Mountain.

Russian Troops boarding a Tupolev TB-3 bomber to be dropped behind Union lines at New Ayianash, to which there was as a major Union Army supply depot.

Canadian Partisans engaged in a firefight with the Collaborationist Canadian Auxiliary MPs at the settlement of Hixon, circa 1942.
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An NCO belonging to the Canadian Auxiliary Military Police with his Colt M1902 pistol, circa 1942. The CAMP organization was formed in 1923 by the Union Military as a means to assist with the pacification of Canada, the organization was made up largely of Canadian Collaborators, but the Union commanders didn't really trust them, as a result, they were forced to wear tan trousers and were armed with .38 Auto pistols and with modified Ross Rifles that were re-chambered for 7.64x56mmR.

With General Dever's command, the Union Forces had rallied and on April 20th, the forces in the north had managed to stop the Russian advance around Faisal Peak and at the Chutine Landing on the Sitkine River. In the center region, the Russian advance would be halted at the settlement of Meziadin Junction and at Otter Mountain. To the south, the Union forces however were unable to halt the Russian advanced up the Skeena River, in which they would link up the Canadian Insurgents at their stronghold of Terrace. The Union Marines at Chirikov Island despite heroic resistance would surrender to a much larger force of Russian Army troops. The Canadian Liberation Army would see it's baptism of fire when they were landing alongside with the Russian Imperial Marines at the heavily defended settlement of Kitsult on April 22nd, 1942. The joint Russo-Canadian forces were able to capture the hamlet and have to started to advance east to link up with the Paratroopers in the Ayianash Pocket. On that same day, elements of the Imperial Japanese Military commanded by Admiral Boshito Hosogaya as part of a Russo-Japanese agreement for a Japanese expeditionary force to Alaska have started to land at New Archangel.

Russian Shock Troopers engaged in house to house fighting in the town of Terrace against local Union forces.

A Union Soldier belonging to the 14th Infantry Division engaged in firefight at Meziadin Junction.

Soldier's from the Union Army's 21st Infantry Division in a fierce skirmish outside Kitwanga with Canadian Insurgents, this photo was dated April 26th, 1942.

A Russian Naval Landing Party heading to Kitsault.

Recently landed Japanese soldiers being greeted by Russian officers at New Archangel, circa 1942.
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* = OTL's Polikarpov ITP fighter
 
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US troops utilize an armored train to patrol the Canadian Railway network after Operation Blackbeard cut US shipping between east and west. The Canadian National and Canadian Pacific railroads were both crucial elements of the USA's ongoing struggle.


King Haakon VII seeks cover from British air attacks during Churchill's ill-advised "protective Occupation" of Norway, 1941 (colorized)

Norway would firmly enter into the Central Powers Sphere of influence following the British attack on the neutral nation, with Sweden and Denmark soon following suit in breaking political ties with London.
 
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"Either I will be decorated or I will be court martialled, Fire!"
The British Invasion of Norway, August 1941.
Part 1: the Battle of Drøbak Sound.


British Cruiser HMS Exeter sinks in Oslofjord after taking a punishing series of hits from the guns of Oscarsborg Fortress, August 9th, 1941.

Oberst Birger Eriksen, the Commander of the Fort at the time of the invasion, had been forewarned of increasing British Belligerency in the weeks leading up to the attack, But the Norwegian command had not provided him any clear orders on what he was to do in the event of foreign warships appearing, due to the chaotic political situation: while Norway was and remained officially neutral (and had been for some time in regards to European conflicts) the increasing political tensions threatened to push the country into one of the belligerent camps. To this end, the decision whether to favor the Allied powers who, though the King shared heritage with the British Royal Family, were most definitely the aggressors in this war, or the Germans, with whom a lucrative business shipping Swedish iron ore through their Gulf Steam-warmed ports had enriched Norway's shipping fleet, was the main topic of discussion within the Norwegian government.

By late summer 1941, as the Land War in Germany began to show signs of slowing down, Winston Churchill began pushing for Norway to close her ports to German shipping and resource transfers. When Norway refused, the British decided that the matter had to be forced. War Minister Oswald Mosley organized a plan that would see British troops deployed at the major ports along the Norwegian coast, especially Narvik, the primary shipping point for the Iron Ore, as well as Oslo itself.
Given that Norway's entire Navy could barely match a single British squadron in firepower, it possessed no Barrels and its army was only 100,000 men, the British anticipated a swift victory, and thus the late in the year start date was not considered a major factor.

Despite the fort's less-than-ready state (the main battery was over 40 years old at the time of the British invasion, more than 90% of the garrison were fresh recruits who had only been at the fort for a few weeks, and its three 15-cm guns had never been fired in anger) Oberst Eriksen was alert when, at 4:21 AM on September 9th, Unknown ships appeared through the Mist. Eriksen, taking the initiative, ordered the battery to fire at the lead vessel. When challenged, citing the requirement for a warning shot, Eriksen shot back his famous quote: "Either I will be Decorated or I will be Court Marshalled. FIRE!"

The guns age and lack of use had no impact on their devastating effect, with two of the guns (there was no crew available for the third gun, though it was loaded) pounding the Exeter with powerful 15-cm shells. The first round struk the base of her foremast, setting the entire amidships on fire, which in turn ignited stored fuel and munitions for the cruiser's seaplane. The second shell hit the ship's forward 8-inch gun turret, blowing parts from it into the sea and knocking out the electrical power for the entire fire control, rendering the cruiser unable to return fire with her main battery.

Other, smaller guns on either side of the fjord added to the rain of destruction, pummeling the British vessel, which at this time had still not been identified. One round from these latter guns damaged the ship's steering gear, forcing her to steer with her propellers to avoid running aground. Exter did manage to return fire with her lighter guns, and even forced one battery of Norwegian 57mm guns to evacuate under a punishing barrage from the ship's AA guns.

It was at this time, as the crippled warship began to pass the fortress, that the Norwegians began to hear the vessel's crew singing "God Save the King." this was the first time the identity of the ships became known, which, along with a report from a Norwegian Minesweeper, confirmed them as British.

It was at this point, with Exeter having managed to sail past the Fortresses guns despite her damage, that the second element of the battle came into play: Kommandørkaptein Anderssen and his Torpedo Battery. The British, having dismissed the threat the aged fortress displayed, had neglected to inform the squadron commander of the existence of these torpedo tubes, launched from Underwater and therefore invisible to the naked eye. At 4:30 AM,just 9 minutes into the battle, Anderssen pushed the fire button, and the old Austro-Hungarian Torpedoes, to the surprise of all, ran straight and true, slamming into Exeter's side not far from where the first 15-cm shell had hit. This compounded the damage already inflicted, dealing the ship a mortal wound.

Forced to anchor out of the coastal gun's arc of fire, the Cruiser burned furiously, with crewmen dumping the ship's torpedoes to avoid them detonating in the heat as firefighters and damage control tried to save the ship. At 5:30, their efforts came to naught, as the flames detonated a storage locker for anti-aircraft rounds, blowing open the side of the hull and rupturing a number of bulkheads. At this point, the ship was doomed.


British Sailors ashore in the fjord, with Exeter entering her final plunge.

Exeter rolled over and sank at 6:22 AM, bow first, to the bottom of the fjord, leaving some 2000 crewmen fighting for their lives in the oil-coated water. Another fire swiftly began, which lead to a number of the men perishing in the blaze. In all, between 600 and 850 British Sailors perished, with the remainder being fished out of the water and captured by Norwegian troops and taken to a nearby farm. To the credit of the Norwegians, their main focus was tending to the many wounded and dying rather than taking prisoners, and the British were given as much care as practicable under the circumstances.

It would be a short-lived victory for the Norwegian forces: Having seen the fate of Exeter, the rest of the British Flotilla, including the new cruiser Ulster, had withdrawn and anchored further south to deploy their troops to march on Oslo. Outnumbered, the Norwegian troops withdrew from the area, leaving the Prisoners to be "liberated" before sunset. Eriksen himself would be forced to surrender the fortress the very next day, as he was cut off by the rapid advance of the British and their occupation of Oslo with airborne forces. Most of the garrison managed to escape to join the regrouping Norwegian forces to the North before the British took the fortress itself.

Despite the limited impact it had on the British attack, the Battle was nonetheless important. Besides the due credit to the Norwegian defenders, who did their stated duty to the best of their ability and showed stalwart devotion in doing so, it also delayed the British occupation of Oslo long enough for the Royal Family, as well as the Nation's reserves of gold, important documents and several British expatriates who had fled the UK during the rise of the Mosleyist faction and were declared enemies of the Empire, to make good an escape before the city was overrun.
Kaiser Wilhelm III and the Central Powers decried "Imperialist Warmongering" of the UK, and even neutral nations criticized the act, citing the British reaction to the German invasion of Belgium in 1914. American pundits summed it up: "So, Invading Neutral countries is only alright when YOU do it?"

And the loss of Exeter was only the beginning of the military disasters to come....​
 
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After the end of the Second Great War and final destruction of the Confederate States, a photographer from Stars and Stripes Magazine got US veterans from (right to left), the War of Secession, the Second Mexican War, the Great War and the Second Great War, together in one room to take their photograph, to commemorate the end of 70 years of continous warfare and bloodshed.
 
The Forgotten Campaign: The True Story of the Alaskan Front during the SGW Part 4

A colorized photograph of a Japanese troops advancing down the Taku River Valley, circa 1942.

By April 30th, 1942, the first elements of the Japanese Expeditionary Force had landed at New Archangelsk in Alaska, which had 3 infantry divisions, an IJA light tank battalion, and the 3rd Kure Special Naval Landing Force. The Japanese would also send into Alaska a fighter squadron consisting of the Ki-43 Hayabusa fighter. The Japanese naval forces that was attached to the JEF was the battleships Kirishima and Haruna, the aircraft carrier Zuiho, the heavy cruisers Myoko and Maya, 2 light cruisers, and 10 destroyers.
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Boxart for a scaled model of the Ki-43 fighter made in Danubian Federation.

A photo of the Japanese Battleship Kirishima taken from a Russian Navy guard ship in New Archangelsk, circa 1942.

On May 3rd, 1942, the elements of the 3rd Kure SNLF would first see action when they were landed onto Porcher and Stephens Islands, which those two islands with their powerful coastal defense batteries at Forts Drum and Holt were guarding the mouth of the Skeena River, which the Russians wanted those islands captured in order to open up the Skeena for their supply ships to their troops in the town of Terrace as well to silence the guns firing on their overland supply routes from the ports of Haanstown* and Blackford**. Supporting the SNLF forces was the 18th Russian Parachute Battalion, the cruisers Myoko and Tatsuta, and 4 destroyers.

Men from the 3rd Kure SNLF unit on their way to Porcher Island aboard an infantry assault ship.

Paratroopers from the 18th Battalion being briefed about their mission before boarding a TB-3 bomber.

At 10:27 AM, a formation of TB-3s carrying the 18th Battalion had reached Porcher and Stephens Islands, that was then the Russians had ran into trouble. The anti-aircraft batteries in the form of 20mm Oerlikons, 12.7mm M1921 machine guns, and 40mm Bofors had begun to fire on the Russian planes. Many of the TB-3s would be shot down and crashed into the war, killing all aboard them. Those that had gotten above the island and started dropping the paratroopers, many of the soldiers were getting picked off by both AA and small arms fire from the ground. The Russians had started with 650 paratroopers for the operation, but by the end of the battle, only about 47 of them survived with most of them being wounded. The Japanese part of the operation had fared way better, with them reaching the area 10 minutes after the Russians landed. The Japanese warships would immediately bombard the Union positions on the islands, which was followed by a wave of SNLF soldiers being transported to the shore on landing craft. The allied Russo-Japanese forces were able to secure Stephens Island by 7:00 PM and Porcher Island would fall two days after the desperate fighting made by the local US Army and Marine garrisons. The total losses for the Radius forces were 603 Russian paratroops dead and 38 wounded, 74 Japanese marines dead and 144 wounded. The Union losses were 415 men dead, 103 wounded, and 198 captured.

Japanese Marines chanting Banzai on the captured ruins of Fort Holt on Porcher Island, which it would prove to be a major victory for the Japanese. The Russians would however view their airborne operation as a major blunder for their heavy losses in men and material.

On that same day, the United States Air Force would launch it's first air raid on the Russian port of New Archangelsk with 52 B-17 fortresses from the 74th Heavy Bombardment Squadron based out of Whitehorse in the Yukon. The bombers for most of the journey was escorted by P-39 Aircobras and P-24 Hawks of the 102nd and 74th Fighter Groups respectively. Their targets in the harbor was the oil farms as well as the Japanese aircraft carrier and two battlecruisers that were anchored in the harbor. The bombers would first encounter Russian fighters (which were the obsolescent I-153 fighters) while they were over the Chilkat Inlet. Their P-39 escorts had managed to down two of the attacking Russian fighters while the Union forces lost no aircraft. Shortly afterwards, the Union P-39 would be forced to turn back to Whitehorse as they about halfway out of fuel. As the bombers reached New Archangelsk, the Russo-Japanese defenders would man their AA guns and scramble their A6M Zero and Po-4 fighters to deal with the attacking B-17 bombers.

A couple of B-17s from the 74th Heavy Bombardment Squadron shorty after taking off from Dawson Field near Whitehorse.

A battery of 85mm 53K Anti-Aircraft Guns in the center of New Archangelsk preparing to fire on the incoming USAF B-17 bombers.

A photo from one of the B17s showing that a bomb had struck the battleship Kirishima, which had caused fires to break out below decks.

The Union Bombers would result in the destruction of at least three fuel canisters, the Russian submarine S-38, two Russian mine sweepers, as well as causing some damage to the docks, two more fuel canisters, significant damage to the battlecruiser Kirishima, light damage to the Zuiho, and the Russian destroyer Novgorod. The Union forces would lose 11 B-17s in the raid, 3 to Russian AA ground fire, 2 to Japanese AA ship fire, 7 to Zeros, and the rest to Russian fighters.​
 
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