Photos from Featherston's Confederacy/ TL-191

The World At War

The opening of the Documentary Series called World at War.

Created during the late 1960s and early 1970s, the German made series called World at War which chronicled the events of the Second Great War and was first aired between 1973 and 1974. At the time of it's completion, it would cost 9,000,000 Reichsmarks, making it the most expensive factual production in Television History. The series would be directed by Herman Weigel and narrated by Werner Hinz (the English translation would be done by Laurence Oliver) and it's soundtrack composed by the British musician Carl Davis. The series would go into depth about the war on both sides of the conflict, and had many people who were around to experience the war, whether being soldiers, officers, civilians, and politicians and had included people like Mark Clark, Cassius Madison, Douglas Corrigan, Erich von Manstein, William Hood Simpson, Jack Ifrey, Karl Dornitz, Jock Colville, James Stewart, Hasso von Manteuffel, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Bill Mauldin, Toshikazu Kase, Hans-Hellmuth Pfiefer, Charles M. Cooke Jr., Otto Christian Archibald von Bismarck, Charles De Gualle, Lord Louis Mountbatten, and the historian Steven Ambrose. In a bonus DVD set about the making of the series, Wiegel had stated that he choose to interview the aides and adjutants rather than the more recognized figures. He would then go on to mention the most difficult person to locate and persuade to interview was Ferdinand Koenig's personal adjutant, Andrew Fox. During the interview Fox would admit to witnessing a large scale execution in Koenig's presence. The series would go on to be successful and in 2000, would be rank in 19th place on the 100 Greatest German Television Programmes, the highest ranking documentary.​
Episodes
No. 1 - The New Confederacy (1934-1941) - Detailing the Rise of the Freedom Party and Jacob Featherston.
No. 2 - Storm Rising Over Europe (1931-1941) - Centered around the rise of the Actionists in Britain and France along with the creation of the Radius Alliance.
No. 3 - The Storm Breaks (June 1941 - April 1942) - About the outbreak of war in Europe following the death of Kaiser Wilhelm II and the stalemate on the Western Front.
No. 4 - Clash in the East (June 1941 - April 1942) - Centered around the Russian invasion of Eastern Europe, Austria-Hungary, and Germany.
No. 5 - Blackbeard (August 1941 - May 1942) - Centered around the Confederate Invasion of the USA with Operation Blackbeard and their attacks on Haiti, Bermuda, and the Bahamas.
No. 6 - Banzai!: Japan (1931-1943) - Centered around Japan and it's wars and conquests in Asia and the Pacific War with the Union and it's entrance into the SGW. Covers the First and Second Battles of Midway.
No. 7 - War at Sea (1941-1944) - About the War at Sea in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Indian, and Pacific Oceans between the Radius and the Central Powers.
No. 8 - Insurrection (1941-1943) - About the Anti-Union insurrections in Utah and Canada as well as the Arab and Serbian revolts and their support by the Radius Alliance.
No. 9 - Pittsburgh (June 1942 - February 1943) - Centered around the Confederate Operation Coalscuttle and the resulting Battle of Pittsburgh, with it's resulting Confederate Catastrophe.
No. 10 - War in Scandinavia (1942-1944) - Centered around the Radius Invasion of Norway and Finland, and the brutal fighting in that region.
No. 11 - Remembrance: The United States (1941-1943) - Centered around the Union Army, it's war production, Operation Jupiter, and the Battle of Greenland.
No. 12 - Whirlwind: Bombing the CSA (August 1941 - November 1943) - The Development of the Union Air Force's strategic bombing campaign of the CSA, both the successes and setbacks.
No. 13 - Turning the Tide (July 1942 - June 1944) - Detailing on the Battle of Hamburg, the Radius being forced out of Western Germany, the Low Countries, and the desperate fighting in Northern France.
No. 14 - The Ottomans at War (1941-1944) - Centered around the Ottoman Empire during the Second Great War, along with the Palestinian, Caucasus, and Egyptian Campaigns.
No. 15 - Home Fires: The Union (1941-1944) - Life and Politics of the Union Homefront during the Second Great War.
No. 16 - Inside the Confederacy (1941-1944) - Confederate Society as it transforms as it's fortunes of war are reversed. Censorship and Entertainment, transformation of Confederate industry, recruitment of female and foreign labor, Confederate dissent to the Freedomite Regime, and it's last months of existence.
No. 17 - Betrayal (1943-1944) - About the Japanese Empire changing sides in 1943 and conquering British Colonial Possessions in the Far East.
No. 18 - War in Africa (1941-1944) - About the Battle for Africa between Radius and Germany and how it effected their colonial possessions.
No. 19 - Stalemate and Breakthrough (August 1943 - January 1944) - The fighting between the Union and Confederate Forces in Tennessee and the Battle of Chattanooga.
No. 20 - Genocide (1940-1944) - Begins with the founding of the Freedom Party and follows it's Racial Theories. It ends with the implementation of the Population Reduction. (When it was first aired worldwide, no commercial breaks were allowed to be played during it's airing. This would subsequently be the rule in the United States, Haiti, Liberia, and Texas whenever re-runs were aired in those countries since then.)
No. 21 - Nemesis: CSA (February - July 1944) - The Final Drive into the CSA, Morrell's March to the Sea, the Texas Revolution, Battles of Richmond and Atlanta, and the death of Jake Featherston.
No. 22 - Britain (1941-1944) - Britain's society and culture during wartime, and how life is transformed as the nation become increasingly aware of it's catastrophic military setbacks.
No. 23 - Eastern Front (July 1942 - May 1944) - The successive and bloody battles on the European Eastern Front, aimed towards Moscow and Petrograd.
No. 24 - The Bomb (February - June 1944) - The development of the Superbomb, the Superbombings of Petrograd, Paris, Hamburg, Philadelphia, Newport News, Charleston, London, Brighton, and Norwich and the ultimate surrender of the CSA and Britain.
No. 25 - Reckoning (July 1944) - The Post-War situation, including the dissolution of the Confederacy, the occupation of Britain and France, demobilization, the Nashville Trials, and the start of the Frozen War. Episodes concludes with the summations of the ultimate costs and the consequences of the war.
No. 26 - Remember - About how the war - both good and bad experiences - was experienced and remembered by it's witnesses.

Bonus Episodes
  1. Making the Series: World at War
  2. Secretary to Mosley: Mary Templeton
  3. From War to Peace: Professor Stephen Ambrose
  4. Warrior - Reflections of Men at War
  5. Featherston's Confederacy: The People's Community (1934-1941)
  6. Featherston's Confederacy: Total War (1941-1944)
  7. The Two Deaths of Jacob Featherston
  8. The Devastation: Part 1
  9. The Devastation: Part 2
  10. Making the Series: A 30th Anniversary Retrospective
  11. Experiences of War
  12. Restoring the World at War.
The series would by widely praised across the world by various world leaders, politicians, and academics, former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl would praise it saying "It was terrifyingly great." So much so, that both Wiegel and Winz would win awards for the series.
The theme song of the World at War.
Good, good, good!
The details in this series are very believable.
Despite some differences in how I would have handled a few things (such as no involvement of Austria-Hungary and/or Ottoman Empire or Japan's role or lack of role in the Pacific), I can definitely see this documentary series being very popular and valuable to historians in TL-191.
 


William Jefferson Clinton, the first man from the former CSA to be elected president of the United States (1993-2001)

Born in Arkansas in 1946 (shortly after its reaffirmation as a Union state, making him a US Citizen and thus eligible to be elected) Clinton was shaped by the "Family Reunion" period in North American politics, as the former Confederacy was slowly reincorporated into the United States, bringing their system of government with them. While many former Confederates, or "Feddies" as they were nicknamed by the post-war generation, chafed under the Union's German-inspired Bureaucracy and Military structure, the long experience under the dogmatic Featherston regime ironically allowed for something of a smoothing of the transition (a few would joke that they traded one dictator for another.)

Clinton's election in 1993 was seen as the climax of the "Rose Bowl" period, the post-1980's surge in American exceptionalism that followed the final "Return to the fold" and restoration of the pre-1860 USA to full Union. Clinton would be the first sitting US President to visit the UK, and would begin the Process of the "Anglo-shift" in American politics, turning away from the Germanic sphere towards the English-speaking world. Social programs that had aided survivors of Featherston's "Population Reduction" would be extended for former British colonies in Africa via Liberia, which had risen to become the economic heart of West Africa following the collapse of the British and French Empires. Discovery of German atrocities in their West African Colonies further influenced the divide between the wartime allies, with some political pundits commenting on the hypocrisy of supporting Germany while simultaneously damning the CSA.

Domestically, Clinton brought what he called "Southern Politics" into the US government, restoring some of the power of the individual state governments and dialing back the German-inspired "Boot on your Neck" oversight. He also orchestrated the first "Atomic Non-Proliferation Treaty" following the Ottoman Empire's development of their first Superbomb in 1994.

His time in office would be marred by a scandal involving White House employee Monica Lewinsky in 1995, which would see him impeached in 1998, though he was not removed from office (likely due to the infllux of "Feddies" into Congress and the Senate) and served out the rest of his second term.
What party do you think he’d be in TTL? Personally, I’d actually see him as Republican, as they’re a purely centrist party from the Second Mexican War onwards.
 
General History of Jamaica (1917-1944)
*Head canon ideas I've had for awhile, but I mentioned them before in previous posts somewhere on the forum.


Map of Jamaica during the 1670's

From 1655-1917, the island of Jamaica was a British colony. During the late 19th Century, trade occurred between the Confederacy and British colonies in the Caribbean. It was noted among British colonists that interaction between Confederates and the British in Jamaica was initially awkward due to the large population of (free) Blacks on the island. Confederate sailors and merchants on the island would often harass the Black population and engage in violent confrontations, which caused Britain to confront the CSA and demand that they behave like "civilized men". When the First Great War began in 1914, Jamaica was not involved in any battles, but the island did produced some war material and was a pit stop for the Royal Navy.


The Last Governor of Jamaica

After the end of FGW in 1917, all British and French colonies in the Western Hemisphere were surrendered. Some became U.S. territories, while others formed their own nations. In the case of Jamaica, the latter was chosen. The Governor of Jamaica, Brigadier-General Sir William H. Manning, was kicked out of the island and sent back to Britain, where he would later be sent to British Ceylon. The United States realized that Blacks made up more than half of the island's population. They thought it would be best if a Black Jamaican be selected as the new leader.


Marcus Garvey, President of Jamaica (1918-1940)
With the help of the U.S. government, Marcus Garvey was installed as the first President of the Republic of Jamaica. Before and during FGW, Garvey was already involved in politics and had several businesses in Jamaica. A staunch Black nationalist, Garvey believed that it was imperative that all Blacks in the Americas should gain financial independence and political power. He advocated for the return of all Blacks descended from the Atlantic slave trade back to Africa. He formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), which supported his views about Black society. Eventually, the fraternal organization would transform into a political party that would dominate Jamaica.


Flag of the UNIA, eventually becoming the flag of Jamaica.

Throughout his presidency, Garvey improved the economy of his new nation and modernized its infrastructure. He sought to work with both the CSA and USA. Early on, he wanted to negotiate with anyone who would support his Back-to-Africa movement, even with heavily prejudiced government officials from both countries. Repeatedly, Garvey attempted to negotiate with the Confederacy to transport all of its Black population to Africa. Since the Confederacy refused to recognize Jamaica or any other Black republic, his attempts were ignored. When Featherston became president in 1934, Garvey surprisingly received a message from him. In general, it said that Featherston had a better idea on what to do with Black Confederates and that it would include Garvey and the Republic of Haiti. Confused and concerned, Garvey realized that he could not trust him and made plans to improve his country's military. Garvey also voiced concern about Featherston's political goals to the United States, but he was not taken seriously. Marcus Garvey would die of a stroke on June 10th, 1940.


Confederate troops in Jamaica during Operation Blackbeard in 1941

The Battle of Jamaica, or Defense of Jamaica, began when Featherston sent a fleet of Confederate ships and amphibious transport vehicles to invade the island. It was later revealed after SGW that Featherston promised to Churchill that Jamaica would be "cleaned of the black stain" and return it to British control. Similar plans of giving the Bahamas and Bermuda to Britain were also made, while the Confederates would gain Haiti. For the first few years of the war, Jamaica was cut off from the United States and played a defensive strategy against the Confederates. The Jamaican military lacked a decent navy and had no air-force, but their army was heavily involved in guerilla methods of attack. By late 1943-early 1944, President Claude McKay changed battle strategies and began to push the Confederate army out of Jamaica. Supplies were often sent by airlift from parts of U.S.-controlled Cuba. After the Confederacy surrendered and was dissolved, there were still some Confederate troops left on the island. When word was reached that the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marines would be landing in Jamaica, the remaining Confederate Navy and Army around the island surrendered.

To this day, Garvey and McKay are national heroes in Jamaican history and is a strong ally to the United States. The ideas of Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism live on in the Caribbean and African nations.


Famous quote from Garvey


Claude McKay, President of Jamaica (1940-1948)

Something(s) I did previously on Jamaica:
https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/photos-from-featherstons-confederacy-tl-191.185493/page-173#post-18603221
 
What party do you think he’d be in TTL? Personally, I’d actually see him as Republican, as they’re a purely centrist party from the Second Mexican War onwards.
I agree, he'd likely be Republican. My Headcanon here is that the Socialists, after a brief resurgence in the 1960's, finally collapse following an economic recession in the 1970's that is blamed on their policies. This leads Richard Nixon to pull what is called the "Lincoln Reversal" which is enacted in Lincoln, Nebraska (but is clearly intended to evoke Abraham Lincoln's bringing the Republicans into the Socialist party) where he and like-minded followers announce the restoration of an independent Republican party, Allowing for his two terms from 1973-1981, backed by "Feddie" voters who support the Opposition-to-the-Democrats ideals of the Party. Nixon's Presidency would coincide with Sonora and Chihuahua becoming part of the United States after a failed attempt by Mexican nationalists to have the two states returned to Mexico, thus finalizing the whole of the former CSA into the US, which was the beginning of the "Rose Bowl" era.
 
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I have been wonder about this for a bit today, but what would type of non-Abrahamic religions (such as Paganism) could get popular in the West in TL-191?
 
I have been wonder about this for a bit today, but what would type of non-Abrahamic religions (such as Paganism) could get popular in the West in TL-191?
Not very familiar with TL-191 but I think that religions are pretty much same as in OTL altough not sure what is situation with Judaism.
 
The Garrison Incident

Albert Wesley, whom was a Freedom Party Guards officer in it's Security Department photographed here during the Nashville War Crimes Tribunal, circa 1945. Wesley would highly regarded as being the man who brought the Second Great War to American shores as he was the man who oversaw Operation Featherston, which was an elaborate False Flag Operation conducted by the Freedom Party to make the Union look like the aggressor.

During a meeting in May 1941 about the planning of Operation Blackbeard, Group Leader Richard Paulson had made a suggestion to both President Featherston and Clarence Potter.
"I must suggest that the Yankees should be the ones who strike first. What I mean is, is that we have some of our men from the Guards dress up in Yankee uniforms and can speak like a Yankee orchestrate some sort of an operation along our northern border, so that we can use that "incident" to advantage. Which the world that is not allied with the Yanks would view us just merely responding to a violation to our sovereignty."

After thinking about Paulson's suggestion, Featherston along with many of his other inner circle would agree to Paulson's suggestion and in earnest would begin planning for an stage incident. Naturally, the first part of the Operation (which was codenamed Featherston) was to decided where is the incident going to take place at? After some consolation, it was agreed that the "Yankees" would attack a radio station and a Confederate Army outpost within the vicinity of the hamlet of Garrison Kentucky. To the opposite side of that town across the Ohio River was a Union Army installation. The second part was to create a "Yankee" saboteur group, which the Freedom Party Guards wasted no time in creating by making that unit by enlisting some Freedom Party Guardsmen who were capable of speaking in Northern Dialects and forging some Union Army uniforms for them. They also be provided with Union Army weapons that originally captured during the First Great War, equipment, and fake Union identity cards.
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Five Freedom Party Guardsmen disguised as Union Army soldiers, which this photograph was taken two weeks before the "Incident" took place, circa 1941. The "officer" was Troop Leader Ernie Pike, who was to lead the "Yankee soldiers" during the their "raid."

As Weasley had pointed out, if the "Incident" was to have any credibility, the "Yankee Infiltrators" were going to have to suffer a few casualties. So, the Guards would then gather 6 inmates from the Concentration Camp Dependable, 4 of which were common criminals while the other two were political prisoners. The six men would then be transported to a Freedom Party Barracks at Nashville Tennessee where they would dressed up in faux Union Army uniforms and were given lethal injection and convincing looking gunshot wounds hours before the incident and were referred to by the Guards as "Canned Goods." Then the night of August 14th, 1941 came, which was the day before Operation Blackbeard was to commence, which by 9:00 PM, everyone in that Operation had taken up their positions. At that time in the town of Garrison, pretty much the whole town was asleep and the local CS Army outpost was about to under go rotation between shifts. Then at 9:24 PM, the outpost would report that they are coming under attack from at first an unknown attacker, but the Confederate soldiers would then identify the attackers as being "Yankee soldiers" from their searchlight. The firefight would last for about a minute before the "Union" soldiers withdrew into the dark, which a search by three of the CS Army personnel would find two "Yankee" corpses in the brush. Minutes later at 9:31 PM, the Garrison Radio Station which overlooked both the town and the Ohio River Valley would then come under attack as the "Union saboteurs" would first attack and then take over the station with it's only engineer named Roland Washington.

A colorized photographed of the Garrison Radio Tower from 1939, first built in 1934, the tower would be service from 1939 to it's destruction by Confederate forces in 1943 to prevent it from falling into Union hands.

A photograph of the radio engineer Roland Washington from 1940.

After transmitting some Anti-Confederate messages over the radio, the "Union" soldiers would summarily execute the radio engineer before retreating. The "Union" squad would then come across a Freedom Party Guards patrol, in which the Guardsmen would shoot into the air to make it seem like that the two forces were engaged in a firefight before the shooting quickly stopped. When the Confederate Army soldiers and police came to the scene, they had discovered that the Freedom Party Guardsmen were looking over the corpses of four "Union" Army soldiers below their feet.

Freedom Party and local officials and the Freedomite Press looking over the recovered bodies of the "Union" raiders the day after the incident occurred.

The next morning as Operation Blackbeard got underway, the Confederate Propaganda Machine would all over the incident, stating that this was an unprovoked attack by the "Northern Aggressors" against the Confederacy. Which Saul Goldman's propaganda machine would go on to state that the military invasion of the USA was in fact a response to this cowardly attack by the "Philadelphia Regime" against the Confederate Army and the citizens of the town of Garrison. Naturally, the Union Government's reply was that this Incident was just a ruse by the CSA in order to justify it's military aggression in Ohio and the Bahamas. During the war, Albert Wesley would be part of the frontline units of the Freedom Party Guards before ultimately being captured in Arkansas by the US Army in November of 1943. During the 1945 Nashville Trials, both Wesley would admit that the Garrison Incident was after all a Freedomite False Flag Operation, though Neo-Freedomites would maintain that the Incident was in truth an act of Northern Agression against the South. The incident would be the centerpiece for the 1968 film How I Started the Second Great War as well as being briefly shown in the 1979 Austro-Hungarian miniseries the World War, the 1985 TV film Featherston's Freedomites: A Portrait in Evil, and the 2001 Michael Bay film Blackbeard.​
 
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Potter wasn't tried in Nashville, he was tried in Philadelphia, for his part in blowing part of Philadelphia up with the Confederate Superbomb.
 
Not very familiar with TL-191 but I think that religions are pretty much same as in OTL altough not sure what is situation with Judaism.
Well with no Holocaust in this timeline (which helps the Germans develop a Superbomb, since the Jewish physicists remained in Germany) I'd imagine Judaism remains in its pre-war situation. There's No Israel, obviously.

I could see a surge in traditional African religions and traditions Among the black communities that survived the Population Reduction, though, in the same vein. Maybe Liberia would become TTL's Israel?
 
Or Haiti could be an Israel equivalent...………………….
Them would have bit easier integrate to Liberian society when it is English speaking country and there is already many descendants of escaped American slaves. And I think that Liberia is slightly more stable and prosperous (altough hardly much) nation.
 
Hello, this is my first post, but I have lurked here for long enough to have some idea of how post ought to be made.

Und Doch: Argentina 1917-1922

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Argentine Troops On The Parana Before The 1920 Christmas Offensive


1. Phoney War (1915-17)

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President Marcelino Ugarte Urges A Declaration Of War On Germany (1916)
Argentina had carried out its war at a rather leisurely pace for two years. Although war with Chile had been expected, the accompanying attack by Paraguay in 1915 was not. Nevertheless, the isolated Paraguayans had been quickly overrun before the end of the year, and a “provisional” government had been installed with deposed Paraguayan President Benigno Ferreira as president, as a stopgap before the country’s annexation following the Entente Victory. The economic windfall from massive exports of grain to Britain reinforce Argentina’s position as the richest country in the Southern Hemisphere. A large advantage in manpower over Chile ensured no enemy breakthroughs either in the Andes or Patagonia, while Buenos Aires saw no purpose in wasting lives trying to knock Chile out of the war. After all, the very existence of an enemy in South American ensured a steady flow of British weapons and men.

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Grain Being Loaded Into A British Freighter, 1915

Indeed, the Argentine army was a strange force amongst its Entente counterparts. Much to the displeasure of the British, the germanophile officer corps insisted and succeeded in maintaining its “traditional” prussian-inspired uniforms, adopted in 1910. Moreover, the British “brodie” helmets were sidelined when a captured american-made coal-scuttle was reversed-engineered at the Zarate Arsenals to create a distinctive Argentine model, which once more failed to adjust to the Entente’s aesthetics. What was most distinctive about the Argentine army however, was its size. Even if it had started at the mind-numbingly small figure of 7,000 men, the 41,000 troops which it fielded in June 1917 was incomprehensibly little to Argentina’s allies.The Confederate attache in Buenos Aires, Lt. Colonel Wharton Hampton, expressed his frustration at the “half-hazard” effort of the Argentines in 1916, in a telegram wired to his brother Wade, then Secretary of State.

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The Argentine Army Never Abandoned Its Recently-Aquired Taste For German Uniforms, Even After Declaring War, July 1916

“Even in 1910, the government of the Republic of Argentina claimed it could have an army of 90,000 assembled within two weeks. My observations and the results of the 1914 census lead me to believe this is true, for one sees men from eighteen to thirty-five still walk the boulevards of Buenos Ayres [sic], still going back and forth from the farms in the Pampas…. I can only conclude that not even all of those included in the partial mobilization called in 1915 have actually been put into service, even with Chili [sic] still launching offensives in the direction of Mendoza. It is impossible to understand why President Urgate, knowing full well the situation of the Entente in Europe and North American, does not act accordingly.” (1)

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Wharton Hampton In 1904, Confederate War College. He Would Be Accused Of Homosexuality By The Freedom Party Press In 1935, And Expelled From The Army. He Recieved Command Of A Regiment Early In The Second Great War, And Is Believed To Have Commited Suicide By Leading The Attack On Yankee Forts In Northern Virginia.

There were several explanations for this, but primarily, the Argentine leadership understood that it had no need to field a regular army as it was not under a very considerable threat from any country. Not only did the Argentine elites prefer to spend the very considerable inflow of British pounds it was getting from the sale of wheat and meat in peacetime for their ambitious attempts to rapidly industrialize, but it was also realized that calling up men to the war would force them to make concessions to the lower classes, as the CSA had done with its blacks, and England with its poor. Having narrowly won an internal battle against reformism in 1912, the hardline conservatives would do everything possible to avoid granting universal suffrage.


Notwithstanding the small size of the army, Argentina did not simply stand on the sidelines to watch. However small compared to the million-man armies of the CSA and France, the Argentine troops were on average, better equipped than any allied armies. The enormous supply of capital and aid from Britain enabled the Argentinians to furnish their units with the latest equipment. Moreover, the quality of the troops was uniformly high, as no second-line units ever had to be called up, and troops were rotated from the battles in the frontier with Chile to garrison assignments elsewhere. Similarly, the Argentine Army Aeronautic Service (AAAS) had grown to be the best-equipped anywhere south of the equator. With the help of the Royal Flying Corps Station based in El Palomar to attack Union ships trying to reach Cape Horn, the AAAS had reached a strength of 145 front-line aircraft, mostly delegated to patrolling the eastern litoral, as the Andes winds made the western front inhospitable to early aeroplanes. The lessons of war in Europe and North American were still being learned, and a further 10,000 national guard troops were brought into service in early 1917 to fill up the new units created to reflect the advance of technology, including a barrel company of british Mark IVs.

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Argentine FB.2 Over The Litoral, 1917

The navy too, had grown. Even as naval races with Chile and Brazil from 1890 to 1911 had already bloated the Argentine Navy to a disproportionate two dreadnoughts and seven modern cruisers in 1914, the war against German-American convoy raiding redirected even more funding in that direction. Britain, strapped for manpower, had lent Argentina four destroyers, and rescinded its commandeering of another four which had been under construction at Yarrow in 1914. Repair and docking facilities at Puerto Belgrano had been greatly expanded by British engineers to accomodate for the small fleet kept by Britain in the South Atlantic, and the regular visits by damaged Confederate battlecruisers, bruised from their encounters with Union raiders. By 1917, Argentina had seventeen destroyers (two of which it would lose to German cruisers), and had racked up six US and German submarines sunk.

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Although The ARA RIvadavia, Built In The Confederacy, Remained The Flagship, Much Of The Fleet's Work Was Carried Out By Destroyers

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ARA Cordoba Searching For German Submarines, Early 1916

Overall, aside from the lack of consumer goods to import caused by the war, Argentina was suffering less in 1917 than it had in 1914, and it looked, much like Japan, to benefit regardless of who won the war in Europe.

When George Custer’s barrels broke through the confederate lines in Tennessee in April of 1917, however, things changed rapidly for the worse.

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Them would have bit easier integrate to Liberian society when it is English speaking country and there is already many descendants of escaped American slaves. And I think that Liberia is slightly more stable and prosperous (altough hardly much) nation.
Well, Liberia is a US protectorate in this timeline (as is Haiti, for that matter) but with the much more militarized US i would think they'd do more to expand their economies.
 
I agree, he'd likely be Republican. My Headcanon here is that the Socialists, after a brief resurgence in the 1960's, finally collapse following an economic recession in the 1970's that is blamed on their policies. This leads Richard Nixon to pull what is called the "Lincoln Reversal" which is enacted in Lincoln, Nebraska (but is clearly intended to evoke Abraham Lincoln's bringing the Republicans into the Socialist party) where he and like-minded followers announce the restoration of an independent Republican party, Allowing for his two terms from 1973-1981, backed by "Feddie" voters who support the Opposition-to-the-Democrats ideals of the Party. Nixon's Presidency would coincide with Sonora and Chihuahua becoming part of the United States after a failed attempt by Mexican nationalists to have the two states returned to Mexico, thus finalizing the whole of the former CSA into the US, which was the beginning of the "Rose Bowl" era.
My guess is that with state control over the economy being so much more accepted in the U.S. in this timeline, they would have something akin to British economic policy (and economic problems) from 1944-197X, at which point wages policy and planning would be ditched by some sort of Thatcher-esque character following a recession, and the socialists would either stay out of power for a long time or implode.
 

A photograph of two destroyed P-27 Sky Sharks taken by the Confederate 16th Infantry Division of the aftermath of the Confederate Air Raid on Wright Field, which had occurred on August 15th, 1941 when Operation Blackbeard Commenced. The base was taken over by Confederate Ground Forces a day after the raid and this photo was taken on August 23rd, 1941.
 
Amendments of the U.S. Constitution in TL-191
*All of these amendments after the 12th are head canon ideas. Feel free to agree or disagree.

XIII
(
Passed by Congress January 1, 1863. Ratified July 6, 1863.)^(1)

Section 1. -Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. -The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

XIV
Passed by Congress June 13, 1882. Ratified July 9, 1883.^(2)

Section 1. -All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. -Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.


Section 3. -The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

XV
Passed by Congress February 26, 1884. Ratified February 3, 1885^(3)

Section 1. -All able-bodied male citizens of the United States, and persons of foreign birth who shall have declared on oath their intention to become citizens under and in pursuance of the laws thereof, between the ages of eighteen and fifty-five years, except as hereinafter excepted, are hereby declared to constitute the national forces, and shall be liable to perform military duty in the service of the United States when called out by the President for that purpose. The President of the United States is hereby authorized and empowered to call forth the national forces, by draft, in the manner provided during war or insurrection.

Section 2. -The following persons be, and they are hereby, excepted and exempt from the provisions of this act, and shall not be liable to military duty under the same, to wit: Such as are rejected as physically or mentally unfit for the service; also, First the Vice-President of the United States, the judges of the various courts of the United States, the heads of the various executive departments of the government, and the governors of the several States. Second, the only son liable to military duty of a widow dependent upon his labor for support. Third, the only son of aged or infirm parent or parents dependent upon his labor for support. Fourth, where there are two or more sons of aged or infirm parents subject to draft, the father, or, if he be dead, the mother, may elect which son shall be exempt. Fifth, the only brother of children not twelve years old, having neither father nor mother dependent upon his labor for support. Sixth, the father of motherless children under twelve years of age dependent upon his labor for support. Seventh, where there are a father and sons in the same family and household, and two of them are in the military service of the United States as non-commissioned officers, musicians, or privates, the residue of such family and household, not exceeding two, shall be exempt. And no persons but such as are herein excepted shall be exempt: Provided, however, That no person who has been convicted of any felony shall be enrolled or permitted to serve in said forces.

Section 3. -All persons thus enrolled shall be subject, for two years after the first day of July succeeding the enrollment, to be called into the military service of the United States, and to continue in service, not, however, exceeding the term of three years during peace time; and when called into service during war or insurrection shall be placed on the same footing, in all respects, as volunteers for three years, including advance pay and bounty as now provided by law.

Section 4. -If any person shall resist any draft of men into the service of the United States, or shall counsel or aid any person to resist any such draft; or shall assault or obstruct any officer in making such draft, or in the performance of any service in relation thereto; or shall counsel any person to assault or obstruct any such officer, or shall counsel any drafted men not to appear at the place of rendezvous, or willfully dissuade them from the performance of military duty as required by law, such person shall be subject to summary arrest by the provost-marshal, and shall be forthwith delivered to the civil authorities, and upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine, or by imprisonment not exceeding two years, or by both of said punishments.

Section 5. -The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

XVI
Passed by Congress September 22, 1886. Ratified May 3, 1888^(4)

The Congress shall have power to write, pass, and enforce rationing legislation on all goods and resources within the United States in times of peace and war, with apportionment among the States and with regard to census or enumeration.


XVII
Passed by Congress July 2, 1890. Ratified February 3, 1893^(5)

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration


XVIII
Passed by Congress December 18, 1912. Ratified January 16, 1913^(6)

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate or House of Representatives, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator or Representative chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


XIX
Passed by Congress June 4, 1927. Ratified August 18, 1928.^(7)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex, race, or color.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


XX
Passed by Congress March 2, 1931. Ratified January 23, 1932.^(8)

Section 1. -The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 1st day of February, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 15th day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2. -The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 15th day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3. -If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4. -The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5. -Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of November following the ratification of this article.

Section 6. -This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.


Inspiration:
http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/education/all_amendments_usconst.htm
https://turtledove.fandom.com/wiki/Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America
https://web.archive.org/web/20100602000908/http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/962.htm
https://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_drft.html
http://www.webmatters.net/txtpat/?id=376
https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/United_States_Statutes_at_Large/Volume_40/65th_Congress/1st_Session/Chapter_15

(1) I'd imagine that an amendment against slavery would still need to passed in order to prevent another war of secession. Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware were still slave states that didn't secede from the Union.
(2) Similar to the 14th amendment, but without any reference to insurrection or slavery. It was one of the three major amendments (14th, 15th, 16th) during the Remembrance era that was passed to allow more people to become American (Unionite/Unionist) citizens.
(3) The Conscription Amendment.
(4) The Rationing Amendment.
(5) The Tax Amendment, similar to OTL.
(6) Similar to OTL, but it also includes a section that allows governors of states to fill vacancies in BOTH the Senate and House of Representatives.
(7) Similar to OTL, but it also officially prohibits denial of voting rights based on race and color.
(8) Differs in the day of presidential inauguration: January 20th (OTL) vs. February 1st (TL-191)
 
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Not very familiar with TL-191 but I think that religions are pretty much same as in OTL altough not sure what is situation with Judaism.
In relation to Judaism, there wouldn't be a State of Israel and the Hebrew language wouldn't have as strong of a revival compared to OTL.
Anti-semitism would still be a problem and eventually frowned upon in civilized society, but it wouldn't have the same amount of stigma as it did in OTL.

I'd like to imagine that Islam in TL-191 is never radicalized as much, if at all.
 
Hello, this is my first post, but I have lurked here for long enough to have some idea of how post ought to be made.
Welcome to the forum!

It's nice to see some attention be given to South America in TL-191. Usually, it doesn't happen and there are some unexplored questions about how a Confederate victory in the Civil War would have affected the continent's diplomatic relations with the rest of the world, compared to OTL.
 
My guess is that with state control over the economy being so much more accepted in the U.S. in this timeline, they would have something akin to British economic policy (and economic problems) from 1944-197X, at which point wages policy and planning would be ditched by some sort of Thatcher-esque character following a recession, and the socialists would either stay out of power for a long time or implode.
Well I honestly envisioned Spiro Agnew taking over the Socialists after the Nixon Split, but by this point they had lost so much credibility they were more or less reduced to a fringe party. The Subsequent President to Nixon is Nelson Rockefeller, who comes in as something of a backlash due to the Socialist split, but an uptick in Southern Politics due to the full restoration of the Union starts seeing figures such as Jimmy Carter and Jesse Jackson begin campaigning for political re-integration of the South, the efforts for which culminate in Clinton's election in 1992, seen as the Peak of the "Rose Bowl."
 
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