Former Socialist Candidate Richard Nixon announces the Restoration of the Republican Party during the "Lincoln Reversal" at the Socialist National Convention in Lincoln, Nebraska, August 1972, which led to the resurgence of the Republican Party in American politics. Nixon would go on to serve two terms as President, the first Republican candidate to be elected to the office since James Blaine.
This event led to the effective death of the Socialist party as a major force, though the Republicans maintained many of their ideals.
Norfolk and Western Railroad number 611, of the line's famous "J" Class Streamlined express engines, on an excursion run in November 2019. Built in the to pull fast trains carrying people to the 1936 Olympics, the "J's" were the top-link express engines of the N&W, and served the main line between Richmond and Atlanta up to the outbreak of the war.
in Wartime service, the engines were stripped of their iconic "Streamliner" coverings and pressed into "General Service," hauling both passenger and freight trains, including a notorious role hauling trainloads of blacks to Camp Determination. A number of the engines would be captured or destroyed during the course of the war.
Post-War, the remaining engines would soldier on in the resource-starved south for a number of years, long outlasting their steam-powered brethren on Northern Railroads, before the reorganized Norfolk and Southern Railroad would finally retire them in 1967. All but number 611 would be scrapped: 611 would be retained for excursion trains and as an artifact.
Here are a few images I made using AHH's character models. The Freedom font image was originally credited to Marc Pasquin.
Unlike in the videos from Cody, I gave Featherston brown hair based on the books' description.
Photograph of Bass Reeves, a member of the Buffalo Soldiers during the 19th Century
After the Confederacy won the War of Secession, Reeves escaped from the Indian Territory to Kansas after it had been annexed as Confederate Territory. Initially working as a personal guard to military officials at Fort Dodge, he was recruited, among other African-Americans who made up a small community in Kansas, to fight against the CSA during the Second Mexican War. He was present and actively involved in the Battle of the Cimarron River (Custer's Raid). After the war, the United States developed its military among Prussian lines and helped develop the "Buffalo Soldier" program along the Union-Confederate and Union-Canadian border, where he was trained by German military officials and trained them in return. Although he died in 1910 and became a relatively obscure figure in the United States until after 1944, he was already a well-known and popular figure in Germany, especially among the German Army.
Photograph of Daniel Rudd, a Black Catholic writer during the late 19th Century and early 20th Century
Born in Anatok Plantation in Kentucky, Rudd was born into slavery in 1854 and was one of the extremely rare Black Confederates who had a surname and was baptized as a Catholic. During the Second Mexican War in 1881, Rudd and his 11 siblings escaped to Jeffersonville, Indiana. The city was located across from Louisville, Kentucky and was a major battlefield during the war. He wrote his first-hand account of the Battle of Louisville after seeking sanctuary in St. Augustine Bessiones. Although he suffered from discrimination and prejudice (both racial and religious), Rudd was able to become a writer and activist dedicated to Catholicism and Anti-Confederate thought, eventually forming the National Black Catholic Congress. After Kentucky was annexed to the USA after the First Great War, he moved to Kentucky where he planned to become involved in missionary activity to the newly formed Black Unionist community in the state. While he did gain some converts, he lamented that most Blacks he encountered either chose to remain Protestant or accept Marxism, instead. Sometime during the 1920's, he disappeared and was never seen or heard from again. It was only after an inquiry was made from his well-connected circle of Catholic friends that it was revealed he was kidnapped by the Kentucky State Police due to unfounded suspicions that he was a Communist instigator against the United States. Cincinnatus Driver, a veteran of the Second Great War, remarked that he remembered seeing other individuals, both Black and White, who were unjustly imprisoned with him and that he may have seen Rudd during his own captivity. Driver noted that Rudd was praying in a language that he didn't understand, later finding out that it was Latin. Daniel Rudd died sometime in the 1930's in jail and his death was eventually acknowledged by the Kansas State Police and apologized for the unfortunate event after Cardinal Pacelli informed President Smith on the matter. A memorial would later be made years after his death.
Photograph of Martin R. Delany, a physician, abolitionist, writer, and early Black Nationalist in the United States
Born as a Free Black in what would eventually be West Virginia, Delany was able to obtain a high quality education and advocated for the end of slavery, along with arguing for all Blacks in the United States to resettle in Liberia. During the War of Secession, he had attempted to join in the war against the Confederate States, but it was too late and the war only lasted for two years. After the war, he settled in Maryland and remained connected with famous individuals such as Frederick Douglass, Robert Smalls and Harriet Tubman, who helped fugitive slaves settle along the border states between the USA and CSA. Well before the time of Marcus Garvey, Delany espoused Black Nationalist writings. He was a dedicated supporter of the Republican party and hoped to see the USA eventually conquer the CSA and free its slaves. When the Second Mexican War began, he was too old to fight but became a witness during the Bombing of Washington, D.C. and would later write about the event. He attempted to help a slave, named Booker, escape from the CSA, but failed. Disillusioned by the defeat of the USA in the Second Mexican War and the fracturing of the Republican Party, Delany left the United States for Liberia, where he died in 1885 in relative obscurity until after 1944, when historians began to rediscover historical Black nationalists from North America.
Photograph of Henry McNeal Turner, a Bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church
After the War of Secession and Second Mexican War, Turner had attempted to create a Christianized form of Socialism combined with Black Nationalism in order to appeal to as many Blacks in the Confederacy as possible. With the help of Northern Blacks, such as Hiram Rhodes Revels, Turner was able to create a strong community of Black Methodists within the Confederacy from the United States. Although he died in 1915 during the First Great War, it was later revealed that he was active in sending out weapons to the underground Red Rebels. During Featherston's reign, the church throughout the Confederacy was almost completely wiped out during the Population Reduction. While the church still exists today with its own hierarchy and unique culture, it is still a shadow of its former self due to its small amount of adherents.
A photograph of a Mexican copy of the Confederate Sydenham M1937 Helmet which in Mexican service was called the M943. The M943 would adopted in 1943 as a replacement for the Adrian Helmet in Mexican Military Service, and the Confederacy would at first provide the Mexican Army with 8,000 helmets and would allow licensed production in Mexico. The Mexican Military would use Sydenham Design from 1943 all the way to their ultimate replacement by Kevlar Helmets in the mid 1990s. Other non-Confederate users of the Sydenham would include the Dominican Republic (which has been closely associated with the Trujillo Regime there), Nicaragua, El Salvador, Argentina (Naval use only), Spain, Venezuela, France (who used a slightly different design as the Mle. 1943) Brazil (briefly used by the riot police until being retired to the design's negative connotation), and Texas (who used left over Confederate helmets until the 1960s when they were replaced the Stahlhelm Design.) The Mexican M943 along with the Spanish Modelo 1947 helmets would be commonly used by reenactors, film, tv, and theatrical productions because these helmets were much cheaper than the original Confederate helmets.
"The Army Marches North" The British Invasion of Norway, Part II
A scene of the chaotic landing of British troops south of Oslo following the Battle of Oscarsborg Fortress, August 9th, 1941
Disembarking their assault ships far from their original landing point, the British troops shambled about in a sense of general disorganization for several hours, establishing a lackluster defensive ring around their landing site as the gunfire and explosions of the sinking Exeter lit up the horizon to the north. It took a personal effort by Assault Commando Leader Lord Lovat to organize the landing force, commandeering a tour bus from a local marina and seizing the nearby police station to get a bearing on their location.
With no Motor transport landed yet, Lovat took his handpicked force of Commandos in the Bus and several commandeered civilian vehicles ahead with him to Oslo to try and achieve their mission of capturing the King, while the rest of the army set out on foot. Air cover was provided by fighter planes launched off the Carrier HMS Furious, which quickly purged Norway's minimalist Air Force from the skies.
British Troops on the outskirts of Oslo, August 10th, 1941.
By Dawn the next morning and without having encountered any strong enemy resistance, the bulk of the British troops arrived in Oslo to discover a city relatively nonplussed by the presence of a foreign army on their soil. Linking up with Lovat, the Commanders of the operation were dismayed to learn that the Royal Family had escaped to the north during the battle in the Fjord, but Oslo had fallen to the British invasion almost without a fight.
Hans Von Seeckt, Chancellor of the Reichstag, Condemns the British Invasion of Norway, August 10th, 1941.
In Berlin, news of the British invasion came as a shock, and an emergency session of the Reichstag condemned the British action and offered the Norwegian Ambassador immediate military aide. At the same time, the governments of Denmark, Sweden and Finland all declared a severing of ties with London, and the King of Denmark, after negotiations, agreed to allow the German army to station troops and aircraft in Denmark to protect against a similar invasion by the British, as well as use of her ports. Sweden's own military was mobilized with the anticipation of a similar attack.
Norwegian Troops form an ad-hoc unit to try and stem the British attack, August 1941
While the Norwegian army lacked many of the modern weapons and equipment found in the militaries of the major powers, its troops were highly skilled and motivated in their defense of their homeland. Unfortunately, Norway's tepid mobilization meant that many of her reserves had not assembled or been equipped before the invasion, with most of the assembly messages still in the mail.
A Norwegian Sailor, of the unit that would defend the port of Narvik from the British Invasion.
Coastal Defense Ship Eidsvold, Photographed before the War
While the Royal Norwegian Navy would never match the sheer might of the Royal Navy, her sailors and ships were among the few activated and readied forces available to Norway at the time of the invasion, and the defensive fleet stationed in Narvik quickly rallied to oppose the British Landings.
On the morning of August 9th, After receiving warning via radio from minesweepers in the south, the Coastal defense ship Eidsvold, Along with a Squadron of the modern Sleipner class destroyers, sailed out of the harbor and engaged an approaching force of British Cruisers who were intent on landing and seizing the city, which was the primary shipping port for the Iron Ore being sent to Germany.
The British Squadron, led by HMS Trinidad, had not been expecting resistance, and were initially caught off-guard by the Norwegian sortie. First blood therefore went to the Norsk, with Trinidad taking several punishing hits from Eidsvold's powerful 8-inch guns.
Falling out of line, the British Cruiser's escorting destroyers engaged the Norwegians, and a close-quarters brawl ensued in the early dawn of the far north. The British, having been caught unawares, were initially on the back foot, and another vessel, the destroyer HMS Fury, was disabled and driven aground on the rocks. The british ships turned about and headed into deeper water to regroup, leaving the Norwegians with, as at Oscarsborg, a temporary victory.
HMS Trinidad disabled and undergoing repairs in Narvik, August 19th, 1941.
HMS Fury wrecked and aground in Narvik, August 1941.
We all know that in TL-191, the Confederacy was able to continue the institution of slavery until the 1880's and Black Confederates were never given citizenship, except for those that served during the First Great War. Presumably, a type of segregation was practiced in this alternate timeline that only got worse and worse as time went on. It has been explicitly said that Blacks in the Confederacy were not allowed to have surnames and it is implied that the community did not receive any kind of official help from the government in order for them have access to education. At the same time, however, the books mention that some states, like Cuba and Louisiana, Blacks were able to obtain some kind of prosperity within their own communities until Featherston became president.
Would they continue to follow the general laws that existed during the Antebellum Era and leave these Free Black communities alone? Would they immediately strip citizenship from all the Free Blacks in the newly-formed Confederacy and force them to become slaves until after the Second Mexican War?
Once again, this is another interesting topic that Dr. Turtledove never tackles. It would have added another layer of complexity that the Confederacy would have dealt with.
The reason why I am asking is because I want to know what would be the general consensus from TL-191 fans about the plausible fate of Free Blacks in the South before slavery is abolished in the Confederacy. I would very interested in reading your responses before I go forward with my own stories on this topic.
The Forgotten Campaign: The True Story of the Alaskan Front during the SGW Part 5
A Union soldier using a Captured PTRD-41 Anti-Barrel Rifle during a firefight at the settlement of Telegraph Creek, circa August of 1942.
For the remainder of May as well in the months of June, July, and early August, the Alaskan Front would prove to be a bloodbath for the Union Army on land. On May 13th, the elements of the Union's 21st Infantry Division along with some artillery and armored support would launch an attack on the Terrace Salient. The Combined Russo-Canadian defenders would put up a determined resistance to their attackers, which would prove that the Union attack would end in disaster with 582 men dead, 207 wounded, 18 captured, and 2 M2A4 light barrels destroyed. The following day, the Russian forces under the 15th Infantry Division with it's own armored support would launch a counter attack to the north, south, and east of the settlement of Terrace. On that same day, the forward units of the 1st Canadian Rifles Brigade would link up with the Russian 98th Paratroop regiment at the settlement of Nass Camp. Thus would complete the encirclement of about 7,400 Union Troops in the Kitsumkalum Valley, which many of them would attempt to retreat across the mountains into the Union held Skeena River Valley, however most of the Union soldiers were not mountain troops thus the trek over the mountains would see a large number of Union soldier becoming casualties (an example was with the 4th Infantry Regiment which started with 1,800 men, but when the unit got to the other side of the mountains, it only had 962 men left.)
To the north, the Union forces were not faring much better against the renewed onslaught of the Allied Russian, Canadian, and Japanese forces. At Meziadin Junction, the Russian forces would finally break though the Union defenses would start to advanced southward along the Nass River. The Russians would also breakthrough at Chutine Landing and at the base of the Faisal Peak as well as the Japanese launching their attack down the Tuk River Valley further in the north.
Russian Mountain Troops battling Union Mountain Troops on Grass Mountain.
Union soldiers firing at advancing Canadian Liberation Army troops near the banks of the Kiteen River.
Two destroyed M3A1 Pulaski Light Barrels on the outskirts of Kitwanga, which had occurred on June 2nd, 1942 between elements of the Russian 102nd Infantry Division and the 62nd Mechanized Cavalry Regiment and the Union 14th Infantry Division with some armored support. The Second Battle of Kitwanga would prove to be the first major tank battle of the Alaskan Front, which 16 Union M2A4 and M3A1 light barrels clashed against 20 Russian T-46 light barrels. The Union forces would lose a total of 12 barrels and the Russians 10 barrels. The Union troops would however successfully stop the Russian advance along the Skeena River.
While the fighting raged on land, the Russians and the Japanese would also achieve a few victories at Sea off the coast of Alaska and American Columbia. In late May, the Russian Navy in Alaska would be reenforced by the cruisers Admiral Kornilov and Diana, 4 destroyers, 5 submarines, and a flotilla of a new weapon known as the G-5 Motor Torpedo Boat as well as the Imperial Air Arm also coming into possession of 36 Ilyushin Il-4 bombers. The Russians would use the Il-4 bombers to great effect in both the anti-ship role as well as using it attack the Union position on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
A G-5 Torpedo Boat photographed sailing past the newly repaired Russian cruiser Pallada, circa 1942. The G-5 Motor Torpedo Boat was a small yet fast and nimble vessel that was armed with one or two DShK machine guns and two torpedoes. The type would first prove it's worth when two of the type had sunk the Ottoman Light Cruiser Hüdâvendigâr in the Black Sea on February 9th, 1942.
Ground crew arming an Ilyushin Il-4 bomber for an operation off of the Queen Charlotte Islands.
The Union forces at the same would make efforts to reinforce the garrison of the Queen Charlotte Islands, as it became the site of a major naval and airbase to interdict Russian shipping in the Gulf of Alaska. The Union Navy would reinforce Task Force 36 with the aircraft carrier USS Hornet, the older dreadnoughts USS Iowa and Nevada, the heavy cruiser USS Astoria, the light cruisers USS San Diego and Boise, and 8 destroyers.
The first use of the G-8 Boats in the Pacific was done on June 2nd when a small force of 7 boats operating out of Lax Kw'alaams would venture out into the Hecate Strait, there they would encounter 4 Union Navy destroyers that were escorting two cargo ships to the Port of Queen Charlotte. The Russian Torpedo Boats would then attack and it would prove to be devastating, responsible for the loss of the destroyers USS Perkins and Rowan while one of the others, the USS Benham, left badly damaged along with one of the cargo ships. Only two of the Russian MTBs would be destroyed by the Union gunners in return. Two days later, the G-8 boats from the same would strike again in the same area, this time, they would successfully sink the gunboats USS Erie and Statford and the minesweepers USS Gladiator and Gannet.
On June 6th, 1942, the Russian Air Force would conduction it's air raid on the Queen Charlotte Island, which two formations of Tupolev SB2M bombers escorted by Polikarpov Po-4 fighters had attacked the Sandspit Naval Base and the Masset Inlet NAS. As the Russians approached the island, the Union forces would ready their AA guns and scramble a few P-39 and P-24 fighters from the Islands' only airfield near the settlement of Queen Charlotte. In the ensuing Air Battle would result in 5 SB2M bombers being shot down along with two Po-4, two P-39, and three P-24 also being shot down. The Russian bombers had managed to destroy a machine shop and a warehouse at Sandspit and a hanger, a fuel depot, and three Catalina flying boats at the Masset Inlet Base.
A photograph of three P-39 Airacobras at the Queen Charlotte Airbase on Graham Island, which was taken on May 10th, 1942.
A photograph of a burning PBY Catalina that was destroyed by one of the Russian Bombs at the Masset Inlet Naval Air Station, circa 1942.
Scene from the film The Crowned Heads Fall, The film itself is about the criminal underworld in the US State of Sonora, this scene in particular is a flashback for one of the main characters, Robert Davis, in his time fighting in a Freedomite Remnant during the 1950s. The scene in question depicts said Remnant fighting against the US Army somewhere in Chihuahua.
"Blood on the Snow"
The British Invasion of Norway
Part 3: The Central Intervention
Narvik Harbor in the aftermath of the British Counterattack, August 10th, 1941
Norway's successful defense of Narvik was short-lived, as the British squadron quickly reorganized and counterattacked. Coordinated and delivering punishing firepower, Eidsvold and several of the Norwegian destroyers were soon outflanked and sunk, with the remainder retreating into the inner harbor, where it was hoped the tight confines of the Fjord would even the playing field, especially as the Norwegian squadron had already exhausted much of its reserves of fuel and ammunition.
Unnoticed by the Norwegians was the presence of the British Battleship HMS Revenge, one of the few capitol ships the Royal Navy had been allowed to retain after the First Great War, as part of the assault force. Her powerful 15-inch guns and escorting destroyer squadron set upon the Norwegians with a furious vengeance, especially when news of Exeter's loss came through. Royal Navy pride damaged, the British squadron hunted down and smashed the remaining 4 Norwegian destroyers, sinking three and driving one to scuttle at the cost of two of their own destroyers and three aircraft (launched from carriers out at sea) shot down. The Norwegian sailors, many of them wounded and most of their officers dead, armed themselves with whatever weapons could be salvaged from the ships or found in the city. As the British force closed in and began landing troops in the harbor, a brief skirmish broke out. However, Captain Max Manus, commander of the few norwegian Army troops in the area, saw that the disorganized force of Sailors was no match for the British, and managed a fighting withdrawal out of the city into the surrounding hills.
The Union Jack was soon raised over Narvik, and for the moment, at least part of the British operation, the cutting off of Ore shipments via the port, was successful. The British Forces quickly moved outside the perimeter of the city itself and began to dig in against the inevitable counterattack.
British troops take up defensive positions outside Narvik, December 1941.
The First two Panzer III tanks arrive from Germany via Sweden to Equip the Norwegian Forces, September 1941
Norway's Lack of motor transport, to say nothing of Barrels, was not out of ignorance of their versatility: it was more due to both the country's desire to avoid antagonizing their neighbors as well as the vehicles themselves not being entirely practical in the mountain-and-fjord-thick countryside of Norway. This lack would, however, contribute to Britain's early advances into the country, with Oslo, Trondheim, Bergen and several other key cities falling to the invasion in short order.
However, not everything was going the British way: Narvik, despite initial success, would prove to be a running sore in the British plans, as would their failure to cut off German shipping in the Baltic.
The Germans quickly organized several divisions of reserve troops, in particular their 9th Mountain Division, to be deployed to the aid of the Norwegians. In addition, a delivery of modern Panzers and motor vehicles, light machines suitable for the rough terrain, was organized for Norwegian use, their operators to be trained by the Germans. German Bombers also began harassing raids against British Ships in the North Sea from bases on Jutland as per the agreement with the Danish, who themselves called up their reserves and began to rally against a potential British attack. The First German units, transferring via the Swedish border with Norway, arrived in the city of Hamar just north of Oslo beginning on the 28th of August, 1941. The arrival of reinforcements in the beleagured city bolstered the morale of the population greatly, and the well-behaved Germans soon ingratiated themselves with the locals.
A German Soldier from the newly formed "Nordland" Force explains the function of an MG-34 Machine Gun
to an enthusiastic group of Norwegian onlookers, October 1941. Used to the heavy, watercooled Browning
machine gunsused by the Norwegian Army, many in both the Norwegian military and
the population were duly impressed by such modern German weapons.
Old as they were, however, the Browning M1917 Machine guns in Norwegian service were nevertheless effective against
both ground and Air targets. Here is a Norwegian gun crew deployed in an Anti-Air configuration outside Narvik, December 1941.
Danish troops mobilize against a prospective British Invasion, August 1941.
The Forgotten Campaign: The True Story of the Alaskan Front during the SGW Part 6
Union soldiers engaged in a firefight with Canadian Liberation Army soldiers at the town of Kispiox, circa September of 1942.
By September of 1942, the Alaskan Front was proving to be an ever escalating conflict. By then, the Russian led forces had managed to advance to the banks of the Kitwancool Lake and the town of Kispiox, which were north of the settlement Kitwanga. To the South, the Japanese forces from the 34th Infantry Division was laying siege to the Union positions at the town of Kitimat on the Kitimat River. To the north, a major battle at Telegraph Creek was underway between the Russian 343th Rifle Division and the Union 77th Infantry Division. The Japanese advance in the Taku River Valley would ground to a halt thanks to stiff resistance put by the 7th Mountain Division at the Battle of Inklin. At the sea, the Union Navy would continue on with it's attempts of cutting the Russian and Japanese supply lines to Alaska, but without suffering their own losses. By the start of September, the US Navy would lose the USS San Diego and two destroyers to the Russian Navy in naval skirmish in the Gulf of Alaska as well as another destroyer sunk by Japanese aircraft and three submarines sunk. The Russo-Japanese forces would also keep up their siege of the Queen Charlotte Island by launching constant air raids on the bases on the Island. The Russian in their part would also launch constant raids with the G5 Torpedo Boats on Sandspit Naval Base and in the Hecate Strait, targeting Union supply ships.
Imperial Japanese soldiers assaulting a Union Army held position north of Kitimat.
A Union Cargo ship sinking in the Hecate Strait photographed by a gunner aboard a G5 Torpedo Boat, circa August of 1942.
Russian Soldiers during a break in the fighting near Kitwanga.
Canadian Partisans launching an attack on a Union Army convoy near the town of Topey. During this time, there would a sharp increase of attack on Union military installations, supply lines, and communication lines by Canadian Partisans, which would led to many Yankee units being tied down in suppressing the partisans.
Newly recruited Canadian conscripts with Russian weapons of the CLA. In the area that the Russian forces control, there would a major recruiting program for the locals to join the Canadian Liberation Army. Unsurprisingly, many local Canadians would join the Russian cause in droves as they wanted the Yankees, whom had been in control of Canada since 1917, gone.
A post-war painting by a Canadian Nationalist of two Canadian partisans laying a mine on a railroad track while a third is watching out for Union Military Police somewhere in American Columbia. This painting would go on to be popular artwork for Canadian Nationalists and also with the extremists of the modern Canadian Liberation Movement.