Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Post 41
Post 41: Chapter 49:

Chapter 49: December 1981 – January 1983

“Wherever education does not take on a liberating role, the oppressed will dream of oppressing”

– Paulo Freire


– Time Magazine, 12/26/1981


…Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is firmly anti-Israel and supported acts of violence during multi-national peace talks in the Middle East during the 1970s. He called Palestine’s Nasser Arafat and Egypt’s Anwar Sadat “heretics” for signing the 1978 Atlanta Peace Treaty. Libyan support of violent organizations coupled with a still-ongoing war with the nation of Chad and multiple skirmishes with US jets above disputed territorial waters has made the situation tense…

– The Guardian, 12/31/1981

In 1982, Epstein took his connections and experience from advising high-net-worth clients on tax strategies for Bear Stearns to successfully found his own financial management firm, J. Epstein & Co.; with it, he sought to manage the assets of clients with over $billion in net worth. This was how Epstein got his foot in the door…

Jeffrey Epstein: Profile of a Monster, 1995 documentary

Podgorny hoped that the Soviet intervention in Romania would be quick, as it was diverting elements that their troop leaders overseeing operations in Iran claimed were need for the “Ayatollah Front” down there. To try to personally oversee military efforts to keep Romania under the control of the Soviet Union, KGB leader Yuri Andropov board a private plane in Moscow, bound for Bucharest, on January 3. The plane hit turbulent weather, and the pilot lowered altitude to overcome it. He dived down too quickly, and he lost control of the aircraft. The wreckage – and the bodies of all onboard – was found strewn across a field outside of Kyiv, Ukraine… Gorbachev gave the eulogy at his mentor’s lavish state funeral, a ceremony meant to shore up patriotism for the politburo, only for its over-the-top ceremonial details to contrast the differences between the government and the suffering masses…

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


…Cheech Marin has begun working on a new pro-drug teen film. The former Frank Zappa bandmate and Hispanic Labor Rights organizer is teaming up with Hollywood actors to make a comedy about “four dudes – two deadbeats smoking pot, and two tightwads who accidently take pot and get freaked out because they like it.” Casting is still ongoing, but Marin expects the film to premier in the spring of 1983, “just in time for Spring Break”…

– The Hollywood Reporter, 1/5/1982

JAKE BUTCHER ACQUITTED OF BANK FRAUD; Opponents Cry “Mistrial” As Scandalous Governor Refuses To Resign

…Tennesseans waiting for Butcher to leave office will now have to wait another year, as the term-limited Governor’s term ends in January…

The Washington Post, 1/10/1982

US-Libya agitation came to a head in the early hours of January 13, 1982. A routine flight from Tampa, Florida, to Jerusalem, Israel, flown away from Libyan airspace, was nevertheless greeted by Libyan Air Force jets. The pilot’s radioed in assistance before the jets shot down the passenger plane. All 238 passengers and 15 crew members were killed.


Above: the type of plane shot down

When contacted by American authorities, Gaddafi defended the actions of his air force pilots, claiming the American plane entered their airspace despite all instruments and recording arguing otherwise. US intelligence confirmed within the next hour that Libyan officials were aware that the plane was out of their own claimed areas, but chose to shoot it down anyway, officially using a vague “perceived threat” claim as justification of their action… During the incident, after learning only of an American flight being brought down by anti-American elements, the FAA instinctively grounded all flights until it could be confirmed that it was an isolated incident…

– William C. Martel’s Victory In War: Foundations of Modern Military Policy, Cambridge University Press, 2011

“War is not a game but a tool used when the pen has snapped and another party’s sword has been drawn. Libya is calling for engagement. Shooting down and killing American troops without just provocation, and a heartless and deliberate attack on innocent American civilians, is where we must draw the line. And this is where we must sound the battle horn. This is when we enter and finish what Muammar Gaddafi has started – a war between our two militaries, between our two peoples, between our two lands.”

– Jeremiah Denton, requesting congressional approval for a declaration of war on Libya, 1/14/1982; the Authorization for Use of Military Force of 1982 was passed almost unanimously in both chambers on 1/16/1982


“The US military is only striking targets within Libya, only raiding military locations, and only hitting government and military locations and utilities, not areas of concentrated civilian populations…”

– Dan Rather, CBS News, 1/23/1982

SUPER BOWL XVI: 49ers beat Bengals 27-20

– The Boston Globe, sports section, 1/24/1982

We have a breaking news story. Sources have confirmed the Mikhail Suslov, the Premier of the Soviet Union, has died. Suslov passed away while at the Kremlin from some sort of heart ailment, most likely a coronary incident from his suspected arteriosclerosis. Suslov was 79 years old…

– Peter Jennings, ABC World News Tonight, 1/25/1982

Despite aggressively overseeing the censoring of literature in the USSR, Suslov refused to recognize the significance of rumblings of revolution in Estonia, the Warsaw Pact nations, and the Turkestani soviets. He declined to send in the army to the USSR’s own soviets by arguing that “if troops are introduced, that will mean a catastrophe. I think that we all share the unanimous opinion here that there can be no discussion of any introduction of troops” [1], and instead established Marshall Law in the rebelling soviets. His hardline stance against détente came from his belief that America was oppressive and imperialistic, and that Russia was the center of the universe [2]. …The death of Suslov created yet another power vacuum that his leading subordinates clamored to fill. After two days of debate and political maneuvering over Konstantin Chernenko and initial frontrunner Yuri Andropov, the 78-year-old Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Nikolai Podgorny was declared Suslov’s successor. Concurrently, the nation found itself a second-in-command in the form of the USSR’s 73-year-old Minister of Defense, Marshal of the Soviet Union Dmitry Ustinov. Podgorny planned to rule with “a softer hand,” and chose Ustinov, a former ally of Suslov, to win over the Soviet military.

– Victor Cherkashin’s Adamant: The Rulers of the USSR and the KGB, Basic Books, 2005


…a proposal to “reign in the reckless spending” done by the Mondale administration was introduced in the US House today by Congressman Jack French Kemp (R-NY)… Already, the bill is winning the support of Senators such as Ron Paul (R-TX) and Barry Goldwater (R-AZ)…

– The Washington Post, 2/2/1982

The Chadian-Libyan conflict had been ongoing since 1978, but with US-Libyan relations being increasingly tense since the start of the Denton administration, the US invasion of Libya led to a pause in Libyan operations in Chad. The northern half of the landlocked nation of Chad was comprised primarily of the Sahara, non-agricultural land with some nomadic herding. The upper part of its southern half is grazing with some subsistence crops. Now, these rises in the land here, at the northern border, these are the Tibesti mountains, high cliffs on shield volcano with animal wildlife and, most importantly for Libya, a region rich with uranium deposits. After the 1982 US invasion, these northern population centers – Aouzou, Bardai, and Zouar – along with Ouadi Doum and Faya Largeau (or Faya) farther south and to the center, were the sites of a rise in anti-Libya activity as the locals sought to reconquer the land. Koro Toro, which lies farther to the south and to the east some more, uh – here – yes, this population center became the headquarters of US troops stationed in Chad. Sala, which lies at the 15th parallel here, was a base of local anti-Gaddafi operations. You don’t have to remember anything about the bottom southern half of Chad, “the Sahel.” It’s desert but with trees and water, sort of like a transitional divider between the deserts and the jungles, a region that produces millet, sorghum, rice, peanuts instead of grazing, and cotton in the very, very southern bottom portion here, along with fish from Lake Chad. And yes, I am glancing at some notes for this part of the lecture, see? Okay, moving on now…

– Transcript of former US Ambassador to Iran Lowell Bruce Laingen, geopolitics lecture at Columbia University, NY, 2001

is a 1982 American live-action action adventure film. The film was jointly produced by Shaw Brothers Studio, the largest film production company in Hong Kong at the time, and the US’s Walt Disney Productions. The film was primarily distributed by Buena Vista.

The story closely retells the Chinese legend of Hua Mulan, a young woman who disguises herself as a man to take her aged father’s place in the army, despite death awaiting her if her fellow soldiers learn of her ruse.

Hua Mulan – Joan Chen
Captain Li Shang – John Lone
Shan Yu – Telly Salavas
Father Hua – James Saburo Shigeta
Mother Hua – Miyoshi Umeki
The Emperor – Kam Tong
The General – Benson Fong
The Matchmaker – Nancy Kwan
Soldier Chin Po – Tzi Ma
Soldier Ling – Jackie Chan
Soldier Yao – Mako Iwamatsu
Grandmother Hua – Ivy Ling Po
Mushu (voice role) – Marni Nixon
Head Ancestor – Jodi Long
The Schoolgirls – Lucy Liu and Karin Anna Cheung

The film came into existence due to the thawing of US-Chinese tensions after American President Harland D. “Colonel” Sanders’s famous 1968 visit to China and the subsequent westernization of China during the 1970s, especially after the 1975 Chinese Civil War. The opening of PRC markets, and the early success of MGM’s successful limited release of some of their classic films in Beijing cinemas in 1976 and 1977, convinced Disney Studio executives that making a film concerning Chinese culture would be financially beneficial for the company, which was hemorrhaging money after a string of cheap and unmemorable films that had followed the surprise success of “The Snow Queen.” After a year of research and development, production began on the film in 1979, with Chinese historians being consulted to ensure it would receive approval in China. This led to Hong Kong producers joining Disney in financing the project, led by Shaw Brothers Studio, the company behind the 1964 live-action Hong Kong operatic musical film “Lady General Hua Mu Lan.” The story was finalized in December 1980. Originally, the film was set to be animated in a watercolor style, in the same vein as “The Snow Queen”’s painted backgrounds. Several crowd scene test shot were animated by roto-scoping footage of real people and tracing over them to create a photo-realistic style similar to the 1981 film “Heavy Metal.” However, the technique was costly, and replaced with the live action approach in early. Principle photography was completed by August 1981.

McDonald’s began selling Happy Meal toys in June 1979. To promote this film, McDonald’s launched a line of Happy Meal one-piece “action figures” based on the characters of the film. McDonald’s also developed Szechuan Sauce for their French Fries, a condiment that became popular enough to become a special item available in the United States every February (for Chinese New Year’s) since 1989. Kentucky Fried Chicken also heavily promoted the film at selected outlets with themed facades and special discounts for customers with ticket stubs from seeing the film.

The film premièred in February 1982 to critical acclaim. The film was praised for its atmosphere, the second Hun attack sequence, and the character Mushu, Mulan’s spirit guide who appears as stop-motion-paper-based dragon during two brief animated sequences. The film’s engaging characters and fast-paced but easy-to-follow plot were also praised.

The casting was notable as it contained primarily Asian-American actors, with the biggest American name tied to the project – Telly Savalas – portraying the film’s villain. Most extras were portrayed by Asian, Native American, and Native Alaskan actors and actresses. However, the film was criticized years later for its American crew being almost entirely white.

Most critics of the film on February 19, 1982, though, complained that it was too “pro-China,” with foot-binding being nonexistent in the film. Later critics also point to some background characters appearing as Asian stereotypes, and the Huns as being “severely vilified.” In fact, their depiction led to a souring of US relations with the nation of Mongolia, whom denounced the film as blatant propaganda. To make amends, the Huns were shown in a more humanizing manner in the lukewarm 1998 live-action strait-to-home-film sequel Mulan 2, which was a bomb with critics and audiences.

Another controversy surrounding the film was the rise in hostilities in Tibet and Xinjiang, occurring at its time of release, being ignored by American investors, leading to some protests at several American theaters. Nevertheless, Mulan was a box office success; Disney tripled the money they put into it.


…I will admit this now for I was blinded to its heartlessness before. With China’s population only two years or so away from reaching 1 billion [3], Xinjiang’s 11 million Uyghurs were placed in an avoidable predicament. Families were harassed out of their villages, threatened with death if they did not either convert to the language and the ways of the Han Chinese, or go to a “resettlement location” in the most foreboding parts of Central Asia. I have no excuse for the roles I played during these years…

– Bo Yibo’s personal memoirs, English translation, 2008


…With the belief that “The people who are trying to make this world worse aren’t taking a day off. How can I?” Marley brought people together with his beats, most famously at the One Love Peace Concert of 1978… A March 1977 injury on stage revealed that Marely was not a healthy young man: doctors were forced to amputate a part of his toe after discovering cancer under its nail. The procedure impeded his dancing style, making him create a new hopping-type of kick-dance to compensate. In June 1981, more caner was found in his torso, to which Marley finally succumbed earlier today...

– The Palm Beach Post, Florida newspaper, 2/26/1982


…Governor Jay Amyx, still criticized for his handling of the 1976 Teton Dam Disaster, is being admonished for his reaction to shoutniks protesting outside of the state capital building in Boise. Assembled in outrage after the CEO of an Idaho chemical company accused of being responsible for the record-high levels of poisonous material found in Idaho’s Snake River was spotted dining with Amyx over the weekend. In the face of over 400 activists with bullhorns and picket signs, Amyx called in city police to disperse the crowd. Though its origins are currently unclear, a riot nevertheless broke out between the shoutniks and the police, leaving one activist dead from blunt force trauma, according to the local hospital… “This is tragedy,” notes Linda Moulton Howe, an Idaho beauty pageant contestant-turned-environmentalist who participated in the protest and was among the dozens of people arrested in the wake of the riot…

– The Idaho Statesman, 3/3/1982


…The Colonel portrayed a fictionalized version of his younger self in a tongue-in-cheek plot where Klingons travel back in time and kidnap the Colonel in 1965, before he can lead American troops to victory in Southeast Asia. This leads to the Star Trek crew to rescue the Colonel and return him to his own time. Naturally, Sanders is unfazed by the events – though in a nod to his age, he complains the teleporter has “given [him] more wrinkles than [he] had on Earth” – even fending off a pair of Klingon guards with his cane by knocking their phasers out of their hands in one scene.


Pictured: Kirk, Spock, and Sanders discuss their escape plan in a hallway on board the Klingon ship [Picture Note 1]

The Hollywood Reporter, 3/7/1982

Russia’s economy seems to always repeat itself. It was in shambles during the war-filled 1940s, it was finally getting itself together and picking itself up in the 1950s and 1960s, and it was roaring in the 1970s thanks to the oil. Then Suslov’s mishandling of the economy caused it all to return to the 1940s. The economy collapses on March 10, 1982, and the cracks in the levee only worsened…

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

March ’82 saw several peaceful protests in Moscow lead to rioting. Several were injured and even killed in fights that broke out in breadlines as supplied quickly diminished… It was masterful Italian builders whom erected the Kremlin walls and towers in the fifteenth century. The city held back foreign enemy attacks with those walls, from Napoleon and Hitler. But the walls could not keep out the shame Podgorny felt in seeing the reports of casualties as Russians did battle with their own people, people starving, dying for food and for their own voices to be heard.

At this time, Vladimir Putin was a KGB officer working at the First Chief Directorate, where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Saint Petersburg, then known as Leningrad. During one of these riots erupting across the city, a stray bullet ricocheted off a building and struck young Putin in the back, paralyzing him from the waist down. The bullet had been fired by a fellow KGB officer; he was struck down by his own side, and soon after fired by the government he supported. This, and his newfound need for wheelchair-accessible buildings, made Putin turn his back on the Soviet government, publicly joining the swelling crowds demanding reform commence…

– Victor Cherkashin’s Adamant: The Rulers of the USSR and the KGB, Basic Books, 2005

Podgorny agreed with the reform suggestions of two rising stars in the politburo, Mikhail Gorbachev and Alexander Yakovlev. With the former being a close ally of the anti-reform Andropov (and yes, that did lead to the two having a complicated political alliance), Podgorny agreed to reforms for the people of Poland in the wake of Romania’s government officially leaving the Warsaw Pact (though the country remained communist in the aftermath of the departure). Podgorny also agreed to backtrack on government demands that only the Russian language be taught in schools. Instead of uniting the soviets, it was fueling nationalistic passions and leading to clashes between the “local” ethnicities and the Russians present in said soviets. This was exceptionally true in Kazakhstan, where native-speaking Kazakhs began to resent the high number of Russians living with the soviets borders. Podgorny was aware that he was in a weak place after Romania left the Warsaw Pact for neutrality in the Cold War (a la Yugoslavia), and the Turkestani groups demanding reform as well only added to his problems… The details of the 1982 reform efforts were primarily overseen not by Cherenko or Gromyko, but by the younger and healthier Gorbachev and Yakovlev…

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


…Three days ago, US Senator Harrison Williams (D-NJ) officially resigned over his involvement in the ABSCAM scandal that rocked Washington, D.C. two years ago. Earlier yesterday, US Senator Clifford P. Case (R-NJ) passed away suddenly from natural causes at the age of 77, leaving the Garden State without representation in the US Senate. …Governor Florio responded to the double-vacancy today by immediately appointing two new senators, state politicians Richard J. Coffee and Frank Lautenburg, both Democrats, to the former seats of Williams and Case, respectively. The vacancies mean that New Jersey will hold two US Senate elections this November, one regular and one special…

The Star-Ledger, 3/15/1982

…Earlier today in the Golden State’s capital of Sacramento, California Governor Phil Burton signed into law an electric vehicle tax credit bill to encourage the production of automobiles that run on a supply of electricity… Despite the technology not being a major player in the car industry, lobbyists from Ford and GM claimed the bill would cripple the state’s economy. Nevertheless, the state passed the bill, albeit by a narrow margin of votes…

– ABC News, 3/21/1982

The Turkestani Federation was not to be a single country, but rather a loose decentralized body of a federal government meant to be used as a protection force. Each former Russian soviet was to be self-administered, similar to the UK’s relationship with its territories. In fact, the major political supporters of the Turkestan Unification move – led by Kazakhstan’s Gennady Kolbin and Dinmukhamed Kunaev, and also by Uzbekistan’s Shavkat Miriziyoyev, Turkmenistan’s Chary Karriyev, Tajikistan’s Akbar Mirzoyev, Kyrgyzstan’s Ishenbai Kadyrbekov – backers based the Aktau Resolution outlining the union on Western autonomous regions. Only the Tajiks, led by Qahhor Mahkamov, were mostly opposed to the unifying. Uzbeks and Kazakhs instead led the charge, and many found support among the substantial number of Russians within their borders. The movement began over Moscow’ ignoring radiation from Aktau drifting into central Asia, and radiation affects anyone regardless of their ethnicity.

The alliance of anti-USSR groups seeking independence at a time of “revolution” led to the formal forming a united front in late March 1982, modeled off the American “join or die’” strategy that had worked for them over 200 years ago. When translated from Turkic into English, the name of the formal declaration became the “Common Revolution In Progress” Decree, with American media outlets referring to the relevant soviets as CRIP Soviets, or just as “CRIPS,” soon afterwards….

– Ke Wang’s Turkestanis Unite!: The Rise And Execution of An Idea, Cambridge University Press, 2013


The successor to the retiring Heath was elected by the Parliamentary Conservative Party, with a majority of their 287 total members of parliament required. An exhaustive ballot system was used.


Most party members fell into one of two ideology-based factions. The “wet” faction, which opposed cuts to public spending and was willing to compromise with unions, was led by candidate Jim Prior. Fellow “wet” candidate Sir Ian Gilmour was too divisive to unite the party, while “wet” candidate Evelyn Hester Macleod, the wife of the late Iain Macleod, lacked substantial support. A fourth major “wet” candidate was Michael Heseltine, a charismatic supporters of fair housing practices and nuclear disarmament.

The “dry,” or “hard-line,” faction of the party favored tax cuts, higher interest rates, tighter control of the nation’s money supply, and less government regulations overall. The faction was divided between MPs Margaret Thatcher and Geoffrey Howe. Airey Neave, a staunch ally of Thatcher, did not run, but his name was put into consideration as an alternative to Thatcher. The then-40-year-old Alastair Goodlad attempted to appeal to both factions, but was initially viewed as being closer to the “dry” side than the “wet” side. “Dry” MP Geoffrey Prime was an initial frontrunner until a month before the election, when he was remanded in custody on charges under the Official Secrets Act 1911 in an eerie near-repeat of the John Stonehouse Scandal that plagued the Labour party in 1968.

While wets began to unify around a single candidate, many dries – who feared the party would lose support to the far-right Moralist Party if a “dry” did not win the leadership election – were frustrated that said party faction failed to rally around a single candidate as the election process progressed.


Round 1: 287 total
Thatcher: 84
Prior: 79
Howe: 56
Goodlad: 34
Heseltine: 25
Gilmour: 5
Macleod: 3
Neave: 1

Round 2: 287 total
Prior: 95
Thatcher: 85
Howe: 55
Goodlad: 35
Macleod: 13
Gilmour: 4

Round 3: 287 total
Prior: 105
Thatcher: 86
Howe: 57
Goodlad: 39

Round 4: 287 total
Thatcher: 121
Prior: 119
Goodlad: 53

Round 5: 287 total
Prior: 167
Thatcher: 126



…socially conservative MP Baroness Young has left the Conservatives over the selection of “wet” candidate Jim Prior as their new party leader…

– The Sun, UK newspaper, 28/3/1982


– UK newspaper front page, 4/3/1982

[UK PM Dingle Foot] had to respond to it with military force because it was a military action. Peacenik members of Foot’s party wanted to bring Argentine junta leaders to a negotiation table, but Foot instead gave the junta 24 hours to remove their troops from the islands, or else he would have to take military action. Leopoldo Galtieri, the leader of the Argentine Junta, spent those 24 hours by launching an invasion of the nearby South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Foot, sticking to being on the right ride of the party – I mean that in both way, both right-wing and correct – he immediately dispatched the Navy and Air Force to finish what Galtieri and the junta had started.

– Admiral George Michael Zambellas of the UK Navy, 2012 BBC Interview

…In early April, Umkhonto we Sizwe “Spear of the Nation,” the military wing of the ANC, operating out of Botswana, agreed to a ceasefire of cam bombs and other attacks to make way for negotiations between the SA government and their ally Steve Biko. It was a major breakthrough for the pro-peace leaders and lead to further, pivotal developments in the summer of that same year…

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016


…due to the recovery economy, expert advisors for the White House expect wages will continue to rise as the decade continues…

– The Washington Post, 4/9/1982


…It’s really no surprise that anti-war protests are beginning to sprout up here and there in recent weeks. Seems our military can’t go for more than a few years before they have to yield to the urge to “intervene” somewhere. And what is it getting us? More injured and traumatized veterans, more foreigners wishing we’d learn from Korea and Angola that sometimes the might of our military can’t fix other peoples’ problems. More flag-waving to distract Americans from the problems that ail them back home…

– Hunter S. Thompson article, published 4/16/1982


…Muammar Gaddafi has fled the city and his fortified palatial abode of Bab al-Azizia, as the US Army sweeps in to remove remaining Gaddafist fighterds and bring peace to the nation’s capital…


Above: US Air Force dropping bombs on pro-Gaddafi military strongholds in Tripoli

The Miami Herald, 4/19/1982

STICK IT UP YOUR JUNTA, GALTIERI!: Dawn-To-Dusk Bombardments, Air And Sea Battles Rage On Over The Falklands

…Back in London, though, the war is widening a rift in the Labour party, as its far-left faction claims Foot “didn’t give the prospects of peace talks a chance”…

The Sun, UK newspaper, 4/22/1982

In 1981, Denton established the President’s Commission on Families, Youth, and Children. Roughly a year later, the commission chair recommended, among a multitude of other things, an increase in awareness of the dangers of people with an S.I.F. Virus donating blood. Denton agreed and called on state and local government to work with the federal government to “spread the word to not spread SIFs” via blood donations. Denton also met with the Red Cross, the CDC, major blood banks, and others because he believed that these efforts would protect innocent people – “unconnected to ‘those types’,” as he called them – from contracting a SIF Virus from donated blood.

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


The New York Times, 4/25/1982

…The 1980s also saw hospital companies nationwide begin to merge with one another in order to cut costs. This allowed hospital bills to rise in states without “universal” healthcare systems in place, due to the new lack of local competition. This practices was either allowed or ignored under the Denton Administration…

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


…serving aboard the aircraft carrier MS Invincible, the Queen’s son was serving as a helicopter co-pilot. He was assisting in an undisclosed transportation mission when he lost control of his air vehicle, culminating in it crashing into the side of the ship. Three others were injured; the prince was the only casualty of the terrible tragedy. …Andrew’s presence made the British Government apprehensive, but this was over fear of him being killed by enemy forces, and as a result, security forces were “not expecting this sort of possibility,” according to an anonymous source close to the Royal Navy grievances office…

– The Guardian, 5/2/1982

“I want to protect the American family unit, and the truth of the matter is that BLUTAGs have families, many of whom actually love them despite what they are. To deny this funding to them would be to make American families suffer, to prolong and worsen sadness afflicting American families with BLUTAG members. I don’t agree with the BLUTAG community, and I don’t support their lifestyle at all, but darn it, they are still my fellow Americans, and I cannot bring myself to harm them in this way. Denying drugs to teen punks is one thing, but denying health needs to sick and dying Americans, that’s another thing entirely!”

– US President Jeremiah Denton, 5/5/1982

…big news coming from the Denton Administration, as Deputy White House Chief of Staff Paul Weyrich, one of the most socially conservative members of President Denton’s inner circle, has just resigned over the President’s refusal to cut federal funds for SIF Virus research. S.I.F.V., or System-Immunity Failure Virus, has been a major health concern – even teetering on the brink of being a pandemic, according to some – for the BLUTAG community, especially Sexually-Acquired S.I.F. Viruses, also called “SASIF” Viruses, or simply “SASIFs.” Denton refused the backing of Weyrich and others to cut the funds in order to balance the budget for this year, saying, quote, “it’s the wrong answer to the budget question and to the homosexual question,” unquote…

– The Overmyer Network Night-Time News, 5/6/1982

Senator Goldwater supported Denton’s decision, understanding and acknowledging that it was a tough decision for the President to make, and voiced support for the removal of anti-sodomy laws in all fifty US states. In the next issue of “National Review,” the conservative publication harshly criticized Goldwater, writing “could this really be the same man who just 18 years ago when running for president was given the label ‘Mr. Conservative’?”

Goldwater replied to a reporter soon afterwards that the article had no effect on him whatsoever. “I stand by my statement. Like the article pointed out, it has been eighteen years. People and their opinions naturally can change over time. A ten year old boy doesn’t think girls are icky after another ten years, does he? Most don’t. Furthermore, while I’ve become more open about them over the years, my principled belief in personal freedom is still the same as it was twenty years ago. In fact, I wrote in my 1960 book,” referring to “Conscience of a Conservative,” Goldwater began to unroll sheet of paper from his chest pocket and began to read off of it, “and I quote, ‘let me remind you a conservative is one who fights to expand individual liberty and resist the accumulation of power by those who claim they know best.’ I wrote that 22 years ago, so I guess the National Review forgot about it.”

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005


…six years after the USSR launched the Salyut 5 “Stargazer” Space Station, the US is finally catching up… NASA sent its first “shuttleplane,” carrier vehicles developed under the Mondale administration, to transport the first load of materials for the project, as the station’s segments will be assembled in orbit. Denton greenlit the project early last year, and NASA Director Brown is optimistic about its prospects. “The brake-pumping of the past eight years was an opportunity to study the logistics and safety features of this ambitious endeavor.” While still unclear if the space station will be a permanent station run exclusively by the United Station or one meant for use for a certain number of years, we do know that it will not be able to occupy astronauts until “no more than” twelve months from now…

The Houston Chronicle, 5/12/1982


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– Bob Ross on the set of The Joy of Painting, c. May 1982; the PBS program grew in prominence and popularity among American colleges starting in the early half of the 1980s

...As states across the nation hold primaries to determine the nominees that will be on the ballot in this year’s November midterm elections, one such race received significant attention. Tonight, said primary was held, and it seems former Second Lady of the US has lost the GOP nomination for a US Senate seat from Pennsylvania to US Representative John Heinz. The result is not too surprising due to Heinz running on a well-funded anti-dynasty campaign and on a platform that was somewhat more conservative than that of the Scranton campaign, but just the same, the results – 52% for Heinz, 42% for Scranton, and 6% for all other candidates – are a disappointing blow to Scranton and her supporters...

– CBS Evening News, 5/18/1982 broadcast


Interview Inside: Moon Talks About Playing Quarterback And Overcoming Differences With “Our Shared Love of the Game”

…Moon has played for the Seahawks since 1978, after playing for the University of Seattle from 1974 to 1978…

Sports Illustrated, late May 1982 issue


…Smith’s father, Stephen E. Smith, was killed in a car bombing in New Ross, Ireland, in 1966, at the height of The Troubles…

The Boston Globe, 5/27/1982


The New Haven Courant, Connecticut newspaper, 6/3/1982

, also called Jaws 3, People 0, is a 1982 parody film. Starring Bo Derek and Richard Dreyfuss, it is the third film of the Jaws franchise. The film was notable for its thematic departure from the first two films, and for launching the career of actor Rodger Bumpass.


(earlier poster for the film)
After the success of the first two films, studio executives wanted a third “Jaws” film. With Spielberg declining to be involved, producers David Brown and Richard Zanuck decided to make the third film be a parody of the franchise. National Lampoon editor and Animal House (1978) producer Matty Simmons was brought aboard along with future screenwriting legend John Hughes, the man who would eventually craft masterpieces such as Sixteen Candles (1984) and The Breakfast Club (1985). Along with fellow National Lampoon writer Tod Carroll, Hughes was assigned by Simmons to write a script based off a pitch Simmons had ad-libbed at a dinner with David Brown. The entire film was green lit from a single improvised scene devised at the Friar’s Club in New York City, the editor pitching the idea of original Jaws novelist Peter Benchley taking a night swim in his own pool only to be eaten by a giant shark. From this snippet of conversation Hughes and Carroll crafted a script that not only parodies all the high spots from the original movie but also takes heavy digs at Hollywood and the executives of the movie industry. Jaws 3, People 0 reads very much like a comedy of the era. Aping scenes from the original classic but also full of satire and farce, it’s obviously inspired by the wildly successful Animal House and hits the same notes as comedies of the time such as Blazing Saddles (1974), Meatballs (1979), and Airplane! (1980) [5]
After several years of development and reshoots, "Jaws 3, People 0" premièred on June 10, 1982. The film received lukewarm reviews from critics but was a financial success, leading to the studio soon requesting a fourth film a few years later…



…The Nuclear Disarmament Rally held in Central Park drew no less than 750,000 by the end of today... Even celebrities attended the occasion, including several musicians such as Jackson Browne, James Taylor, Bruce Springsteen, Linda Ronstadt, John Bonham and Tim Hardin…

The New York Times, 6/12/1982


– UK newspaper front page, 6/15/1982

...UK victory in the Falklands War led to Dingle Foot’s approval ratings surpassing 80%, I remember, and talk of holding a snap election within the year began immediately…

– Admiral George Michael Zambellas of the UK Navy, 2012 BBC Interview


– The New York Sunday News, 6/20/1982

The 1974 Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith combined with increasing disapproval of Apartheid by whites South Africans to set the stage for meaningful talks to commence in 1982. Possibly the biggest motivation for Botha and company, though, was that the South African economy was still suffering in the wake of the 1978 recession, making some fear a severe depression was just around the corner if the international boycotts were not lifted soon.

In a hotel room in Pretoria, on a cool day in mid-June 1982, PM Pieter Botha and Harry Schwarz sat down with “the fugitive Biko and the convict Mandela,” as some described it. Botha impressed Biko and Mandela by walking forward, extending his hand to each of them and pouring Mandela’s tea [6]. Botha confessed that the government was spending too much funding on maintaining segregated land and buildings. Botha also noted white fears of Black activists turning to communist rhetoric as another factor that would be truncated with the ending of Apartheid. In exchange for ending said system, Botha wanted all fighting to end, and for all bantustans that had declared independence – Transkei, Ciskei, Bophuthatswana, and Venda – to formally return to South African sovereignty. The four men agreed that all participants of violent activity, both white and black, would be given amnesty for all post-Soweto actions. The Prime Minister also, though very reluctantly, approved of granting immunity from prosecution for returning exiles and the release of political prisoners – conditions that were also absolute musts for the so-called “Botswana Biko” and “Inmate Mandela” duo, for obvious reasons.

As for government representation, a tricameral parliament – a house for Whites, one for Blacks, and one for all other groups – was rejected by Biko, with Schwarz and Mandela turning down the idea soon after. However, Botha did agree to a repeal discriminatory laws and a lift of the over-20-years ban on leading anti-apartheid groups such as the ANC, the PAC, the SACP (provided its leaders sign a nonaggression affidavit), and the UDF.

The final matter the four men agreed to was for a two-year transitional period from late 1982 to late 1984, which would culminate in new general elections in 1984 – the first ever to be held in South Africa to have universal suffrage.

Another pivotal moment then came in early August of that year, when a “whites-only” referendum on negotiations came back with an overwhelming ‘yes’ victory of 65%, giving Botha and his government the peace of mind to execute the two-year transitional period that would feature more peace talks and reforms.

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016

SOUTH AFRICA BREAKTHROUGH!: National Peace Accords Signed By 27 Groups In Formal Move To “Delicately Dismantle” Apartheid

People Worldwide Celebrate Start Of Peaceful Transition Period For South Africa

The Montreal Gazette, Canadian newspaper, 6/24/1982

“WE LIKE MIKE”: Why Michael Rockefeller Should Be Our Senator

...Michael Rockefeller, the son for former Governor Nelson Rockefeller, served as a private in the US army in 1960. From 1961 to 1965, he focused on both studying Pacific Island cultures, visiting exotic locations such as Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands, and working with organizers of several Cuban War refugee assistance programs in Florida. After working the University of California Berkeley’s cultural history department from 1965 to 1967, Rockefeller joined the Peace Corps and ultimately served as director from 1979 to early 1982...

…Rockefeller calls for a “helping hand” government ideology that is to the left of Denton’s GOP. In the Senate, he would work with members on both sides of the party divide to advance our causes and address our concerns...

…When you go to vote in the New York party primaries on September 23, be sure to vote for Michael Rockefeller!

– Mickey-Rocky’82 brochure, first distributed late June 1982


…in an ironic twist of fate, the marriage of the socially conservative US Representative, (in)famous for supporting “family values” and the “preservation of marriage,” has ended with her husband leaving her over “irreconcilable differences”…

– The San Francisco Chronicle, 6/28/1982


The Washington Post, 7/1/1982

“It is imperative that we remove Gaddafi’s regime from Libya because recent evidence captured in Tripoli show conclusively that Gaddafi has been attempting to violate international law by attempting to develop weapons of mass destruction. [7] The Gaddafi regime has reached out to Chinese, Pakistani, and even German scientists, army men and politicians since rising to power in his repeated efforts to build atomic warheads for use against Israel and anyone else that this dictator has perceived to be an enemy to his reign. We are working to remove his stain from the god nation of Libya, and we will continue to fight against his foolish follows until this is done.”

– US Navy Admiral Thomas B. Hayward, CNO 1978-1982, 7/9/1982

The world is watching us in Libya to see if we’ll put our money where our mouth is. We say there’s possibly stored-up nukes or nuclear material in Libya? Everyone watching is thinking ‘Well alright, get them out of there!’ And that’s exactly what we’re going to do, no matter what or how long it takes!” [8]

– WH Chief National Security Advisor Curtis Emerson LeMay, 7/10/1982


…the bill will designate the 7,245 acres of land in Clay County, Alabama, known for its beautiful hiking trails, under the administration of the US Forest Service… this will preserve the lush woodlands so future generations can enjoy them…

– The Atmore Advance, Alabama newspaper, 7/21/1982

On July 24, Elena Ceausescu was captured outside of Galati, a city close to the Soviet border. At the local jailhouse, Elena was allegedly tortured and even raped, despite footage filmed of her being brought in and then back out of the jailhouse suggesting that there was never any time for this. Thus, the claims are most likely rumors spread in the aftermath of her apprehension. In the show trial that occurred thirty minutes after being brought in and out of the jail house, Elena replied to every question with a barrage of anger and a tirade of curse words. She was found guilty of high treason and sentenced to death by the same methods she forced on others. She would be first beaten and whipped, and then finally executed by firing squad. Allegedly, Elena’s last words were “You motherf@#king a$$holes!” Elena’s hour-long torture session and her execution were not filmed in time – the firing squad was in a hurry to carry out the sentence – but the aftermath, including echoes of the final volley, the pall of smoke, and the bodies immediately afterwards, were caught on camera. She was 66 years old. She remains the only woman ever executed by the modern state of Romania. [9]

Also put on trial soon after the death of Elena was Nicu Ceausescu, Elena’s 31-year-old son who was the heir apparent. Nicu was an abusive alcoholic rapist who hated reading yet studied physics, who wrecked sports cars several times, and was friends with former members of the Viet Cong who fled to Eastern Europe after the Fall of Hanoi. He was sentenced to life imprisonment for killing two in a 1977 car accident, but was killed by his own prison guards in 1990. Elena’s other two children, both sons – Zola Ceausescu Oprean, a mathematician; and Valentin Ceausescu, an apolitical nuclear physicist – were not tried for any crimes.

Elena Ceausescu was soon replaced by the man she once overthrew, Gheorghe Apostol. Reformed, he agreed with protestors that the Soviet Union shared some blame for the people’s misery, as Podgorny’s predecessors could have quite easily removed her from power years ago. While the nation remained communist in nature, Apostol agreed that the best way forward was for Romania to leave the Warsaw Pact altogether; this would be similar to Yugoslavia being communist but staying out of the USSR’s stranglehold of Eastern Europe – that is, if Romania could pull it off...

– Vladimir Tismaneanu’s Stalinism For All Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism, University of California Press, Third Edition, 2023

In August, after conversing with the US’s financial advisors, Mexico’s newest President, Miguel de la Madrid, asked the US for a hefty financial loan, as Mexico would likely be unable to pay off its large foreign debt in time without out. “If this happens, it will trigger a debt crisis that could spread across North and South America. It could even hit the US,” warned Crawford Parker, the US Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

Not wanting to deal with recession returning, especially with the midterms only a few months away, Treasury Secretary Thelma Stovall produces a loan in exchange for American advisors having a say in the nation’s financial decisions over the next twelve months to ensure the US was paid back with interest.

According to Advisor Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson, Denton “Agreed to the deal with great reluctance. After things were made official, Denton said in my presence ‘They really should be left to clean up their own mess, but nowadays, everyone’s checkbook is somehow tied to everyone else’s. That’s the problem with international trade – one country sinks, the rest follow, meaning the strong have to lift up the weak.’ ‘How Christian for the strong to do such a mutually beneficial courtesy for the poor,’ was what I thought in my head when I heard that.”

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005


Since its founding 23 years ago, Pizza Hut has become one of the biggest distributors of pizza in the United States. Horatio Alger would have applauded the Carney brothers, the boys from Wichita, Kansas, who founded the first Pizza Hut in 1958, built their investment into a million-dollar chain, and then sold it when they felt the company had gotten too big. The epilogue to this success story is that the brothers have returned to the operation of comparatively small enterprises, with Frank Carney keeping busy opening Chi-Chi’s Mexican Restaurants and Dan involved in the operation of 20 hotels around the country.

…Frank Carney now oversees five Chi-Chi’s restaurants in the nation’s capital of Washington, D.C. alone, each of which has an average volume of $2.8 million per year. Eleven outlets are scheduled for completion by the end of this year, with 24 more scheduled to be built in the mid-Atlantic state over the next five years…


Above: a Pizza Hut outlet in Burbank, California

The Chicago Tribune, 8/7/1982 [10]


…the law aims to increase security measurements on all US commercial aircraft… the law also demands that all airport employs receive pre-employment investigative background checks…

The Washington Post, 8/10/1982

…The passing of your beloved son has touched us all. However, he will not be forgotten to the men who served alongside him, as he was a soldier well-liked among the troops for his sense of wit and remarkable sharpshooting abilities. Take pride in his credit of making 16 confirmed sniper killings as part of his loyal dedication to ensuring Americans are safe and secure at home. Such courageous activity will likely result in him receiving a distinguished award fairly soon. It is truly a shame and an injustice, however, that he must receive it posthumously...

– Letter from the US Marines to the parents of a deceased soldier of the War in Libya, 8/12/1982


…Thruston Morton had served in the US Senate since 1957, running for re-election in 1962 and 1968 with optimistic attitudes toward the Cuban and Vietnam Wars ongoing during each election, respectively. …Morton’s health went into decline after the death of his brother, US Representative Rogers Morton (R-MD) in 1979… A special election will be held next November for the remainder of his 1981-1987 Senate term...

The Paducah Sun, Kentucky newspaper, 8/14/1982

GOP PRIMARY FOR OK GOVERNOR: Neal McCaleb Wins, Anita Bryant Loses Badly

…The two-term congresswoman’s sudden fall from grace – in the wake of her husband divorcing her – has led to the former frontrunner coming in third place…

The Oklahoma Daily, 8/24/1982


…Musa al-Sadr, 54, is a Lebanese-Iranian philosopher whom has given the Shias in Lebanon a sense of community after founding the “Amal Movement”…He won a narrow election with support from almost all Muslims in the country, even though his campaign has repeatedly sworn to continue the outgoing administration’s policy of equal treatment for all ethnic and religious people in Lebanon. He will enter office on September 23...

The Toronto Star, 8/23/1982

It took a few decades before the link between trans fat-consumption and heart disease was fully accepted, by both food companies and the general population, despite the revelations of the 1970s Scranton report bringing it to national attention. The first scientific article suggesting the connection, published in 1957, received ridicule and being dismissed [11]. But in 1982, Margaret befriended the author of the study, Fred Kummerow. The biochemist had been opposing the use of artificial trans fats in processed foods for 24 years, and had been ignored for almost just as long. Margaret, though, believed in this man’s ideas, and soon she convinced us to give his proposals a chance via a three-year trial run. Just a year before McDonald’s introduced the McNugget, KFC began to lower or eliminate trans fat oils – “an unnecessary accompaniment to your dishes,” Fred told us – from KFC menu items. Ten years ago, we had removed hydrogenated vegetable shortening from our items and replaced it with animal fat. Fred convinced us to go further, to lower margarine content for several items by the end of the year and to begin experimenting with various FDA-approved kinds of fat oils, lard, and palm oil. With this, we inadvertently began to lead the charge of another health movement, one that came to partially define the somewhat turbulent ’80s, and would ultimately influence the eating habits of people in the US and worldwide who grew up or came of age during the ’80s decade…

– Mildred Sanders Ruggles’ My Father, The Colonel: A Life of Love, Politics, and KFC, StarGroup International, 2000


…The franchise was in its doldrums during the mid-’70s. After the conclusion of the fifth season in 1971, creator Gene Roddenberry retained the rights to Star Trek and went on to produce “Genesis,” a crime thriller set in space for NBC in which John Saxon plays Darius Hunter, a police officer in a run-down space colony. The series lasted from 1973 to 1975. After the mega-blockbuster “Star Wars” premiered, TV studios became interested in Star Trek again, and many approached Roddenberg with offers for film or TV pilot deals. Even ABC tried to win Roddenberry back, and when they failed to do so, sued Roddenberry for the rights to Star Trek. Due to having retained the rights to his project, Roddenberry won the court case in early 1978. Roddenberry soon signed on with NBC to produce “Phase Two”… Returning for the final season are Shatner, Nimoy, Kelley, Doohan, Gautreaux, Nichols, Khambatta, Koenig, Barrett, and Whitney, while San Francisco city councilman George Takei is scheduled for a least two guest appearances as Captain Sulu by the end of this year…

The Hollywood Reporter, 9/9/1982

“Order the Libyans to stand down or we will strike,” Denton instructed over the line. The CO sought to keep the President informed minute by minute. A major supporter of Gaddafi, Defense Minister Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr had led a platoon of Gaddafist soldiers into an ambush orchestrated by American and anti-Gaddafi troops. His removal from the equation would weaken Gaddafist leadership and possibly better our chances of apprehending the dictator. He had to pay for the penurious conditions his fellow Libyans lived in while he had remained comfortable in his lavish fortress compound in Tripoli.

Defense Secretary Westmoreland and National Security Advisor LeMay sat attentively wit the President in the Situation Room, listening carefully to the sounds of gunfire coming through from the CO’s jeep radio. The men could hear the Gaddafists in the background, holed up in a bullet hole-riddled building in Misratah, responding back to American demands; as the soldier’s vituperation was not in English, it was lost on Denton and company.

“They won’t be taken alive, sir,” informed the main soldier on the ground to the Commander in Chief.

“Then now you know how to take them.” Denton ordered the assault on the building.

After several minutes of shouting, bullets, and explosions, the connection went quiet. Technicians assured Denton the line was not disconnected or lost in any way.

“Captain?” Denton asked “Captain!”

Finally, the reply confirming Defense Minister Jabr was no more ended the uneasy silence.

”Time to write that man’s elegy, then!” noted the President.

With a chuckle, Westmoreland observed “First Tripoli, now Misrata. If Gaddafi’s in Sitre – and I know he is – he’ll get an elegy soon enough, too!”


Above: Denton in the situation room, looking at wall maps of Libya and debating with Westmoreland over how to proceed into Sitre

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


…the amendments revise the bill by granting appropriations and adjustments for the years that have passed since the bill was originally signed into law by President Colonel Sanders…

The Washington Post, 9/25/1982

The Ayatollah’s supporters were scattered in an almost even distribution across the areas east of Semnan, southwest of Mashhad, and east and northeast of Shiraz. Progress was made in late September 1982, when a leading member of the Khomeini’s forces was captured outside of Esfahan. About this time, Iranian intelligence learned that the Ayatollah may have been holed up in Quetta or the autonomous region of Waziristan, over in the neighboring nation of Pakistan, and overseeing most operations from there. This gave rise to talks of invading Pakistan if they did not comply with US demands to release any information they had on the man who, if intelligence was correct, would be labelled an international terrorist. The US Ambassador to Pakistan, the seasoned Ron Spiers, tried his best to coerce his diplomatic counterparts to not egg on the US. After a staring contest that lasted for several weeks, the situation was defused when CIA agents reported that Khomeini had fled to Zahedan, Iran, but that the trail had died outside the city. Nevertheless, Pakistan’s lack of compliance during incident only worsened US-Pakistani relations…

– Transcript of former US Ambassador Lowell Bruce Laingen, geopolitics lecture at Columbia University, NY, 2001

After years of rewrites, the period action war musical comedy “1941” finally premiered in September 1982. …The film was used as a war protest film of sorts by peace activists during the Denton administration, as peaceniks enjoyed its depiction of the military as inept and trigger-happy. In response to this, supporters of President Denton boycotted the film and protested theaters that played it. However, any publicity is good publicity when you work in Hollywood. The ruckus made people become curious enough about the movie to go see it, and the studio considered the polarizing film to be a financial success...

– Norman Kagan’s The Cinema of Robert Zemeckis, 2003

Turkey went through a major shift in politics once more in 1980, when President Naim Talu, in office since 1974, lost his bid for a second four-year term (and third term overall) to the more left-leaning reformer M. Fethullah Gulen. A neo-Ottomanist scholar and preacher by trade, Gulen had been a Turkish state imam since 1959. At the age of 41, Gulen won on a “radical” platform that called for a greater separation of church and state, believing that a more secular Turkey would have a greater chance of joining European trade organizations. Gulen had won via a strong grassroots organization called the “Gulen Movement,” a volunteer-based movement focused on education and interfaith dialogue that was clearly inspired by the Chicken Dinner Summit Talks in Jerusalem.

As President, Gulen called for civilized arguments, championed religious tolerance, and worked hard to build social networks among diverse groups. His most popular move was the establishment of a “universal education” school system. His most controversial decision, however, came in early October 1982, when Gulen, in an attempt to prove he would maintain government transparency, officially acknowledged the Armenian, Kurdish, and Pontic Greek genocides while giving a speech at the UN.

The announcement was celebrated by Greek, Kurds and Armenians the world over, but sent negative shockwaves throughout the Turkish populace, many of whom had never even heard of the genocides before. The revelations that their own government had hidden the history of their country from them had mixed results among young and middle aged Turks. Many young people were either angry at the government for such deception, while others praised Gulen and idolized him for having the bravery to tell the truth; others still called him a liar and the traitor. Days later, a painter from Izmir fired a gun at Gulen but missed. Older Turks, especially Turks who witnessed or participated in the genocides, either denied vehemently, or confessed to the actions of the past. As Turks began to take a good, hard look at themselves and their true history.

Former President Naim Talu considered mounting coup against Gulen before he returned to Turkey, but planned stalled amid internal fighting among the would-be co-conspirators. By December, coup talks had broken down, leading to Talu calling for a recount of the 1980 election and mounting a campaign to defeat Gulen in 1984. As more Turkish citizens began to accept that the events that had occurred over sixty years ago, West Germany became a major ally of Turkey, and many West German historians and other experts offered advice to the Turkish government on how to proceed.

Gulen believed that airing out the nation’s dirty laundry would improve things, and in the long run, he was correct. Gulen’s reforms lead to the children of Turkey who grew up in the aftermath of “the acknowledgements” to become adults starkly more liberal than their parents and very much more in favor of pro-western idealism, acknowledging that the west isn’t perfect. “So we can easily best them at their own game,” was a common rebuttal. Gulen ushered in new era of moderate Islam, anti-communism, and moderate Turkish nationalism that only benefited Turkey as the years progressed…

– Stephen Kinzer’s Crescent and Star: Turkey Between Two Worlds, Farrar and Giroux Publications Ltd, 2001


…President Canaan Banana remarked “let Mugabe’s inability to lead a peaceful campaign be a warning to all who wish to harm their fellow countrymen – such action is treasonous. Traitors and would-be dictators will not be tolerated in Zimbabwe.” …Under the supervision of Prime Minister Dingle Foot, the British government disqualified ZANU from participating in the 1980 parliamentary elections for flagrant violation of the 1978 Lancaster House Agreement, leading to Mugabe initiating a reign of domestic terror, attacking polls and campaign headquarters. These actions led to the elections being postponed for over two months. In April 1980, Joshua Nkomo of the ZAPU won against Ian Smith of the RF and incumbent PM Abel Muzorewa of the UANC. Mugabe was labeled a domestic terrorist, and went into hiding in northern Zimbabwe...

The Times, UK newspaper, 10/15/1982

The Manson assassination attempt made John become even more political, calling for the US to ban concealed carry laws. Ringo later described him as having “grow up…he’s by far more mature than the rest of us when it comes to politicking.” John increased his political activism in 1982 by taking it to a new level – on October 23rd, he announced a bid for parliament. With the next elections set for no less than three years away, John set himself up as one of the most left-leaning members of the UK Labor party, a eyed the seat of his hometown…

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

“Wanton destruction and violence doesn’t change when some bigshot from D.C. calls them ‘strategic advancements’ and ‘military interventions.’ This is carnage and the loss of human life. We need to bring people together, not blow people up. We need peace abroad and we need it now!”

– Actor, political activist, and 1982 Progressive Party nominee for a US Senate seat Peter Duel, 10/27/1982 stump speech

While many liberal celebrities and activists derided the actions of the Denton Administration, this was not the return of the early 1960s that many of them saw it as; for one thing, the army was now all-volunteer, many the Iran Proxy War and the Libyan War had far less AWOL incidents than the Cuban War features. A more visual key that the people would not join the activists in the streets was the media coverage of soldiers coming home from war, running up to their loved ones and becoming enveloped in heartfelt hugs. These tear-jerker stories did much to help the war effort – and the GOP, come November ’82…

– Gary C. Jacobson’s The Power and the Politics of Congressional Elections, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015

United States Senate election results, 1982

Date: November 2, 1982
Seats: 36 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Howard Baker (R-TN)
Senate minority leader: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Seats before election: 54 (R), 45 (D), 1 (I)
Seats after election: 58 (R), 40 (D), 1 (P), 1 (I)
Seat change: R ^ 4, D v 5, P ^ 1, I - 0

Full List:
Arizona: incumbent Barry Morris Goldwater (R) over Dennis DeConcini (D)
California: incumbent Richard M. Nixon (R) over Leo Ryan (D) and Peter Duel (Progressive)
Connecticut: incumbent Antonina P. Uccello (R) over Toby Moffett (D)
Delaware: incumbent William Victor Roth Jr. (R) over David N. Levinson (D)
Florida: incumbent Lawton Chiles (D) over Van B. Poole (R)
Hawaii: incumbent Patsy Mink (D) over Clarence J. Brown (R) and E. Bernier-Nachtwey (Independent)
Indiana: Earl Landgrebe (R) over incumbent Vance Hartke (D) and Floyd Fithian (Progressive)
Maine: incumbent Edmund S. Muskie (D) over Edward I. Bernstein (R)
Maryland: incumbent Paul Sarbanes (D) over Lawrence Hogan (R)
Massachusetts: incumbent Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D) over Ray Shamie (R)
Michigan: incumbent George W. Romney (R) over Walter Reuther (D)
Minnesota: incumbent Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. (D) over David Durenberger (R)
Mississippi: incumbent John C. Stennis (D) over Haley Barbour (R)
Missouri: incumbent Jerry Litton (D) over R. Wendell Bailey (R)
Montana: Ron Marlenee (R) over incumbent John Melcher (D)
Nebraska: incumbent Ted Sorensen (D) over Jim Keck (R) and Virginia Walsh (Independent)
Nevada: incumbent Paul D. Laxalt (R) over Harry Reid (D)
New Jersey: Mary V. Mochary (R) over incumbent appointee Richard J. Coffee (D)
New Jersey (special): Frank X. McDermott (R) over incumbent appointee Frank Lautenberg (D)
New Hampshire (special): incumbent appointee Hugh Gregg (R) over John Rauh (D)
New Mexico: incumbent Pedro Jimenez (D) over Lee Francis (R)
New York: Michael Rockefeller (R/L) over incumbent Paul O’Dwyer (D), Florence M. Sullivan (C) and Allard K. Lowenstein (Progressive)
North Dakota: incumbent Arthur Albert Link (D) over Gene Knorr (R)
Ohio: incumbent John Glenn (D) over Paul Pfeifer (R)
Pennsylvania: John Heinz (R) over incumbent Bill Green (D)
Rhode Island: incumbent Robert Owens Tiernan (D) over Vincent Marzullo (R)
Tennessee: incumbent Albert Gore Sr. (D) over Robin Beard (R)
Texas: James M. Collins (R) over incumbent Lloyd Bentsen (D)
Utah: incumbent Frank E. Moss (D) over David Daniel Marriott (R)
Vermont: Phil Hoff (Progressive) over incumbent Robert Theodore Stafford (R) and James A. Guest (D)
Virginia: incumbent Harry F. Byrd (I) over Dick Davis (D) and Maurice A. Dawkins (R)
Washington: incumbent Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson (D) over Doug Jewett (R) and King Lysen (Independent)
West Virginia: incumbent Robert C. Byrd (D) over Cleveland Benedict (R) and William B. Howland (Progressive)
Wisconsin: incumbent William Proxmire (D) over Scott McCallum (R)
Wyoming: incumbent John S. Wold (R) over Rodger McDaniel (D)


United States House of Representatives results, 1982

Date: November 2, 1982
Seats: All 435
Seats needed for majority: 218
New House majority leader: Robert H. Michel (R-IL)
New House minority leader: Hale Boggs (D-LA)
Last election: 239 (R), 196 (D)
Seats won: 248 (R), 187 (D)
Seat change: R ^ 9, D v 9


…Public approval of the war in Libya was seen as the main cause of the OP expanding their numbers in the House and Senate. However, the victory of several progressive and anti-war candidates – five in the house and two (Hoff and Chavez) in the senate – also made it clear that the “Gravel faction” of the party was not as dead as once thought to be by most political pundits… Foreign policy was not a main focus in the gubernatorial races, resulting in Democrat favoring better them overall…

– Gary C. Jacobson’s The Power and the Politics of Congressional Elections, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015

United States Governor election results, 1982

Date: November 2, 1982
State governorship elections held: 36
Seats before: 27 (D), 22 (R), 1 (I)
Seats after: 28 (D), 21 (R), 2 (I), 1 (P)
Seat change: D ^ 1, R v 1, I ^ 1, P ^ 1

Full list:
Alabama: Ann Bedsole (R) over Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D); incumbent Charles Woods (D) lost nomination
Alaska: incumbent William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton Sr. (D) over Terry Miller (R) and Richard L. Randolph (Alaskan Libertarian)
Arizona: Richard Kleindienst (R) over Bruce Babbitt (D); incumbent Sam Steiger (R) retired
Arkansas: incumbent Orval Faubus (D) over Marshall Chrisman (R)
California: incumbent Phillip "Phil" Burton (D) over Edward M. Davis (R)
Colorado: incumbent Bill Daniels (R) over Raymond Kogovsek (D), Paul K. Grant (Libertarian), John D. Fuhr (Country), Earl Dodge (Prohibition)
Connecticut: incumbent Robert K. Killian (D) over Julie Belaga (R)
Florida: incumbent Jack Eckerd (R) over Earl Hutto (D)
Georgia: Hal Suit (R) over Larry McDonald (D); incumbent John Skandalakis (D) was term-limited
Hawaii: Jean King (D) over David M. Akui (R) and incumbent Tokio Ige (Independent)
Idaho: Larry Jackson (R) over Compton Ignatius White Jr. (D); incumbent Jay S. Amyx (R) retired
Illinois: incumbent John B. Anderson (R) over Adlai Stevenson III (D)
Iowa: Jo Ann McIntosh Zimmerman (D) over incumbent Chuck Grassley (R)
Kansas: incumbent Robert Frederick Bennett (R) over John Carlin (D)
Maine: Helen Longley (Progressive) over incumbent Linwood E. Palmer Jr. (R) and Joseph E. Brennan (D)
Maryland: incumbent F. P. Blair Lee III (D) over Robert A. Pascal (R)
Massachusetts: incumbent Michael Stanley Dukakis (D) over Christopher A. Iannella (R) and Paul Tsongas (Liberty)
Michigan: Elly M. Peterson (R) over incumbent Soapy Williams (D), Don Riegle (Progressive) and Jimmy Hoffa (Workers’)
Minnesota: incumbent Coya Knutson (D) over Wheelock “Whee” Whitney Jr. (Independent-Republican-Liberty)
Nebraska: incumbent Charles Thone (R) over J. Robert “Bob” Kerrey (D)
Nevada: Joseph Yale Resnick (D) over Clarence Clifton Young (R); incumbent Rex Bell Jr. (R)
New Hampshire: incumbent Walter Rutherford Peterson Jr. (R) over John William King (D)
New Mexico: Toney Anaya (D) over John B. Irick (R); incumbent Joe Skeen (R) was term-limited
New York: incumbent Mario Cuomo (D) over Lewis Lehrman (R)
Ohio: incumbent James "Jim" Rhodes (R) over Dick Celeste (D)
Oklahoma: Neal McCaleb (R) over incumbent George Nigh (D) and Howard L. Bell (P)
Oregon: incumbent Victor Atiyeh (R) over Ted Kulongoski (D)
Pennsylvania: Stewart Greenleaf (D) over Bobby Butera (R); incumbent Milton Shapp (D) was term-limited [12]
Rhode Island: incumbent Lincoln Almond (R) over Hilary R. Salk (D) and Peter Van Daam (Progressive)
South Carolina: Nancy Stevenson (D) over W. D. Workman Jr. (R); incumbent Richard Riley (D) retired
South Dakota: Clint Roberts (R) over Harvey L. Wollman (D); incumbent Benjamin “Ben” (Lone Feather) Reifel (R) retired
Tennessee: Buford Pusser (R) over Ned McWherter (D); incumbent Jake Butcher (D) was term-limited
Texas: Ross Perot (I) over incumbent Bill Clements (R), Ray Allen Mayo II (D) and Mario Compean (La Raza Unida)
Vermont: incumbent Richard Snelling (R) over Madeleine Kunin (D) and Richard Gottlieb (Progressive/Liberty Union)
Wisconsin: Paul R. Soglin (D) over Terry Kohler (R); incumbent Bronson La Follette (D) retired
Wyoming: Dick Casull (R) over Harry Leimback (D); incumbent Thyra Thomson (R) retired



…After incumbent Mayor Clifford Alexander Jr. announced his retirement, Tucker joined a crowded field of candidates as a Democrat. Tucker, the former Council Chair for D.C., defeated fellow Democrat Jesse Jackson, and independent candidates Patricia Roberts Harris and Charlene Drew Jarvis in a landslide, winning roughly 51% of the vote, versus Jackson’s share of roughly 28%, Harris’s roughly 12%, and Jarvis’s almost 9% of the vote…

The Chicago Tribune, 11/2/1982

By the end of 1982, Pierre Mauroy’s average approval rating was consistently under 40%. Despite adjusting the minimum wage to better match inflation after Mitterrand had raised the minimum wage, and protecting the other popular parts of Mitterrand’s legacy – a shorter work week, more national holidays and a restructured tax system – Mauroy was facing heavy opposition from the national legislature.

The people of France were tired of taxes. Unemployment was on the rise as employees couldn’t afford large numbers of workers due to the high minimum wage, leading to CBA negotiation breakdowns and union strikes throughout the country. The thought of establishing an even-greater “welfare state” by raising taxes overall angered conservatives and moderates alike alongside many citizens across the economic and social classes. The same could be said about a dispute over the proper retirement age.

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999


– The Washington Post, 11/23/1982

“Thriller” is a wonderful pop record, the latest statement by one of the great singers in popular music today. But it is more than that. It is as hopeful a sign as we have had yet that the destructive barriers that spring up regularly between white and black music - and between whites and blacks - in this culture may be breached once again. Most important of all, it is another signpost on the road to Michael Jackson's own artistic fulfillment.

There were solid reasons for such success. Chief among them is Mr. Jackson's ethereal tenor. His deployment of that voice, which he mixes subtly with all manner of falsetto effects, is the greatest example of this sort of erotic keening since the heyday of Smokey Robinson. Ever since the craze for the castrato in the 17th century, high male voices, with their paradoxical blend of asexuality and sensuousness, ecstasy and pain, have been the most prized of all vocal types, and Mr. Jackson epitomizes such singing for our time better than anyone, in any musical genre.
Even in the few slow-moving, easy-going songs found here, likely influenced by his association with you Reeflex Rock artists, you can hear this range.

A second reason for his success is his personality. One may legitimately wonder how Mr. Jackson, locked inside a celebrity's cage since childhood, could possibly understand the everyday dilemmas of life. An acquaintance of Mr. Jackson, guitarist Tommy Chong, claims Jackson is “troubled, but doing his best to be in a good place. He’s finding solace by having a good time with good friends and people who love him.” But most of Mr. Jackson’s concerns are universal, and artistic empathy is hardly the prerogative of poor folksingers. Mr. Jackson seems, on the basis of his interviews, to have a genuinely childlike and emotionally open attitude toward life. Sometimes his fame seems to insulate him, but it also elevates him to fantasy status for his fans.

Mr. Jackson's appeal is so wide, however, that white publications and radio stations that normally avoid ''black music'' seem willing to pretend he isn't black after all. On one level, that's admirable, in that color distinctions are often best avoided altogether. But Mr. Jackson is black, and while he sings a duet here with Paul McCartney, enlists Eddie Van Halen for a guitar solo for one song
and Tommy Chong for a guitar on another track, Mr. Jackson continues his off-stage laid-back style of observing no color exclusivity in his choice of backup musicians. But he remembers his roots, and still works honorably within the context of contemporary black popular music at its fervent, eclectic best. If this album is anywhere near as successful as ''Off the Wall,'' it may remind white audiences of what they are missing elsewhere. [13]

The New York Times, review of the 12/19/1982 release of Michael Jackson’s “Thriller” album

After graduating from Bayside High School in Brevard County, Florida, in 1979, Hillenburg held numerous jobs, such as working for the state public park service in Utah one summer and as an art director in San Francisco at one other point, until finally getting a job at Humboldt State University in California. After two years of living frugally, Hillenburg could finally afford to attend California State University’s business school nearby, beginning to take classes there in January 1982.

When studying in one marine biology class in December 1982, a colleague asked him why he wasn’t in art school, due to the impressive painted surrealist landscapes Hillenburg had made for a group project. Hillenburg explain it was “just a hobby” for him. [14]

– The New York Times, 1999 article


…the thought of soring overhead busy traffic-jammed highways may be a daydream for commuter for now, but Boeing engineers led by Fed Barker are working to bring flying cars out of fiction and into our garages… He and his team have begun designing a “Sky Commuter” aircraft, a 14-foot-long two-seater… The main obstacles to flying cars are zoning laws and responsible “driving.” The Federal Aviation Administration strictly regulates civil aviation, meaning that in order for flying cars to enter the public markets, they will first have to meet federal guidelines. Safety features must be in place, and the flying skills of the drivers – if they are to be called that – will be treated with the same level of seriousness as private plane pilots… Even if the technology allows for the compartmentalizing of airplane mechanics into the size of an average car, and the FAA approved of its use in cities and suburbs, financial affordability would be the final obstacle. Due to how much these prototypes are likely to cost, only the wealthiest of certified licensed pilots would be able to afford one of their own. Perhaps these future sky-drivers will have to “carpool” to afford the future cars of the sky…

Popular Science magazine, December 1982 issue

“I didn’t endorse Hoff’s Progressive Party in 1980 or 1982 because I turned my mind off to it. After losing the nomination, then Rita, and my kids weren’t speaking to me and the Democratic establishment wouldn’t talk to me, I decided to take a year or two off of politics. I had enough money after the divorce. I went back to Alaska. Did some camping. I don’t like to fish, so instead I spent the days doing a lot of soul searching. A lot of thinking. And in December 1982, after joining a progressive think tank in D.C. and seeing how well progressive candidates had done in the midterms, I decided something – it was high time that I swallowed crow and started repairing the bridges I had burned.

– Mike Gravel, KNN interview, 1999

The bad men have killed two policemen. Mother says we will get new soldiers to protect us. She says the Shah will not abandon us. Father says the Shah is no better than the old Shah because we are still suffering only differently. Before, we were hungry. Now we have food but get killed before we can enjoy it. He thinks maybe America really is the Great Satan. Mother says to have faith. And patience.

– Diary of 10-year-old Said in Kerman, Iran, 12/28/1982 entry


The writer and singer of hits such as “I Got A Name” and “Bad, Bad Leroy Brown” has announced that he has begun working on material for a new album, which will be his first since retiring from the music scene in 1973 to focus on raising a family. Croce says his oldest son, Adrian James “A.J.” Croce, “encouraged me to get back into writing, so long as my beloved Ingrid approved,” saying his wife Ingrid thinks they can “afford going back to the long trips and time spent apart, but only for a little while.” The Croce family has been living off of Jim’s royalties in rural Pennsylvania, though Jim has occasionally published short stories and has co-penned scripts for some independent films…

– The Hollywood Reporter, 1/3/1983

10 January 1983: On this day in history, Jim Henson’s “Fraggle Rock,” a program advocating tolerance, launches in the US and Canada. …Former American President Harland D. “Colonel” Sanders praises the show’s promotion of peace, which helps boost the series’ ratings in its first year…



…his experience with the heads and inner workings of the US military, and visiting of the areas hit by terror attacks in the Middle East, cemented in him an urge to chance how his fellow human beings interact with each. “It’s not good business to go around hurting one another. So much can be accomplished if we can get everyone to get along.” The Colonel believes this begins at youth, saying “WE can nip hatred in the bud if we get troublesome kids the help they need. Children need good parents and safe home,” the former President puts his money where his mouth is by being annually generous to various charities…

In a CBS interview filmed late last year, the Colonel tellingly defended his actions in Vietnam as President. In said interview, Sanders states “I did what I had to do at the time. The Viet Cong did not want to shake hands, and I wanted their oppression of the Vietnam people to end as soon as possible. Of course I felt bad about the boys we lost over there. I feel terrible, awful. I still do.” Perhaps the Colonel’s actions are more guilt-driven than he would like to admit to...

– Tumbleweed magazine, mid-January 1983 issue

…We’ve just received confirmation that Muammar Ghaddafi, the dictator of Libya whose repeated acts of aggression against the United States led to American forces toppling his regime early last year, has been captured alive in Murzuq, a Libyan village near to country’s border with Niger. As the dictator was traveling south, US military ambushed his convoy, took out his security forces, and apprehended him. Ghaddafi was reportedly injured during the incident, as US troops shot him in the hand while he was firing a rifle. Ghaddafi’s current location is unknown...


– Dan Rather, CBS News special bulletin, 1/15/1983

[1] Suslov quote found here:
[2] OTL information acquired in this source here:äuer198678-33
[3] A few years later than IOTL, because you have to take into account the probable casualties of the 1975 Civil War.
[4] To see why this is bad, watch this video, starting at the 5:00 mark:
[5] Most info here is from Rodger Bumpass’ wiki page, and the italicized passage is from here:
[6] Line from wikipedia’s “History of South Africa” article
[7] Apparently true:
[8] Italicized parts of this quote are, almost verbatim, what he said starting at the 53:50 mark of the Vietnam documentary “In the Year of the Pig” in OTL
[9] Same as OTL:
[10] These italicized passages are actually from the Washington Post:
[11] Lifted from here:
[12] Per the conditions of a 1975 amendment of the state constitution (ITTL), which limits governors to no more than two (consecutive) terms
[13] Apart from the non-italicized bits, this whole passage is from an OTL review of Thriller from 1982:
[14] IOTL, he decided to pursue animation over painting after seeing pictures from a Cal-arts at an art exhibit. But since he grew up in Florida and doesn’t end up going to Cal-arts due to developing an interest in business school instead, he doesn’t see such an exhibit even if one such exhibit even happens here due to butterflies!

[picture Note 1] On second thought, I think this version of this picture is much, much better for use in this chapter:

[pic: ]
Any thoughts?
Post 42
Post 42: Chapter 50

Chapter 50: January 1983 – December 1983

“God gave us relatives. Thank God we can choose our friends.”

– Ethel Mumford


The New York Times, 1/15/1983

…The premier of the Soviet Union passed away at the age of 79 after battling some undisclosed form of cancer for several months, taking a plethora of medical cocktails and various therapies while also overseeing a potential cooling of tensions between the politburo and rebelling soviets. Upon his death, the politburo opted to withhold the news of his passing until a successor could be confirmed. However, doing so only added to the rising number of voices accusing the government of being deceitful and dishonest.

Despite Gorbachev and Yakovlev becoming the two most visible members of Podgorny’s inner circle during the past year, the party’s Old Guard preferred one of their own, and with Andropov dead, the two reform-minded men lacked adequate support from other members at this point in time. After three days of discussions and maneuverings, a troika was formed. Representing a diplomatic but pessimistic approach to the West was the conservative Andrei Gromyko; representing the pro-reform faction of the party was Yegor Kigachyov, whom Gorbachev feared would promote watered-down and ineffective versions of the reformist policies of “perestroika” and “glasnost;” and representing a militaristic approach to issues both inside and outside of the nation was Marshal of the Soviet Union and Minister of Defense Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov. With a few weeks of this assembly, though, it became perfectly clear that Ustinov was the leader of the three-man group.


Above: Ustinov

Assigned to be his bodyguard in early 1983, I quickly became aware that Ustinov was opposed to Podgorny’s reforms on a deep and personal level. He truly believed that brute strength was what would be needed to keep the country together, not a “corruption of our ideals,” as he put it.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

…As the Gaddafi chapter of Libya’s history comes to a close, the next chapter has yet to be written, but it is starting off chaotically as multiple nationalist groups seek to fill the void. Several militias are still plaguing Libya’s villages and towns. 39-year-old activist Aguila Saleh Issa leading a slightly pro-west but still anti-US faction, and an anti-US and anti-west faction is being led by a one 41-year-old Sadiq Al-Ghariani. The current leader of Libya, as recognized by the US and most UN nations, is former Prime Minister Mustafa Ben Halim, who wants to develop and modernize Libya in order for its people to, quote “move forward from today into tomorrow.” However, many are taking Ben Halim’s rhetoric to mean “westernization,” including Gaddafi’s former Prime Minister, Islamic socialist Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi, who was deposed and apprehended two months ago. Additionally, 40-year-old secularist Field Marshall and Gaddafi’s military chief of staff, Khalifa Haftar, remained at large and is leading the largest militia faction still operating inside Libya. While Denton has stopped himself short of outright declaring victory in the northern African nation, he has promoted Ben Halim as the legitimate successor to Gaddafi, and will remain in charge, quote, “until free elections can be held.” However, such talk is causing a stirring among the most conservative factions of Libyan society. Already, KNN can confirm the outbreak of minor riots in Benghazi and Tripoli over the President’s comments. It also seems that even many pro-US Libyan citizens do not approve of Ben Halim, even as a placeholder…

– KNN World News, 1/19/1983

Khomeini’s followers took things too far on January 20th when they took advantage of a member of the royal family making a fateful trip to Isfahan. The Shah’s younger sister, Princess Farahnaz Pahlavi, was visiting friends when her and her bodyguards were set upon by Islamic conservative radicals. Soon the Shah had learned that this party of men had kidnapped her in exchange for the release of prisoners vital to their cause.

The Shah and his advisors were in agreement. “We must not let them get away with this,” went the common phrase.

“I will never negotiate with them,” said the leader, “As far as I’m concerned, the Ayatollah and his followers killed my father," referring to his predecessor's assassination.

Instead of giving in the demands, the Shah sent in Iran’s Special Forces. The rescue operation fell through, though, when the troops fell into an ambush.

Back at the palace, the Shah and his advisors listened in on the radio for confirmation that the princess was safe.

“What’s happening?” the young ruler demanded a reply in the midst of gunfire and shouting filling up the airwaves.

“They spotted us as we were getting into position” the team leader shouted over the cacophony surrounding him. “Wait, I see the princess now and, what, oh Allah no – ”

As one of the radicals in the distance called out “This is what you get when you betray the Koran!” more gunfire and shouting overwhelmed the place until finally the discord died down.

Eventually, a soldier got to the radio.

“Did you get her? Is Farahnaz alright?” the Shah asked.

“We…we were too late, your highness. They killed her, they took her outside and shot her. We killed as many of them as we could but some of them got away in a truck. They’re heading south…”

The Shah stopped listening as he somberly slumped into his chair next to the radio. He could not believe that just five years after the death of his father, another family member was set to be buried.


Above: Princess Farahnaz, 12 March 1963 – 26 January 1983

The Shah’s advisors gave him a minute. After that, one of them asked “Sir?”

The leader sprang up. “Enough of this.”

“What is the plan, your highness?”

“To end this.”

Within a few hours, the men who had kidnapped and executed the princess were surrounded, holed up in a shack 10 kilometers south of Yasuj. In a demonstration of dramatic overkill, Iranian ground forces pulled back to make way for a massive air strike on the location. The lethal bombardment lit up the night sky. Herdsmen a few miles away saw what seemed like a second sunrise at 2:40 AM, local time.

The death of the princess and the immediate presentation of military might swelled support for the Shah even further. While his father’s death was celebrated, his sister was presented as being an innocent in all of it. The Iranian people now had a martyr to idolize, a leader to adore, and an enemy to bring to justice.

– Michael Axworthy’s A History of Iran: 1978-2008, Basic Books, 2019


– The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 1/30/1983


The Washington Post, 2/1/1983

“With Denton in the kitchen, the Cold War’s rising in temperature to a boiling point that could consume us all in scalding-hot doom. …War is never the answer, and war is never unavoidable, for war is not an occurrence found in nature but is in fact made my man – and so it can be controlled by man. Leaders can start wars or oversee wars, but truly good leaders are those who end wars, or even better, prevent war from starting in the first place.”

– Mike Gravel at the National Prayer Breakfast in Washington, D.C., Thursday, 2/3/1983

“It is useless to discuss peace when dealing with an enemy that objects to peace. The Ayatollah Khomeini objects to negotiations, to armistices, to treaties, and to compromise. That is why the Shah has our support.”

– President Denton to a reporter, 2/4/1983


…the legislation authorizes budget appropriations for the carrying out of the Head Start program, the Follow Through program, and the Negative Income Tax Rebate. Attempts by liberal Congressmen and Senators to boost the budget for community services block grants, and several federal community food and nutrition programs, bore little fruit during the last several weeks...

The Boston Globe, 2/7/1983


…Continuous cam bombs are slowing the “opening up” of Libya, as foreigners are being discouraged from traveling to the country as the security situation remains too disruptive…

The New York Post, 2/9/1983


…There was much controversy over where to try Gaddafi, as he is a Libyan citizen held responsible for the deaths of the over 200 Americans in the plane shot down in January 1982. The International Law Commission, a body of experts who codify international law, held a special session ahead of their 35th regular session from May to July 1983, to discuss the situation. Earlier today, the ILC permitted the US to trial Gaddafi with the understanding that he be extradited back to Libya to face trial for crimes committed over there. Additionally, the controversy has led to the UN establishing an “International Tribunal” rule for future international trials...

– The Washington Pot, 2/18/1983

CAM BOMBS HIT US EMBASSIES IN EGYPT, SAUDI ARABIA: At Least 2 Officers Killed, 9 Others Injured In Total

The New York Times, 2/27/1983

“The people of the Middle East stand in solidarity against the radicals of our lands. They do not represent us and they will not control any of us.”

– Tahir Yahya, President of Iraq (1979-1986), 2/28/1983

By early 1983, people were saying that I had made the EPA “my” department, but I disagree – I simply took charge of it, and kept it from falling into disarray. I ran a tight ship to ensure efficiency, emulating a fire station-type atmosphere in that workers were always instructed to be ready in a pinch. I also instructed that all incidents and reports, no matter how small, be given proper vetting and be investigated down to the smallest of details. This is how I was able to address The Times Beach Incident of the early 1970s while serving as Administrator of the National Roadways Safety Administration.

The chemical company NEPACCO produced herbicides [1] near the town of Times Beach, Missouri, starting in the late 1960s. The eastern Missourian town soon became the site of grossly incompetent waste disposal operations. In 1971, a thick waste oil with a pungent, burning odor began to kill birds and sicken horses in the nearby Shenandoah Stables. Within seven months, sixty horses were dead, and children in the area began to be diagnosed with dioxin poisoning. The CDC began investigations in 1971; as the situation involved the company hazardously transporting dangerous waste via roadways, the NRSA intervened in early 1972. I continued to play a role in seeking statewide and federal assistance in cleaning up the contaminated parts of the town as Secretary of Transportation while Missouri’s Justice Department worked with the federal Justice Department to persecute those responsible for creating the mess in the first place. Times Beach was also one of the first areas to be addressed upon my becoming EPA Director in early 1977. As a result, the agency was able to remove all the waste by the end of the 1970s. In 1983, all inhabitants ordered to temporarily move out were finally allowed to return, as contamination and sanitation levels had finally reached pre-1971 levels, the crisis having been corrected thanks to the collaborative efforts of watchful and responsible government agencies. [2]

– Ralph Nader in his autobiography All For The People: A Life’s Journey, 2019

On February 24, 1983, another historic achievement unfolded in Bermondsey, South London, UK. Following the resignation of Labour MP Bob Mellish, a special election (or “by-election” in the UK) was held to fill the role, with Peter Tatchell of the Labour Party running primarily against Simon Hughes of the Liberal Party. Rather than use the race as platform for his feud with the “old left” of the Labour party, Tatchell was convinced to instead campaign on local issues. Privately confessing to be a terrible campaigner himself, his bid was helped by endorsements from PM Dingle Foot, former PM Michael Foot, and even musician-turned-political activist John Lennon, while Hughes was criticized for having only moved to the constituency only in the past few months. As the campaign progressed, homophobic graffiti and hate mail led to Tatchell receiving sympathetic support from UK and even some American newspapers. A week before the election, Hughes was accused of being a homosexual himself, but this seemed to be a counter-claim that seemed to be ineffective, and one that would not be looked into further until years later. Capitalizing of PM Dingle Foot’s high approval ratings, Tatchell won the seat with 51.0% of the vote against Simon Hughes’ 47.1%, which represented a 40% swing in Liberal vote from the last election, one of the largest by-election swings in British political history. The Liberal Party blamed their loss on the presence of another Hughes on the ticket – Conservative candidate Robert Hughes – as possibly confusing some voters who voted for the wrong Hughes on election day. Nevertheless, the fact remained that despite the bitter and bigoted campaign that Simon Hughes had run on against Tatchell, Peter Tatchell became the first openly gay Briton ever elected to Parliament.

– Brandon Teena’s The Rise of BLUTAG Rights: The Story of the Bi-Lesbian-Undefined-Trans-Asexual-Gay Movement, Scholastic, 2019

“THE ‘LEPENIZATION’ OF SPIRITS”: Is The National Front Entering The Mainstream?

…As NF leader Jean-Marie Le Pen won re-election to the National Assembly last night, his hard-right party also won approximately 10.1% of the vote in the legislative elections, its best-ever showing…

Le Monde, French newspaper, 2/28/1983

M*A*S*H Finale Draws Record Number Of Viewers

…reaching a total audience of roughly 125 million, the series has broken the record for most watched television episode in history…

The New York Times, 3/3/1983

In March of that year, [John Y.] Brown [Jr.] took a leave of absence from running the Buffalo Braves and from working as a panelist on The Overmyer Network to run for the US Senate (again) in that year’s special election. With Senator Morton dead, Brown saw one last opportunity to give politics a final try. The odds were against him from the get-go that he would lose, but his initial support and positive media attention made me believe that he would win.

I could not have that. Brown was not the man Kentucky deserved to have representing them in the US Senate. Throughout his life, Brown had always looked out exclusively for himself. He proved that whenever he abandoned a project the moment the weather stopped being fair for him. His betrayal of Ollie of Ollie’s Trolleys was the most recent example of this. Furthermore, the underhanded tactics he used to try and take over McDonald’s back in 1967 proved that he was not a man of ideals or principle. Kentuckians deserved a better candidate in the race.

And it just so happened that I was available, and that I still had the political bug in me, urging me to give election politics at shot…

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991

Harley decided to kill three birds with one stone right before the filing deadline. He wanted to assure that a rational conservative with principles and morals won the election, he wanted to ensure that Brown didn’t take one foot in DC as a Senator, and he wanted to capitalize on the opportunity to pursue his political interests in the electoral sense, after spending almost eight year’s as Dad’s assistant during his time in the White House.

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

…In the world of politics, Harley Sanders, the 70-year-old former assistant to his father, US President Colonel Sanders, is taking leave of absence from the KFC parent corporation “Finger Lickin’ Good, Incorporated,” to launch a bid for an open US Senate in Kentucky. The businessman's candidacy seems to center on economic issues such as "responsible regulations" that protect public health, safety and interests without inhibiting entrepreneurial growth and developments…

– ABC Morning News, 3/10/1983

HAFTAR BOMBS KEY US-CONTROLLED OIL EXPORT TERMINAL IN EASTERN LIBYA: US-Backed Libyan Government Declares A State Of Emergency After Dozens Killed

The New York Post, 3/21/1983

With American plans for their own permanent Space Station being launched in parts and assembled in space, Podgorny was hesitant to approve of Star City’s proposal for a new, permanent version of the temporary Salyut 5 Space Station that we had once had in space. He wanted to focus on keeping the country together, and believed this was only possible through moderate reforms; he once told me, “We already lost Romania, do we want more to follow?!” However, under Ustinov, Star City’s budget for a planned “Mir” space station was approved, and scheduled for a 1986 completion date. In sharp contrast to Podgorny, Ustinov believed that heating up the space race was just what was needed to unify the people of the Soviet Union.

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995


…The bill revises the US criminal code concerning a wide range of topics, most notably focusing on heightening the penalties for vandalism, credit card fraud, possession of illegal recreadrugs, hostage taking, and civil forfeiture when such activities fall into federal jurisdiction…

The Washington Post, 4/2/1983

…this just in – Phillip Burton, the Governor of California since 1979, has died. The Governor was found unresponsive in his office and promptly taken to a local hospital, where doctors confirmed his death, most likely from an abdominal aortic aneurysm. …The new Governor of California is George Christopher, the Republican Lieutenant Governor from 1963 to 1975 and since 1979, who previously served as the moderate Mayor of San Francisco from 1956 to 1963 before briefly running for Governor in 1966 and again in 1970...

– KNN, 4/10/1983 broadcast


…the solar energy deal is a landmark achievement for the two nations… Israel will the supply the technology for massive “sun farms” in the middle of Oman. In turn, Oman will supply Israel with oil. …At the ceremony, Sultan Qaboos called the agreement “a mutually beneficial accord,” and added “Other regional powers who didn’t sign the [1978 Atlanta] Peace Treaty are missing out on incredible opportunities – they all could benefit greatly from working with Israel to promote their own interests. I urge my fellow Muslim leaders to put their people above religious differences. We can kill each other after we feed our families, not before.”…

The New York Times, 4/12/1983


The Washington Post, 4/19/1983


…Emperor Amha Selassie abdicated the throne to his 29-year-old son due to the steadily continuous unpopularity of Amha over his role in ending the civil war that encumbered the African nation during the mid-1970s…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 24/4/1983

A major development occurred earlier tonight in the central European nation of Austria. Taking to the polls for their first legislative parliamentary elections since 1979, the Austrian people have narrowly given victory to the Austrian People’s Party, a Christian-Democratic political party led by the conservative Alois Mock, in a rejection of the incumbent Chancellor of Austria Bruno Kreisky of the Socialist Party. This shift in Austrian politics demonstrates the continuation of a trend in recent years of central and eastern European nations opposing or even outright rejecting socialist incumbents…

– BBC, 24/4/1983 broadcast

“When I was five, I sent a letter to Queen Elizabeth telling her how much I admired her. Five years later, I sent a letter to Dmitriy Ustinov. I didn’t get a reply back to either one, but it was understandable. I knew they were both leaders with important work to do, taking care of their respective countries. Ustinov was especially busy at the time. I wrote to him because everyone in the media and in town kept saying Ustinov was going to start a war. Denton and Dmitriy were playing chicken with our planet, trying to put missiles on satellites or fighting a proxy war in Iran. It was a busy and hectic time, but a lot of people were getting apprehensive over what would happen next. So, after weeks of waiting for a reply but to not avail, I wrote to Senator Muskie, and I did get a reply back. He even invited me to his office in D.C., and my parents and I accepted. We sat in on a meeting of the Senate foreign affairs committee, of which Muskie was a member, and we took in the sights. The part of the trip that reassured me that our politicians were everything they could to prevent war with Russia was getting to meet Russia’s Ambassador to the US. That convinced me that things were going to be alright, and the trip's affect on me was really long-lasting...”

– Samantha Reed Smith, 2020 interview [3]

Protestors converged on the streets of Moscow in early 1983 when the nation’s longtime decline in tobacco production finally led to a shortage of cigarettes. Demonstrations were held, and the Minister of Agriculture, Vladilen Nikitin, was sacked for failing to stop the decline in tobacco production. However, despite announcing Nikitin’s dismissal to them, the crowds would not disperse. Instead, more protestors arrive, only these new activists were angry about other shortages such as food and basic necessities such as toilet paper.

Soon, Ustinov introduced yet another Five-Year Plan to combat the seemingly-perpetual popular unrest and economic stagnation. While Podgorny had sought to restructure the Soviet economy through moderate reform to decentralize production and distribution systems, Ustinov believed this would encourage secession from the Soviet Union, and instead went in the exact opposite direction – complete central control over all aspects of the economy. This only worsened the situation and turned even more Russians against Communist rule, as riots again sprung up in the spring.

Once again, Alex Yakovlev, the former Soviet Ambassador to Canada and the intellectual force behind the reform efforts of 1982, sought to convince Ustinov to give reforms a try. And once again, Ustinov refused, seeing the notion of liberties of individual and marketplace variety to be part of a Western imperialist plot to undermine the country. Instead of dismissing the May demonstrators, Ustinov listened to the advice of fellow military man and the new Minister of Defense, Marshal of the Soviet Union Viktor Kulikov, believed that a military response to the demonstrators would “weed out” the misinformed from the true dissenting “traitors.” This “intervention” led to Red Army tanks and men rolling into the streets of Moscow on May 2, in turn leading to the protests and demonstrations turning into riots. Rocks and Molotov cocktails were thrown, glass windows were broken and soldiers were bruised. Ultimately shots were fired. By May 3, at least 31 people have become a part of history by being the casualties of the 1983 “Moscow Massacre.”

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


Denton: “I Pray For Our Russian Brothers That Such Senseless Ceases Over There”

The New York Times, 5/3/1983


The Sacramento Union, 5/4/1983

…Oh, yes, I remember the controversy surrounding my winning the Hosea Williams Humanitarian Award in 1983. Everyone remembers the actions of my husband, but seem to purposefully forget or overlook that’s happened since then. The tours promoting world peace, all proceeds from my autobiography going to children’s hospitals and low-income housing projects, that time in ’82 when I spoke on the House floor about police gun violence. I worked hard for forgiveness and will not apologize for earning that award…

– Marceline Jones (1927-2018), 1990 interview


…this new law aims to crack down on the sexual molestation of children on Indian reservations… the law stems from the 1970 trial and conviction of William "Bill" Janklow, a South Dakota lawyer on the Rosebud Indian Reservation who was accused and ultimately found guilty of and imprisoned for raping a 15-year-old Lakota Indian schoolgirl in 1967…

The Washington Times, 5/16/1983

IT’S LARRY!: Labour Candidate, A Jewish Immigrant From The States, Makes It To Parliament In Upset

The Daily Sketch, UK newspaper, 17/5/1983


The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 5/21/1983


The New York Times, 5/22/1983

In the May 24 primaries, Governor Martha Layne Osborne won the nomination for a full term with only token opposition, pitting her in November against Jim Bunning, who won the GOP nomination over two minor candidates, Ben Auxier Jr. and Elizabeth Wickham. The primaries for the Senate special election, though, garnered considerably more media attention. In them, John Y. Brown Jr. won over Mayor of Louisville Harvey I. Sloane and W. Grady Stumbo in a narrow three-way race, and Harley Sanders won over Lester H. Burns and Don Wiggins in a landslide.

– Lowell Harrison and James Klotter’s A History of Kentucky, University Press of Kentucky, 1997


The Los Angeles Times, 5/30/1983


…the deposed dictator was unruly throughout the trial, repeatedly describing the process as a sort of “kangaroo court,” and claiming “my Muslim brothers sold their souls,” both by signing the 1978 Atlanta Peace Treaty and by not opposing US forces in Libya. …Gaddafi will be extradited to Libya once security forces can be assured in order for him to stand trial for crime committed in his home country. In the meantime, the ousted leader will be kept at an undisclosed maximum security prison inside the United States…

– The San Antonio Express-News, 6/7/1983


…After Gaddafi supporter Khalifa Haftar replied to the conviction of Gaddafi by launching a ground-and-air attack on US troops in Benghazi two days ago, an attack which killed 22 U.S. soldiers, several Muslim leaders have condemned Haftar for prolonging the conflict inundating Libya…

The Washington Post, 6/10/1983

THE GREEN PARTY: A Positive Idea With Negative Roots

…On June 17, 1983, environmentalists, conservationists, and former supporters of the 1980 Progressive Party gathered together in Oregon’s Willamette National Forest to found a political party dedicated first and foremost to “the protection and preservation of all aspects of nature on this, our only home planet.” …The party was named after activist Dorothy Green, the martyr of the March 3, 1982 Snake River Riot Incident, “not the color of grass, because Mother Nature is more than just green. When left unviolated, her water is blue, her canyons are red, her deserts are golden, her soil is brown, and her mountains are purple and her snow is pure-white.” …The party leaders took the wise decision of fielding candidates in local and statewide elections in 1983 and 1984 before mounting bids for federal offices, starting in 1986 and in earnest in 1988 and 1990...


After Arias retired, he was succeeded by Demetrio Lakas, the son of Greek immigrants. However, the former military leader Manuel Noriega was displeased with Lakas’ approval of continuing the 1970 agreement to hand over control of the Panama Canal to the Panamanians in 1979 and 1980 in exchange for US preference in Panamanian markets via trade deals. After a bombing campaign (mainly minor dynamite explosions in pro-US Panama offices, killing one and injuring five in the long run) against the U.S. was overshadowed by the U.S. invasion of Libya, Noriega planned to bomb the Panama Canal’s locks. After over two years of attempts, Noriega abandoned the endeavor. Instead, Noriega launched a second coup against the Presidency on June 24, 1983. This time, the attempt was successful. Lakas, out of the country on a diplomatic trip to Cuba, soon found himself in exile, unable to return to the capital, and with his former ally turned rival declaring himself the new ruler of Panamas.

– Ashley Carse’s Beyond the Big Ditch: Politics, Ecology, and Infrastructure at the Panama Canal, MIT Press, 2014

Late June of that year saw Mexico’s President Miguel de la Madrid formally declare a “War on Recreadrugs” by launching police investigations into the rise in recreadrug-related crime. Mexico, still in shambles after the ’78 economic crash, also received millions of dollars from the US to combat drug transportation endeavors. A second funding request less than a month later infuriated the US Treasury Department, as American overseers of the money initially assumed that the Mexican government was being irresponsible with the money. They did not anticipate the war to be so costly...

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

UP IN SMOKE: Good For Laughs And Good For Its Base, But Less So For Its Cause


…Comedian George Carlin co-stars as Tony Stony, a marijuana-loving guitar player who can’t keep a job, and is best friends with Pedro de Pacas (fellow writer, producer and co-star Cheech Marin). In their efforts to find the most secure place to smoke marijuana, the two end up crashing a wedding at a lavish estate in northern California, leading to two hot-tempered New England elitists (played by Mills Watson and Stacy Keach) to accidently consume “pot bronwies” and become laid-back and understanding humanitarians. Soon I.N.S. agents (led by SNL star John Belushi in a “special guest” role) chase after Tony and Pedro, leading to fears of being deported to “the bad part of Mexico,” and a plan to smuggle “fiberweed” into America.

This late summer release utilizes claims of the “War on Recreadrugs” being unfair to wealthy users of recreadrugs to highlight the positive effects of marijuana usage. However, by focusing primarily on “Mary Jane,” the filmmakers ignore the dangers of using illegal drugs, especially heroin and cocaine, to instead celebrate the rewards. Like Mr. Marin, the film’s protagonists throw caution (and some smoke, “real good air” as Tony calls it) to the wind in a road trip adventure that may appeal to pro-recreadrug audiences, but may do little to win over anti-recreadrug viewers. Nevertheless, Mr. Marin must also be applauded for assembling a star-studded work on his first filmmaking outing, with Frank Zappa for music and cameo appearances by several leading labor organizers, and for the film’s on-set crew consisting almost entirely of immigrant workers…

– Richard Schickel, author and film critic, Time Magazine article, early August 1983 issue

HAFTAR KILLED IN AIRSTRIKE: Anti-Ben Halim Militias In Disarray

The Boston Globe, 7/8/1983


…As the US economy grows, economic prosperity is spurring growth across the Middle East as well. Regional outlook reports project growth to rise 1.7% next year, compared to just 0.4% last year. Increased activity in the oil, gas, and solar sectors is expected to generate this growth. Other projections are even more optimistic. Reports take into account imports and exports... Oil-producing regional countries such as Qatar and Saudi Arabia are not feeling the effects of this growth. As non-signatories of the 1978 Atlanta Treaty, they are excluded from the economic deals from which Jordan and Egypt businessmen are benefiting. …Conversely, crude oil prices have lowered in the US but have risen in Saudi Arabia, prompting some members of the House of Saud to denounce the leaders of Egypt, Jordan and Iraq for doing business with Israel, while the Saudi’s new Sultan, the possibly anti-American Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, remains publicly neutral, saying recently that his country is “above” Cold War politics. …OPEC’s leaders whom are more permissive of doing business with Israel, though, are looking to continue working with American oil companies and to continue expanding business prospects and opportunities with the governments of Red China and the Soviet Union…

The Houston Chronicle, 7/14/1983

In July 1983, Ben and I moved to Perth, Western Australia to work as senior registrar at the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital there. It was truly fun discovering firsthand all the wonderful things we had only heard about before. We noted with fascination the way the water circled down the drain in the opposite direction from the way it does in the Northern Hemisphere… I also love Western Australia’s nursing centers where new mums could get advice on child care, have their babies weighed, get diaper rash cream, et cetera, all for free and on a daily basis… [5]

– Candy Carson’s A Doctor In The House: My Life With Ben Carson, Penguin Random House, 2012

Historians are quick to note how the Colonel’s likeness is so well reserved all these years later, most likely due to his public fame and historical importance. When alive, the Colonel allowed studios to use his likeness in works not even related to KFC, stating “there’s fifty years of material to cover before you even get to the start of my chicken.” This unofficial blessing of his led to the 1983 theatrical film “The Colonel President,” starring Howard Duff (1913-1990), a tough and ruggedly handsome character actor which facial hair similar to the Colonel’s, as Harland Sanders during his time as President from 1965 to 1972. KFC is never mentioned by name, and no visual references are made to it outside of some archival footage from the 1968 campaign. The real-life Colonel praised the film but it did not receive such positive reviews from others, most likely due to liberal Hollywood disliking the film’s religious elements and themes. Indeed, the film focuses greatly on the Colonel’s devotion to his faith during several trying times…

– Mark Pendergrast’s “For God, Country, and Kentucky Fried Chicken,” Perfect Formula Publishing, 2027 edition


...the Soviet buildup of nuclear arms slowed during the pro-détente policies of Kosygin, leading to them having less than 15,000 warheads at the time of Kosygin’s death in December 1976. Since then, the USSR has nearly doubled that number, reaching 28,000 by December 1982. Meanwhile, the United States actually saw its number of warheads drop under President Mondale, from 25,000 in December 1972 to 22,000 in December 1980. Under Denton, America’s warhead supply has jumped to its current number, which is estimated to be somewhere between 26,000 and 31,000… [6]

The San Francisco Chronicle, 7/29/1983

Governor Dukakis began the month of August 1983 by holding a press conference to announce that he was not going to run for President next year. “Mike could have easily won the primaries,” the Duke’s longtime campaign manager John Sasso told us, “but he simply doesn’t want the job. His entire early life, he aimed for one job, and that was Governor of Massachusetts. Now that he’s got it, he’s not giving it up unless the people vote him out.” A feat that seemed impossible in 1983, when Dukakis’ approval ratings were above 70 percent… Already, news pundits were projecting a crowded field for the 1984 Democratic primaries…

– Charles Kenney and Robert L. Turner’s Dukakis: An American Odyssey, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1988

On August 18, the small but powerful tropical cyclone Hurricane Alicia hits the coast of Texas. …During the intense storm, only 12 people were killed, thanks to the collaborative efforts of the Governors of Texas and Louisiana to peaceful evacuate the roughly 60-to-80 thousand people endangered by Alicia. However, in its aftermath it became apparent that $3.5 billion dollars in damage was done during the storm’s rage. Thousands of home were destroyed, power outages were widespread, and streets were littered with debris. Immediately, ODERCA went into cleanup operations. US Senators Lloyd Bentsen (D-TX) and Jack P. F. Gremillion Sr. (D-LA) worked tirelessly to obtain federal assistance funding for the needed cleanup services. Notably, US Senator Ron Paul (R-TX) opposed the call for federal intervention, claiming the Texas people “are tough enough to take what Mother Nature dishes out.” This sentiment received much backlash, and possibly contributed to him deciding against mounting a primary challenge against President Denton in 1984 to instead run for a second term that year...

– Charles L. Sullivan’s Hurricanes of the Mississippi Gulf Coast: 1717 to Present, Gulf Publishing Company, 1985


…Karaganda, one of the largest cities in the Russian soviet of Kazakhstan, was the site of massive anti-Soviet demonstrations… The city’s population is split almost evenly between ethnic Kazakh and Russian, but the Soviet politburo considered the region to be, to use Ustinov’s own alleged words, “swarming with traitorous disruptors of our ideals.” …The Soviet military’s low-range missiles, whether intentional or not, hit two civilian hospitals in Karaganda… at least 23 people have been killed in this bombardment on alleged gathering places of pro-reform and pro-secession activists and other alleged “hot spots” of anti-Soviet activities…

The New York Times, 8/19/1983


…Article 25 of the Hague Convention of 1907 clearly states that “The attack or bombardment, by whatever means, of towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings which are undefended is prohibited.” Furthermore, Article 18 of the Fourth Geneva Convention clarifies that “Civilian hospitals organized to give care to the wounded and sick, the infirm and maternity cases, may in no circumstances be the object of attack, but at all times be respected and protected by the Parties to the conflict.” …The atrocious “overreaction,” according to US Defense Department experts, is a show of force that may have many consequences for the Ustinov-Gromyko- Kigachyov Troika. With 36 people killed – 19 of them being ethnic Russians, local Russians are reportedly voicing criticism of the soviet leadership. “Many of these locals may even be starting to side with the local separatists now,” according to our foreign affairs correspondence office…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 8/20/1983


…in the lead-up to Gaddafi’s trial in Libya, the Ben Talim Government was released documentary evidence that non-Muslims hailing from over a dozen middle eastern nations were systematically rounded up and executed during Gaddafi’s reign. Egyptian Christians, Syrian Christians, and even pro-western Muslims were targeted by Gaddafi’s strict dictatorship regardless of their exact citizenship and/or allegiance(s)…

The Washington Post, 8/23/1983

The Ayatollah once said that he would surrender “When fish climb trees,” quoting a common Iranian saying. The Shah Reza Pahlavi never planned to wait that long. The king’s vengeance was exacted on August 30, 1983, when the Ayatollah Khomeini was finally killed in a raid on his base of operations 20 kilometers outside of the city of Zahedan, just outside of the border of Pakistan. Khomeini was attempting to flee to the Baluchistani region of Pakistan when the jet flew in, bombing him into oblivion. With his preferred successors previously killed or captured, the anti-Shah militias and organizations were left with a martyr, but without an effective leader. In the void, several small local elders attempted to obtain influence outside their respective spheres of interests, leading to internal fighting. Leaderless and inept, the anti-Shah forces were easily dealt with – by the end of 1983, the war was coming to a close.

Princess Farahnez Pahlavi would be remembered as a symbol of lost youth and innocence. Due to her beauty, the Disney Corporation used her likeness as a model for the character of Jasmine in the 1992 animated film “Aladdin”…

– Michael Axworthy’s A History of Iran: 1978-2008, Basic Books, 2019

…Ustinov’s chaotic reign continued to be on-brand at the start of September when an improperly stored collections of munitions created a fire that broke out at a munitions depot at the Baltic Fleet’s headquarters in the city of Kaliningrad. The fire quick grew out of control and caused 2/3rds of all munitions stockpiled at the naval shipyard to detonate, creating a giant fireball that damaged several buildings and killed at least 120 soldiers before the fire was put out. [7]

The silver lining – that no nuclear weapons were hit by the fire – was overshadowed at the Kremlin as Ustinov threw a fit. During some of these angry tirades, he complained about the perceived incompetence of his nation’s military leaders. In others, he convinced himself that the fire was the result of American sabotage, as were the Moscow riots from earlier in the year. But then he’d correct himself, as claiming foreign trickery would, in his eyes, be admitting that American intelligence had penetrated security measurements and had infiltrated the system, a sure sign of weakness that Ustinov would not accept. Strength was the word of the day all year long, as far as he was concerned…

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


– On his 93rd birthday, Colonel Sanders prepares chicken at a charity dinner in Prestonsburg, eastern Kentucky, while wearing a Chef’s hat, 9/9/1983

…After less than three months in power, Noriega’s reign’s human rights abuses were exposed by investigative reporters on September 10th. Over a month later, as the situation worsened and economy-based fears rose over the possible risks that Noriega posed to the Panama Canal, President Denton decided to nip the situation in the bud the same way he did with the situation in Grenada. Denton and Congressional leadership immediately approved of Operation Talonbeak, which culminated in Noriega being killed in a US-backed countercoup in late December 1983. Lakas was reinstated President, but quickly announced that new elections would be held in 1984 to “confirm the peoples’ democratic desires”…

– Ashley Carse’s Beyond the Big Ditch: Politics, Ecology, and Infrastructure at the Panama Canal, MIT Press, 2014

“American security forces will remain in Libya until internal divisions are healed and general elections are held, most likely in the spring of 1984.”

– White House Press Secretary Donald Lambro, 9/12/1983

Dingle Foot was old and tired. At 78, he had served as UK’s PM for just over ten years, since April 7, 1973. His party wanted him to call a snap election, but Foot knew that he could not mount one, let alone spend more time in office, without only worsening his health. Having suffered pneumonia in December 1982, Foot decided the best thing for him to do was to ensure his country had a leader that was not so pre-occupied with their own health that they could not properly govern. On August 1, Sir Dingle M. Foot announced that he was stepping down as Prime Minister and as the head of the Labour party.

Immediately the party organized a leadership election. Foot’s preferred successor was fellow moderate MP Shirley Williams, age 53, who if selected, would become the UK’s first-ever female Prime Minister. The growing number of left-wing members of the party were very unhappy with her likely ascension, but failed to rally behind a more popular opponent such as former moderate Tony Benn. On September 15, Williams officially entered office.

– Kenneth O. Morgan’s Putting Our Foots Down: The Days of Michael And The Years of Dingle, Guardian publications, 2011


…while past Presidents were typically of the Christian religion, Lebanon opted for a shift in unofficial policy due to al-Sadr’s message of unity. …President Al-Sadr received praise for saying “all government representatives here are very much aware of the fact that, were it not for these meetings opening up channels of communication between our governments and their people, any one of our lands could look like Libya’s right now – torn and divided, with death and madness reigning supreme.”

The Los Angeles Times, 9/22/1983


…After running in 1968 and 1972, US Senator Mario Biaggi (D-NY), 66, has decided to mount a third bid for the US Presidency after months of speculation that he would not do so due to Biaggi’s support of President Denton’s socially and fiscally conservative policies, and of his handling of foreign affairs. Such approbation puts the conservative at odds with the more left-leaning Democratic Party base. However, that very well may be the reason behind his run: to push the party further to the right and to win Denton supporters over to the Democratic Party…

– The New York Post, 9/30/1983

On October 1, Gravel announced a Presidential bid that sought to rebel against the complex and embarrassing “Imperial Imbroglio that is America’s foreign policy.” The message was fierce, but the messenger was certainly of a more humble manner. Perhaps his 1981 divorce has made him take stock of his life’s priorities, along with the damage he made to his political connections in the years prior in order to remain loyally committed to his ideals, refusing to compromise despite it leaving him with nothing instead of with something. This refection, which he took during his two-year hiatus from politics, may have also been the inspiration behind the site he chose at which to announce his candidacy. Gravel launched his progressive campaign at an unconventional and seemingly non-noteworthy place – an average soup kitchen in Queens, the New York City borough in which Gravel worked as a cab driver during the 1950s. “As President, I will do more to help the families struggling day to day,” Gravel told the assembled crowd, “We have unprecedented prosperity and wealth in this country, and it is high time we finally share it with those in this country who still have none or not enough!”

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985

APAN’S TECH BOOM: What The US Could Learn From Japan’s Newfound Prosperity

…With record-low unemployment and advancements in technology, Japan is leading the world in several markets and industries… their “lean production” method of perfecting items by listening to the critiques and comments of workers at every stage of the production and development process is trumping the US’s current “mass production” system…

Businessweek, early October 1983 issue

Additional peace talks in October 1983 culminated in two more milestones ahead of the 1984 elections: press freedom being introduced, and prisoners not guilty of common law crimes being released, including Nelson Mandela. After 21 years behind bars, the leader became a free man once again. To most, the iconic image of him exiting the prison to an adoring crowd led by his wife Winnie was uplifting and hopeful. To some hard-right whites, it was the final straw: several small riots occurred, and several conservative members of the National Assembly left Botha’s party for several fringe radical parties. In the streets, white activists became more violent while Black activists, inspired by Mandela, became more nonviolent. This shift in actions only increased South African public support for the end of Apartheid.

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016


…the new federal law raises criminal penalties for the unlawful aerial transportation of controlled substances and for the transit of illicitly used drugs, and extents the statute of limitations for the reissuance of airman certificates by the US Secretary of Transportation…

The Washington Post, 10/12/1983 [8]

Each time the media reported American casualties in Iran or Libya, Gravel would see his polling numbers rise as the perceived impasse in Libya reminded older voters of Cuba…

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985

…In late 1983, Bowie Kuhn, MLB Commissioner since 1969, had his contract renewed for three years; he would finally retire in early 1987…

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994


…Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, who rules Pakistan with an iron fist, was at times a supporter of Gaddafi, and reportedly offered political asylum to Gaddafi and his family before they were captured in January of this year…

The New York Times, 10/26/1983

On November 2, 1983, we [at Chrysler] introduced the Dodge Caravan, the very first “minivan” automobile...

– Lee Iacocca (with William Novak)’s Iacocca: An Autobiography, Bantam Books, 1984

…Tonight, Americans in several cities and two states – Mississippi and Kentucky – went to the polls for various offices… On October 22, Louisiana elected Democrat Gillis Long to a second, non-consecutive term over Republican challenger Henson Moore with 55% of the vote. Tonight saw similar results unfold in Mississippi, as the people of that state voted for Democratic state senator Cliff Finch over Republican challenger Wayne Dowdy...

– The Overmyer Network, 11/8/1983

Kentucky’s elections were most-watched races of the night. In the end, Kentuckians split their ballots: Democrat Martha Layne Osborne won a full gubernatorial term over Republican Jim Bunning by a 5% margin, but Republican nominee Harley Sanders defeated the Democratic John Y. Brown Jr. in a landside, 62%-to-37%.


Above: Harley Sanders celebrating victory

– Lowell Harrison and James Klotter’s A History of Kentucky, University Press of Kentucky, 1997


…Judging by Carter’s speech, it seems the former Secretary of State is seeking to appeal to conservative and highly-religious voters, offering himself up as a Democratic alternative to the socially conservative President Denton…

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 11/18/1983

…Director Nicholas Meyer presents a sensationalized exaggeration of nuclear war to frighten Americans into tuning in to ABC… why is Meyer doing the work of the KGB instead of supporting the work of the President? I thought yellow-journalism-like fearmongering tactics went out of style a long time ago…

The New York Post’s negative review of “The Day After,” opinion section, 11/21/1983

Only occasionally do motion pictures directly influence Presidential campaigns. In 1948, the Spencer Tracy drama film “State of the Union” encouraged Harry Truman to run for a full term [9]. In 1983, “The Day After” jumpstarted the Gravel campaign.

ABC aired the grim depiction of the aftermath of a nuclear exchange NATO and the Warsaw Pact on November 20, and over 100 million people and nearly 39 million households watched it. An impressive but controversial undertaking, [10] production on the well-budgeted two-and-a-half-hour coast-to-coast TV presentation fought with ABC censors over the amount of bodies and burn victims allowed to be shown. While some frightening graphic imagery such as melting eyes and limbs blown off were cut from the film, other imagery such as hanging skin and people set on fire are in the film, however briefly.

While President Denton called the film “a disturbing look at what could be if our enemies are left unchecked,” Gravel’s response to it was much more on the mark as to what reaction the filmmakers had hoped to stir up in major politicians. Appearing in a live post-film debate on ABC’s Nightline alongside scientist Carl Sagan, former US Ambassador to the USSR Joe Karth and others, Gravel exclaimed “This is exactly what I’ve been talking about – politicians on both sides of the Iron Curtain must cease and desist this irresponsible and childish missile-measuring contest before it is too late.” In retrospect, such a comment seemed like that of an alarmist, but in the immediate hype of the record-shattering realistic portrayal of the US-USSR Arms Race spun out of control, it not only was appropriate, but it shot Gravel to the top of the polls.

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985

…In November 1983, under the advice of his Ministry member Pierre Trudeau, PM Jean Chretien began to renovate 24 Sussex Drive, the official residence of the PM of Canada – a long and costly endeavor that would soon prove to be very unpopular to the people of the dominion…

– Richard Johnston’s The Canadian Party System: An Analytic History, UBC Press, 2017


…The House is set “most likely” to vote on the controversial bill early next year, followed it progressing on to the Senate, which will also likely pass the bill. If this happen, 38 state legislatures will have to approve of it within the next seven years in order for it to become a part of the US Constitution…

– The Washington Post, 11/21/1983

…In late November 1983, Dad toured the country of India to see if KFC would do well in the less known/touristy parts of the country. He told me he did not enjoy most of the trip due to Indian sanitation levels being less than satisfactory to him more times than not. He did, however, get the chance to another Colonel Sanders – specifically, Colonel Peter Sanders (b. 1911), a retired Indian Army officer – for a photo-op and a brief discussion on the growing tension in India over Pakistan’s dictator and the disputed Kashmir region. Dad told the other Colonel, and several other military officials preset at the photo-op, that “swords can’t sign treaties any more than you can keep water in a sieve. The people in charge have to at least try to find a peaceful resolution before resorting to warfare.”…

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

RATHER: …We now have an update on tonight’s Presidential election in Venezuela. It appears that Jose Rangel, a journalist, a state senator, and a populist independent candidate, has defeated the two dominant political parties in a major upset. Rangel, who has previously run for President in 973 and 1978, received international attention for his coverage of the Jeb Bush kidnapping story that dominated headlines in 1977. What does his election mean for the US election next year? Does it mean anything at all? And what can we learn from it? CBS’s Martin Agronsky, live from Venezuela, has more on this story. Martin?

AGRONSKY: Thanks, Dan. The people here in the pro-Rangel city of Caracas are ecstatic about the underdog’s surprise victory, likely brought about by both Rangel’s energetic campaign and a series of scandals that plagued the campaigns of Jaime Lusinchi and Rafael Caldera…

– CBS World News report, transcript, 12/4/1983


…thanks to local and statewide low-income assistance policies lowering youth crime, not mention the business incentives set up during the late 1960s and early 1970s keeping vices such as casinos and prostitution from sullying the streets of Louisville…

The Courier-Journal, Louisville-based Kentucky newspaper, 12/8/1983


... As the royal family came close to losing power during the Ethiopian Civil War of the 90s, Ethiopia’s Kings have since ended the ethnic persecution of minorities in order to maintain popularity and redirect resources to water- and energy- based projects… while drought is a historical problem for Ethiopia, the most recent one to hit the Horn of Africa threatens the lives of over half-a-million people [11] unless immediate and relief is brought into the region…

– The Washington Post, 12/12/1983

…Whenever state congress is not in session, Governor Coya Knutson likes to keep herself busy by doing both large and small tasks. Keeping herself immersed in the lives of her employees, she often attends the weddings and wedding receptions of past and current interns and aides that get married – a habit of sorts that she has performed ever since doing so for a staff worker in 1957…

– ABC News report, “Meet the candidates” [12] segment, 12/15/1983

was an American sitcom satirical dramedy TV series that aired 115 episodes over five seasons from September 13, 1977 to March 29, 1982, with a Christmas Special airing on December 21, 1983. The series parodied soap operas and their tropes, and featured a large ensemble cast of regular and recurring characters.


[see regular cast list here, and guest star list here]


List of Episodes:

SEASON 1 (9/13/1977-3/28/1978, 25 episodes)

SEASON 2 (9/14/1978-3/15/1979, 23 episodes)

SEASON 3 (9/13/1979-3/27/1980, 23 episodes)

SEASON 4 (9/25/1980-3/21/1981, 22 episodes)

SEASON 5 (9/29/1980-3/29/1982, 22 episode)

Episode 1
The season picks up right where the last season left off – with Jessica Tate being seemingly shot by a firing squad led by Communist Gen. Sandria (the dictator of Malaguay), Chester holding his son Danny and Chester’s new wife Annie at gunpoint in a jealous rage, and Burt Campbell the Sheriff walking into an ambush. The opening scene reveals that resistance leader El Puerco and his men are the ones that fired the bullets, hitting the executioners. This makes sense, as El Puerco and his men were strangely absent from the latter half of the last episode; they were also three days absent within the episode’s timeline; this suggests that they went ahead with the suggested rescue mission after all.
Back home in Connecticut, Chester is about to pull the trigger when Chuck swings open the door to asks them if they have seen Bob the Ventriloquist Dummy before quickly leaving due to being preoccupied with looking for his ventriloquist dummy, Bob (Chester was standing next to the door, after all; and this makes sense because Chuck and Bob were absent for most of the episode, and the last time they were mentioned, Bob was looking for Chuck). The door knocks over Chester and the gun falls out of his hand onto the bed, allowing Annie to grab it. Chester immediately states he was only kidding, but they do not buy it; but instead of calling the police, they order him to leave, and he reluctantly does so. Before the scene ends, Chuck returns to the room once more to inform Danny and Annie that he found a “drunk” Bob.
At the ambush, Burt trips on the “one size hits all” Bat Campbell baseball bat in his leg holster, causing him to stumble into the room and onto the floor while still holding onto the door handle. The assassin behind him lunging forward with a knife falls forward into the line of fire, and is killed by the assassins waiting for Burt in the room; one replies “oops. Sorry!” Burt quickly skedaddles out of the room (while closing the door behind him) as the assassins renew firing at him, and, fearing for his life, Burt runs away while making his typical high-pitched squealing noises (which, interestingly, haven’t been heard since he became Sheriff). Turning around the corner, though, he becomes aware that he was hit, and collapses.
Distraught over everything, Mary gets drunk at a bar, where she punches out a man who hits on her; right after leaving the bar, she is hit by a car (off-screen). At the hospital, her bed is placed right next to Burt’s bed, giving them the chance to spend time talking to each other, and they promise to work to save their marriage.
Roaming the streets in despair, a despondent Chester attempts to shoot himself in an alley, but Dutch spots him and tries to stop him, causing Dutch to be accidently shot; Chester takes Dutch to the hospital, where they meet up with Burt and Mary just as Annie and Danny arrive to check on Burt and Mary. Chester again apologizes for the homicidal outburst but is still not forgiven.
Back in Malaguay, fellow revolutionaries Juan One, Juan Two, Juan Three, Billy, the Major, and Saunders capture the Communist leader, General Sandria, and they cheer, but then Jessica collapses. They soon realize that Jessica did not faint at the start of the episode from the excitement as believed, but instead was hit by one of the bullets via ricochet and after a delayed reaction has slipped into a coma.
Benson, who still had the spinoff series “Benson,” does not appear in this episode.

Episode 2
During the preparation of moving the comatose Jessica back to Connecticut, she is kidnapped by surviving Communists and is spirited away to a hideaway deep in the dense jungle. To the surprise of everyone, Saunders the butler leads the charge into the rugged terrain, revealing a bit of his mysterious past.
Upon hearing the news of the kidnapping via a phone call from Juan One, Chester is distraught, but suddenly moves to declare her legally dead after learning she left money to him in her will. Soon afterwards, though, Benson (in connection to the episode of the TV show “Benson” where Jessica, in an out-of-body experience, appears to him as a specter and tells him where she is) reappears at the Tate mansion to help the gang in the jungle coordinate searching for Jessica over the radio.
At the hospital, Burt apologizes to Mary; “while trying to protect other people’s families, I’ve hurt my own more than any bullets could. Well, unless there were a lot of bullets, but you know what I mean.” Soon after release from the hospital, a TV report broadcasts security camera footage of Burt screaming while in retreat, and claims that Burt is a coward. With his reputation now in question, the Governor rescinds his offer to make Burt Lieutenant Governor, and tells Burt he’s “Well done. Wait, that’s for my burger. You, Bat, you’re just done.”
Meanwhile, Danny and Annie interact with Jodie, who still thinks due to the botched hypnosis that he is an elderly man named Julius.

Episode 3
The Tates and Campbells in Malaguay find the comatose Jessica at a temple the jungle, guarded by diminutive natives that quickly take offense to the group’s stereotypical assumptions about them.
Back in the US, Mary channels her frustrations into boxing after the bartender from the bar from before visits her at the hospital. While practicing boxing moves, Mary accidently strikes Jodie (there to cheer her on) and sends him falling down a long flight stairs (off-screen), causing him to regain his memory (alongside seeing Wendy again, since Jodie’s “Julius” identity never saw Wendy).
Meanwhile, the embarrassing video causes the criminals to no longer consider Burt a threat, but Burt is upset that his fame and career are practically over.
Benson does not appear in this episode.

Episode 4
With Jodie Dallas having regained his memory after Mary knocked the Julius Kassendorf right out of him, he returns to trying to determine his sexual identity.
The “jungle gang” bring Jessica back to Connecticut but fail to bring her out of the coma. Blaming El Puerco for her condition, an enraged Chester tries to duel with El Puerco, only to fail to shoot himself, which Juan One considers to count as a duel. Unsatisfied, Chester demands a second duel. El Puerco takes him up on this offer, but Chester decides to run away (“well, limp away”) in fear.
Finding little in common, Danny and Annie decide to break up but remain friends, with a guy and a girl being friends being a new concept for Danny.
Distraught over Jessica’s condition, Benson, having a moment alone with Jessica, reveals his love for her and kisses her hand. This wakes her out of her coma, but she does not know exactly what Benson said. Fearing how she would react, Benson claims he said he “misses” her.

Episode 5
El Puerco decides that the life he lives is too dangerous for Jessica, and he tearfully prepares to return to Malaguay. Billy reveals to Benson that he overheard his confession and calls him a coward for hiding his feelings. Benson replies he believes Jessica would lose her social standing should she date him, her African-American former butler, and that perhaps they are better off as friends.
Meanwhile, Chester finally agrees to duel El Puerco over Jessica, but Jessica demands they not. Despite this, the two men fire at each other as soon as she leaves the room. They shoot each other in the foot, but pretend that everything is fine when Jessica returns upon hearing the gunshots.
Tired of marriage to Dutch, Eunice leaves Dutch again (and thus leaves the show, as suggested by her unhappiness married to Dutch shown in the last season).
And Jodie decides (after meeting gay character Sal Vadore (guest star Ron Palillo), who tells him “you’re you” to address Jodie’s frustration over his unclear sexual preferences) that labels (gay, straight, etc.) don’t matter as he is comfortable being himself, regardless of how others and society may label him.

Episode 6
Billy decides to return to Malaguay to rebuild democracy with El Puerco. Mary reveals to Jessica that she overheard Benson telling Billy that he “love that woman,” believing erroneously that he is talking about her (Mary). This leads to Mary having a humorous and well-written conversation with and turning down a confused Benson.
Annie divorces Chester over him attempting suicide several times over her infidelity with Danny. After failing to win back Eunice, Dutch join Chester on a ledge during Chester’s latest suicide attempt, but each convinces the other to step down off of it.
Benson does not appear in this episode.

Episode 7
Chester overhears Billy talking to Danny about Benson loving Jessica but only hears certain parts of the conversation, making him believe that Billy is in love with Annie and that Danny supports it. Enraged, Chester gets into a fight with Annie over it in public and gets arrested. Chester agrees to finally seek some professional help.
Meanwhile, Mary and Burt reconnect and strengthen their love for each other in several ways, and Jodie dates a person who has no gender, and Saunders and the Major form an unlikely rapport.
Benson does not appear in this episode.

Episode 8
During his therapy sessions, Chester claims his rage issues is due to PTSD only for it to be revealed that he was a draft dodger during the Cuba War; this leads to him being booted from the therapy group, leaving the source of Chester’s anger issues still unknown.
Back at the Tate mansion, Benson discusses his feelings for Jessica with Saunders, who advises that he “proceed with caution.”
Meanwhile, Burt considers resigning from being Sheriff, but this would make Danny the new Sheriff. However, after a few instances where Danny shows that his unorthodox thought process is effective in combating crime, Burt hands over the badge and announces his decision to return to his construction company, much to the relief of Dutch, whom had been struggling to run the company with the mentally preoccupied Chester.

Episode 9
Jessica mishears a discussion Dutch is having with Burt about Benson being in love with Jessica and mistakenly believes Eunice is in love with Benson, leading to another series of misunderstandings during a family get-together.
Jodie forms a new religious movement that quickly devolves into a cult.
Chester is haunted by the ghost of Peter (from Season 1), only for Peter to forgive him for murdering him after Chester helps him with his unfinished business so that he can move on.
Benson does not appear in this episode.

Episode 10
Jodie disbands his cult and renews a relationship with Maggie, while Burt meets a man who claims he is his long-lost son.
El Puerco returns to court Jessica, revealing that due to Billy’s intelligence and youthful charm, he has become more popular among the people than El Puerco.
After another misunderstanding concerning Benson’s love for Jessica, the family and El Puerco gets into an argument during their time at a fancy fundraiser event where Chuck and Bob are the entertainment. The arguing causes a chain reaction of calamities (including the Major accidently caning the fundraising organizers (guest stars James Garner and Jack Elam)) that escalates the disarray and results in the whole family being arrested (including Chuck and Bob, for “crimes against comedy”).
Benson does not appear in this episode.

Episode 11
This is a “bottle episode” that times place entirely within the town’s jail. After everyone is place in a holding cell in jail (including Burt the ex-sheriff and Danny the new sheriff), their conversation leads to accusations and counteraccusations of characters being in love with other characters. The arguing ends when Benson finally confronts his feelings for Jessica, and she reciprocates them. The two share an on-screen kiss (one often erroneously cited as the first interracial kiss shown on a national TV show). The group is then let out on a technicality, after Bob the Ventriloquist Dummy takes the blame for all the trouble.

Episode 12
Jessica experiences culture shock when she decides to visit Benson’s hometown in the run-down section of Bridgeport, causing her to re-examine her lifestyle of wealth and splendor. She goes overboard by selling off her antique furniture, leading to Benson having to convince her to not sell the house. Jessica instead founds and funds a charity for low-income families.
Meanwhile, Burt discovers his long-lost son was actually a con artist trying to use his construction business as a cover for a jewel heist, while nobody believes the Majors claim that the next-door neighbor is a Nazi.

Episode 13
Ingrid Svenson returns to the series and teams up with Carol David to try to win custody of both Wendy and Scott by claiming the Tates’ connections to Malaguay and the Campbell’s connection to crime-related violence prove the babies are in dangerous living quarters. The Major walking in with the neighbor tied up and gagged only worsens the situation.
Meanwhile, Jodie marries Maggie in an impromptu manner and Chester takes up Jessica’s advice of going under hypnosis to discover the reason behind his anger issues.
Benson does not appear in the episode.

Episode 14
Authorities inspect the Tate and Campbell houses and threaten to take the children away if certain aspects are not amended.
In a clear jab at the TV show Dallas, Dutch and Burt get into the oil business, where they meet several colorful characters that unintentionally scare them into abandoning their idea of making it big in oil.
The neighbor from before reveals to the Major that he is in fact a former Nazi, but in a twist it is revealed that the moment was a set-up, and the police have caught his confession on tape after Saunders and Danny came to the Major’s defense.
Meanwhile, in a dramatic moment, Chester travels to his family home to confront his aging father’s history of violence and alcoholism.
Benson does not appear in the episode.

Episode 15
Having addressed his anger issues and believing he is now a better man, Chester once more tries to reconcile with Jessica. Benson sees the two interacting and gets the wrong idea, walking away sadly.
Mary serves a supportive role for Burt, Dutch, and Danny, and possibly becomes accepting of the fact that so far nobody has seen her baby Scott demonstrate any “extraterrestrial” capabilities.
Meanwhile, Jodie deals with the responsibilities of marriage and fatherhood, while Burt deals with a rival architect using underhanded tactics.

Episode 16
The custody court case rules in favor of the Campbells and leads to Ingrid and Carol receiving restraining orders.
Mary and Burt try to help Chuck deal with being separated from Bob while the dummy is in the shop for repairs by getting him a temporary replacement dummy that Bob reportedly grows jealous of quickly.
Jessica tells Benson that because Chester will not leave her alone she wants to hire security guards, but the Major is instead given a hyper-realistic prop gun and is convinced that Chester has “joined the Axis powers.”
At the end of the episode, Benson proposes to Jessica in the family kitchen.

Episode 17
An elated Jessica says she will marry Benson. Chester becomes even more depressed over his ex-wife remarrying, and ends up in the seedy business of adult film production, where he sleeps with several adult film actresses, all of whom remind Chester in some way or another of Jessica.
After Jessica chooses Benson over El Puerco, El Puerco returns to Malaguay, where “El Billy” tries to help him move on, but because his presence only reminds El Puerco of Jessica, Billy voluntary moves back to Connecticut, much to the dismay of the Malaguayan people. El Puerco is last shown trying to win over the people of Malaguay; him being barraged by vegetables suggests that while democracy is popular, El Puerco is not as popular as he thought he was.
Meanwhile, Dutch mistakenly believes that he has been drafted to fight in the Libya War at a time when Burt’s business is suffering from his rival’s increasingly aggressive advertising tactics.

Episode 18
Danny digs up dirt on Burt’s rival and Burt faces a moral dilemma over whether he should use the information to get said rival off his back, or confront the dishonest competition in a more honest way.
Chester begins an unlikely friendship with a brothel owner, Maxine.
Jodie and Maggie argue over both of them checking out the same guys at a restaurant, but in the end they reaffirm their love for each other.
Meanwhile, impressed by his combat skills when dealing with a bank robber, Dutch and Billy bond over their respect for Saunders’ feats during his “earlier years,” as demonstrated during their time in Malaguay.
Benson does not appear in this episode.

Episode 19
Jessica plans her wedding to Benson with Mary. She soon meets his family, leading to tension over racial concerns in a self-aware retread of a previous episode’s premise and themes.
Maxine and Chester sleep together, but when she sleeps with another man an hour later, Chester finally knows how Jessica felt about his infidelity.
Eunice and Corrine return home for Jessica and Benson’s wedding, creating an awkward situation for them and Dutch.
Mary finally stops making the claims that her baby is part-alien, shrugging to a floating pacifier under the belief she is simply imagining it.
To the surprise of Burt, who chose to not use the dirt he had on his business rival, said rival is arrested for tax evasion, which Burt reveals to Billy “was nothing” when compared to the dirt that Burt did have on him (but did not include the tax evasion).
Benson does not appear in this episode.

Episode 20
After months of being separated, Chester and Annie divorce off-screen, allowing her to remarry. While trying to prove himself as Sheriff, Danny visits the alleged attackers of Burt from the start of the season and promise to come after them if they ever attack his family again. His biological father’s attempt on his life at the start of the season also has kept a strain on their relationship, but Danny now shows that he forgives Chester by not arresting Chester during a raid on an adult film set.
The family tries some experimental anti-senility drugs on the Major, but it has several highly unusual side effects that make life with him unbearable; the family rejects the medication to bring back the old Major they all know and love.
Just before the festivities, Jessica is kidnapped by unseen individuals on her wedding day, making everything think she stood up Benson, who doesn’t know if something has happened to her or if she has broken his heart.

Episode 21
The Tates and the Campbells put their plotlines on hold to work together to follow a series of clues that lead them to Jessica, who was kidnapped by former members of Jodie’s cult as part of a ploy to lure Jodie to their hideout so they could sacrifice him. Jodie gives a speech condemning misguided religion and blind faith (a speech which received much controversy from religious groups) that distracts the cult members and allows everyone to escape, including Jodie.
A despondent Benson is about to leave at the airport when Jessica arrives and explains she was kidnapped. The wedding is back on.
Believing Maxine is actually good for her, Chester and Maxine begin an open relationship.
Both Eunice and Corrine reconcile after Dutch rejects both of them for a new girlfriend that shares both of their personality traits (quite literally, as she seems to be schizophrenic).
Ingrid and Carol sneak into the Campbell’s house to steal the babies while only Bob and Chuck are home. Off screen, after the two have crept upstairs, we hear slapping and crashing noises, followed by the two falling down the stairs and running away from the house with looks of shock and horror on their faces; Ingrid proclaims “this time, you really have seen the last of me!” Chuck and Bob then walk down the stairs while talking about Baby Scotty’s strength, and it is again left ambiguous whether Chuck scared them away somehow and is pretending/goofing off with Bob (as Chuck talks to Bob like he’s real even when nobody else is in the room), or if Mary’s baby does indeed have incredible alien powers and that Chuck and Bob have been aware of them for some time.

Episode 22
In the series finale, Benson and Jessica marry at the Tate house, with Saunders revealing that he is an ordained minister after a previous character meant to marry them off is called away on an emergency exorcism.
On the day of the wedding, Mary denies ever having made the alien baby claims; this makes Dutch wonder aloud if the claims were real, or if they were an expression of Mary’s subconscious fears that Burt’s political career would lead to him not being a father to the child, which would be alright if the baby’s real father was actually Alien Burt.
Just before the wedding starts, Mary and Jessica discuss the importance of love and family in a private conversation.
Maxine discusses the possibility of Chester marrying her, but Chester indicates that he has been diagnosed with an STD (Billy is seen in attendance at the wedding, flanked by Malaguayan groupies, and Chester warns him “it’s a slippery slope…that becomes an itchy one.”).
A terrorist attack at the wedding, led by a former ally of General Sandria, is thwarted – by the Major, no less, as his prop gun was real the whole time – and the wedding continues on.
Benson and Jessica are married and kiss. In one final showing of his Sheriff Skills, Danny punches out cold a now completely unhinged Leslie before she can try to kill Billy again; it is implied that she’ll be sent to therapy.
The series ends on Jessica and Benson leaving on their honeymoon, only for the rest of the family to be told by a panicked Chuck that Bob has run away with another ventriloquist and he needs their help to get him back, causing the Tates and Campbells to all groan and roll their eyes – except for the Major, who simply shouts “onward!” before crashing into some furniture.


Christmas Special

Jodie, Mary, Jessica, Burt, and other cast members return to the set to conclude lingering questions and plot-points in in-universe "shorts" and with the actors revealing behind-the-scenes footage and their favorite moments. The special ends with an extended short showing the aliens from Season 3 arriving to wish Mary and Burt happy holidays while the other characters are preoccupied with various yuletide activities.

– [13]

After months of debate, after years of lies from the Kremlin concerning the radiation poisoning our people and our land, after the heartless killing of innocents in Karaganda, and after decades of oppression and persecution, the time had finally arrived. On December 27th, 1983, in a showing of solidarity and unity, the respective aforementioned “rebel” leaders of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan together formally declared independence from the Soviet Union...

– Ke Wang’s Turkestanis Unite!: The Rise And Execution of An Idea, Cambridge University Press, 2013 [14]

[1] IOTL, the company also created Agent Orange starting in the late 1960s, but here, as covered way back when, President Sanders ended the use of Agent Orange and as such NEPACCO produces chemical agents for herbicidal purposes.
[2] IOTL, the EPA did not become heavily involved until 1979, but by then it was too late; in February 1983, the feds had to buy out and evacuate the dioxin-contaminated community, the place left a deadly Ghost Town.
[3] As for what Samantha’s career turns out to be, Wikipedia suggests the following (sources 59 and 60 on Smith’s page): “Speculation as to what a surviving Samantha might have done in adulthood was dismissed by her mother Jane as unanswerable in 2003, given Samantha was only thirteen when she died and her ambitions had varied from a veterinarian working with animals to a tutu-and-tights-clad ballerina.[59] The notion, which had been put to Samantha herself in the eighties, that she could be President of the United States in adulthood, was dismissed by her in the Disney Channel special that she hosted, with the words "being President is not a job i would like to have".[60]” The point here that I’m making is simply this: at least she’s still alive ITTL.
[4] Based on what we did with Noriega. The shot-down plane was from Tampa and belonged to Tampa airlines, and so that’s where he’s being tried; even though it technically is a federal case, the rules as to its physical location for the trial is kind of ambiguous as far as I can tell (I’m not an expert on international law – is there a lawyer here that can weigh in on this?).
[5] OTL, and italicized parts are from here:
[6] Statistics based on OTL: and adjusted to account for butterflies such as the détente of the Sanders and Mondale administrations (1968-1977).
[7] Similar to the Severomorsk Disaster of May 1984:
[8] One year earlier than in OTL due to more immediate concern by President Denton and a higher number of Republicans in Congress than in OTL.
[9] Apparently so!: (the article “Film That Changed History?” (in the bottom-right corner of the page): )
[10] Interesting tidbit: When doing research for the film, Director Nicholas Meyer found FEMA’s survival plans to be inept and called the organization “a complete joke,” according to Wikipedia. But ITTL, ODERCA is a bit more competent and Meyer is a bit less pessimistic about them.
[11] So it’s still a problem, but not nearly as bad as the OTL famine of 1983-1985, which was so bad because a naturally-occurring problem was worsened by the Derg dictatorship restricting food supplies and mismanaging the whole thing in general.

[12] Speaking of which, ahead of the 1984 Democratic primaries, I made a preference poll. Please vote now! :) :

A quick breakdown of the 20 candidates on the poll:
Mario Biaggi, 67, was Governor of New York from 1966 to 1981 as has been a US Senator since 1981; an unapologetic conservative, he agrees with Denton on most things except Biaggi is further to the left on civil/equal rights, and is more to the left of Denton on the issues of taxes and government regulations.
Bill Bradley, 41, a former professional basketball player for the New York Knicks, has served as the Governor of his home state of Missouri since 1977; term-limited, he is running for President on a liberal campaign with a focus on campaign finance reform.
George L. Brown, 58, the most prominent African-American politician in the race, is a former Tuskegee Airman first elected to the Senate from Colorado in 1975, after spending eighteen years in the state senate; his campaign covers a wide array of topics and is hard to place into a single ideology due to his maverick voting record; he is known for allegedly having trouble working with and/or getting along well with several other Senators.
Jimmy Carter, 60, the former US Secretary of State and former US Senator from Georgia, can easily tout his foreign policy expertise and diplomatic achievements; a social moderate, he believes he can win over the relatively new evangelical vote and secure Southern States for the Democratic column.
Happy Chandler, 86, the former Governor of Kentucky, US Senator, MLB Commissioner, and, most recently, US Ambassador to Argentina, is running a somewhat moderate-to-conservative “low-key” campaign using the outdated tactic of winning delegates instead of primaries.
Bill Clinton, 38, the young and energetic “carpetbagger” centrist Governor of Alaska since 1978, believes he can break through the lack of name recognition outside of Alaska to win the election by running a campaign focused more on his "unifying" personality than any one specific policy.
Linda Ellerbee, 40, is a progressive author and investigative reporter hailing from Texas; she is calling for government transparency and more defense of women's rights and minority rights, among other issues.
James Florio, 47, the Governor of New Jersey since 1978, is running on his success combating the Garden State’s tax-and-services problems during his first term; he has also been praised for separating state school funding from local property taxes, and will likely campaign on it as being a means of lessening urban-rural and white-nonwhite wealth gaps; he believes he can win over white suburban voters, minority voters, and young voters.
Nick Galifianakis, 56, the junior US Senator from North Carolina since 1975, is running on a moderate campaign designed to broaden the base of the party; he aims to appeal to minority and immigrant voters in "a celebration of America's past, present, and future."
John Glenn, 63, the former astronaut, first American to go to outer space, and a US Senator from Ohio since 1971, is a moderate technocrat with mid-western appeal and is an obvious supporter of NASA; having won elections in 1970, 1976, and 1982 by large margins, he seems to be an excellent candidate on paper; his leadership skills in the Senate, however, may have difficulty translating from campaigning in Ohio to campaigning nationwide, especially since debates are a weak spot for him.
Mike Gravel, 54, the former US Vice President and a US Senator from 1970 to 1973, is more cautious and less divisive this time around, and is seeking to convince primary voters to give him one more chance, as each time his candidacy has pushed the Overton Window a bit more to the left; ergo, his “peace abroad and freedom at home” campaign is considered to be very much progressive, but very possibly no longer so progressive that Democratic primary voters reject it outright.
Jack P. F. Gremillion Sr., 70, a US Senator from Louisiana, is one of the most socially conservative candidates in the race, if not the most socially conservative, but nevertheless received praise for obtaining federal relief funds for Texas in the wake of Hurricane Alicia.
Daniel Inouye, 60, the senior US Senator from Hawaii since 1963, is running a moderate-leaning campaign focused on “sensible defense” and combating “domestic prejudice;” he is being passionately endorsed by many war veterans and Asian-American groups and individuals.
Maynard Jackson, 46, the African-American Mayor of Atlanta, Georgia from 1974 to 1982, is running on his civil rights activism and his executive experience; he aims to appeal to all ethnic groups, but also wishes to reach out to white voters as well.
Coya Knutson, 72, recently elected to her fourth non-consecutive term as Governor of Minnesota, has both feminist and Mid-Western appeal; a moderate who survived marriage to a violently abusive alcoholic husband, she is a regional icon to many women's rights groups.
John Kerry, 41, has continuously served in the US House of Representatives from Massachusetts since his first election to Congress in 1968 at the age of 25; he is a moderate and a war veteran who could end up being on a national ticket with Inouye in one way or the other.
Peter Kyros, 59, the Governor of Maine from 1971 to 1979, is a progressive technocrat looking “long term,” wanting to prepare the nation for the 21st century before it leaves the 20th century by investing in science, medical. research and technology.
Albert Rossellini, 74, the Governor of Washington from 1957 to 1965 and the US Secretary of Education and Welfare from 1973 to 1981, seeks to inform undecided voters of his time as Governor, and that he is the same age as the Colonel when Sanders was elected President.
Louis Stokes, 59, an anti-corruption African-American candidate, has continuously served in the US House of Representatives from Ohio since 1969; he believes he could appeal to suburban voters "of all kinds."
Charles Woods, 64, the Governor of Alabama from 1981 to 1983, is a WWII veteran whose face and hands were severely burned in a plane accident in 1944; with disabled hand and his iconic eyepatch, he is mounting a grassroots campaign in a rejection of "corporate money;" he is running on a moderate-to-conservative platform and, like Biaggi, is supportive of some of Denton's policies, most noticeably agreeing with most of the President’s law-and-order decisions.

Also: OTL candidates in this TL: Walter Mondale can’t run for a third Presidential term; Gary Hart lost two Senate bids and has been a US Congressman since 1981; Jesse Jackson lost a bid for Mayor of Washington, DC in 1982; Fritz Hollings underperformed when he ran for President in 1980; Alan Cranston has not been in office since the 1960s; Reubin Askew and George McGovern keep losing elections.

[13] So I recently finished re-watching the old satirical TV show “Soap,” and I’m still kind of disappointed that there’s very little information online on how Season 5 would have gone had it not been cancelled after Season 4, so here’s my take on it. (caution: spoilers).
[14] EDITED (Removed Tajikistan from the list)

EDIT: Oh, and one other thing: @farmerted555, about that prior comment over the fates of Henry Lee Lucas and Richard Ramirez:
IOTL, Henry Lee Lucas was sentenced to 20-to-40 years in prison in 1960, but was released in 1970 due to prison overcrowding. ITTL, crime rates in Michigan were not so bad (as the late ’60s were less turbulent ITTL), and with Governor Biaggi talking about how building prisons creates jobs to his fellow Governors such as Romney and Romney’s successors during NGA meetings, the overcrowding is at the least not big enough of an issue to merit his early release. As a result, ITTL, Lucas stays in prison until 1971, when his attempt to copycat the hostage crisis at Attica leads to him being killed via blunt force trauma from a security guard he tries to shiv during a quickly-subdued prison riot.
Meanwhile, IOTL, Richard Ramirez’s father was a physically abusive police officer and later railroad laborer. However, Ramirez became messed up primarily by hanging out with an older cousin, Miguel. Miguel was a Green Beret who bragged about the atrocities he performed while serving in the Vietnam War, even showing Richard in 1972, when he was 12, photos in which Miguel posed with the severed heads of Vietnamese women that he had raped and killed. ITTL, though, Miguel was killed during the Invasion of Hanoi in early 1967. As a result, Richard Ramirez grows up less disturbed (possibly idolizing the deceased Miguel for dying for his country without knowing much about him), but he still has some troublesome tendencies. For example, he joins the Army upon turning 18, but is repeatedly reprimanded for violent outbursts. He is currently stationed in Benghazi, Libya, contemplating a career in the armed forces.
Post 43
Post 43: Chapter 51

Chapter 51: January 1984 – July 1984

“In the moment of crisis, the wise build bridges and the foolish build dams.”

– Nigerian proverb, c. 1650

“New business for a new year,” Denton described the situation at the close of the cabinet meeting. “So let’s see – we’re keeping an eye on recreadrugs coming in from Mexico, and we’ll meet with more Governors over school delinquency laws,” Denton thought aloud.

“Especially in the summer, during the state legislative session breaks,” Vice President Alexander noted.

“Right, right,” Denton mused before addressing another topic: “how’s work coming on that bill to make it illegal to outlaw prayer in public schools?” He directed the question to Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker (R-TN).

“We’re getting it through the committees. We’ll likely vote on it by the end of the year, before November. Same with the Balanced Budget Amendment,” the moderate loyalist informed his President.

Secretary of State Lukens added, “If it helps, I can talk to Nixon; we go way back. I can get him to draw up the support we need on it from some of the more conservative Democrats.”

“Thank you Buz, any little bit could help,” Denton acknowledged the offer, “Lamar, you should drum up some allies too if you find the time.”

Alexander assured his friend, “Sure thing!”

“Okay then, now – any other business before we retire for the evening?” Denton asked the room.

“Yes, sir,” his Communications Director Newt Gingrich (R-GA) chimed in from nearby, “the Girl Scouts of Western Ohio want to meet with someone – anyone, really, but preferably you – to discuss issues they’ve had with selling cookies overseas. They want to meet ASAP.”

Rolling his eyes, Denton inquired, “Alright, who wants to tackle international cookie-selling?”

“I’ll do it,” answered Lukens, the Ohioan Secretary of State.

“Really. You sure?” Denton queried.

“Oh, I know you’re busy, most of us here have full plates, but I have a little pocket of time later on in this week. I’ll be glad to see them then.”

“Alright then, thank you, Buz.”

“It’ll be fun to meet with them. I like their…cookies.”

As the room emptied out, Denton proclaimed quietly to Alexander, “You know, buddy, he may be rough around the edges, but Buz is a real class act.”

“If you say so, Jer,” the mentally-preoccupied Vice President said as he went to deal with his own full plate.


[pic: ]

Above: Then-Congressman Buz Lukens and Senator Richard Nixon in 1968

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

“Just as President Denton broke the political barrier on religion and destroyed once and for all anti-Catholic political bigotry in 1980, I am seeking to try and break the political barrier on gender and win the Democratic nomination for President. This is a serious campaign, but if I do not win, then I will have at least paved the way for more American women candidates for President in the future.”

– Governor Coya Knutson (D-MN) at the Women’s National Press Club, Washington DC, 1/5/1964


The Washington Post, 1/6/1984


– The Wall Street Journal, 1/7/1984

…as their populations grow more hostile and actively against their communist governments in an expansive expression of political dissent, the nations of Eastern Europe are experiencing significant political reforms in regards to individual liberties and market liberalism. …In reaction to this, communist attempts to isolate the people in East Berlin from these external development has led to unrests in the city becoming a daily element, ranging from graffiti and gestures to more violent acts of vandalism; arrests are becoming commonplace. …Even Western Europe is feeling the effects of what Prime Minister Williams has called “the continental sentiment.” In France, for instance, socialist President Mouray is facing protests to suggested tax hikes and more red tape for small businesses as his approval ratings consistently stay below 50%... A glimmer of hope shines for the freedom-loving people of Yugoslavia, as Grand Marshal Josip Broz Tito is laid to rest in a lavish state funeral at the age of 91, having spent the last thirty of his years as the President of the diverse Balkan country. Tito had spent the final years of his life working hard to rebuild his nation’s economy through decentralization while concurrently promoting national unity to keep all provinces together after his passing. Tito’s successor, the more moderate Montenegrin politician Veselin Duranovic, today gave what is being called the “Six Peoples, One Flag” speech, in which Duranovic called for the country to be, quote, “one where Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, Slovenians, Montenegrins, and Macedonians are free together and equal together.”

– Transcript of BBC World News, 1/9/1984 newsreel broadcast


…Since suffering a minor heart attack this last September [1], the senior US Senator of Washington has cut down on his Senate duties and campaign trips. His endorsement could nevertheless still carry much weight in the primaries. It seems the candidate most likely to win his support will be either former Secretary of State Jimmy Carter, Senator John Glenn, or Senator Daniel Inouye…

– The Spokesman-Review, Washington state newspaper, 1/11/1984


– The New York Times, 1/14/1984

"I'm honestly gonna miss fightin' with the ol' devil ...may he and his soul rest easy now and in heaven and in peace forever."

- Colonel Sanders, 1/14/1984

CARTER: “We need a candidate who can win over not just Democrats, but Republicans and Independents as well.”

MODERATOR: “Congressman Stokes, you wish to rebuttal?”

STOKES: “Yes. Jimmy, the last time we nominated a centrist, we lost the progressive voters and we lost the election. We need a candidate who can keep this party strong and united, and that will lead us to victory.”


GRAVEL: “As President, I will issue a freeze on all testing and production of nuclear weapons.”


CARTER: “I’m a realist. In fact, I think I’m the most realistic candidate on this stage.”

GRAVEL: “And I think I’m the boldest candidate on this stage.”

MODERATOR: “Mr. Vice President, please wait your turn.”


GLENN: “Congressman, your proposals are outlandish and, with all due respect, ridiculous.”

STOKES: “John, sending a man to space was a ridiculous proposal no more than fifty years ago, and yet, there you sit, the first American to go to space, saying that America cannot afford to try brave new things. In light of this, I must correct an earlier statement: your campaign isn’t uninspiring – it’s uninspiring and ironic.”


BIAGGI: “As a member of several the Senate’s committees and subcommittees pertaining to foreign policy, I think I can look at this situation on Capitol Hill with fresh eyes. [snip] This election needs to be about domestic policy, about who gets what and much how of it, and we can’t do that if we are constantly talking about the problems we have with the President. He is our commander-in-chief, and while we can all disagree with him, I think we are still all obligated to respect him.”


GLENN: “The events unfolding in Russia make us pause and reflect on the very fragile and very grave state of world affairs that lie before us all today. When Premier Podgorny died last year, our President had never met with him, spoken to him, shaken his hand, or even looked him in the eye. Relations with Russia have never been as bad as they are now. Our foreign policy record during the past year was not good either, as our men remain in Libya. The president says he is withdrawing our troops from overseas, only for Westmoreland to say pre-deployment home could take months, even though it could be done in just a matter of hours. [snip] Radical retribution from deadly local extremists endangers the lives of not only our men stationed overseas but also the lives of the men, women and children in the countries that have allied with us against dangerous local elements in these countries.” [2]


INOUYE: “Prudently invested contributions to the Social Security fund may bring greater dividends, but those contributions would also face a greater risk. It would be like gambling. We should not gamble with the investments and the future of the citizens of this land.” [3]

– First Democratic Primary Debate of 1984 transcript, University of Cambridge, MA, Tuesday 1/24/1984


The San Francisco Chronicle, 1/25/1984


The Washington Post, 1/29/1984

…In the race for the White House, the GOP’s Organization For Re-electing Denton (or OFRED) has announced that it has pulled in over $13million [4] in the past two months...

– NBC News, 2/1/1984

The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 is a federal law in the United States that punishes every state that allows persons below 22 years of age to purchase, publicly possess, and/or publicly distribute alcoholic beverages by reducing any part of the state’s annual budget apportionment or apportionments by as much as 20 percent. The bill was narrowly passed in both chambers of the US Congress despite fiery opposition from dissenting politicians and signed into law by President Denton on February 2, 1984. The age of 22 was chosen in order for it to coincide with the age at which most American students graduate from college, and thus in order to lower intoxication incidents on school campuses nationwide, which – the lawmakers hoped – would lead to higher test scores. The key reason for it passing was the fact that the act did not outlaw direct or indirect consumption of alcoholic beverages by those under the age of 22 – only its purchase, public possession and/or public distribution by those under said age. Soon after the act’s passing, Alabama, Indiana, Michigan, Kansas, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, South Carolina, and the District of Columbia extended the law into an outright ban on underage drinking. Conversely, other state legislatures took advantage of the bill’s wording to allow underage consumption when under adult or parental supervision or written consent.



…after approval by the House by the narrow margin of 225 voting “yea,” 204 voting “no,” and 2 voting “present” (some seats are vacant, which is a very common occurrence) on January 29, the Senate is now set to vote on the bill prior to the chamber’s Summer Break. The Senate will most likely pass the bill…

The Washington Post, 2/3/1984

…we have the latest update on the terrible tragedy. Again, for those just tuning in, an American Airlines commercial passenger flight has just crashed 20 miles outside Vancouver, Canada. Many if not most of the people onboard were travelling to Vancouver to be spectators watching the Winter Olympics being held there in four days. …The names of the victims that have been cleared for public release so far are the following: Margaret Corfield, Milton Hamilton, James Hartford, Stephanie Jamieson, James Millerton, Lawrence Nassar, Abigail Smith, and Maryanne Thomson. We will continue to keep you updated on this terrible tragedy as it is developing story…

The Overmyer Network, Nighttime News segment, 2/4/1984 broadcast

…and over in Central Asia, the army of the Soviet Union has taken the city of Makirsk in their war with United Turkestan. Five weeks ago, the red army’s tanks rolled into the western and northern borders of United Turkestan, a loose and decentralized confederation of breakaway soviet republics, declaring their secession from the USSR to be illegal. Soviet troops and heavy truck and tank units have been combating anti-Soviet locals primarily in the more populous northern half of the region known as Kazakhstan, and in southern Uzbekistan and southwestern Kyrgyzstan…

– CBS Morning News, 2/9/1984 broadcast

Ustinov hoped the war would reinvigorate patriotism back on the western side of the Ural Mountains. Instead, it only deepened the divide, with even some supporters of the USSR criticizing Ustinov’s “warmongering-like” action against “our wayward comrades”

Back in Moscow, one more member of the old guard bit the dust when Andrei Gromyko died from pneumonia after leaving a politburo meeting to discuss the war effort without closing up his jacket and without a proper hat. This left only the increasingly ineffective Yegor Kigachyov to oppose Ustinov’s policies, meaning Ustinov seemed to effectively dominate inner party decisions in the aftermath of Gromyko’s demise. Those of the old guard still remaining, old enough to have fought in WWII, were increasingly at odds with the younger generation of would-be premiers such as Minister Gorbachev, and the rising star that was Alexander Yakovlev…

– Ke Wang’s Turkestanis Unite!: The Rise And Execution of An Idea, Cambridge University Press, 2013

…Oh, yes, Harland and I were in the audience during opening day of the Winter Olympics in Vancouver. I want to say the eighth, February I think. Oh, Harland was always a huge fan of our neighbor to the north, and visited Canada several times while President and businessman, but always on politics- or business- related issues. But at least not then, during the Olympics. That time, it was for fun. When we went then, Harland really got to see Canada, the sights and all. “It’s a beautiful country with wonderful people and excellent food!” Is what I remember him saying at one point… [5]

– Claudia Price Sanders, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1992


…Alongside Canada, the U.S. did exceptionally well, winning more gold medals than Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and even the usually-formidable nation of Austria…

– The New York Times, 2/19/1984

…Peace talks were suspended for six weeks after hardline white radicals killed 14 unarmed blacks in Grahamstown on the 20th of February. However, the large public showing of sympathy from white community leaders led to Mandela calling for the peace talks to continue on again, leading to negotiations resuming in early April, the schedules for the 1984 election and the slow dismantling of Apartheid being left unaffected by the Grahamstown Massacre...

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016

The Gravel campaign received more press attention on February 22, when a reclusive and destitute former P.O.W. veteran from the Korean War was arrested outside of a Gravel rally in Janesville, Wisconsin, for attempting to smuggle a pistol past security. The man, a one 69-year-old Ralph O. Davis of Mount Pleasant, Iowa, [6] confessed to police that h wanted to kill Gravel he was outraged at the former Vice President’s allegedly “un-American” language. Gravel reacted to the incident in a dignified and forgiving manner, claiming Davis was “a product of jingoism.” In a speech on the 24th, Gravel explained that Davis was “misguided,” as “questioning the morals and priorities of your country and/or even its leaders, is not treason. It is proof that you are observant enough to see that there is something you don’t agree with, and care enough about your country to try and look for a way to do something about it. Violence, though, is never the answer to the problems found in any country. The answer, I believe, is transparency, honesty, integrity and building the ability to tolerate those whose opinions are not the same as yours. Collaborations, cooperation, and the bravery to pursue these things allowed the people of the free world to come together during World War Two, and allowed the people of the USA to come together to put men and women on the moon. All I had suggested is that we should have more of this transparency, honesty, and integrity and a peaceful collaborative building of greatness, both at home and abroad. To share with the world the best America that America can offer. How’s that un-American?”

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985


…The bill was introduced by Congressman Patrick Moynihan (D-NY) in response to the feared long-term effects of the Trojan Tower Nuclear Meltdown disaster that hit northern Oregon and southern Washington five years ago …Sulfur dioxide is a main cause of acid rain and is a major health concern. This new federal law regulates the use, transportation, and disposal of such chemicals in the US and requires all public schools to teach acid rain avoidance and prevention in health class. …Critiques of the bill range from those who say it goes too far by imposing elements onto school curricula while other claim it does not go far enough to address the potential dangers of nuclear power plants. Others also call it an overreaction, especially when one considers the possible influence of generic and campy acid rain B-movie horror films of late, most infamously the film “Deadly Cloud Tears” that came out in 1981...

– The Billings Gazette, Montana newspaper, 2/25/1984

GRAVEL WINS NEW HAMPSHIRE PRIMARY: Kyros Comes In Second, Glenn In Third

The New York Times, 2/28/1984


The Star-Ledger, 2/29/1984

“…the committees and reforms that Carl [Sanders of Georgia] and I pushed through created the modern primary system, with New Hampshire as the first election of the primary season and being followed by Maryland, then Nevada and Georgia as the 3rd and 4th primaries, right before the ‘March Cluster’…”

– F. Grant Sawyer, KNN interview, 1995


…one passionate supporter loudly claims “Our War Hero President is a good ol’ home boy who’s fighting for us against the communism, atheism, abortionism, BLUTAGism, divorceism, and Free Love-ism peacenik bunk that’s been spreading diseases everywhere.”…

The New York Post, 3/1/1984


…discrepancies concerning the Presidential candidate’s connections to a savings and loan business that failed in 1972 are the source of the inquiry…

The Times-Picayune, 3/2/1984

HOLLYWOOD ENDORSEMENTS: Do They Help or Hurt Presidential Campaigns?

...As the actor/activist Peter Duel joins Mike Gravel on the stage at a campaign rally in Bethesda, one might be reminded of Bob Dylan speaking at the 1968 RNC, and how that allegedly contributed to the Colonel winning over the youth vote that November. One might also think of Ronald Reagan, who went from being a character actor in several embarrassing b-movies to leading the GOP to an embarrassing defeat in 1976.

In this election cycle, Hollywood stars and starlets have shown their political side by endorsing several politicians at the state and national level, from the flighty Shirley MacLaine to the grounded Charlton Heston…


…“Celebrities have no place in politics because it is not their profession. They are not experts, so they don’t fully know what they are talking about, but because people recognize who they are, people listen to what they have to say,” suggests former Congressman Walter Judd (R-MN), “and as a result, they delegitimize the very campaign they support.”

The former campaign manager of the Elmo Zumwalt Presidential campaign of 1980 differs, telling us “they can introduce more voters and potential supporters to the candidate, and bring that showmanship style of pizzazz and excitement to the race. It makes the talk of economics that can be dry and boring to the average voter and make it seem exciting to them.”

With the primaries’ “March Cluster” set for the 20th, we’ll find out soon enough how much weight a celebrity endorsement carries…

– The Dayton Daily News, 3/4/1984

GLENN WINS MARYLAND PRIMARY; Gravel Easily Carries Vermont

…the astronaut-turned-Senator’s centrist campaign won over many Republican-leaning primary voters in Glenn’s first victory of the Democratic primary season…

The Grand Rapids Press, 3/6/1984

DEM. PRIMARIES: Carter Wins Home State of Georgia, Gravel Wins Nevada

The Oregonian, 3/13/1984

I don’t see that I’m any less religious that I can appreciate the fact that science just records that we change with evolution and time, and that’s a fact. It doesn’t mean it’s less wondrous and it doesn’t mean that there can’t be some power greater than any of us that has been behind and is behind whatever is going on.[7]

– John Glenn, at a campaign stop in Demopolis, Alabama, 3/17/1984

March 20th saw the voters of ten states go to the polls in what the media labeled a “cluster” of primary contests. Denton won all of the GOP elections without incident. In the Democratic Party, Stokes made history by becoming the first Black Democrat to win a primary via achieving victory in Mississippi. Carter edged out Glenn in Iowa, but the former Secretary of State failed to win any other contests that evening. Some conservative Democrats such as Gremillion and Biaggi failed to make inroads in any of the southern states. Glenn, on the other hand, handily won Alabama [7], Florida and Michigan, but failed to catch on in any other states. In fact, the night was clearly Gravel’s from the beginning: after the former Vice President achieved first place in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Gravel proved he had Midwestern appeal by winning Illinois and Minnesota, then proved he could win over western state voters by coming in first in Wyoming (albeit by a very narrow plurality, with Carter and Glenn spitting the more conservative vote – a recurring theme for several primaries in this election cycle)…

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985


…the announcement comes days after the Governor of Alaska failed to even reach third place in any of the several primary contests held in this month’s primary “cluster”…

The Washington Post, 3/23/1984

“Yeah, big news coming in from Louisiana today, with Glenn winning in Louisiana last night. Apparently, uh, Stokes came in second place, Carter in third, Gravel wasn’t on the ballot, but Gremillion – the Senator from Louisiana – came in fourth place, and that was so bad that he just announced that he’s quitting the race. Now, uh, so what do you think this means for the race going forward, Senator?”

“I think the narrowness of the contest – Stokes came within striking distance of winning – proves that the party has to win over lack voters. They are a powerful voting block, one that could make or break the election for the Democrats in November.”

– Colorado talk show host Alan Berg (1934-2018) and US Senator George L. Brown, KOA-AM (850 kHz) radio, 3/28/1984 broadcast


…”Prisoners serving life, even for violent crimes, should have the chance to get parole because any of us can be saved from sin or failure,” the leading Presidential candidate proposed in a very controversial speech in Brooklyn… The belief in human redemption is behind the proposal, but so is a genuine fiscal concern. Allowing remorseful prisoners to be paroled would allow state and federal governments to save money on housing inmates costs. …Gravel may be either ahead of his time, or out-of-touch with the priorities of the voter. In what may be very ironic, “Family Safety” advocacy groups are already calling Gravel “dangerously uniformed”…

– Paul Schrade in Newsday, New York newspaper, 3/29/1984

…In the midst of political instability, Star City shut out the trouble and pressed on. On April 2, 1984 – in the last major action performed by Star City that year – the Indian Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma was launched into space aboard the Soyuz T-12…

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995

…Alright, tonight has been a hectic night for the Democratic Party, but here is the breakdown of how the American people voted tonight. On the Republican side, President Denton won all states with ease. On the Democratic side, two contests were held – one in New York, the other in Wisconsin. In New York, Gravel, with the endorsement of Mayor Bellamy of New York City and several blue-collar unions, defeated Senators John Glenn and Mario Biaggi in a narrow three-way split. Biaggi, who came in third place in his only strong showing of the primary season thus far, seems to have split the state’s anti-Gravel vote. A fourth candidate, Jimmy Carter, underperformed significantly. In the anti-war state of Wisconsin, Gravel fared better, as did Carter, who came in second place behind Gravel, while Senator Glenn underperformed…

– NBC News, 4/3/1984 broadcast


…the new law will prohibit all family members of known recreadrug users and transporters from immigrating to the US unless the relatives in question agree to be “actively helpful” in “combating the recreadrug epidemic” as described by the bill’s most supportive co-sponsor, Senator Dick Obenshain. The bill was derided by some politicians such as Senator Pedro Jimenez, who claims “this [law] appeals to suburban voters easily scared of Hispanic stereotypes and goes against the inclusive and welcoming nature of the United States government.”…

The Washington Post, 4/4/1984

..With Jeb’s experience in Venezuela in mind along with the fact that the situation had been long overlooked by Denton, I sat down with the President and convinced him that we needed to intervene in Colombia. The violence, spilling into the neighboring countries and tearing Colombia apart, had been ongoing for over twenty years by then, and to do nothing would be to drag through the mud the principles and concepts of the Monroe Doctrine. However, since the Denton administration’s primary focus at the time was on “urban youth malaise,” and the situations in Libya and Iran, Denton instead instructed US diplomats to organize peace talks with the help of Colombian President Belisario Betancur, who had been attempting peace talks with several guerilla groups since taking office in August 1982...

– George H. W. Bush’s autobiography, 2015 edition


The New York Times, 4/5/1984

The violent bombing forced Denton to take note, and within a few weeks, the US military was leading U.N. peacekeeping forces wanting to “intervene” on the Colombia Civil War…

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005


– The Idaho Press-Tribune, 4/7/1984

…In tonight’s Presidential primaries, President Denton easily won in Pennsylvania and Indiana, while the situation was starkly different for the Democrats, as Mike Gravel won Pennsylvania in very narrow margin over John Glenn, whom many assumed would win the state contest. Glenn did win Indiana over Gravel, though, but this too was a narrow contest due to a strong third-place showing by former Secretary of State Jimmy Carter…

– KNN, 4/10/1984 broadcast


The Birmingham News, 4/12/1984

Well, on April 18 – well, it was the early hours of April 19 for them, late hours of the 18th for us – the people of western Ukraine experienced a massive power outage. Similar to America’s own power outage back the 1960s – the big one that plunged New York and several other states into darkness – this outage knocked out all power from Kyiv to Lviv, including Derazhnia. Now the USSR’s Minister of Energy and Electrification, an old guy named Pjotr Neporozhny, who’d held that job since late 1962, he was busy vacationing in Crimea when this went down, so when this happened, the relatively less experienced Minister of the Gas Industry, I believe his name was Vasili Dinkov, tried to oversee things, get some backup generators started at whatnot. Now that should have been it, just another example of how the Soviet government had fallen into such inefficiency that they couldn’t even power the towns and cities anymore.

Except that the blackout hit Derzhnia. And Derzhnia was the location of secret nuclear missile bases for SS-19 ICBM missiles at the time [8]. When the power went out there, the Soviet military went on full alert because several nuclear bomb detectors being used at the time could not distinguish between a regular power outage of this unusually large scale and an outage caused by a nuclear attack.

– Lt. Gen. (retired) Arthur D. Nicholson (1947-2027), US military intelligence expert, 2004 interview

Just past midnight, at 12:23, Moscow Time, The Great Ukrainian Blackout created malfunctioning circuit breakers and other circuit errors that in turn created the illusion in Moscow that their silos in Derzhnia, western Ukraine, had gone dark due to a nuclear attack. Ustinov, upon being informed of the inability of the Kremlin’s communications operators t contact Kviv, immediately believed it to be an act of war. “I knew, only a matter of time before that crazy Admiral snapped,” Ustinov thought aloud about his American counterpart. Ustinov was already paranoid, convinced the “uprisings” in the Warsaw Pact, the Baltic soviets, and Central Asia were all founded and funded by American agents when they had actually developed organically and were merely supported by the US. With Soviet nuclear submarines carrying ICBM missiles, non-military missiles, and other missiles within striking distance of several cities along the western coast of the United States, Ustinov declared “A nuclear counter-strike must be launched!”

ICBMs, even those of 18 years ago, are practically impossible to shoot down, especially when initially launched. Simply put, the velocity is too fast for them to be shot down by antiballistic counter-weaponry. When at the middle of the projected voyage or on descent, there is a better chance, but even then, it is a very narrow window of opportunity.

In Washington, D.C., Denton was called into the White House War Room and informed that increased activities and mobilizations had been detected. The U.S. military monitored the situation closely while Denton repeatedly attempted to contact Ustinov through the Moscow-Washington hotline. However, Ustinov refused to engage in conversation with “the enemy…unless they are willing to surrender.” To the lack of communication, Denton frustratingly asked “Didn’t they learn anything from the Turkish Missile Crisis?!”

With Westmoreland calling for a pre-emptive strike to “make ’em learn,” Denton instead had the cruise and Pershing II missiles the U.S. had deployed in Europe placed on standby as a precaution.

The final step of the launching of a nuclear strike was the captain of the submarine carrying out the order, whom was to be given the order by his commanding officer. This man in question, the man in charge of the Soviet submarines lying in wait in the Pacific Ocean, was a man named Vasiliy Ivanovich Petrov, the 67-year-old Commander of the Far East Military District [9]. An Army General, Petrov had overseen the region’s activities since his appointment to the position in 1972, and was an experienced leader. As a result, Petrov questioned the bombing of only one nuclear silo, and soon contacted the USSR’s commander of the Air Defense forces in the Ukraine, who could not visually confirm that Derzhnia had been destroyed. A request to send out an aerial recon team was denied by the Air Defense forces leader, who explained “The Americans must be punished now, before they strike again.”

To this, Petrov asked “Why again? Why not wipe us out in one fell swoop. If they’ve really attacked us, they’ve done so very stupidly.” With this in his mind, Petrov ordered the submarine captains to hold fire until Derzhnia’s destruction could be visually confirmed.

Meanwhile, Gas Minister Dinkov, having failed to contact Electrification Minister Neporozhny at the Crimean resort of Foros, in an opulent dacha, and was granted permission by local law enforcement to temporarily oversee the restarting of the local power grid. As the minutes passed in a way that felt like an eternity for Petrov as he awaited confirmation, Ustinov demanded an explanation for Petrov’s “procrastination,” and threatened to have him tried for treason if he did not launch the missiles by 3:00 AM.

At 2:53 AM, Moscow time, Kviv phone line operators finally made contact with Kiev, who immediately contacted Moscow with the revelation that the missile silo had gone undisturbed in what had just been another power outage. It was been commonly told that when informed of the misunderstanding, Ustinov was found sleeping at his desk, having exhausted himself with rants about the assumed attack. However, this may be merely anecdotal.

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


The Washington Post, 4/19/1984

The Power Outage Nuclear Scare may have been the final straw for many within the politburo, as General Petrov was seen as having better reasoning and leadership skills than Ustinov. Behind closed doors, talks quickly began of “coercing” Ustinov into early retirement…

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

MODERATOR: “Senator Glenn, do you agree with former Vice President Gravel’s statement from before that we need a freeze on plutonium production?”

GLENN: “I think we need to ensure a more secure future for ourselves and our children, and, possibly, that may include briefly limiting the building our nuclear defenses, though, albeit briefly. I mean, of course, our military and scientific leaders would have a say in it, I mean in regards to such a freeze being implemented if proposed under a Glenn Administration.”


BIAGGI: “If I’m President during an international incident, trust me, nothing’s off the table.”

GRAVEL: “Mario, when you say ‘nothing’s off the table,’ I hope to God you do not mean nukes” [10]

GLENN: “And I hope you don’t mean surrender.”

MODERATOR: “Gentlemen, please wait for your respective turns.”


CARTER: “Whether the borders that divide us are picket fences or national boundaries, we are all neighbors in a global community.” [11]

– Transcript snippets of the final Democratic Presidential primary debate of 1984, Tuesday 4/22/1984

…The Democratic Party hosted several Presidential primaries today, and it has become clear that former Vice President Mike Gravel is well on his way to winning the nomination. Gravel has been declared the winners of Colorado and Idaho, while Senator John Glenn won Utah and Virginia. Former Secretary of State Jimmy Carter edged out both men in Arizona. But the biggest win of the night was Texas, where all three frontrunners vied for top place. In the end, it seems Carter may have acted as a spoiler to Glenn, as Gravel has won the Lone Star State in a plurality. The upset victory may very well knock the wind out of the Glenn and Carter campaigns, who have been claiming that former Vice President Gravel cannot win the southern states in a general election…

The Overmyer Network Night-Time News, 4/24/1984 broadcast

TONIGHT’S DEMOCRAT PARTY PRIMARIES: Carter Wins Tennessee By A Hair, Stokes Wins D.C. In Landslide

The Courier-Journal, Louisville-based Kentucky newspaper, 5/1/1984


…the candidate that was often called the “friendliest” to Senator Scoop Jackson carried Scoop’s state by a narrow plurality despite receiving kind words from Jackson must never an official endorsement…

– The Honolulu Star-Advertiser, 5/4/1984

…On May 5, 1984, South Africa, Mozambique and Portugal signed a multinational energy treaty. As determined by this agreement, Portugal assisted Mozambique in the distribution of electricity generated from Mozambique’s Cahora Bassa Lake Dam in exchange for a share of the profits and other energy company investments. The jobs and higher quality of living created by this and other public works projects gave momentum to the Namibia-Botswana waterworks building plans supported by South Africa politician Steve Biko during his stay in Botswana during the late 1970s. In turn, the Botswanan and Mozambique governments began developing stronger relations in the hopes of linking the two nations together via an ambitious water transportation system similar to the one developed by Gaddafi in Libya. The only thing in their way was a literal one, the country of Zimbabwe. As a result, that nation, led at the time by Prime Minister Joshua Nkomo, was brought in on the multinational project as well…



The Washington Post, 5/6/1984


The Cincinnati Enquirer, 5/7/1984

“These past few years have brought about massive changes, and like most historic moments that affect entire nations, they have been important but exhausting. The people of South Africa are aware of the responsibilities that this government has laid own before them. They are humble in the face of the challenge of reconciliation, but are determined to move forward with conviction and faith in their fellow countrymen. I have already played my part in moving forward this country that I love, and a such I will not request for any more time in this office.”

– South African President Pieter W. Botha, announcing his decision to not run in the upcoming South African Presidential election, 5/7/1984


The Atlantis, Greek-American newspaper, 5/8/1984

USTINOV OUSTED! Forced Out Of Kremlin With Armed Escort As Tanks Line Moscow’s Streets

– The New York Times, 5/9/1984

…reports are coming in of a changing of the guard that comes with the support of the Soviet military, ironic given Premier Ustinov’s military background, but the shift in loyalties for the Soviet Union’s military leaders most likely stem from Soviet forces facing stronger-than-expected resistance in the war being fought in United Turkestan…

[pic: ]

– CBS News coverage of the May 1984 Soviet Leadership Coup, 5/9/1984

The “New Generation” Coup of May 1984 replaced Ustinov and his fellow hardliners in response to Ustinov’s perceived incompetence during the Power Outage Nuclear Crisis. At the age of 75, Ustinov was rumored to be feeble and possibly senile, and members of the politburo were starting to believe that he was not the symbol of strength for the nation that they thought the man would be.

Aided by initial Anatoly Lukyanov, alongside Boris Gostev, Nikolai Ryzhkov, Valentin Pavlov and other younger members of the political establishment along with the leaders of the Soviet military, Yakovlev and Gorbachev confronted Ustinov and demanded he step down. When he refused, he was arrested. Ustinov officially was “forced into retirement,” but he was effectively placed under house arrest, as the bellicose leader was followed at all times.

Ahead of the announcement of the sudden changing of the guard, the Red Army took the cautious step of lining Moscow’s streets with tanks to intimidate would-be rebels into submission. However, upon learning of Ustinov’s ousting, the response was much more positive, with many locals hoping with would be a positive change of pace. Most however, were ambivalent to the event, and continued on with their day.

The new temporary leader, serving for only a few days, was pro-Vakovlev career politician Vladimir Orlov. On May 15, Yakovlev was named the new premier. He then shocked the military that had brought him to power by announcing a withdrawal of soviet military forces from Turkestan. Yakovlev believed the union could be preserved if the Kremlin made reparations to the wars fought, and believed that “send[ing] our men back to work” in factories and farmlands would revitalize industries and in turn the economy, only for the military and for veterans to view the withdrawal as a betrayal. The high casualty count made it seem like a retreat. Furthermore, the withdrawal – a seemingly greatly victorious outcome for Turkestan – only grew further nationalist and anti-politburo sentiments and public protests. Yakovlev upset both the military and conservative members of the politburo by releasing the USSR’s political prisoners…

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

“What do you think about what’s happening?” the official asked.

“What do you mean?”

Ustinov has been overthrown.”

“You’re joking.”

When the official assured him that he was serious, they returned to Latishev’s car, turned on the engine, and began listening to the news on the car radio, which featured the mechanical repetition of the first proclamations of the coup committee. The committee was promising to reduce prices and to give land to city dwellers by
the end of 1985. Listening to the announcements, Latishev became enraged. He knew it was absurd to talk about reducing prices when there were no goods in the stores. [12]

– David Satter’s Age of Delirium: The Decline And Fall of The Soviet Union, Random House, 1996


…recent geopolitical develops failed to give Glenn a last-minute boost strong enough to overpower Gravel’s lead in the delegate count…

The New York Times, 5/15/1984


…A major piece of legislation was approved by Hawaii’s Governor Jean King earlier today, one that will restructure the state health care system into one the is “universal” in nature that covers pre-existing conditions, military-related issues, daycare, dental, and other aspects of medical care... Hawaii joins Vermont, Massachusetts, Oregon, Maine, Minnesota, Rhode Island, and California in an unofficial universal healthcare “pact” of sorts, in that all the aforementioned state governments have passed laws that allow citizens to, for example, not have to worry about health insurance issues if they live in Vermont but are injured in Maine. …This universal health care movement has its origins in the health care system established in Canada under then-Prime Minister Paul Hellyer in 1969. The immediate popular of the system in Canada led to then-Governor Phil Hoff passing a similar healthcare system in Vermont in the early 1970s…

The Los Angeles Times, 5/19/1984


– The Dayton Daily News, 5/22/1984

PUSSER LAUNCHES “PRECAUTIONARY PROBE” INTO PAST 3 TENNESSEE GOVERNORS; Anti-Corruption Crusade Continues In Sweep Of All Federal Offices

– The Knoxville News Sentinel, 5/25/1984

FLASH FLOOD KILLS 9 IN TULSA, OK: Gov. McCaleb’s Swift Response Is Praised

The Los Angeles Times, 5/27/1984


The Chicago Tribune, 6/1/1984


The Washington Post, 6/2/1984

Harley always sought to come to work early, laying out photocopies of the latest version of the bills he was supporting or had yet to form an opinion on in piles across his desk. He kept things less tidy than his father would, but as the Colonel sought to be the cleanest person in the room – to the point of it almost being seen as an obsession with him by some folk – this was not unexpected [13]. So rather than spend his time on something as persnickety as avoiding clutter the younger Sanders man focused on securing finances for Kentucky in order for the commonwealth to be capable of building new roads, hospitals and colleges.


With the Father’s pride, and the Son’s optimism, Harley introduced legislation in 1984 and was working to get other Senators to sign onto it; it was a bill concerning insurance and protection for firefighters that was being supported by Ralph Nader, Senator Michael Rockefeller and several statewide and national unions.



[pic: ]
Above: Senator Harley Sanders meets with his father in Harley’s office in early June 1984.

In June 1984, southern Democrat leader Robert C. Byrd informally accused Harley of “being up to something” on Meet the Press after Colonel Sanders visited Harley’s office, with Byrd claiming the meeting was “possibly” over Harley’s connections to KFC. Harley rebuked the accusations, and announced in a press statement “I have in the past and always will in the future excuse myself from voting on any laws that directly benefit me. I sold my shares in Finger Lickin’ Good Incorporated when I got this job in order to serve my country with a clear and impartial mind – not to be distracted from doing my job by having to address the baseless lies of badgerin’ jack-a-dandies [14].”

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

On June 5, in the final cluster of primaries, Denton once again faced token opposition from Bergland and McCloskey. On the Democratic side, Gravel easily won California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota and West Virginia. The former Vice President’s only opposition came in the form of “favorite son” candidate Jim Florio, who only received 25% of the vote in New Jersey.

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985


…the first F5 tornado to hit Wisconsin since the 1958 Colfax Tornado has cost the state millions in damages. Fortunately for many residents, early warning sirens and emergency response procedures implemented during the administrations of former Governor Bronson La Follette and incumbent Governor Paul Soglin assured an orderly organized evacuation of endangered areas and helped rescue dozens of people injured or trapped in the post-twister wreckage…

The Chicago Tribune, 6/8/1984

FIERCE GUNFIGHT AT GOLDEN TEMPLE LEAVES OVER 70 DEAD; Religious Leader Bhindranwale Killed In Operation Blue Star; Sikh Communities Are Outraged

– The Hindustan Times, 6/8/1984

…It seems India’s leaders may have taken note of what Dad said that November, as just a few months later, Indian President Indira Gandhi attempted to negotiate with the controversial Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale over his stockpiling of weaponry in Amritsar, Punjab, with the support of Pakistani elements. However, these negotiations failed, and the Amritsar complex was besieged by the Indian Army. The intense week-long battle saw several hundred people killed in what some viewed as an attack on the Sikh religion, while others saw it as a defense of India from Pakistani machinations.

Dad’s response to the subcontinent’s problems throughout the years was consistently one of cautious admonishment. After US-Indian relations soured under Lyndon Johnson over his disapproval of India’s military buildup [15], Dad treated both Pakistan and India fairly and equally, without picking a clear favorite. However, when India went to war with Pakistan in December 1971, Dad urged both governments to call a ceasefire; instead, India defeated Pakistan after 13 days of fighting, a blow to Pakistan that contributed to Zia ul-Haq rising to power years later. Even after leaving office, Dad was critical of both nations’ leaders’ inability to be “civil” and “get along with one another;” his response to India developing nuclear weapons in 1974, and Pakistan failing to follow suit, reflected this rebuking of the subcontinent’s recalcitrant ways…

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs And a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

…“Used Cars” was a Columbia Pictures satirical black comedy film about a pair of rival used car salesmen outside of Las Vegas, Nevada. The idea for the film came from producer John Milius, who pitched it to Gale and Zemeckis while they were writing the script for “1941,” which came out to critical acclaim but mixed box office results in 1981. After years of script rewrites to properly balance the tone of the film – ensuring the jokes worked, the satire was sharp, and the characters had redeeming qualities – the film was finally released in June 1984. It was less successful than 1941, but still received fair reviews and made just enough money for the studio to consider the work successful. With “Used Cars” finally behind him, Zemeckis finally returned his focus to another film that had been “on the back-burner” for a very long while – a science fiction project entitled “Back to the Future”…

– Norman Kagan’s The Cinema of Robert Zemeckis, 2003


– The Argus Leader, South Dakota newspaper, 6/12/1984

June 19, 1984: as part of the Pacific Northwest's efforts to minimize families and businesses leaving the region in the aftermath of the Trojan Tower Nuclear Disaster of the late 1970s, the Portland Trailblazers successfully choose the increasingly-impressive player Michael Jordan in their NBA draft [16]



The Washington Post, 6/23/1984

…US Senator Mario Biaggi of New York, who ran for the Democratic nomination for President this year, today announced that he would not run for President on a third-party ticket, effectively putting an end to weeks of speculation that the maverick conservative Democrat would form a bipartisan “unity ticket” with Republican politician Louis Bafalis, the like-minded former Governor of Florida…

– NBC News, 6/25/1984 broadcast


The Sentence Conflicts the US Sentencing Gaddafi To Life In Prison In June 1983

Tripoli, LIBYA – An international dispute has erupted over the sentencing of ousted dictator Muammar Gaddafi. The former ruler of Libya is to be put to death according to a Libyan court ruling, but he also is to spend the rest of his life behind bars according to a U.S. court ruling. …Libyan representatives claim the Libyan ruling carries more weight as Gaddafi is still a Libyan national… Representatives of each legal team are currently set to meet with members of the UN in "a few weeks or months" to discuss a possible resolution to this problematic issue...

The New York Times, 6/26/1984


…In a startling announcement, the imprisoned ex-leader of Libya claims that he identifies as an American. An obvious ploy, the announcement comes just over two weeks after a Libyan court sentenced Gaddafi to death, which clashes with a US court sentencing him to life in prison…

The Washington Post, 7/12/1984

On July 19, 1984, a record-breaking earthquake was felt across the British Isles, the 5.4 quake’s epicenter being in northern Wales. While nobody was killed, it was nevertheless the largest onshore earthquake to ever occur in the UK. More importantly, the post-quake efforts collaborated between the UK and Ireland highlighted how far the two nations had come since the Troubles of the 1960s and early 1970s, and highlighted the successful pro-peace Foreign Policy endeavors of PMs Foot and Williams...

– Andrew Marr’s Modern Britain: A History, Pan Macmillan Publishers, 2002 edition


[pic: ]
Peter Kyros – 580,370 (3.2%)
Mario Biaggi – 562,234 (3.1%)
Nick Galifianakis – 362,732 (2.0%)
Bill Bradley – 344,595 (1.9%)
Jim Florio – 272,048 (1.5%)
Coya Knutson – 163,229 (0.9%)
Jack Gremillion – 54,409 (0.3%)
All other votes cast – 0.4%

Total Delegates: 4,105
Votes Needed for Nomination: 2,054
Results (President):
Mike Gravel – 2,981 (72.6%)
John Glenn – 767 (18.7%)
James Carter – 213 (5.2%)
Louis Stokes – 88 (2.1%)
Mario Biaggi – 41 (1.0%)
All others – 15 (0.4%)
No. of Ballots: 1


…Prior to the official counting, former candidate Peter Kyros relinquished his delegates to Gravel, but declined Gravel’s offer to be his running mate in order to instead continue his focus on running for the US Senate that same November. Stokes was also a speculated candidate for the number-two spot on the ticket, until he publicly declined the offer on July the 14th...

The party’s progressive platform called for a National Initiative And Referendum Amendment and a vague foreign policy plank that called for a policy of "wiser warfare;" advocated investments into science, medicine and technology (thanks to the Kyros delegation); promised a higher budget for NASA (thanks to the Glenn delegates); and called for separating state school funding from property taxes in all states and territories in order for school funds to be determined by performance and necessity instead of legal loopholes that led to systemic discrimination, in order to lower the wealth gaps among races, between men and woman, and between urban and rural communities (thanks to the Florio delegation). The work of Congresswomen Barbara Jordan and Marcy Kaptur also led to the DNC’s passage that called for “fair and equal treatment of all Americans regardless of race, religion, creed, or orientation,” the last part referring to the BLUTAG community.


GRAVEL PICKS US REP. J. CHARLES JONES FOR RUNNING MATE: Will Be First-Ever Black VP Nominee of A Major Party Ticket

…Joseph Charles Jones, D-NC, was born on August 23, 1937 in South Carolina. Jones was a civil rights leader, attorney and freedom rider in Alabama during the 1950s and 1960s. After passing the North Carolina state bar in 1970, he served as the first Black mayor of Charlotte, N.C., from 1977 to 1981, before winning election to the US House of Representatives in 1980 and again in 1982. A consistently liberal voice in a relatively moderate Southern state, Jones could help Gravel win over Southern voters, minority voters who backed Stokes in the primaries, and quite possibly some more moderate voters as well. …Other names rumored to have been considered for running mate included former Governor Peter Kyros of Maine, U.S. Representative Parren Mitchell of Maryland, U.S. Representative Louis Stokes of Ohio, former Governor Jim Florio of New Jersey, Governor Coya Knutson of Minnesota, former US Secretary of Commerce John Moss of California, and former Governor Bronson LaFollette of Wisconsin…

The New York Times, 7/16/1984


[pic: ]

– Governor Coya Knutson (D-MN), attending the 1984 Democratic National Convention, 7/17/1984

“No More Wars” / “Give Peace A Chance” / “Let The People Decide” / “Power To The People” / “Go Gravel Go”

– Slogans for the Gravel/Jones’84 campaign, first seen on 7/18/1984, the day Gravel and jones were officially nominated (the third day of the 1984 DNC)


Benghazi Air Base, Libya – President Denton visited Libya for the third time since entering office, arriving unannounced on Air Force One to congratulate remaining forces for helping the freedom-loving natives keep the peace. “Y’all are doing an amazing job, and if all goes well, y’all will be back home before you know it!” the President declared…

The New York Post, 7/21/1984


[pic: ]

The strongly anti-communist Armando Valladares of the Conservative Party, age 47, was anti-Castro from the start of the 1950s conflict, and was imprisoned by the Castro regime from 1960 to 1965, during which time he became an accomplished poet. Released from prison after the fall of communism on the island in 1965, he became a diplomat and human rights activist. After serving as Cuba’s Ambassador to the UN under Cuban President Erneido Oliva from 1975 to 1978, Valladares became a member of Cuban parliament by winning a seat in a 1979 special election.

Dr. Emilio Ochoa of the New Authority Party, age 77, was a signer of the 1940 constitution. For being opposed to both Batista and Castro, he was arrested multiple times under the first and exiled under the second. Ochoa served in the nation’s parliament from 1967 to 1981, and previously ran for President in 1972 and 1978.

The controversial Huber Matos of the Stability Party, age 65, was a polarizing figure, as he fought alongside the Castro brothers, Guevara, and Cienfuegos, but then was imprisoned in 1959 for opposing the leaders’ turn to Marxist principles. Matos apologized for his early role as a military leader, and campaigned on his work as a political dissident, activist, writer, editor, publisher, party secretary, two terms in the national assembly, and a stint as Chief of Staff to outgoing President Boitel.


While Huber’s surprising success in the weeks leading up the election worried some, enough voters were discouraged by Ochoa’s advanced age for Valladares to win the July round with over 50% of the voting, meaning that an August 10 runoff was not required for this election…


“That Denton visit to Libya the other day just completely stole the thunder away from the post-DNC poll boost. You’ve seen the polls, it was just a blip. Very clever of Denton, very clever, I’ll give him that.”

– Gravel/Jones supporter Warren Beatty, 7/28/1984 KNN interview

Sergei Latishev had not doubted that all the blood that was spilled in Turkestan was justified in the interests of protecting the Soviet Union from treasonous domestic terrorists, but as he looked for work and a place to live in his hometown of Nikopol in the Ukraine, he became aware of his rightlessness in dealing with bureaucratic organizations. He saw that they were completely independent of him, would not listen to him, and that at the head of every bureaucratic organization was a member of the Communist Party. He began to wonder if, when he fought in Turkestan, he had been defending the patriotic Turkestan people or only the Communist Party leaders of the seceding soviets that made up Turkestan. …He had left part of himself in Turkestan and he believed that he had fought for a worthy cause, but his sacrifice seemed to melt away in the face of the inertia of a system run by the few for the few, with little regard for anyone else. He began to be overwhelmed with the feeling that nothing could ever change in the Soviet Union. [12]

– David Satter’s Age of Delirium: The Decline And Fall of The Soviet Union, Random House, 1996

Freedom of the press exposed the motives behind Soviet actions in Cuba, Indochina, Angola, Ethiopia, Poland, Romania, Turkey and Turkestan during the previous 24 years, primarily concerning the initial lack of popular support for Soviet actions, and the atrocities committed by Soviet soldiers in these countries. This frank openness had a traumatic sort of effect on many former soldiers, making them feel and grow increasingly disillusioned. Many veterans began to discuss amongst themselves the possibility that they had participated in immoral warfare. Questions began to rise: were these wars necessary? Had Soviet soldiers died in vain? And what should be done about all of this?

With the domestic struggle for human rights only growing in strength, and decades of international tension running its course, the country was becoming unmanageable. In July 1984, Yakovlev formed a Committee for the State of Emergency that was given the task of searching for solutions to the issues threatening to liquidate the country. The committee’s official findings were declared “inconclusive,” but behind closed doors, it was understood that the consensus was that the currently outdated and corrupted system needed either to be completely reconstructed, or completely discarded.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


The Washington Post, 7/31/1984

[1] Jackson’s health is a bit better ITTL because he cut down on inner-party activities after losing the Presidential election. Plus, the lack of the USSR shooting down Korean Air Lines Flight 007 or any other plane like in OTL means Jackson pays more attention to any pain in the left side of his chest that day, as in OTL he was likely distracted by the aforementioned OTL international incident, at least contributing marginally to his OTL death from an aortic aneurysm. OTL.
[2] Based on what he said here, with italicized parts being verbatim or near-verbatim, starting at the 2:11 mark:
[3] OTL Inouye quote, found here:
[4] The OTL 2019 equivalent of $34,000,000, according to the inflation calculator on
[5] IOTL, the Colonel actually moved to Canada and lived there from 1965 until his death; he purchased and lived in a bungalow at 1337 Melton Drive in the Lakeview area of Mississauga, Ontario, from 1965 to 1980, according to this: Interestingly, though, in 1957 IOTL, the Colonel thought Canadian cuisine had potential, saying the locals should capitalize on the fish in local lakes and season the food sooner so it can “permeate” the dish more before it is served, but he was overall seemingly disappointed by the food not being very exemplary. However, since he moved there eight years later (again, IOTL), my guess is either he though Canadian cuisine needed his presence, or he came around to the food or found Canadian food that he did enjoy in the end:
[6] Who? This guy:
[7] Glenn said the italicized bit IOTL according to the source given on his wiki page, and he actually won a large chunk of the vote in the Alabama primary IOTL!
[8] At least according to the map found here:
[9] This:
[10] Based on a Gravel line found here:
[11] OTL Quote!
[12] All of these italicized bits are pulled directly from here:
[13] Italicized bits found here: : “Sanders’ nephew, Joe Ledington, says he worked in his uncle’s café as a young boy in the ’50s. ‘He was absolutely the cleanest person,’ added Ledington. ‘It was an obsession with him.’”
[14] “Jack-a-dandy” (noun): a little foppish impertinent fellow
[15] According to this wiki article:
[16] I know even less about professional basketball than I do about professional baseball; GentlemanBiaggi requested this, but since he’s gotten himself banned since then, please let me know if it is too ASB-ish, so that way I can change or delete it.
Post 44
Post 44: Chapter 52

Chapter 52: August 1984 – January 1985

“If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will get you there”

– Lewis Carroll


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders overlooks a preserved field outside of Hong Linh, Vietnam, the site of a bloody 1965 battle between US-allied and Communist forces, during a business-oriented visit, 8/3/1984


…As the 1984 Olympics continue on in Athens – the first Olympic Games held in the Balkans since the first modern Games were held in Athens in 1896 – support for the Greek royal family is at its highest in decades… The King of Greece’s hard-fought battle for the games in 1977 boosted support for the monarchy among the Greek populace at a much-needed time, with Greece suffering from “pockets” of recession during much of the 1970s amidst Greece absorbing Cyprus. Under King Constantine II, Greece has strengthened its connections within the EEC, controversially “Americanizing” the value of the Greek drachma currency, but has allowed Greek businesses to expand into European markets and afford large-scale endeavor – including construction of the Athena Stadium built for these games...

The Atlantis, Greek-American newspaper, 8/9/1984

…With the conclusion of the 1984 Summer Olympics on August 12, white South Africans had once again been reminded of what they were missing out on by maintaining Apartheid, and the prospect of being in the Olympics once the policy was lifted only increased their support for the end of the system…

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016


…Former US Commerce Secretary Milton Friedman credits the Negative Income Tax Rebate law passed under President Sanders for the historic drop over the past several years [1], although others point to the Great Society programs of the Lyndon Johnson Presidency lowering the rate considerably during the 1960s as a major factor as well…

– The Wall Street Journal, 8/13/1984


– Gallup poll, 8/14/1984

As Podgorny’s and Yakovlev’s loosening of individual and market freedoms throughout 1982 and in mid-1984 had proven to only empower anti-Soviet activities, KGB leader Vitaly Fedorchuk failed miserably to lead a military coup against Yakovlev on August 17, 1984. While the military leaders had lost the respect of many of their soldiers, even fellow generals and admirals were at odds with one another, as, under Ustinov, competition for promotions had trumped collaboration and trust, which also factored into the Soviet military underperforming in Turkestan.


Amid international tension, Yakovlev also failed to return the nation to détente. Years later, in 1995, Yakovlev would claim that Denton was unwilling to meet with him until stability returned to the Kremlin, as Yakovlev was the USSR’s fourth leader in three years…

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

…Denton’s sole opponent in the primaries were two anti-war candidates, both of whom were former Republican U.S. Congressmen from California: Pete McCloskey (who served from 1967 to 1981) and David Bergland (who served from 1979 to 1983). While McCloskey ran to promote “Rockefeller Republican” ideas in his party, Bergland was recruited to run by Senator Ron Paul, who opted to run for a second term in the US Senate amid troublesome approval ratings coming in from the Lone Star state. Neither McCloskey nor Bergland won a single primary, with both of their strongest showings being in New Hampshire, where each won roughly 7% of the primary vote. …The Republican National Convention of 1984 lasted from August 20 to August 23. Denton received over 90% of the convention delegates, with the remaining 10% being split almost evenly between Bergland and McCloskey. As a small collection of anti-war protestors outside the convention floor failed to make a lasting impression on the delegates, Denton was re-nominated without major incident...

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985

“On Your Side” / “Control Your Destiny” / “Always On Duty” / "Presidenton"

– Slogans for the Denton/Alexander’84 campaign, first seen 8/22/1984

…By 1984, “food insecurity” had risen from a very minor issue in America to being a national crisis that was being completely ignored by the media due to more exciting events occurring both at home and overseas…

– Jim McGovern, 2009 interview

Called early, as one was not required until five years after last one, South Africa’s first general election to have universal adult suffrage was held on August 25, 1984. With incumbent Botha stepping down, there was no clear frontrunner. F. W. de Klerk of the National Party was tied to unpopular former backers of Apartheid; while Constand Viljoen of the Freedom Front was commended for his role in cooling tensions in the months leading up to the election, he nevertheless had limited support; Zach de Beer of the Democratic Party was uninspiring; Harry Schwarz of the Progressive Party suffered from anti-Semitism; and Helen Suzman of the Democratic Alliance suffered from sexism. Nelson Mandela of the ANC and Steve Biko of the BCM/Inkatha Freedom (People’s) Party, however, were seen as the top contenders.

As de Klerk, Viljoen, de Beer, Schwarz, and Suzman divided the white vote, the race essentially came down to just Biko and Mandela. Soon it became a debate between two generations of activists and two different pools of thought – two groups that nevertheless had both removed Apartheid from South Africa. Biko, at the age of 37, appealed to younger voters, but was considered too controversial and belligerent to many whites. Mandela, on the other hand, convinced enough whites to sign on to his candidacy via reconciliatory rhetoric, but was rejected by remaining radicals for that same rhetoric. The US favored Mandela to Biko, as most radical members of the ANC had shifted to the BCM during the preceding years. After the counting concluded, it was clear that Mandela had been elected South Africa’s first Black chief executive, winning 58% of the vote against Biko’s 30%, and the five other candidates making up the remaining 12%.

Walter Sisulu, a leader of the ANC who, like Mandela, had spent over 20 years in prison for political activism, became the nation’s new Deputy President soon afterward. The new rules gave no term limits to either the President or the Deputy President in order to encourage the incumbent to do a good job in order to win re-election. There was also a new law that allows the people to “recall” the President at any point in their term. Impeachment, requiring three-fourths of the members of parliament agrees to remove one from power, became another option as well.

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016

“Rather than impose government regulation and 'overtaxation' onto the economy and the American taxpayer, Denton has utilized the tax code to incentivize economic expansion. At lower tax rates, the economy has flourished, and collections into the US Treasury has actually increased for the first time since Colonel Sanders left the White House.”

– William F. Buckley Jr. on Meet the Press, 8/26/1984


…When the Cuban War began in 1961, the Federal Aviation Administration raised security measures over fears of Communist Cuban terrorists planting bombs on airplanes. Since then, long lines and multiple restrictions at airports have significantly lowered American air travel rates. Fearing a further decline in profits, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines and other carriers successfully lobbied for the lifting of discouraging security measurements, citing the lack of major incidents over the last twenty years, which saw American military forces go to war in several nations in Indochina and Africa. “We may just see a return to the golden age of flying,” says the CEO of American Airlines… Denton solved the debate between convenience and safety by increasing funding for airport security programs via the F.A.A. and deregulating the airline industry, allowing airports to hire more employees for checkpoints and desks in order to shorten lines. …Airports are also now purchasing more sophisticated X-ray machine so passenger may no longer have to unpack their belongings before boarding flights...

The Miami Herald, 8/30/1984


– Gallup poll, 9/1/1984

The members of the crowd sang Russian folk songs, recited poetry, and prayed.
The sky was iron gray and it was freezing cold as the bells of the St. Yuri Cathedral announced the victory of independence in the September 1 referendum. The Ukrainian population had voted everywhere for an independent state, officially confirming the decision of the parliament. In Lvov, the vote in favor was 92 percent. In some parts of the Lvov district, the vote for independence reached 99.5 percent. …Thousands of people were packed together in the interior of the church holding candles or kneeling on the stone floor. In the courtyard, thousands more stood in furs and greatcoats in the slowly falling snow. In the crowd were former human rights campaigners as well as the resisters of an earlier generation, partisans who had fought in the woods after the Second World War and, after years in Soviet labor camps, were only now beginning to speak in public about their previous role. [2]

– David Satter’s Age of Delirium: The Decline And Fall of The Soviet Union, Random House, 1996


…with the Soviet economy continuing to worsen, it seems the reformers in the Kremlin have completely lost the ability to influence or even oppress the populations of USSR’s republics…

The New York Post, 9/3/1984

“I would like to make it clear that it completely went against the wishes of Gorbachev and I. But at the time, even the military was losing faith in the system. There was nothing left for us to do in the moment of crisis but to yield to the clamoring masses.”

– Alexander Yakovlev, 1995 interview

SOVIET UNION DISSOLVES!: Provisional Government Assembled In Its Wake In Moscow!


[pic: ]
Above: a map of the new nations born out of the USSR

The New York Times, 9/15/1984

Legally speaking, there was nothing to stopping secession of the soviets of the Baltic and other regions after the September collapse because it is not possible to secede from an entity that no longer exists.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


Communist Flag Removed; New Interim Russia Leader Vlad Orlov Gets Nuclear Controls, Claims Will Begin Dismantling Arsenal “Soon”


[pic: ]
Moscow, former USSR – Alexander Yakovlev, the cerebral trailblazer of the USSR’s retreat from the Cold War and the catalyst for the democratic reforms that have inadvertently ended 67 years of Communist tyranny, told Russians tonight that he was stepping down from power after failing to preserve the union. “I hereby discontinue my activities at the post of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, declared the 60-year-old politician, the last leader of a totalitarian empire that was undone across the past six years as soviets declared independence and ethnic Russians across the union’s lands demanded an “end of the old ways” and the “start of newer, better ways” amid political turmoil in the Kremlin, the crumbling of the Eastern Bloc, and a military quagmire engulfing Central Asia.

“Yakovlev ending the mad militarization seen under Suslov and Ustinov and advancing the reform of Podgorny only hastened the inevitable pace of the Russian people capitulating their abusive and destructive government,” suggests political commentator William J. Buckley Jr. …

…party leader Vladimir Orlov will serve as the head of a provisional government for Russia proper, once called Russian SFSR, which will now likely be reconstituted into another political composition, though the exact nature of Russia’s new government remains to be seen…

The Washington Post, 9/16/1984

HOST: “You seein’ this? Apparently the Soviet Union’s just up and freakin’ collapsed!”

GUEST 1: “Whoa, this is unreal.”

HOST: “I know, that was my reaction, too. I mean, wow, it’s crazy.”

GUEST 2: “Eh, the signs were there. Been there for years in fact.”

GUEST 1: “What signs?”

GUEST 2: “The Sino-Soviet split, repeated failures to expand communism to other areas, and all those ethnic groups around Russia’s, like, edges, all demanding more autonomy, especially over the Aktar Disaster. Moscow’s handling of that fiasco really struck a nerve with the locals, it seems. You also had the Russian people being upset over the food shortages – breadlines, toilet paper running out – stuff like that was commonplace. Every day, I mean, heck – a whole bunch of ’em got slaughtered last year when the government ran out of cigarettes, for crying out loud! You remember that? It was inevitable!”

HOST: “Yeah, they also had all that political instability. Just think of how many leaders they’ve gone through recently. Suslov, he died in ’82. Then that bald guy, Podgorny, ran things until he died about a year later in ’83. Then Ustinov takes over but gets overthrown in ’84. Then finally they had that other bald guy, Orlov, then Yakovlev, with the glasses and the wild hair on the sides, and now he’s been replaced with, uh, Orlov again, as a placeholder of sorts, right?”

GUEST 1: “Well I for one am just glad it’s finally over – the Cold War’s kept everyone on edge for, let’s see, 40 years or so. About time it came to an end!”

– WRKO AM 680 casual talk radio, 9/17/1984 broadcast


– Gallup poll, 9/22/1984


– The New York Post, 9/23/1984


President Cites Yakovlev And Gorbachev’s “History-Making” Roles

The Washington Post, 9/28/1984


The San Francisco Chronicle, 9/30/1984

The collapse of the USSR put the “Mir” Space Station project on hold. Meanwhile, the British space agency UKSA began working with us on our Skylab Space Station. Soon after, talks of a possible international space station, or, alternately, a space program for the UN, began to make their rounds among the international community…

– NASA scientist Farouk El-Baz’s Up and Away: How The Cold War Competition Pushed Us Into The Stars, MacFarland & Company, 1994


In a series of statements issued after a two-day meeting at a government retreat, leaders of the Yugoslavia-style Central Asia confederation have declared a new “commonwealth of independent states” with the former soviet republics of Tajikistan, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Georgia. The declaration puts into place “a new coordinated body of defense” against any and all hostile elements and to create stability for a region still reeling from the collapse of the Soviet Union...

The New York Times, 10/4/1984

On October 5, the 1984 American League Championship Series saw the East Division Kentucky Colonels go up against the West Division San Diego Padres. The Colonels underperformed unexpectedly, and lost 4-to-3. That night, amidst the rowdy victory celebrations across the city of San Diego, an unidentified group of Padres fans – likely inebriated by both booze and euphoric elation – vandalized a local KFC outlet that featured a life-size statue of the Colonel himself. After damaging a window, the assailants removed the Colonel statue from its base and drove away with it. The left hand of the statue was found on a riverbank roughly 20 miles northeast of the city the next morning, alongside tire tracks, spilled beer cups, and a Padres ball cap. Most believe the statue was pushed into the river and floated away from the area during the night.…

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

“Somethin’s not right here. For the last fifteen years or so we’ve lost every game of the series by at least 5 runs, and we’ve only finished above .500 once since 1985 or so. I’m tellin’ ya, it’s like we’re f@#kin’ cursed or somethin’!”

– Tony Gwynn of the San Diego Padres, 1999

…all attempts to locate the allegedly cursed Colonel statue have failed, leading to Padres fans creating a wide multitude of theories and speculations concerning how “The Colonel Curse” can be lifted…

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders attending the 1984 Chicken Dinner Peace Summit in Jerusalem, 10/6/1984

The first of two Presidential debates was held on Tuesday, the 9th of October. Despite the collapse of the USSR being on everyone’s minds, moderator Barbara Walter firmly stuck to the previously-determined topics, all of which focused on domestic policy. While Denton repeatedly shifted focus to matters overseas, Gravel took the opportunity to express his progressive ideas and proposals.

The most noteworthy parts of the debate were as follows:

GRAVEL: “Does anyone here think that it is an accident that the wealthy are no longer paying their fair share? The only way they are going to is to reverse the tax policies of the past four years or to wipe out the income tax, because it is corrupting our society. If we need a tax, we need a retail sales tax.” [3]

DENTON: “We're in a ball game at a certain juncture, at this point, where we have to continue efforts in bipartisanship in looking at not only domestic policy but also foreign policy, be we conservatives or liberals, or Democrats or Republicans, lest we allow our nation to erode away into nothingness, like a rather paralyzed giant, one ripe to fall off the tree like an over-ripe plum, like what has happened to the USSR.” [4]

GRAVEL: “I’m a political maverick, and while I am forever grateful to the Democrats for their support in this race and in my past endeavors and accomplishments, let me remind the audience here that I worked with Republicans during my time in the Senate, and let me be clear that as President I would not be an enemy to the Republicans, because I care more about getting things done and doing what’s right than I do about any sense of blind partisan loyalty.”

DENTON: “With the woes of the ’78 crash behind us, we have been in a process of attaining a great degree of luxury, degrees of luxury which distract us from the dangers of vices. As we are consumed with such matters as cordless phones and eight-track tapes and the most popular automobiles and so forth, we are becoming quite sophisticated with respect to non-necessities. This has happened to nations in the past, and it is my belief that man can cope with adversity, and that his most difficult problem in the forthcoming years will be coping with prosperity.[4]

GRAVEL: “America is a representative government, not a direct democracy, but it can be if we give the American people the ability to introduce law proposals at the federal level. We need to implement a Constitutional Amendment that is far more important than the Balanced Budget Amendment set to go to the state legislators fairly soon. We need a Direct Democracy Amendment to make America’s voices heard through a two-step Power Process: the ability to introduce an initiative, and then the ability to vote on it, via a referendum, something the Europeans call a plebiscite. Some states have this sort of this, but that’s just it, it’s only at the state and local level. And most of the time, it is just a referendum a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ on content decided by legislators, not directly by the people themselves. If we are to truly be a democracy, then the people must be able to bypass the slow pace of congress and implement the laws and freedoms that they want implemented at the federal level.” [5]

DENTON: “I know what it is like to be in a hopeless situation. I know how it feels when it feels you’ve been dealt a bad hand. I respect Mike for his service in the Armed Forces, but while he was serving in Alaska’s state congress, I was being tortured and imprisoned during the final years of the Cuba War, and despite everything, I held onto my faith in my God and my belief in this country. And I still have faith in the opportunities that this country has to offer anybody willing to show up and work hard for them.”

Additionally, Gravel called for a change in voter registration so that a citizen who registers to vote is registered for life, and does not have to re-register when they move. The former Vice President also made the claim that Denton was “dangerously infringing on the rights of the people” by supporting legislation that attacked “entertainment mediums depicting sexual promiscuity,” spent millions of dollars in an effort to “enforce sexual restraint” onto the nation’s youth (a.k.a., the controversial “Chastity Bill”) [6], and raised the federal drinking age to 22, which Gravel confessed “has made even more young Americans register as Democrats.” Gravel was clearly the favorite of young people, both in the audience and nationally, for openly opposing Denton’s handling of youth crime and “the recreadrug epidemic,” causing Democratic US Senator Mario Biaggi of New York to finally openly endorse the incumbent Republican President on October 10.

Initial post-debate polls showed that Gravel had significantly narrowed the gap between the two men, but alas, Gravel still trailed the President by roughly five points.

– Theodore H. White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985


– Gallup poll, 10/10/1984


…The Department of Veterans’ Affairs will provide healthcare services and assistance in regards to education, insurance, and financial concerns, along with other veteran needs…

The Washington Post, 10/11/1984


The Chicago Tribune, 10/14/1984

ALEXANDER: “…And that’s why same-sex relationships should not be encouraged.”

MODERATOR (Sander Vanocur): “Congressman Jones, your rebuttal?”

JONES: “Thank you. Lamar, you have made many remarks in the past that are libertarian in nature [7]. But isn’t it anti-libertarian and a violation of one’s right to privacy to force fellow Americans to behave exactly how someone else might behind closed doors? And does it not contrast with your anti-regulations rhetoric to try to regulate what goes on in the privacy of one’s own home?”


MODERATOR: “Mr. Vice President, last year you led the call for organized voluntary prayer in public schools, an action defended by a recent bill passed by congress after the Supreme Court declined to hear a case against it. Do you think this bill is an infringement on others who do not wish religion to enter school any more than others do not wish evolution and science be mentioned in church?”

ALEXANDER: “No, because ensuring the First Amendment right to free speech for someone is not the same as removing said right from someone else. The bill promotes keeping God in the public sphere, but it does not demand allegiance to any specific God, far from it. It protects freedom of religion and that’s that.”


JONES: “I agree with Lamar over here that prayer is important, but I think it is more important that our children are taught to do more than to pray at church and provide lip service. They should feel compelled to do good deeds outside of church, in their communities, to do more than to just do what we tell them to do.”


JONES: “We need to ensure every child in this country has access to learn. Greater access to books, through bookmobiles, better funding for public libraries and school libraries, and the establishing of more bookstores.”

ALEXANDER: “And how are you possibly going to regulate such a thing?”


ALEXANDER: “In fact, Denton and I are working on a possible Constitutional Amendment that would ban the desecration of the American flag. That’s the destruction of the flag, mainly, not patriotically wearing the flag – or at least not wearing it in a respectful manner, that is.”

JONES: “And how are you possibly going to regulate such a thing?”


JONES: “I applaud the efforts of several states that are passing state universal health care laws and forming pacts together so someone injured in one state will not have to worry about their out-of-state insurance. We need to expand this idea to all fifty states.”

MODERATOR: “Mr. Vice President, I see you raised your hand, you wish to rebuttal?”

ALEXANDER: “Yes. I have the responsibility to reveal to this audience that this public option, this ‘all-inclusive’ idea would cost American voters large tax hikes that they would never agree to, as a government cannot possibly afford such a massive medical payments coverage program without substantially raising taxes overall. I support additional church-based Health Care Networks instead [7]. Additionally, we should also really crack down on medical insurance fraud and allow certain groups such as religious groups and tribal Indians to opt out of any federal healthcare laws, period.”


ALEXANDER: “We should allow workers to manage their own retirement funds, and allow for individual security accounts [7].”


ALEXANDER: “Congressman Jones, we won’t have to regulate recreadrug use once – I mean if – if we ban recreadrug use altogether.”


ALEXANDER: “On this, I actually agree with Congressman Jones – we should expand health insurance programs for children, but to expand healthcare overall is too much. We should instead continue doing what Denton and I and the rest of the good people in the White House today are doing – cutting taxes and spending to stimulate market growth.”


JONES: “Let me finally just say this – we need to have mutual respect for each other, for our fellow Americans, and for people in all other countries because the American government never goes to war with the people, but with the other governments. This is important to remember, because under a Gravel Administration, Gravel will fight for democracy to flourish around the world – and the mighty pen will be his sword.”

– Transcript snippets of the Alexander-Jones debate, the US’s first-ever (televised) Vice Presidential debate, Tuesday 10/16/1984


[pic: ]

– In a demonstration of placing personal friendship above partisan politics, former US President Colonel Sanders, a “compassionate conservative” Republican, campaigns for his longtime friend and political ally, US Senator Lawrence Wetherby, a moderate Democrat; here, he meets with locals at an antique store in Paducah, KY to stump for Wetherby’s re-election bid (but, noticeably, without ever truly criticizing Wetherby’s GOP opponent, or even mentioning him unless The Colonel is directly asked about him), 10/17/1984


As USSR Deflates, East Berlin's Communist Regime Bows To International Pressure And Years Of Internal Unrest!

…while West Germany’s economy is very prosperous, the same could not be said for the thousands trapped behind the Berlin Wall, held hostage by their government until now… It has been suggested that, under the right leadership, Germany could even capitalize on this stunning event’s momentum to become a united country once again, though its leaders would likely try to stay away from inviting the economic recession and turmoil to which Russia has succumbed…

– The Washington Post, 10/20/1984

“The people of West Germany have stood up to tyranny despite not having any weapons, let alone any nuclear weapons. If anything, the true weapon they wielded was their bravery and their resolve to stand firm and oppose their oppressors.”

– Mike Gravel, 10/21/1984 stump speech

The second Presidential debate was held on Tuesday, the 21st of October, and moderated by Edwin Newman, with Georgie Anne Geyer, Morton Kondracke and Marvin Kalb as panelists.

Gravel crumbled in this second debate, as it focused entirely on foreign policy. Denton claimed repeatedly that Gravel had poor judgement when it came to “what’s necessary to protect and defend this nation.” To drive home the point that Gravel was at times at odds with even pro-détente policies, Denton brought up the rhetoric of Gravel’s 1968 presidential run, in which the then-US Congressman asserted in a stump speech that the historic US-Soviet arms reduction treaty of 1968 was “an organizing of the rules of war and death,” [8] despite many analysts recently praising it as a contributing factor in the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Gravel countered with “It is immoral and arrogant to tell others how to run their country. Already, this government is trying to undermine the efforts of Gorbachev and Yakovlev to get the Russian people out of poverty but opposing the Interim Russian Government’s Ambassador at the UN. We shouldn’t ever kick a country when it’s down. …It’s their country, not ours.” He later swore that “America will have no further enemies if we treat the Russians – if we treat everyone, in fact – if even treat them as equals, as fellow human beings.” [9]

Later on, Gravel ended an anti-war rant by turning to President Denton and asking him, “Who are you going to tell us to be afraid of now, now that the Soviet Union is gone?” Denton ignored the question as the audience let out a combination of cheers and jeers. While praised years later, the statement at the time was considered petty and unprofessional, as it seemed Gravel was accusing the President of fearmongering at a time when his approval ratings were at an all-time high.

In his defense, Gravel did have his moments once the panelists brought up the situations in Libya and Iran, along with American support for anti-socialist groups in Nicaragua. “How do these wars benefit the U.S. if it leads to our boys in uniform coming back in caskets? …If I was President, I would make it illegal for American troops to occupy any foreign power without congressional support and just cause, no matter how hostile.”

In the end, though, Denton successfully presented himself as a wise and strong leader on the world stage, almost taking personal credit for the end of the Cold War – but stopping himself short by crediting “America’s armed forces and diplomats” for doing so – and presented Gravel as an out-of-touch peacenik with ideas that had not been updated in 16 years.

Days later, in the response to William F. Buckley’s claims that a Gravel Presidency would prove to be “an incompetent mess,” Gravel’84 supporter Shirley MacLaine infamously told a reporter and TV cameraman “I’d rather follow an incompetent hero than a competent villain,” a gaffe that was soon picked up by the Denton campaign, and not exactly to Gravel’s advantage.

– Theodore H. White’s The Making of the President: 1984, Atheneum Publishers, 1985


– Gallup poll, 10/22/1984

When Indian President Indira Gandhi was assassinated on October 31, 1984 by her own Sikh security guards to avenge the Amritsar Siege that killed dozens of Sikhs several months earlier, President Denton offered his condolences but kept his mind on his re-election bid. Former President Mondale also voiced his sympathies but otherwise remained focused on his Presidential library’s recent renovations. Former President Colonel Sanders, however, was saddened by the loss of life, while privately (and, years later, quite controversially), angrily fumed “She shouldn’t have brought this upon herself, but she did – the chickens came home to roost for her – and now, if I was a gamblin’ man, I’d bet things will only get worse for them Sikh folks.” Indeed, the Indian government responded to the assassination with a wave of anti-Sikh persecution in India, affecting thousands.

Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq considered taking the moment of chaos to “liberate” Jammu and Kashmir from India as Pakistan’s ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence) believed that the country was in enough disarray to be taken. India’s new President, Rajiv Gandhi, suspected as much, and mobilized Army forces to indicate that an invasion would be met with a swift counter-invasion. Not wanting a repeat of the 1971 India-Pakistan War, in which Pakistan failed to overcome India’s superior firepower, Zia ul-Haq put the “liberation plans” for Kashmir on hold. Metaphorically-speaking, he put the option down, but did not remove it from the table.

Concurrently, seeing the UN as being partially at fault for negotiating a stalemate in 1965 that ultimately failed to resolve the conflict in Kashmir, and rightfully believing that Zia ul-Haq was “just buckin’ to try an’ pull something now,” Colonel Sanders contacted the multinational Chicken Dinner Jerusalem Summit Planning Organization, and the heads of state of several relevant Middle Eastern nations. The contacts concerned the feasibility of both India and Pakistan officials being invited to the 1985 Summit in order to encourage a peaceful solution to the recurring conflicts over Kashmir. The suggestion was encouraged by some international leaders, but initially received lukewarm responses from most Indian, Pakistani, and Middle Eastern leaders...

– David Tal’s US Strategic Arms Policy in the Cold War: Negotiation & Confrontation, Routledge, 2017


The Washington Times, 10/31/1984


…The U.S. Ambassador to Nicaragua Bert Nettles agrees with international observer groups such as the E.E.C. and several religious organizations that claim the yesterday’s Presidential Election in Nicaragua was a “free and fair” execution of the democratic process... …With the collapse of the USSR, some pundits believed that incumbent President Daniel Ortega of the socialist Sandinista National Liberation Front would lose to the Democratic Conservative party’s nominee, Clemente Guido Chavez. Instead, Ortega won the election with 61.7% of the vote…

– The Washington Post, 11/5/1984


…It seems yesterday’s re-election of a socialist President in the diminutive nation of Nicaragua has had minimal to no effect on the numbers…

– Gallup poll, 11/5/1984

“As more troops return home from Iran, reuniting American heroes with their families and loved ones, President Denton’s approval ratings continue to rise.”

– CBS News, 11/6/1984

“F@#k. I am going to lose badly tonight, aren’t I?”

– Mike Gravel, to campaign worker Warren Beatty, upon seeing the latest Presidential poll numbers, 11/6/1984


[pic: ]
…California, Wisconsin, Maine, Minnesota, Rhode Island, Delaware, Illinois, and New York all had a margin of victory of less than 5%... The electorally bulky state of California was too narrow to determine until 7:13 AM the next day – roughly eight hours after Denton surpassed the 270 threshold – with Denton winning it by a margin of 1.15%...



[pic: ]
– Mike Gravel on Election Night '84

United States Senate election results, 1984

Date: November 6, 1984
Seats: 35 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Howard Baker (R-TN)
Senate minority leader: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Seats before election: 59 (R), 40 (D), 1 (I)
Seats after election: 58 (R), 41 (D), 1 (I)
Seat change: R v 1, D ^ 1, I - 1

Full List:
Alabama: Albert Lee Smith Jr. (R) over Howell Heflin (D); incumbent John Sparkman (D) retired
Alabama (special): incumbent appointee William Jackson “Jack” Edwards (R) over Richard Shelby (D)
Alaska: incumbent Hazel P. Heath (R) over Steve Cowper (D) and William D. “Bill” Overstreet (Independent)
Arkansas: incumbent Jim Guy Tucker (D) over Ed Bethune (R)
Colorado: incumbent William L. Armstrong (R) over Nancy E. Dick (D)
Delaware: Joe Biden (D) over incumbent J. Caleb Boggs (R)
Georgia: incumbent Sam Nunn (D) over Jon M. Hicks (R)
Idaho: incumbent George V. Hansen (R) over Peter M. Busch (D)
Idaho (special): incumbent appointee Bethine Clark Church (D) over Donald Billings (R)
Illinois: Paul Simon (D) over Paul Findley (R); incumbent Charles Percy (R) retired
Iowa: incumbent Roger Jespen (R) over Tom Harkin (D)
Kansas: incumbent Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R) over James R. Maher (D)
Kentucky: incumbent Lawrence W. Wetherby (D) over Harold Dallas “Hal” Rogers (R)
Louisiana: Clyde Cecil Holloway (R) over Jerry Huckaby (D); incumbent Jack P. F. Gremillion Sr. (D) retired to unsuccessfully run for President
Maine: Peter Kyros (D) over incumbent William Cohen (R)
Massachusetts: incumbent Ed Brooke (R) over James Shannon (D)
Michigan: Jack R. Lousma (R) over Donald J. Albosta (D); incumbent Robert Griffin (R) retired
Minnesota: incumbent appointee Mark Dayton (D) over Tom Hagedorn (R)
Mississippi: incumbent James H. Meredith (R) over Maurice Dantin (D)
Montana: incumbent Larry Williams (R) over John Driscoll (D)
Nebraska: incumbent Orrin Hatch (R) over J. James Exon (D)
New Hampshire: Endicott Peabody (D) over incumbent Hugh Gregg (R)
New Jersey: incumbent Mary V. Mochary (R) over Alexander J. Menza (D)
New Mexico: incumbent Roberto Mondragon (D) over Pete Domenici (R)
North Carolina: incumbent Terry Sanford (D) over Jesse Helms (R)
Oklahoma: incumbent Bud Wilkinson (R) over David Boren (D)
Oregon: incumbent Mark Hatfield (R) over Mary Wendy Roberts (D)
Rhode Island: incumbent Claiborne Pell (D) over Barbara Leonard (R)
South Carolina: incumbent Strom Thurmond (R) over Melvin Purvis Jr. (D)
South Dakota: incumbent Larry Pressler (R) over George V. Cunningham (D)
Tennessee: incumbent Howard Baker (R) over Jane Eskind (D) and Ed McAteer (Salvation)
Texas: incumbent Ron Paul (R) over Sam Johnson (D) and Silvestre “Silver” Reyes (La Raza Unida)
Virginia: incumbent Richard Dudley Obenshain (R) over Edythe C. Harrison (D)
West Virginia: John Raese (R) over Jay Rockefeller (D); incumbent Jennings Randolph (D) retired
Wyoming: incumbent Gale W. McGee (D) over Gordon H. Barrows (R)


Biden decided to run for the US Senate again because he was aware that he was not relevant on the national level even among Democratic politicians; according to his son Hunter, “Even some of his fellow Governors couldn’t remember who he was.” Biden considered a run for the Senate, a body closer to more nationwide issues, would be an easier undertaking than facing off against the candidates running in the crowded Democratic primaries. Additionally, incumbent Senator J. Caleb Boggs was now 75, and considered vulnerable due to recent health scares and his record of missed votes. Finally, Biden’s wife, Neilia Hunter, did not think their family was “ready” for the White House. With five children – Beau, b. 1969; Hunter, b. 1970; Naomi, b. 1971; Catherine, b. 1973; and Mary, b. 1975 – and their youngest suffering from numerous health issues, Neilia believed that a run for the Senate would place considerably less pressure and stress on the family than would a Presidential run “at that point in time,” according to Hunter Biden, “but if things got better, Ma thought, then Dad could run ’88 or ’92.”


United States House of Representatives results, 1984

Date: November 6, 1984
Seats: All 435
Seats needed for majority: 218
New House majority leader: Robert H. Michel (R-IL)
New House minority leader: Hale Boggs (D-LA)
Last election: 248 (R), 187 (D)
Seats won: 254 (R), 181 (D)
Seat change: R ^ 6, D v 6


Another notable Democratic loss in the South was that of Victoria Gray Adams, Democratic Representative from Mississippi since 1977. The African-American female politician called for people to “vote, vote, vote [their] way out of poverty,” and as such was an early supporter of Mike Gravel and his “direct democracy” National Initiative proposal. She lost her seat during the Denton Wave of ’84 by a four-percent margin...


In Texas, former state representative Democrat Sarah Weddington lost her bid for a third term. A member of the US Congress since 1981, Weddington was an openly progressive and feminist mother of two who was both a fierce critic of President Denton in a pro-Denton state, and an early advocate of legalizing abortion in all fifty states despite hailing from a strongly anti-abortion state. Her loss was considered tragic due to her being labeled a rising star in the progressive wing of the party, with there even being rumors of her planning to run for Governor in 1986; those plans, if even true, were dashed in light of her defeat. Weddington went on to became a more outspoken advocate for legalizing abortion in all 50 states in the late 1980s and early 1990s culminating in...

– Gary C. Jacobson’s The Power and the Politics of Congressional Elections, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015

United States Governor election results, 1984

Date: November 6, 1984
Number of state gubernatorial elections held: 12
Seats before: 28 (D), 20 (R), 1 (P), 1 (I)
Seats after: 26 (D), 22 (R), 1 (P), 1 (I)
Seat change: D v 2, R ^ 2, I - 1, P - 1

Full list:
Arkansas: incumbent Orval Faubus (D) over Elwood A. “Woody” Freeman (R)
Delaware: Michael Castle (R) over William J. Quillen (D); incumbent Joseph Biden (D) was term-limited
Indiana: incumbent Dan Quayle (R) over Richard Gordon Hatcher (D)
Missouri: Betty Cooper Hearnes (D) over Gene McNary (R) and Ken Rothman (Independent); incumbent Bill Bradley (D) was term-limited
Montana: Dorothy Bradley (D) over Pat M. Goodover (R) and incumbent Martin J. “Red” Beckman (Independent after losing re-nomination to Bradley)
New Hampshire: Calvin Warburton (“Dove” R) over Chris Spirou (D); incumbent Walter Rutherford Peterson Jr. (“Hawk” R) lost re-nomination
North Carolina: Elizabeth Gardner (R) over Rufus L. Edmisten (D); incumbent Jim Hunt (D) was term-limited
North Dakota: incumbent Ruth Meiers (D) over Anna Bourgois (R)
Utah: Wayne Owens (D) over incumbent Vernon Bradford Romney (R)
Vermont: incumbent Richard A. Snelling (R) over Madeleine M. Kunin (D), and Peter Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
Washington: incumbent Daniel J. Evans (R) over Booth Gardner (D)
West Virginia: Cecil Underwood (R) over Clyde M. See Jr. (D); incumbent Jay Rockefeller (D) retired



…The humanitarian former MLB right fielder for the Pittsburgh Pirates served as Goodwill Ambassador under Mondale, and was the Chairman of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports from 1981 to 1983… Clemente, running on the Popular Democratic ticket (the Commonwealth’s version of the Democratic Party), defeated incumbent Carlos Romero (NP), who was running for a second term, by a five-percent margin…

The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 11/6/1984

…As such, instead of forming a Presidential ticket, the Green Party worked to secure seats on city councils and state legislatures, elected either directly as Green nominees or with party endorsement/fusion tickets, such as in NYC, where, for example, two Green nominees became city aldermen...


Bernhard “Bernie” Goetz
(b. 11/7/1947 in Queens, NYC, NY)… [snip] …Goetz was raised in upstate New York, where his father ran a dairy farm and a bookbinding business. At the age of twelve, Goetz was sent to Switzerland for boarding school, and returned to the United States in 1965 for college, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering and another in nuclear engineering from NYU. By this time, his family had moved to Florida, and so Goetz began working at his father’s new residential development business there in 1969. In November 1984, Goetz moved to Denver, Colorado for “a change of scenery,” soon after the “bitter” conclusion of a romantic relationship. According to some historians, Goetz also moved to Colorado to “get away from the high number of Hispanics in Florida and the higher number of non-whites in New York City.” Goetz used his savings to invest in a local hardware store; he took over the business and made it his own “Bernie’s Bolts And Stuff” by mid-1987, and soon after began to use business connections and a loan borrowed from his father to expand into residential housing in Denver…



Premiered: December 1, 1984
Genre(s): war-action-drama
Directed by: Edward Zwick
Written by: Michael Herr, Bo Gritz, Gustav Hasford

Robert Vaughn as William Westmoreland
Steve McQueen as Creighton Abrams
Dale Alan Dye Jr. as George Scratchley Brown
Leonard Nimoy as Che Guevara
Nestor Serrano as Camilo Cienfuegos
James Woods as Fred Wayand
Caitlyn Jenner (billed at the time as Caitlyn Jenner) as Bruce Palmer Jr.
Don Patrick Harvey as Charles Whitmore
See Full List Here

The key events of the Cuba War and the Indochinese Wars of the 1960s are told from the eyes of the pivotal American military personnel involved in them.

While some critics called the film “blatant propaganda,” most celebrated its portrayal of both the drama of military leaders with opposing views and ideas and the intensity of the on-the-ground battles. Premiering at a time when the US was exiting foreign disputes in Libya and Iran, the film was a fairly decent hit with audiences. The film’s profits almost doubled its budget, and it quickly gained a large cult following.

Trivia Facts:
1) This was McQueen’s final film role, succumbing to pleural mesothelioma roughly two months before the film’s release. [10]
2) This was the film many claim launched the acting career of Caitlyn Jenner, billed at the time as Bruce Jenner; the thespian would act in several major films in the 1980s and 1990s. Jenner is the only person ever to win both an Oscar for Best Actor and an Oscar for Best Actress... _Overseers


…the state lawmakers involved in new official state investigations include state representative Robert J. Fisher (R), accused of accepting a bribe to oppose a state bill in 1980; state representative Emmitt Ford (D), accused of some undisclosed form of fraud; and state representative Tommy Burentt (D), accussed of tax evasion…

The Chattanooga Times Free Press, 12/3/1984


…Senate leader Howard Baker and House Speaker Michel lead a party looking forward to another two years of political domination in D.C., with President Denton meeting with prominent House and Senate members in recent weeks to discuss legislation proposals for the 99th (1985-1987) congress…

– The Washington Post, 12/10/1984

Janice R. Fine was eight years old when the Ms. Arkansas Scandal broke out. She thought back to how her parents reacted to the revelations, causing her mind to think back to how her mother, before she lost her to cancer, and to her father, before he lost himself after losing the love of his life to cancer. Returning to her tiny workspace, Janice sank into her chair, discouraged by what felt like her ten-millionth phone call of the day. Another attempt to confront an alleged pervert through court procedural justice had ended in failure, the judge ruling the evidence was too “she said-he said” in nature. She thought of going outside despite the cold to light a cig, or sneaking in a sip of scotch before the lunch break. Any little thing to distract her from the fearful buzzing voice in the back of her mind suggesting to her that the naysayers were right, that she truly was wasting her time here in D.C.

Born in mid-November 1961, Janice, the 23-year-old daughter of a G. I. Bill-using WWII veteran, who was originally from Long Island, but later based in Brooklyn, had graduated from law school just the year before. [snip] Janice got her start working against redlining in the late 1970s and early 1980s, organizing and mobilizing black-majority areas in NYC. She beamed with pride over her contributions to the cause when Governor Cuomo passed a law making it so when banks merge, they have to disclose all information, allowing studiers to access data to prove violations. From this, she shifted back to more feminist-based causes, landing a job at a D.C. law firm.

Janice also dabbled lightly in politics from time to time. However, apart from being a face in the crowd at several rallies against Governor-turned-Senator Mario Biaggi and several other rallies for NYC Mayor Carol Bellamy, she had never been a prominent player.

Then, on that fateful December morning, a woman entered the law firm requesting she become a client. The woman had what Janice would call “some major beef” with a high-ranking member of the Denton White House. Unfortunately, nobody believed the woman’s claims but Janice. Now, she could have let the buzzing voice in the back of her head tell her to not pursue the claims, to assume the woman was an attention-seeking liar. But how would that make her any better than the enablers of the perverts Janice was just bucking to take down?

Janice’s decision to run after the woman, get her phone number, and promise her that she would look into the matter was in of itself a simple task, but, in larger context, it was the spark that began one of the biggest and most defining events of the 1980s.

– Andrew Boyd and D. O. Mitchell’s Glorious Chaos: A Guide for The Revolutionary in You, Sparkstarters Publications, 2013

DMITRIY USTINOV IS DEAD; Ousted Ani-Reform USSR Leader Was 76

…reportedly having contracted pneumonia shortly after being overthrown earlier this year, he was granted emergency surgery to correct an aneurysm in his aortic valve weeks ago, only for him to die from cardiac arrest. At the time of his surgery, his liver and kidney were reportedly deteriorating…

The New York Times, 12/24/1984

The perceived victory of United Turkestan in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet stranglehold on them gave rise to similar calls for independence in other, even less populous ethnic regions within Russia proper. Bashkortostan, a region just to the northwest of Kazakhstan, had been the victim of Red Tanks plowing through on their way to Turkestan; in December 1984, pro-independence rallies began to sprout up in earnest. This contrasted with the rhetoric that came from the Buddhist region of Kalmykia, which favored peaceful measures to obtain further autonomy if not full independence. Calls for North Ossetia to become united with Georgia’s South Ossetia region began to be heard around this time as well. Before the year was out, the loudest people of the regions of Tuva, Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, and Karelia were mirroring “the voices of Turkestan.”

At the time, it looked as if all of these efforts could feasibly succeed as “Russia proper” was in complete shambles, still attempting to fix themselves and re-establish a stable and popular government. However, the secession efforts had many obstacles in their ways. First off, many of these regions had low populations, low military weaponry or military experience, little diplomatic relations or even immediate recognition, and poor geographic locations. Most importantly, though, was the lack of majority support in many of these regions, where a large chunk of the populations were of Russian descent or spoke the Russian language. Not only were nearly all of these ethnic/linguistically Russian citizens opposed to the further splintering of the former USSR, but it seems that even large slices of the respective “local” ethnic groups of each region were opposed to secession, creating internal debates over how to proceed as the new year – and the new era of Russian history – began…

– Ivan Ivanovich Zassoursky’s After 1984: The Lands and Would-Be Lands of The Post-Soviet Era, 1985-2005, Milton Park Publishers, 2016

Deng Xiaoping was shocked, but not saddened, by the collapse of the Soviet Union. He was convinced in the end that the USSR fell because they refused to open up their markets to the US and Western Europe. Concurrently, the Chinese Communist Party members had mixed emotions overall as national leaders weighed the positive and negative consequences of their geopolitical frenemy. On the one hand, some such as Bo Yibo saw it as a warning of what could happen in China if they did not reform; Russia’s downfall also meant that China would now be the number-one go-to nation for aspiring communist and socialist groups and individuals, which had good and bad aspects on its own. On the other hand, the Chinese military believed the collapse would encourage anti-communist elements within China to rebel, seeing as it turned out rather well for the people of Central Asia.

Speaking of which, this latter concern was likely the reason behind Xiaoping increasing efforts to “conform” the native people of Xinjiang into Red China society. Now that China was to be dealing with a new neighbor in the form of United Turkestan, the need to make Red China’s westernmost province “fully” Han Chinese became an even greater “high-ranking priority.”

– Thomas DuBois’ Chinese Modern History: A Look At The People And Their Narratives, 2019


The Knoxville News Sentinel, 1/14/1985

This ceremony takes place for each new presidential term, even if the president is continuing in office for a second term. Since 1937, it has taken place at noon EST on January 20, the first day of the new term, some 72 to 78 days after the presidential election, except for those occasions when January 20 falls on a Sunday. In those years, the presidential oath of office is administered on that day in a private ceremony and then again in a public ceremony the next day, on Monday, January 21. [11]


“The next four years are going to be another four years stability, high morality, community camaraderie, peace, and prosperity, both at home and abroad, only to an even greater and more glorious extent. Thank you, and God bless you all!”

– President Denton’s Second Inaugural Address, 1/21/1985


Secretary of State: incumbent Secretary of State and former Governor Donald Edgar “Buz” Lukens (R-OH)
Secretary of the Treasury: incumbent Secretary of the Treasury and former Undersecretary of the Treasury Thelma Stovall (R-KY)
Undersecretary of the Treasury: incumbent Undersecretary of the Treasury and former C.O.O. of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board Preston Martin (R-DC)
Secretary of Defense: incumbent Secretary of Defense and former Governor William Westmoreland (R-SC)
Attorney General: incumbent Attorney General Providence Mayor Vincent Albert “Buddy” Cianci Jr. (R-RI)
Postmaster General: incumbent Postmaster General William F. Bolger (D-WI)
Secretary of the Interior: actor, preservation activist, conservation philanthropist and former President of the Screen Actors Guild Charlton Heston (R-CA) (incumbent Jay Hammond retired)
Secretary of Agriculture: former director of the US Agriculture Department’s Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Committee and incumbent Undersecretary of Agriculture Harold Guy Hunt (R-AL) (incumbent Richard Roudebush retired)
Secretary of Commerce: incumbent Secretary of Commerce Alfred Hayes Jr. (I-NY)
Secretary of Labor: US Representative William David Ford (D-MI) (incumbent Whitney Young retired)
Secretary of Health and Welfare: US Representative Virginia Dodd Smith (R-NE) (incumbent Robert John Cornell retired)
Secretary of Education: head of the United Negro College Fund and former Governor Arthur Allen Fletcher (R-WA) (incumbent William S. Broomfield retired)
Secretary of Transportation: incumbent Secretary of Transportation James D. Martin (R-AL)
Secretary of Veterans’ Affairs: actor, songwriter, rancher, former US Ambassador to Morocco, guest lecturer at The Citadel and West Point, and Veterans’ Rights activist First Lieutenant Audie Leon Murphy (R-TX) (position created in late 1984)

Cabinet-Level Positions:
Director of Central Intelligence (the CIA): incumbent Director George H. W. Bush (R-TX)
Director of the Federal Bureau of Information (FBI): incumbent Director William Mark Felt Sr. (D-ID)
US Trade Representative (TR): financial author, former US Representative, conservative advocate, and legal counselor for the US Department of the Treasury Robert E. Bauman (R-MD) (incumbent Hugh Gallen retired)
Administrator of the Small Business Administration (SBA): incumbent Administrator Thomas Beverley Evans Jr. (R-DE)
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): incumbent EPA Administrator, former NRSA Administrator, and former Secretary of Transportation Ralph Nader (I-CT)
Administrator of the Overwhelming Disaster Emergency Response Coordination Agency (ODERCA): incumbent Administrator Rudolf Anderson Jr. (R-SC)

The President’s Executive Office:
White House Chief of Staff: former state senator and outgoing Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget Richard E. Schermerhorn (R-NY) (incumbent Cliff White retired)
White House Counsel: political organizer Jesse Helms (R-NC)
Counselor to the President: former RNC Chairperson Mary Louise Smith (R-IA)
Chief Domestic Policy Advisor: professor of surgery at the Boston University School of Medicine and political activist Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson (R-MA)
Chief Economic Policy Advisor: banker and former Undersecretary of the Treasury for International Affairs Paul Adolph Volcker Jr. (D-NJ)
Chief Foreign Policy Advisor: retired US Army Colonel and former advisor to California Governor Ronald Reagan Louis O. Giuffrida (R-CA)
Chief National Security Advisor: retired US Air Force General and former US Air Force Chief of Staff Curtis Emerson LeMay (R-OH)
Director of the Office of Management and Budget: former Governor Crawford Fairbanks Parker (R-IN)
White House Communications Director: political activist and GOP nominee for a US Congressional seat in 1978 and 1980 Newton Gingrich (R-GA)
White House Press Secretary: journalist and syndicated columnist for The Wall Street Journal Peggy Noonan (R-NY) (incumbent Don Lambro retired)

Other Notable Members:
Solicitor General (representative of the Federal Government before the US Supreme Court): Dean of the J. Reuben Clark Law School Rex Edwin Lee (R-UT)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: US Army Major General John Kirk Singlaub (R-CA)
Federal Reserve Chairman: academic heterodox economist and political theorist Murray Newton Rothbard (R-NY)
NASA Director: community advocate, academic trustee and consultant, former Chairman of Caltech’s Board of Trustees, head of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, former First Lady of Pennsylvania and former Second Lady of the United States Mary Lowe Scranton (R-PA); incumbent Harold Brown retired)

Notable US Ambassadors (in alphabetical order):
To Austria: outgoing Ambassador to Indonesia and former Ambassador to Ghana Shirley Temple Black (R-CA)
To China: incumbent Ambassador Caspar Willard Weinberger (R-CA)
To France: incumbent Ambassador Joan Margaret Clark (I-NJ)
To Ireland: incumbent Ambassador John L. Saltonstall Jr. (R-MA)
To Mexico: incumbent Ambassador Benjamin “Boxcar Ben” Fernandez (R-CA)
To Russia: former Ambassador to Turkey Robert Strausz-Hupé (R-DC)
To South Africa: political science professor Merwin Crawford Young (I-WI)
To the UK: incumbent Ambassador J. Herbert Burke (R-FL)
To the UN: incumbent Ambassador Rozanne Lejeanne Ridgway (R-MN)



…with the support of Governor Charles Thone and both chambers of the state legislature, the amendment very well could become a part of the US Constitution “by the end of the decade,” says Senator Orrin Hatch (R-NE)…

The New York Times, 1/28/1985

“For a moment, America was on top of the world. Then the s#*t hit the fan.”

– Professor Alan Ira Abramowitz, political scientist and author, class lecture at Stanford University, early 2002

[1] Based on this article: Also, for comparison’s sake to OTL, the poverty rate in the US was at its lowest in 1973 at 11.1% according to
[2] All of these italicized bits are pulled directly from here:
[3] Based on what he said at a debate in 2007 IOTL:
[4] Italicized bits are OTL quotes found here:
[5] Based on what he discusses here:
[6] OTL!:
[7] Source:
[8] See late June 1968 entry in this TL.
[9] Based on a line from here:
[10] Died four years later than in OTL due to Admiral Zumwalt’s 1976 campaign raising awareness of asbestos exposure, prompting McQueen to get an early medical checkup. This, and some butterflies, prolongs his death by a few more years, long enough to star in just a few more films.
[11] Entire passage pulled from here:

(also posted a day earlier due tomorrow being busy for me)

@Frank_Hart – whoops, that’s a typo: that should say Makinsk, a town in north-central Kazakhstan, a ways north of the capital!
Post 45
Post 45: Chapter 53

Chapter 53: February 1985 – December 1985

“There’s more going around in the dark than Santa Clause, and hanky-panky is its name!”

– Henry Howell

Moderator ROGER MUDD: Well, gentlemen, today’s question is what the future holds for the Democratic Party. How should the party proceed in the wake of Gravel’s defeat?

Governor PAUL SOGLIN: I’d like to start by saying that while Gravel’s candidacy flopped, his ideas did not. George, you can point to the statistics Gallup published last month showing a majority of Americans support a National Initiative and Referendum Amendment.

Analyst GEORGE GALLUP JR.: That I can, so you’re saying “right message, wrong messenger?”

SOGLIN: Oh, no, let me be clear – Gravel lost because the Soviet Union collapsed.

Prof. WILLIAM SCHNEIDER: No, Gravel’s campaign was too far to the left to win over moderates and undecided voters.

GALLUP: Actually, our research favors the Governor’s view – most undecided voters voted based on foreign policy issues, not domestic ones, and Gravel’s strength was in domestic issues.

MUDD: Then perhaps the Democrats may want to consider focusing on foreign affairs going forward.

SOGLIN: I disagree. As the situation at home worsens, and believe me, under Denton, it will, more people are going to return their focus to domestic affairs, and the Democrats can solve those kind of problems by sticking to Gravel’s policies.

MUDD: Do you think that strategy will win them the White House in ’88, or at least win more congressional seats in ’86?

SOGLIN: Yes, especially if we go even farther with Gravel’s vision.

SCHNEIDER: What, and alienate more Denton voters? At this point, it’d make more sense for the Democrats to veer back to the center!

SOGLIN: What makes sense and what will work are not always the same thing!

– Meet the Press, 2/1/1985 discussion [1]


…Iraqi president Tahir Yahya, 68, with the support of the Shah of Iran and former President of Iraq Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, seeks to continue the nation’s stability among its ethnicities, which has defined relations within Iraq since the signing of the original 1970 Peace Accord…

The Globe and Mail, 2/5/1985

…The President of Colombia is seeking to dismantle his nation’s large illicit cocaine-trafficking industry plaguing the cities and countryside of the South American nation, a problem that has developed as Colombia’s civil war continues on with seemingly no end in sight…

– CBS News, 2/6/1985 report


…Due to American forces being the ones who apprehended Gaddafi, effectively making them the victors of the War in Libya, the U.N.’s Special International Justice Committee ruled in favor of the United States, overriding a Libyan court sentencing Gaddafi to death. …US diplomatic experts fear that the ruling may jeopardize the level of support US troops have in Libya, as many of our allies over there are seeing the ruling as “American Imperialism imposing imperialistic injustice,” as the leader of the Libyan congressional opposition called it earlier today…

The Washington Post, 2/8/1985


…Elections were held for all 650 seats… Williams of the Labour party won 339 seats, a downward swing from the 352 it held before the election, while the “wet” Conservative leader Jim Prior led his party to winning 268. The centrist SDP-Liberal Alliance, meanwhile, picked up 10 seats, bringing their total to 25.

…due to the growth of left-wing members of the party, and with many of said members remaining unhappy by the ascension of the moderate Shirley Williams to the office of Prime Minister, several progressives departed from Labour late last year to form a new party: the United Kingdom Intrepid Progressive party, or U.K.I.P. for short. Tonight, the UKIPs won 5 seats. …The Moralist party, however, seems to have imploded in the wake of the Prior candidacy appealing to the party’s base; the socially conservative party has gone from holding 4 seats to just 1, the one held by its leader, Mary Whitehouse. 12 other seats went to smaller parties.

…The most-watched race of tonight, though, was the Liverpool election that saw famous musician and political activist John Lennon win a seat in parliament…

The Guardian, 2/11/1985

…John Lennon, having just won a seat in parliament from Liverpool, was conflicted over the breakaway UKIP party. He agreed with their passion and ideology, but believed that such progressive stances would have a better chance of being implemented via through the Labour party, as it was already a well-established major party. As a result, John feared the existence of UKIP would siphon more progressives out of the Labour party, emboldening the moderate plans of Prime Minister Williams and her allies…

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

…On February 16, 1985, voluntary abortion became legal across Canada via striking down an abortion-when-necessary law stemming from the June 27, 1969 Criminal Law Amendment Act. Soon after, the US phrase “taking a trip to Canada” became synonymous with getting an abortion, as many Americans would take “extended vacations” to the Great White North to get “voluntary” abortions…

– Mary Ziegler’s Abortion: A History, Harvard University Press, 2015


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders, age 94, receiving an award from an old-fashioned Women's Club in Louisville, Kentucky, 2/18/1985

President of Mexico Miguel de la Madrid’s actions were brought into question when a February 1985 Internal CIA report revealed that the federal government of Mexico had spent much of American assistance funding on wealthy donors instead of on the US’s efforts to fight the recreadrug “epidemic” plaguing the US, Mexico, Colombia, and several other nations of the Western Hemisphere. In response to this Denton ended the financial help, claiming the money was needed for domestic programs at a press conference the next day, February 19. That same day, Denton privately “told off” de la Madrid for “betraying” him, and, according to former Secretary of Defense William Westmoreland, adding “I should carpetbomb your mansion into dust. It seems we paid for it, so there’d be nothing wrong with it! But I’m not an unhinged man, so instead, I’ll just tell you one thing – never f*ck with me again, Miguel, because when you f*ck with me, you are f*cking with all of United States and all of its firepower. Good day.” Regardless of the accuracy of this quote, the fact does remain that US-Mexico relations under Denton became ice-cold after February 1985…

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


…In stark contrast to the freezing-cold relationship of President Mondale and Vice President Gravel, Denton and Alexander have grown closer over the past four years, to the point that Alexander is being seen as a “Assistant President” of sorts. The label rings true especially in the wake of Alexander’s latest efforts on Capitol Hill. The Vice President has worked with conservative lawmakers – mostly Republicans, but also including conservative Democrats – to pass a string of new laws…

…One of these new bills will allow firearms in checked baggage to be transported on all public train systems… Alexander is a promoter of a new tax bill that will most likely be passed despite Democratic and liberal opposition. Alexander advocates for a “flatter, fairer, simpler federal income tax,” a reduction of estate tax, a “family-friendly” tax code, and the continuation of the federal reduction of capital gains taxes and dividends. Alexander has also opposed higher taxes on the wealthy, and has backed a plan to implement $100billion in tax breaks over the next four years to continue the nation’s growth.

…In regards to less economic concerns, Alexander is supportive of a recent bill that calls for making English the official language of the United States and the U.S. government, and replacing bilingual schools with English-only schools in order to “strongly coerce” non-English speaking Americans to learn the language. “We can’t be a united country if so many of us can’t even understand the rest of us,” claims Congressman Bob Dornan (R-CA), one of the bill’s more outspoken co-sponsors. …The Vice President has also called for more severe punishments for illegal aliens, and is opposed to “widening the pathway” to citizenship for illegal aliens in general, though he has gone on record as saying that he is “okay” with “the legal ones going through the process.”

The Atlantic, 2/27/1985 issue [2]


…A group of five US Representatives – all Democrats – are lobbying the FDA to inspect Kentucky Fried Chicken, demanding that the multinational brand and its parent company, Finger Lickin’ Good Inc., reveal the contents of its famous “trade secret” eleven herbs & spices! “The American people have the right to know what’s in that stuff,” says de facto group leader John Donald “Don” Fuqua (D-FL-2)… Another congressman even goes so far as to suggest that the presence of Harley Sanders in the Senate constitutes a “conflict of interests” in regards to Senate votes concerning business regulations that would affect Kentucky Fried Chicken. This claim, however, conflicts with Harley Sanders having severed all ties from KFC upon being elected to the US Senate…

The New York Post, 2/28/1985

Denton approval rating shatters record high at 91%

…“The President is ushering in a new post-Cold War era with another four years of unquestioned American greatness,” says Senator Jack Edwards (R-AL)…

The Washington Post, 3/1/1985

…In a formal statement, the CEO of Kentucky Fried Chicken Lee Cummings has announced that the multinational corporation will not, quote, “violate the sanctity of respecting trade secrets,” unquote, and will not disclose the company’s famous 11 Secret Herbs and Spices to, quote, “any inquiring FDA officials,” unquote. The statement comes after members of the US House of Representatives requested the FDA inspect the famous Trade Secret. The statement also stated the company’s belief that revealing the secret composition of flavoring applied to the company’s famous chicken would jeopardize the nation’s economy and markets by creating, quote, “an unprecedented breach in the trust of businesses big and small,” unquote. As U.S. District judges for Kentucky awaits additional replies from KFC’s attorneys, sources state that at least one circuit judge favors an FDA inquiry in order assure consumer safety…


…We now have an update on the KFC Spices controversy. Attorneys for KFC have released to the FDA documents pertaining to the specific procedures used by KFC when employees and contractors handle the herbs and spices, along with citations for the, quote, “impeccably high ratings,” unquote, that Finger Lickin’ Good Incorporated has received from various sanitation inspection entities for the past ten years alone...

– The Overmyer Network, 3/2/1985 broadcast

…We can confirm that a powerful earthquake has pummeled the nation of Chile. Measured roughly at 8.0 on the Richter Scale, it appears that the quake has left at least hundred people dead, and over one thousand injured, along with having destroyed thousands of homes in a significant crisis for the South American country…

– CBS, 3/3/1985 broadcast


The Wall Street Journal, 3/4/1985

On March 7, the “Big Five” of television – ABC, NBC, CBS, Overmyer and KNN – all reported on major breaking news: a bombshell scandal had hit D.C. as a Tennessee state investigation revealed that Vice President Lamar Alexander, while serving as Governor of Tennessee, had improperly accepted donations from several Christian colleges and schools, via members of the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools. The education-oriented institutions hoped to gain favoritism with the Governor in order to receive accreditation under his administration. Once out of office in 1979 but before he decided to launch a presidential bid later that same year, Alexander joined the board of the religious Trevecca Nazarene University in Nashville, Tennessee, for a salary that was 200 times above average for his largely advisory role.

While this controversy alone may have not been so damaging, the investigation into this action also led to state prosecutors, overseen by attorney general W. J. Michael Cody, discovering that the Vice President had frequently shifted his personal assets between banking accounts, mainly between one in his name, one in the name of his wife, a “family account.” [3]

While Alexander both publicly and privately proclaimed that there had been no wrongdoing, his initial fumbling at a press conference held the next day – in which he said “If I did anything illegal, I had nothing to do with it” – the Tennessee justice department nevertheless continued the investigation as it became more apparent that the “shifting funds” patterned had continued until 1982, after Alexander had entered his current occupation. This meant that charges could still be brought against Alexander if necessary because, while the statute of limitations for any wrongdoing committed while Governor had expired, said statute did not protect Alexander from any wrongdoing committed during any point in his Vice-Presidency.

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

REV. DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. DIES AT 56; Famous Civil Rights Leader Suffered From Heart Failure

…his wife of 32 years, Coretta Scott King, noted that “he had so much of his heart to give that the doctors said Martin had the heart of a 90-year-old”…

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 3/15/1985


…with the theme being focused on the application and use of the latest science and technology in future homes, several tech companies big and small are attending this celebration of human accomplishments and aspirations…

The Los Angeles Times, 3/17/1985


…The party was formed in 1969, when the New Democrats merged with the waning Social Credits…the interim party name was the “Leftward Tomorrow” Party, but this was changed to the current name in 1971… Under Ed Broadbent’s leadership, the PTs (sometimes pronounced “Peteys”) have slowly gained a sizeable amount of support among left-leaning and populist-leaning Canadians…

The Toronto Star, 3/17/1985


…Despite winning by a margin of victory much narrower than his 1980 election, Jean Chretien (L-QC) will remain Prime Minister Canada thanks to a plurality in the popular vote …Opposition leader Erik Nielsen (PC-AB) fared better than expected, but the real winner of the night very well may have been Ed Broadbent (PT-ON), who breathes fresh air into the far-left Tommorrowists to come within five seats of becoming the leader of the opposition…

The Globe And Mail, 3/20/1985


[pic: ]
Above: Governor Coya Knutson (D-MN) reflecting on Humphrey’s legacy in a KNN interview, c. March 1985; Knutson worked with Humphrey on multiple projects during their time in election politics, and was “always grateful” of his early support of her career.

Humphrey passed away from the cancer two months shy of his 74th birthday. His body laid in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol before being buried in Waverly, Minnesota. Both foes and friends, from William Scranton, Mario Biaggi, John F. Kennedy and Colonel Sanders, to Walter Mondale and Coya Knutson, paid their final respects; the funeral was the first time in which Kennedy and Sanders were in the same place at the same time since the 196 debates… In the US Senate, Governor Knutson appointed state Secretary of State Joan Growe to the vacant desk, after the widowed former Second Lady of the United States Muriel Humphrey declined the offer to do so herself.

– Carl Solberg’s H.H.H.: A Biography, Borealis Books, 2001 edition


[pic: ]


The Chicago Tribune, 3/23/1985

Under increasing pressure to settle the matter, Alexander looked to the precedence set by John C. Calhoun, who had faced a similar scandal while serving as Vice President in 1826, in order to argue that a sitting Vice President cannot be indicted. Alexander also tried to rally public opinion, giving a speech before a friendly audience in Los Angeles asserting his innocence. [4]

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

“People sure plumb forgot all about the Jake Butcher Scandal in a hurry, didn’t they?” [5]

– Barry Goldwater, 3/25/1985

On April 3, 1985, the interim government organized an All-Russia referendum about the introduction of the proposed posts of “President” and “Vice President” for the purpose of decentralizing power from the Interim National Assembly while still providing a clear leader for national unity and leadership on the world stage. The positions would have the power to introduce mandates and speak before congress, but would have little veto power. The RSFSR, by popular vote, went with “yea” with 68.1%, while “nay” received 31.9%. With turnout being 81.2%, the vote stood and the motion was carried.

With the position introduced, the head of the I.N.A. and the de-facto leader of the country since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Orlov, served as interim President until a Presidential election could be held three months later…

– Risto Alapuro and Oleg Kharkhordin’s Community Building in Post-Soviet Russia, Routledge Books, 2011

With the Soviet Union gone, Yugoslavian politicians began looking to the U.S. government. Former Tito ally Veselin Duranovic noted in April 1985 “I should not be so surprised. America had lasted for over 200 years. The USSR could not make it to 70. What is it about America that gives that country such longevity?”

It was on a sunny April morning when Duranovic announced that he had ultimately decided that it was the “melting pot” sense of unity that kept the US strong and united. He also had come to believe that people “work better when neighborhoods think more broadly about their shared city and desires,” and so began to push for unity relationships with the US.

To China, this was seen as another loss for the cause of communism, as Yugoslavia was the last pinnacle of communism left in Europe…

– Leslie Benson’s Yugoslavia: A Concise History, Palgrave Publishers, 2001

April 4, 1985 was not a good day for Buz Lukens. That morning, The Washington Post published the story of a woman from Cincinnati, Ohio, who, under the pseudonym Anna Mason (after two towns on Ohio’s Route 75), claimed that the US Secretary of State and his lawyers had given her $100,000 to sign a nondisclosure agreement about an “unprintable sexual incident” regarding Lukens and Mason’s 14-year-old daughter, who was given the pseudonym Sidney after another location on Route 75. The incident, Anna stated, had occurred in June 1984, and Anna was “coerced” into signing the agreement in August. Naturally, Lukens denied it all, claiming to be the lies of a woman desperate for fame and fortune. The next day, Anna filed a civil suit in Ohio to nullify the nondisclosure agreement on the claim that she signed it under great duress and intimidation.

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988

The initial reaction to the accusations made against Lukens was minor, but as it made its way through the news cycle, a familiar atmosphere return to the United States. Feminist activists began to circulate the story and repeatedly refer to it on public radio and public access TV stations and talk shows, spreading their support for the ones known as Anna and Sidney Mason.

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

“Uh, Buz, this ain’t gonna be some kind of problem, right?”

“Not at all. I promise – there’s nothing to worry about here.”

– Conversation between President Denton and Secretary Lukens, c. mid-April 1985 (multiple sources, but still possibly anecdotal)


…Led by House Whip Kemp, and reportedly tacitly supported by House Speaker Michel, House Majority Leader Polonko, and leading House Deputy Whip Emery, the conservative lawmakers are gaining ground in their call for cutbacks on Social Security benefits in order to “alleviate [a] federal burden”…

The Wall Street Journal, 4/10/1985


…Hoxha isolated his nation from the rest of the world with fear and paranoia, which saw him install an extraordinary number of fallout shelters across the nation’s countryside and cities. …With Albania being economically in shambles, Hoxha’s successor, Ramiz Alia, will have his hands full…

The New York Times, 4/11/1985


The Los Angeles Times, 4/12/1985


The Washington Times, 4/22/1985

“It is with great sadness that I confirm that Supreme Court Associate Justice Sarah Tilghman Hughes has passed away earlier today at the age of 88. Despite suffering a stroke three years ago, she remained mentally sharp, and continued to support the policies she believed in until the very end. Hughes was an inspirational leader that I had the pleasure to work for during most of her 23 years on the bench. She was a passionate and level-headed justice, a steady and determined force on the bench who will be missed greatly by all who had the pleasure to know her and know of her.”

– Linda Coffee, former personal secretary and personal assistant to Justice Hughes, 4/23/1985 press statement


…The incident comes just days after the FAA released a report calling for a “severe need” to update pilot, emergency situation, and mechanic repairs training programs. Last year, the Denton White House relaxed F.A.A. security measures in order to better the air travel industry. This move freed up funds for the F.A.A., allowing it to launch an expensive investigation into the quality of procedures and training that pilots go through to equip them for emergency situations…

The Albuquerque Journal, 4/25/1985


…the city of Louisville has merged with Jefferson County, creating what is being called a “metro government” in an effort to maintain the inflow of employers and revenue that both areas have enjoyed (for the most part) since the early 1970s…

The Paducah Sun, 4/29/1985


The Washington Times, 4/30/1985

Needing to make the second Supreme Court nomination of his administration, Denton studied the court’s composition. The justices were almost evenly split between four right-leaning justices (Denton’s 1981 pick Herb Fogel of Pennsylvania, Chief Justice Frank Minis Johnson of Alabama, Sylvia Bacon of California, and Edward Hirsch Levi of Illinois) and four left-leaning justices (A. Leon Higginbotham of Pennsylvania, William Nealon of Pennsylvania, Miles W. Lord of Minnesota, and William Brennan of New Jersey). His personal secretary would later reveal that Denton did not consider gender or race when seeking out a nominee due to a woman and an African-American already being on the Supreme Court. Instead, due to the lack of western and southern representation on the court, Denton looked at potential nominees from the Court of Appeals Circuits 5, 8, 9, 10, and 11 for geographical balance. With almost a third of the Senate held by Republicans and a majority by conservatives, Denton also sought out a strong social and fiscal conservative justice for the vacant seat.

The eight Court of Appeals Circuit Judges considered the most were 60-year-old Charles Clark of Mississippi, 63-year-old James Barrett of Wyoming, 65-year-old Joseph Tyree Sneed III of California with deep Texas roots, 52-year-old Alfred Goodwin of Oregon, 52-year-old former Brigham Young University President Dallin Oaks of Utah, 56-year-old Peter Fay of Florida, anti-capital punishment 60-year-old Warren Urbom of Nebraska, and the Illinois-born 63-year-old Carl Olaf Bue Jr. of Texas. Also considered were the incumbent Attorney General of California Anthony McLeod Kennedy, a mainstream moderate; Judge Gerald Tjoflat of Florida; 69-year-old Judge Robert Hugh McWilliams Jr. of Kansas; Assistant US Secretary of Defense, former FBI Assistant Director, and former Circuit Judge William Hedgcock Webster of Missouri; Assistant Attorney General of US Fern Meyerson Smith from California; Puerto Rican Judge Mark Americus Constantino of New York; 79-year-old Senior D.C. Court of Appeals Judge George MacKinnon of Minnesota; and Court of Appeals Judge and follower of the Baha’i Faith Dorothy Wright Nelson of California.

Ultimately, Sneed was nominated on the third of May. Denton preferred Sneed in the end due to his conservative record on law-and-order issues, recreadrugs, and BLUTAGO rights. [6] Senators Hoff and Kennedy-Shriver launched a “No Need For Sneed” campaign almost immediately afterward for that same record.

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s Upholding Liberty: The Supreme Court Under Chief Justice Frank Minis Johnson, Sunrise Publishing, 2019

…KFC’s parent corporation, Finger Lickin’ Good Inc., has teamed up with the US-based Bread for the World organization to launch an anti-hunger campaign aiming to drop food insecurity levels in the “hungriest” counties in the US…

– ABC News, 5/5/1985


A former member of the faculty at Trevecca Nazarene University has formally alleged that Vice President Lamar Alexander received payments from TNU in September 1981 in exchange for supporting a federal bill that sought to impose higher regulations on the activities of Christian schools… The placement of the payments – repeatedly switched between three different accounts – could also mean that Alexander could be charged with tax fraud…

– The Chicago Tribune, “exposé” article, 5/6/1985


…the copy of the agreement about the Secretary’s “night of sexual intimacy” with an underage girl is authentic according to several analysts… Mrs. Mason claims the documentation was made in triplicate, and that Lukens and his lawyers forgot to leave with this copy… subsection of the legal document includes a bit about additional payments “if the situation requires [the daughter] to obtain an abortion.”

The New York Post, 5/9/1985

…You may not remember where you were when the papers reported that President Denton was furious, positively outraged, they said, at Lukens and his discretion. You also may not remember the additional reports claiming that the Secretary was repeatedly kept out of cabinet meetings immediately after the scandal grew in seriousness. You may not even remember where you were when Lukens filed a defamation lawsuit against Mason.

That’s alright, because what mattered more was the outrage. The fury that rose up over the revelation that the man fourth in line for the Presidency was a degenerate lowlife. …But it was not just the far-left that was enraged. In fact, conservative women being incensed by Lukens’ “abortion” stipulation was a political hit much closer to home for Denton. Some contributors to the National Review condemned the President for having “such an immoral man work for” him. Pundits were sure to take note that, indeed, there are women in both major political parties, and that women can in fact be conservative. For the first time in ages, far-left pioneers like Congresswoman Trudy Cooper and far-right talking heads like Phyllis Schlafly agreed on something – Lukens was scum.

– Radical feminist Catharine Alice MacKinnon’s More Than Words: Women’s Lives Under Men’s Laws, 1988


The Dayton Daily News, 5/12/1985

Anna Mason’s police record showed that she had shoplifted in her teens, which Anna claimed was the result of “hanging out with the wrong kind of crowd.” A report of crashing her car and another incident of disturbing the peace revealed Anna’s temperamental side. Fine was sympathetic, telling her firm’s “biggest” client “Don’t cry, and don’t apologize. We’ve all done things we’re not proud of.”

On May 20th, in Washington, D.C., the “Citizens For Women’s Justice” organization was officially launched. Officially, it was co-founded by women’s rights attorney Gloria Bloom Allred and several other big names (many being “veterans” of the Ms. Arkansas Scandal and its subsequent “Ark Wave”), but it was unofficial co-founded by them and by Anna Mason’s “number one” supporter Janice Fine, her older sister Marjorie, 49-year-old activist Doris Lake, and several others as well. Initially meant to mobilize support for the Masons at a time when many still did not believe their story, despite the evidence in their favor, due to her police record, the organization soon expanded to cover all aspects of protecting women’s rights.

– Andrew Boyd and D. O. Mitchell’s Glorious Chaos: A Guide for The Revolutionary in You, Sparkstarters Publications, 2013


…An Ohio court has indicted the former Secretary of State on the charges of contributing to the delinquency and unruliness of a minor and of having sex with a minor. Both of these are serious crimes in the state of Ohio, described as “degenerate crimes worthy of high punishment” by Lukens in 1973. In that year, Lukens, as the Governor of Ohio, successfully pushed for the raising of the penalties and severity of sentences for both crimes as part of a tough-on-crime initiative ahead of his 1974 re-election campaign... The decision comes days after being subpoenaed for an unrelated, and newer, charge of workplace pestering that alleged occurred in 1978, during his last year as Governor…

The Los Angeles Times, 5/22/1985


The Madras Pioneer, 5/22/1985

Even [White House Counsel] Jesse Helms suggested Lukens be forced to resign. Denton still would not budge from his position.

“Buz is an invaluable member of this team,” Denton again defended his decision to not accept a resignation from Lukens, claiming, “He’s proven himself to be a very effective diplomat on the world stage. And now, with that mad man in Pakistan and our boys in uniform in Colombia and still in Libya, we can’t afford a destabilizing shake-up in our diplomatic line of defense against the enemies of freedom.”

Ugh, this isn’t a battle!, I remember thinking to myself, almost wanting to roll my eyes at the ridiculously over-the-top rhetoric.

Denton also defended Lukens by bringing up how his marriage had fallen apart in early 1984. “The man’s wife had left him. She'd filed for divorce, and was eyeing half of everything. He was in a bad way. If he truly did some of the things he did, he likely wasn’t thinking clearly when he did them.” From that statement, [Chief of Staff] Richard Schermerhorn came up with what “a solution” – have Lukens take a short leave of absence for “exhaustion,” and claim his previous actions to be the result of “fatigue.” I thought this was a horridly poor excuse – and, thankfully, many in the media thought so too – but my opposition to the notion fell on practically deaf ears.

By this point in time, it was becoming increasingly obvious that my presence in the White House was not nearly as effective and impactful as it had been before. [snip] I handed in my letter of resignation that November.

– Former White House Chief Domestic Policy Advisor Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson’s Behind Closed Doors: The Machinations of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1986


…Nixon stated “I think it’s important for it to be known what the Secretary did and how he did it.” …Nixon further stated, “if the Secretary did do what they’re saying he did, just because he’s the Secretary of State doesn’t make it legal, allowed, or alright.”

– The Dayton Daily News, 5/26/1985

…The last manned moon mission of NASA’s Aries program before finally shifting its full focus onto shuttleplanes and the I.S.S. saw Aries 13 launch on May 28, 1985, and land on the lunar surface with four people on board – a white man (53-year-old veteran astronaut and this mission’s commander Clifton Williams), a white woman (and the fifth woman to land on the moon overall; 36-year-old Anna Lee Fisher), an African-American man (the third Black person to land on the moon overall; 39-year-old Charles Bolden), and the half-Chinese, half-Latino 35-year-old pilot Franklin Chang Diaz...

– NASA scientist Farouk El-Baz’s Up and Away: How The Cold War Competition Pushed Us Into The Stars, MacFarland & Company, 1994

…After a very quick and speedy hearing process, the US Senate has confirmed Joseph T. Sneed the Third for the US Supreme Court’s vacant seat, with a vote of 55 yea, 43 nay, and two Senators – Maureen Reagan of California and Mario Biaggi of New York – abstaining from voting…


[pic: ]
[picture of Sneed shown]
– CBS Evening News, 5/30/1985


…dozens of tornadoes touched down in areas in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Ontario for roughly eight hours yesterday, killing dozens and inflicting hundreds of injuries of varying degrees...

The Philadelphia Inquirer, 6/1/1985


Cincinnati, OH – A teen-ager who says she had sex with the US Secretary of State Donald E. Lukens testified today that she appeared at his apartment in Washington, D.C. along with a female friend, and that the three of them went to bed together. [7] The accuser, Sidney Mason said that she first met Mr. Lukens in 1983, but did not see the Secretary of State again until May 28, 1984, when she and a friend of hers, one Celina Troy, whom had also met Lukens separately, were invited to his D.C. apartment.

The age of consent in Ohio is 16, but Sidney was days away from turning 15 when the alleged sexual encounter occurred. A misdemeanor statute in Ohio states that “no person shall…aid, abet, induce, cause, encourage, or contribute to a child or ward of the juvenile court (into) becoming an unruly or (delinquent) child.[8] As a result, the US Secretary of State is on trial on two charges of contributing to the unruliness or delinquency of a minor.

While on the witness stand, Ms. Sidney Mason said that her and Ms. Troy took a cab to the Secretary’s apartment. He met them at the door in boxer shorts, she said, and gave her a $20 bill to pay the driver of said cab. Mr. Lukens, who once represented a district north of Cincinnati, shook his head repeatedly during her testimony. Ms. Mason said Mr. Lukens showed the two around his apartment and took them to a guest room.

“He told us to get undressed and put on two black robes,”
Ms. Mason said. She asked him why they could not wear two white robes she saw in the room. “He said those were for white people,” she said.

Mason and Ms. Troy are black. Mr. Lukens is white.

Mason testified that they got into bed with the Secretary of State. She testified that they then had oral sex and intercourse with Mr. Lukens. She said Mr. Lukens gave her two $20 bills and paid Ms. Troy $30. Ms. Mason said Mr. Lukens also gave her a glass of brandy and two gifts – a pink lace fan and a silver pillbox – and gave Ms. Troy a bottle of perfume and a diamond pendant.

If convicted of the misdemeanor, Mr. Lukens, who is divorced, could be sentenced to six months in jail and fined $1,000. Before Ms.
Sidney Mason testified, Mr. Lukens’s lawyer, Thomas Tyack, attacked the testimony of the girl’s mother, describing the woman as continually unemployed and desperate for notoriety and money. Mrs. Anna Mason testified yesterday that, in August 1984, she contacted Mr. Lukens after the incident and confronted him in a meeting in Washington, D.C. “I told him how old she was,” Mrs. Mason said, adding that she showed Mr. Lukens pictures of the girl. She said Mr. Lukens told her he thought her daughter was 18. [7] The Washington, D.C. meeting was soon followed by a second meeting at a Holiday Inn just outside of Middletown two weeks later, where she claimed she was intimidated into signing a non-disclosure agreement and into accepting a check that Mrs. Mason repeatedly referred to as “hush money.”

The New York Times, 6/10/1985

Reports of sexual pestering began to rise; it seems the Lukens Scandal exposed a side of America that most wanted to believe was no longer a lingering situation for women. It soon began to feel like 1985 was turning into 1970.

– Andrew Boyd and D. O. Mitchell’s Glorious Chaos: A Guide for The Revolutionary in You, Sparkstarters Publications, 2013


…the Federal Election Commission has launched an official inquiry into where the Secretary of State obtained funds for a “hush money” payment of $100,000 in August of last year. Working with Ohio’s state Attorney General Anthony J. Celebrezze Jr.’s justice department, the FEC, an independent federal agency, has formally requested access to any and all executive files, general files, legislative files, personal files, political and campaign files (including senatorial, congressional, gubernatorial, vice presidential and presidential files), public relations files, sound and visual materials (photographs and videos), speeches, banking and monetary transactions, and any and all other materials and paper trails relative to their inquiry...

The Washington Post, 6/19/1985

Lukens only worsened the situation by lambasting “all” media outlets for “blowing things really out of proportion” at a press briefing on June 22. During one strange moment during his criticisms, he was sure to single out Evan W. Thomas III, a journalist for Time Magazine at the time, for “not [being] a patriot” due to the fact that his father was Norman Thomas, a known Socialist politician.

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988

Supply and demand dictated that the rise in mothers working outside the home would lead to a rise in day-care centers. What economics did not predict was a rise in anxiety, guilt and fear experienced by said mothers leaving their young with people who could quite easily be considered – by the parent or the child – as strangers. The resulting paranoia created a tense atmosphere that was set aflame upon the sordid details of the Lukens Scandal coming to light. “If we can’t trust the Secretary of State – the man fourth in line for the Presidency – who can we trust?” was the general feeling. As a result, an unforeseen consequence of the Lukens Scandal was a sudden drop in women in the workforce rates as women began becoming more reluctant to leave their children. Feminist activists such as former US Congressman Sarah Weddington (D-TX) sought out alternatives as the situation continued. Talks of things such as onsite daycare – and to lesser extent (at the time), at-home work – began to work their way around, being promoted on radio and then on TV programs and in newspapers, books and professional articles...

– Radical feminist Catharine Alice MacKinnon’s More Than Words: Women’s Lives Under Men’s Laws, 1988

So after that bizarre accusation, the U.S. Attorney General, Vincent “Buddy” Cianci, declined to lead the federal Justice Department into an investigation into an alleged misuse of federal funds. Instead, after the releasing of the results of a quick inquiry into the State Department, Cianci issued and, in late June, fully released a small report claiming there was “too little evidence” to merit a full-on investigation.

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988

…After almost three months [9] of protests, the scandal-stricken Buz Lukens has finally stepped down as the US Secretary of State in order to appear before an Ohio court on two charges of contributing to the delinquency of a minor…

– CBS News, 7/1/1985

In 1979, both Harvey and Robert Weinstein, using the profits saved from their concert-promoting business, founded Miriamax, an independent film distribution company named after their parents Miriam and Max Weinstein. With various music and arthouse films, the company was slowly and steadily growing when

Shortly after the Fourth of July celebrations of 1985, a former assistant for Miriamax accused Harvey Weinstein of workplace pestering. This was soon followed by several former interns and a former appointments secretary stepping forward to describe either experiencing or knowing of similar instances of inappropriate behavior and sexual assault from Harvey. These accusations led to Bob firing Harvey from Miriamax in order to keep the company from being financially ruined from the scandal. [snip] Bob Weinstein continued to run the company while Harvey was imprisoned on sexual assault charges, serving three sentences from 1989 to 2014. [snip] In 2015, Bob’s brother Harvey was controversially made a silent partner in Miriamax 18 months after being released from prison on parole, and later took on an advisory role in the company. In 2016, however, Harvey stepped down from said role in the midst of increased controversy over his presence in the company, possibly due to the 2016 film “Anna Mason” reviving public interest in Harvey’s 1980s court cases; Harvey currently (as of early 2020) works as a self-hired diabetes research advocate in Montauk, Long Island.


LUKENS FOUND GUILTY ON BOTH CHARGES; In Lenient Ruling, Sentenced To 3 Months In Jail And $5,000 Fine

The New York Times, 7/8/1985

It began with the oil. Under Chairman Jerry John Rawlings, a structural adjustment plan had been negotiated to combat the nation’s economic slump that had contributed to Rawlings rising to power. Understanding the need to change many old economic policies, Rawlings invited foreign energy companies to invest in the nation during the early 1980s. With US companies seeking to recover from the crash of ’78, several took Rawlings up on the offer. The investing paid off in 1985, when the Jubilee Oil Field was discovered [10] off the coast of Ghana’s Western Region by an American oil company. Estimates at the time suggested that at least 2 million barrels of sweet crude oil was in the Atlantic, waiting to be used. Ghana found itself swiftly entering a new, more prosperous era, as oil and gas exploration came to dominate the economy, fueling national projects such as the construction of roads, hospitals and schools.

– Historian Roger Gocking’s The Modern History of Ghana, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005

As the US Justice Department and the Ohio A.G. collaborated with each other, FBI officials seized documents and business records in a clandestine raid on Lukens’ office in D.C. and Cincinnati on July 15. Concurrently, Denton was optimistic that “the situation with Buz,” as the President called it, would blow over “soon enough,” and so approved of his Attorney General, Buddy Cianci, appointing a special prosecutor to the source-of-funds investigation. The man Cianci hired for the role was named Stephen S. Trott, a 45-year-old former D.A. for L.A., California, then working as the Assistant Attorney General for the U.S. Department of Justice’s Criminal Division.

– David Frum’s political textbook How We Got Here: The ’80s, Basic Books NY, 2007

…Despite swearing innocence, the scandal surrounding Vice President Alexander just took another incriminating turn. Earlier today, the U.S. Attorney for the District of Eastern Tennessee John W. Gill Jr. formally gave Alexander’s office a letter stating that he is under federal investigation for fraud…

The Overyer Network, 7/10/1985 report


Five Generations of Greatness Gather In One Room At Hospital – See Inside for Photos!

…Harland David Sanders V (the fifth) was born in Florence Medical Center in Florence, Kentucky, to Harland David “Davey” Sanders IV and Samantha Lee. Davey (b. 1959) is the son of Harland “Lando” Sanders III (b. 1939), who is the son of Senator Harley Sanders, Colonel Sanders’ son, making Davey the Colonel’s great-grandson…

The National Enquirer, US tabloid “grocery store” magazine, 7/15/1985

We knew the competition was getting more serious when the Amiga personal computer came out in July of ’85, and it was a better seller than expected. About, what was it? I want to say, six? Yeah, six months later the Microsoft Corporation releases the second version of Windows, Windows 2.0 [11], and all these other, newer computer companies start entering the market. Sinclair Research, Eagle Computers, Packard Bell, Prime Computer, Texas Instruments, they all start trying to make the best computer. I mean, I wasn’t partial to so much competition, but it did spur research and development of computer technology, so in the end it was a really good, a great thing to have happened, and I’m really happy that it did.

– Bill Gates, KNN interview with Bill Gates and Kent Allen, 9/1/1995


[pic: ]
– Commodore International’s 1987 Amiga 500; this model would be an even better seller than its 1986 predecessor due to its potential for efficiency in offices during the mid-to-late 1980s

The 1985 FDRR Presidential Election was held in the Federal Democratic Republic of Russia on July 27, 1985. Several candidates ran for a five-year term in a first round-runoff election system similar to the ones used by the nations of France and Cuba. The incumbent interim President, Vlad Orlov, declined to run, making for an open election. The lack of established political parties made for a largely non-partisan election season.


Candidates (8):

Vasily Arkhipov b. 1926 (Communist (“conservative” faction)), a Vice Admiral during the Cuba War and the Minister of Defense under Podgorny, came out of retirement to defend the past actions of the USSR.

Oleg Baklanov, b. 1932 (Independent), was the Minister of General Machine Building under Podgorny and Ustinov, and was responsible for overseeing the developments of the Soviet space industry during that time. He opposed the coup that overthrew Ustinov and opposed the collapse of the Soviet Union, but ran on a platform focused on scientific advancement and on getting foreign businesses to invest in Russia.

Vladimir Bukovsky, b. 1942 (Progressive), was a human rights activist who was expelled from the USSR in 1976 for being a dissident since the 1950s; now that he had been allowed back in, he ran on a platform focused on, along with other issues, mental health care and government reparations for survivors of the USSR’s “horrific” mental hospitals, labor camps and prison systems.

Gennady Burbulis, b. 1945 (National), had organized public forums to discuss local issues under Podgorny and Yakovlev. A supporter of democratic reform, he sought to carefully walk a fine line between institutional change and alleged “radicalism” many remaining hardliners blamed for the collapse of the USSR.

Vladimir Chub, b. 1948 (Independent), was the youngest candidate in the race, and called for major socio-economic development, government transparency, and other changes to assure Russian prosperity in both the short term and the long term.

Mikhail Gorbachev, b. 1931 (Communist (“glasnost” faction)), ran on a platform of “openness and helpfulness, but still communist,” but his closeness to Anatoly Lukyanov made him very unpopular.

Sergey Sokolov, b. 1911 (Independent), was the Minister of Defense under Dmitriy Ustinov and a defender of his actions who called for slow and gradual reform, starting locally and building up to nationwide, believing this to be the best way to “observe and adjust such impactful changes.”

Vladislav Volkov, b. 1935 (Democratic), was an engineer and former cosmonaut, first elected to the National Assembly in 1984; he supported investing in the I.S.S. project and in removing “as much poverty and famine as possible” from Russia via agriculture and urban development reform as a step “we need to take before we can even consider going to Mars.”



Sokolov won over enough elder voters and fiscal conservatives to advance to the runoff, while Volkov’s “pragmatic” and “forward-thinking” campaign energized younger Russians, allowing him to make it to second place, behind Sokolov. In the July 27 runoff, former supporters of Baklanov, Bukovsky, and Chub rallied behind Volkov, leading to him winning the election by a margin of 12%. Sokolov, in a historically important moment went on Russian TV and radio to applaud Volkov for a well-run campaign.

After the election, there was some more lighthearted debate over the well-known “Bald-Hairy” Pattern [12]. Former Primer Yakovlev was often counted as either hairy or bald, as he had long and wild hair, but only on the sides of his head, and was bald on top. If Vladimir Orlov, who was merely the “interim” head of state (both before and after Yakovlev), was counted in the hairy-bald pattern, then Yakovlev was considered hairy in order to maintain the pattern; if Orlov was not counted, Yakovlev was considered “bald” to maintain the pattern. Some voters decided that the election helped “clarify” the situation by a “hairy” candidate winning the election.



[pic: ]
– Vlad Volkov, c. 1971

…After the Soviet collapsed, the Khalq and Parham Communist parties in Afghanistan’s bicameral legislature, both of whom were funded by the Soviets, fell out of favor as funding dried up and American mining and research companies boosted the nation’s economy, making the 1980s a “Golden Decade” for Afghanistan…

– Tamim Ansary’s Games Without Rules: The Often-Interrupted History of Afghanistan, Hachette Book Group, 2012

An insurrection in Jammu and Kashmir broke out in early July 1985. Inspired by the successful war of independence fought by the people of United Turkestan, anti-India demonstrations erupted in the disputed region’s urban centers of Rajauri and Srinagar. Indian police used batons and pepper spray on the crowds and established a curfew for night hours. Pakistan soon intervened by providing arms and training to Kashmir militants, prompting a mass exodus of Kashmiri Hindus from the Kashmir valley. Further unrest was provoked when dozens were protestors were killed on July 30, when Indian police fired on them during the second straight week of civil disobedience, leading to thousands, if not millions (sources and eyewitness accounts vary) taking to the streets, demanding the region separate from India. As the weeks continued onward, thousands of more youths traveled into Pakistan, repeating a vicious cycle of violence leading to more violence. Human rights violations were committed on all sides.

Disgusted by the violent tendencies of both nation’s governments, former US President Colonel Sanders, along with several anti-war organizations, sought to convince “all” relevant companies to end, or at least threaten to cease, all business activities with both countries unless both sides agreed to a ceasefire... International pressure would continue to develop over the months and years that followed until…

– David Tal’s US Strategic Arms Policy in the Cold War: Negotiation & Confrontation, Routledge, 2017

…Breaking News: the F.E.C.’s investigators have confirmed that Secretary of State Buz Lukens used political funds for the Cincinnati Hush Money payment, which is a clear violation of federal finance use laws as it was not disclosed to the IRS, or to the FEC, or on US State Department records… another news bulletin concerning Secretary Lukens has just come over the wire… the judge overseeing Lukens’ defamation charge has ruled against the lawsuit, effectively throwing it out of court...

– KNN, 8/3/1985 report


The New York Times, 8/7/1985


The Los Angeles Times, 8/7/1985


…the strongly pro-life Assistant Secretary Marjory Mecklenburg remarked that she is “outraged” at Denton’s “woefully unwise” decision to allow Lukens, whom she described as “a man with no remorse and no regard for the unborn or for minors” to retain his position of Secretary of State for so long…

The Washington Post, 8/9/1985


The San Diego Union-Tribune, 8/10/1985


The New York Post, 8/11/1985

In early August, Alexander entered into negotiations for a plea bargain on the condition that he not serve any jail time for what he insisted was “an honest and simple…mishandling of funds.” Alexander informed prosecutors and investigators that he wanted to protect his family and the American people from “a national embarrassment,” according to his memoirs. On August 12, Alexander informed Denton of his decision to resign. Denton initially opposed the notion, telling his second-in-command that it was “out of the question.” Alexander reportedly reminded the President of his low approval ratings, and he damage his continuation in the office could do to the Denton White House. After a lengthy debate, Denton finally yielded. With a sigh, Denton uttered “Things won’t be the same around here without you, dear friend.”

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

…Tonight’s top story: the Vice President of the United States Lamar Alexander has resigned amid investigations into his accepting of donations from lobbyists working for a Tennessee University, donations that have been described as bribes due to the timing of their delivering and of Alexander’s opposition to a Christian schools regulation bill. The announcement comes hours after the Vice President appeared in a federal court in Nashville, Tennessee, where he pleaded nolo contendere, or “no contest,” to one felony charge of tax fraud for the year of 1981, after which he paid a $50,000 fine and was sentenced to five years’ supervised probation, a sentence raised in 1983 from merely $5,000 under President Denton. Hours later, Alexander submitted a formal letter of resignation to President Denton. A few minutes ago, the White House Press Secretary made the following statement.

[cut to footage of Press Secretary Peggy Noonan]

NOONAN: Lamar Alexander, a patriot dedicated to improving the welfare of his fellow countrymen, has resigned from the office of the Vice Presidency in order to better focus on clarifying a discrepancy concerning activities that occurred in his gubernatorial and post-gubernatorial years.

[cut back to the newsroom]

ANCHOR: The resignation leaves the office of the Vice Presidency vacant until the House and the Senate can confirm Denton’s nominee for the rest of Alexander’s term, as laid out in the 26th Amendment of 1971…

– CBS Evening News, 8/15/1985 coverage

The Russian economy often seems to go through a three-part cycle: collapse, recovery, and prosperity. It was in shambles in the 1940s (collapse), it got itself together and picked itself up in the 1950s and 1960s (recovery), was roaring prosperously under Kosygin in the 1970s (prosperity), but then collapsed in the 1980s. Now, it was starting to pick itself back up again…

Advice from American and Western voices was conflicting: conservative economists and politicians urged the new President to hold off on regulations in order to allow Russian enterprises to flourish. Others told them to invest in the private sector in order to encourage other aspects of capitalism. More liberal analysts, however, urged the new President to implement privatization slowly, warning that it happening too quickly would actually hurt the newly non-communist nation’s economy [13] Vice-President-Elect Nikolay Travkin was torn…In a telephone call to President-Elect Vladimir Volkov, the US Secretary of Commerce Alfred Hayes Jr. explained that “a nation can’t go from a command economy to a free market one too quickly. It’s crash if it tries to. It requires a well-thought-out and well-guided transitional period that is planned out long-term.”

– Ivan Ivanovich Zassoursky’s After 1984: The Lands and Would-Be Lands of The Post-Soviet Era, 1985-2005, Milton Park Publishers, 2016

VLADIMIR VOLKOV SWORN IN AS NEW RUSSIAN PRESIDENT TODAY: Former Cosmonaut Is The First-Ever Democratically Elected Leader of Russia

The Guardian, 17/8/1985

To celebrate the ten-year anniversary of hosting “The Joy of Painting,” [originally titled “The Magic of Oil Painting,”] an article in the New Yorker covered the “unexpected rise” of Bob. Calling him “a perplexing fixture in the art world,” the journalist described, likely with his nose held up high, how Bob was much more popular with the average Joe Six-Pack kind of the American, and how more traditional artists of the Art World did not appreciate Bob “making art look easy.” This, however, only highlighted why Bob was so popular with the working class – anyone, from a blue-collar worker to a college student to an independent single mother – could enjoy his instructional showcasing of the wet-on-wet style, and is they so desired create a work of art that was all their own…

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014


The Boston Globe, 8/27/1985


Washington, D.C. – Thomas Tyack [14], a former employee to Buz Lukens has come forward with the claim that he, as Lukens’ assistant, was present when White House officials, including President Denton, approved of Lukens’ decision to offer the now-infamous money payment… The former employee, who worked as Luken’s legal advisor, claims that the alleged meeting was in compliance with Denton’s wishes to know the goings-on in all cabinet and cabinet-level departments…

The New York Times, 8/29/1985


The Washington Post, 8/29/1985


…The Russian government has agreed to cover 60% of the costs for the cleanup of lingering amounts of radiation at the nuclear meltdown site at Aktar, United Turkestan. …Iran and other nations have pledged to help clean up the Caspian and Aral Seas, where a 1984 U.N. study found that the fish in both bodies of water have been negatively affected by the deposits of nuclear material in their water.

The Guardian, 31/8/1985

“We must stay vigilant. We must protect the moral necessities in these times. Not even our Vice President and Secretary of State are immune to the temptations of sin. No one is exempt from the devil’s plans, and that is why protecting people’s souls is a daily duty of ours. Going to church is not enough. Nodding along during the service won’t save your soul from temptations of the flesh and of the coin. You must act on what you say! You must practice what I preach!”

– Southern Baptist clergyman Billy Ervin McCormack of Louisiana, CBN broadcast, 9/1/1985


…the proposed publicly-funded program would include a “punishment” feature of sorts for “unwarranted,” or completely voluntary, abortion. “The later the term, the stricter the law,” explains one state senator …On the other side of the issue, in an acknowledgement of the financial and emotional concerns that come with a pregnancy, Jackson supports a financial aid program meant to monetarily compensate employed women for income lost due to a pregnancy. …Jackson also encourages putting babies up for adoption as a humane alternative to aborting them when they are “at the fetal stage of life, [as abortion] deprives them of even a chance at life.”

The Idaho Press-Tribune, 9/5/1985

“I’m frankly sick and tired of the political preachers across this country telling me as a citizen that if I want to be a moral person, I must believe in ‘A,’ ‘B,’ ‘C’ and ‘D.’ Just who do they think they are? And from where do they presume to claim the right to dictate their moral beliefs to me? …I am warning them today: I will fight them every step of the way if they try to dictate their moral convictions to all Americans in the name of ‘conservatism.’”

– Barry Goldwater, Meet the Press interview, 9/6/1985 [15]

“Not sure to what extent, if it was Denton’s idea or if he simply knew it and he just turned a blind eye to it, but I know for a fact that Denton knew about the hush money scheme because I overheard him and Buz discussing it in the White House. I heard them use the phrases ‘the offer’ and ‘the money.’”

– Thomas Tyack, former legal advisor to Buz Lukens, KNN interview, 9/10/1985

Returning from Expo ’85 shortly before its conclusion, and having perused its showcases and ideas in its last month, the Colonel immediately voiced his concerns over future technologies. He worried, “the dawn of the compers,” his word for computers, “will replace honest work! How will honest folks get by if one bot can do ten jobs and the only job left is the guy hired to hit the bot’s ‘on’ switch?” However, he did approach his worries with a bit of levity, saying a few weeks later at a KFC in Detroit, “I know big companies are working on bots and compers that can do things better than how most people can. But compers can never replace folks like you and me – cooks and politicians will always be needed. A bot can’t make food with love – they certainly will never make and serve KFC with love, not like you folks can, I can tell ya tat much – and I tell ya, the robots are going to end up being way too smart to go and dabble into politics.”

– Josh Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

…When Mexico City was struck by a 7.5-magnitude earthquake on September 19, the US government was reluctant to send aid due to “what happened last time,” referring to the misuse of anti-recreadrug funds under Mexican President Miguel de la Madrid. As a result, the Mexican government sought out aide from Mexican-American organizations and companies, and on any international aide they could obtain. The campaign saw Mexican organizations at the national, state, and local level mobilize relief workers and reach out to other humanitarian organizations. Soon funding for earthquake relief found a supporter in Governor Toney Anaya of New Mexico. After getting both US Senators from New Mexico – Pedro Jimenez and Roberto Mondragon – to join him, Anaya led an effort that saw thousands of American citizens sending small donations – anything they had, from spare blankets and Band-Aids to pocket change – to the people of Mexico City. This would lead to a strong and friendly relationship developing between the people and governments of New Mexico and central Mexico as the years went by, culminating in Mexico City and Santa Fe officially becoming “sister cities” in 1995…

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


…Sir Billy Snedden is set to become Australia’s 22nd Prime Minister after defeating incumbent PM Manfred Cross by a very comfortable margin. Snedden, who won the 1983 Liberal coalition leadership election over Andrew Peacock and John Howard, likely won the election due to Cross’s unpopularity more so than Snedden’s active campaign. Cross’s approval ratings steadily dropped down to 41% on election day as he failed to defend his controversial introduction of a capital gains tax in May of this year…

The Sun, UK newspaper, 20/9/1985

The VP selection process took weeks because Denton wanted to carefully consider his options. He had no need to worry about electability because he was not forming a ticket, but instead was seeking out a competent and well-functioning first-mate who he could get along with professionally and as someone that he could call friend.

Going out the box a bit, Denton considered picking a fellow Alabaman like Senator Jack Edwards or former Senator Martin. He considered picking someone that the GOP would not miss being sent to 1 Observatory Circle, like Ron Paul, or Barry Goldwater or some other controversial lawmaker. He considered Charlton Heston and Mario Biaggi, both Democrats, but both declined. Denton even seriously considered nominating Harley Sanders at one point, only for the 73-year-old to take too long to respond, and he was passed over. Years later, I remember, Harley revealed in his memoirs that he had decided to accept the position when he was informed that Denton had already been convinced by his advisors to nominate someone else.

Because Denton’s advisors had sought out a member of congress, or at least a congressional connection, figuring that it would be easy to confirm one of their own. That led to their eyes passing over Governors and instead turning onto the House leaders – Kemp, Michel, Emery and Polonko. Of the four men, Kemp was the most conservative. A bit to left of Denton in some places, but not so much in others. Actually, it’s hard to pin down where Kemp stood politically, but to Denton, it was more important that Kemp was a team player.

– historian and former political strategist K. Christian Rove, KNN Interview, 2019


The Washington Post, 9/20/1985

On September 22, the FBI began a new investigations into claims that President Denton greenlit improper use of State Department funds in connection to the Buz Lukens “hush money” payment scandal. When asked about it, Denton strongly denied the “baseless accusations” from “a disgruntled former employee,” as the President put it. As the Justice Department expanded its ongoing Lukens investigation to include White house personnel, all members of the White House staff were one-by-one brought in for questioning...

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

CRISIS IN XINJIANG: China’s Expulsion of Native Muslims “Finally” Gaining International Attention

…the authorities are attempting to relocate millions of native inhabitants through heartless procedures that include separating children from parents. Millions of adult Uyghurs, the main ethnic group of the region, are being sent to prisons for refusing to move away to make way for Han Chinese newcomers attempting to flee from China’s highly-overcrowded coastal cities in order to resolve the country’s growing overpopulation crisis. …The children, meanwhile, are sent to state-run schools, including boarding schools and universities, with the intention of cracking down on these locals’ devotion to Islam. “Their orders are to assimilate them, to indoctrinate them into the mindset laid out by the state,” says one anonymous expert, describing how Red China’s government is doing essentially everything short of outright and direct brainwashing to control the masses within its. “They want to the next degeneration of Uyghurs to be loyal to the party above all else.” …Despite constant surveillance and threats of mass arrests and violence, many Uighurs are fighting back...

– Follow-up article to investigative reporter Don Bolles’ August expose, The Arizona Republic, 9/29/1985


The Chicago Tribune, 9/30/1985


…In a formal announcement, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration revealed that the U.S. will contribute to a non-military International Space Station project currently underway and led jointly by the U.K. and France…

The Miami Herald, 10/1/1985

Privately, Denton hoped that the latest developments by NASA would distract the media and their avid audiences from the scandals plaguing hid administration of late. He wanted to return the nation’s attention to “the more important issues of our times,” as his Press Secretary put it…

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

...In the world of sport, Gerald Sandusky, the defensive coordinator for the Nittany Lions football team, has died in a car accident. According to several eyewitnesses, Sandusky was pulling out of his driveway when a truck carrying metal rods for a construction site swerved out of the way of a third vehicle, most likely a drunk driver according to witnesses. The truck with the rods collided at a high speed with Sandusky’s vehicle, causing the rods to slide off the truck and into Sandusky’s car. Some witnesses have stated that Sandusky was run clean through by the metal rods, but out of respect for the Sandusky family we will refrain from releasing any such grisly details. …The death of Coach Sandusky comes shortly after the Rutgers’ Scarlet Knights almost upset Penn State in a college football contest held in the Meadowlands… Sandusky, 41, is survived by his wife Dottie and their six young children… “This is truly a tragedy for football and for sports. Jerry never hurt nobody,” says Rutgers coach Dick Anderson, a longtime colleague, former teammate, and mentor of Sandusky…

– NBC, local news report, 6/17/1985 [27]


Washington, DC – Vincent “Buddy” Cianci, the controversial Attorney General of the United States, has announced his resignation in order to “focus fully” on running for governor next year. The timing of the announcement is somewhat puzzling as it comes in the midst of continued investigations into the alleged misuse of government funds by the State Department in a “hush money” scandal …Cianci previously served as the Mayor of Providence from 1975 to 1981 as a Republican before being tapped for Attorney General in 1981, but due to his known independent streak, he has not confirmed that he intends to run as a Republican.

The Newport Daily News, 10/3/1985

Denton’s Deputy Attorney General Delwen Lowell (D. Lowell) Jensen of California, became his new Attorney General. Jensen immediately announced that he would oversee the “effectiveness” of the special prosecutor, Stephen S. Trott, in the Lukens Hush Money Scandal.


…Behind closed doors, however, certain members of the Denton White House were jumpier than others. In early October, White House Counsel Jesse Helms suggested to Denton that Communication Director Newt Gingrich should be fired for not keeping Denton informed of Lukens’ activities.

“I like the guy, I really do, but we have to think about what’s best for this administration – and that would be moving on from this farcical scandal,” Helms reportedly said. Despite Helms’ logic holding less logic than a sieve holds water, Denton eventually agreed that the Newt would, reluctantly, have to be thrown under the bus.

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


…the White House Press Secretary claims Director Gingrich “failed to properly monitor the activities of Denton’s cabinet members in a clear breach in his duties of communicating information to the President, and of promoting and developing the policies and ideals of the President to and with the members of the cabinet.”

The Washington Post, 10/9/1985


The Boston Globe, 10/13/1985

Lukens showed no remorse over his sexual relations. He even smirk once during a mid-October encounter with the press, in which he suggested he would face no major consequences for his actions. Then, just days later, more women finally came forward. It became clear from these further claims that the 1984 relations was not his first instance of sexual pestering. By the end of the month, seven women painted a lugubrious and sleazy picture. Lukens often fondled and groped low-ranking workers such as janitors and elevator operators, and even slept with interns going as far back as 1971. The alleged incidents of workplace misbehavior that occurred while he was Governor were all made ironic by the fact that he had run for Governor in 1970 on an “anti-pestering crusade,” rebuking politicians accused of “immoral behavior,” during the year of the Ms. Arkansas Wave.

Lukens again called the accusations to be all hearsay, but he no longer said it with a smirk.

– Radical feminist Catharine Alice MacKinnon’s More Than Words: Women’s Lives Under Men’s Laws, 1988


[pic: ]
– Buz Lukens, then Governor, visiting Washington, D.C. with two interns, c. October 1976

The U.S. Senate confirmed Kemp as the new V.P. by a wide vote of 71-28-1 on October 10. The U.S. House of Representative did the same a few days later, on October 18, by the even wider vote of 340-93-2.


As more women stepped forward, Lukens decided to file another lawsuit against Anna Mason, the mother of the 14-year-old, claiming that Mason had violated their nondisclosure agreement, essentially confirming Mason’s testimony. Lukens demanded Mason return the $100,000. Having never spent it, Mason instead returned the money directly to the State Department, taking a train to their headquarters in D.C. and dramatically slapping the check onto the receptionist desk.

– David Frum’s political textbook How We Got Here: The ’80s, Basic Books NY, 2007

Because of his business deals with wealthy clients around the world, Epstein traveled extensively. He kept fake IDs and passports for places such as Australia, Saudi Arabia, and the UK, in case of emergency. …In the midst of the social fallout of the Lukens Hush Money Scandal, Epstein, and Jean Luc Brunel decided to cut down on the frequency of their procuring and trafficking activities, but it seems this pledge was not enough to keep Epstein at bay, and in 1986, he got sloppy…

Jeffrey Epstein: Profile of a Monster, 1995 documentary


The Washington Post, 10/24/1985

...Abortion had not become a major topic of debate in D.C. until its inclusion in Buz Lukens’ non-disclosure agreement allowed it to rise to national prominence. Concurrently, the same agreement’s contents led to members of the religious right pushing even more rigorously than before for anti-abortion legislation at the state level in several liberal states, including in Senator Kennedy-Shriver’s home state. [16]. …Naturally, being a Catholic, President Denton was a firm opponent of Abortion, and denounced Lukens’ inclusion of “the very thought” in the non-disclosure agreement. The senior US Senator from Massachusetts agreed with the President’s views, as she belonged to America’s dwindling population of outspoken pro-life liberals. Like her church, she saw a continuity, rather than a contradiction, between championing the poor, the marginalized and the oppressed and protecting unborn human life [17]. Due to her years of work with the developmentally disabled, a group of Americans who had once been marginalized and hidden away – or lobotomized, like her sister Rosemary – was ushered closer to full participation in ordinary human life further and further each year Kennedy-Shriver spent in the Senate [17]. …In a late October 1985 CBS debate held on the subject between her and a pro-choice Republican political activist from California, Kennedy-Shriver famously remarked “A poor person has no right to kill their own child... I just cannot support the notion that someone being a burden on you is justification for you killing them. Every child has the potential, especially in this country, rise above the conditions of their upbringing, and every unborn child has the potential to live. This is the same reason why we don’t unplug every comatose patient. The potential and the right to live is still there in the coma patient, just as it is in the on-the-way baby.”

The New York Times, 2001 article


…in the first gubernatorial race to feature two female main-party candidates in the history of the Garden state, state senator Gloria A. Decker, a conservative Democrat from Phillipsburg, was elected Governor over state senator Barbara A. Curran of the Republican party. Former state senator Gertrude Berman ran as a liberal independent; together, the three women split the vote 54.5%-40.2%-3.1%, respectively, with the remaining votes going to all the other candidates on the ballot…

The Star-Ledger, 11/5/1985


…with roughly 75.8% of the vote going to Carol Bellamy of the Democratic party (and endorsed by the Liberal, Progressive, and Natural Mind parties of New York), the incumbent Mayor of New York City was declared the winner before midnight. Her biggest challenger tonight, US Congressman from Staten Island Gaetano “Guy” Molinari of the Republican Party (and endorsed by the Conservative party of New York) received roughly 20.5% of the vote, with several minor third-party and independent candidates dividing the remaining 3.7% of votes…

The New York Times, 11/5/1985


…state senator Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr., a Democrat, is the 60-year-old grandson of John Tyler, who served as US President from 1841 to 1845. Before election to the state senate in 1981, Governor-Elect Tyler was an attorney who shifted to a career in academia in 1967, and spent the succeeding 14 years teaching history at the University of Richmond and the Virginia Military Institute [18]. Tyler won over the Republican nominee, US Congressman Stanford Elmer “Stan” Parris, by a margin of 4% in a night that has been very fortuitous for Democrats…

The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/5/1985

On November 6, 1985, three vehicles carrying 35 M-19 Marxist guerillas drove to the Palace of Justice of Colombia, the judiciary center for the nation and the workplace of Colombia’s national court’s justices, and attempted to enter the basement while a second group of guerillas sought to storm the building from the front. However, American and UN security forces in the capital and at the building prevented the vehicles from entering, leading to the “basement group” opening fire and attempt to enter through the basement by force. Upon hearing the gunfire, the second group attacked the first floor, only to be met by counter-guerilla security forces. After two hours of firefighting, the US/UN forces repelled the outnumbered, outgunned and outmaneuvered M-19 Marxist guerillas, but not before their detonation of a “nail bomb” (explosives surrounded by scrap metal and other dangerous projectiles). In the end, 20 guerillas were dead, but so were 15 US soldiers, 12 UN security officers, and 4 civilian bystanders. However, U.S. intelligence soon afterward declared the attack on the building to be a “final stand for them,” as the fall of the USSR “has taken the air out of their tires.”

– Miguel LaRosa and German R. Mejia’s Colombia: A Concise Contemporary History, Chronicle Books, 2013

On November 9, Garry Kasparov defeated Anatoly Karpov in all-Russian chess match for World Chess Championship. The competition of strategy and intelligence lifted the spirits of the Russian people as they tried to move on from the Soviet Era and create a new chapter in their people’s history.

– Ivan Ivanovich Zassoursky’s After 1984: The Lands and Would-Be Lands of The Post-Soviet Era, 1985-2005, Milton Park Publishers, 2016


Scandal!: Mitterrand Had False Health Reports Published While President To Hide Early Cancer Diagnosis [19]! His Former Physician, Dr. Claude Gubler, Claims Mauroy Knew!

Le Parisien, French newspaper, 11/11/1985


…in a move celebrated by the BLUTAGO Zealanders nationwide, the new reform act legalizes the act of consensual sex between men aged 16 [20] and older…

The New Zealand Herald, 11/11/1985

A week after one chaotic calamity hit Colombia, another one arrived. On November 13, the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano violently erupted, killing at least 20,000 people, most of them in the neighboring town of Armero. The deadly tragedy’s high casualty count was avoidable, as seismologists had distributed maps of the likely lava flood zones over month before the eruption, only for them to be ignored by many local authorities who accused the scientific and civil defense agencies of fearmongering at a time of high-intensity guerilla warfare. UN workers already in Bogota immediately began the process of rescuing and treating injured survivors, but continued to deal with internal fighting as guerilla fighters accused the government of being corrupt and “dangerously inept.” It seems as if not even thousands of their fellow countrymen burning alive in lava flows could impede the violence. If anything, this as the moment when the UN decided to work more closely with the Colombian government to put an end to the guerilla warfare…

– Miguel LaRosa and German R. Mejia’s Colombia: A Concise Contemporary History, Chronicle Books, 2013


The New York Times, 11/15/1985


The Washington Post, 11/17/1985


…“In August or so of last year, Lukens spoke to Denton directly about paying off the mother of an underage girl he’d slept with back in June of last year. I was in the adjacent room when it happened, and I overheard everything. Neither Buz nor Jer spoke to me about it, though. They didn’t speak to me, and they didn’t speak through me. I’m just a scapegoat for them.” Gingrich has stated that he is willing to testify if called to do so…

The Atlanta Constitution, 11/19/1985


The Wall Street Journal, 11/20/1985

“Good riddance to bad rubbish,” Chief of Staff Richard Edward Schermerhorn said to Denton. “To think that Buz would consider aborting a bastard child – it’s disgusting! All life is sacred, including the lives of the unwanted,” the firm anti-abortion conservative expressed his beliefs to a disheartened Commander-In-Chief.

“Richard,” the President contemplated as he stared out at the early snowflakes beginning to stick to the window sill, “if I could misjudge Lamar and Buz, who else am I misjudging?”

“These past few months have been unsettling for all of us, sir. But the good thing about having an important job – like Governor, Senator, or President – is that not every call has to be made on your own. You still have us – Helms, Louie [Giuffrida], Curt [LeMay], me. And there’s at least one thing you have, Jer, that can’t be second-guessed – your morals. Your conviction to your principles. That’ll get us through this, Jer, you’ll see. You – ”

A buzz from Denton’s desk cut short Schermerhorn’s monologue. “Mr. President,” the personal secretary informed her boss, “Some F.B.I. agents are here.”

“Again?” Denton asked, “Listen, we already told them everything we knew about Lukens’ – ”

“They’re here for Richard, sir,” she quickly explained.

“Me?” the Chief of Staff’s eyes widened.

The agents were let into the room. Skipping the customary exchanges of pleasantries, the lead agent spoke directly to the Chief of Staff. “Richard Schermerhorn?”


“We have reason to believe that you directly interfered with a federal investigation.”


“Richard?” the President looked at his advisor with curiosity and shock clearly visible on his face.

“You need to come with us, sir.”

“For what?” Schermerhorn inquired.

“You need to answer a few questions for us, sir.”

By the end of that week, Denton was again questioning his judgement abilities, as Schermerhorn was ultimately arrested on the charge of directing assistants to destroy documents concerning the Lukens Hush Money Scandal back in late April of 1985. An FBI task force, performing a sweeping overview of White House activities in conjunction with the FBI’s investigations into the Lukens Hush Money Scandal, had received a tipoff from a former White House employee (a former paid intern for Schermerhorn) that the Chief of Staff had instructed employees to shred a “large pile” of document papers...

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

…In political news, another scandal has broken concerning a member of Denton’s Cabinet. This scandal features the Administrator of the Small Business Administration, former US Representative Thomas Beverley Evans Jr. of Delaware, and lobbyist and former nude model Paula Parkinson, the latter of whom is being accused of engaging in sexual favors in exchange for political influence…

– ABC News, 11/30/1985

After 21 years of Mitterrand, the scandal-riddled Socialist Alliance’s poor excuses for graft and cover-ups, and the ineffective multiple conservative parties not making things better, a general strike over another tax hike by President Mauroy to pay for social programs saw support for Le Pen and his National Front to rise even further as December 1985 began. Not even Le Pen’s claims that Mauroy was a puppet, that former President Mitterrand was controlling the Mauroy administration, and that “Mitterrand is also a puppet by being on the payroll of Jewish organizations, and particularly of the B’nai B’rith” [21] could slow his momentum as the weary post-Cold War people of France turned more inward. Some of his more avid followers even reportedly enjoy hearing news reports that Le Pen practiced torture on prisoners while in French army during the Algerian War of 1954-1962 [21]. Of course, Le Pen denied committing war crimes, but he also launched several defamation lawsuits over the reports...

– Jonathan Fenby’s The History of Modern France, Scholastic, 2015


New York City, NY – Michael R. Bloomberg, the millionaire founder and CEO of the data software company Bloomberg L. P. of New York City, has been formally served a filed class action lawsuit, the petition of damages laying out accusations of gender discrimination, pregnancy discrimination, and workplace pestering. The lawsuit was organized the legal representatives of a group of 23 female former and current employees of Bloomberg L.P., some of which are currently remaining anonymous. The women claim Bloomberg directly pestered them and supported a workplace environment at Bloomberg L.P. that they described as “aggressive” and “hostile” to female employees. [22] “Behind closed doors, in the office, he is constantly insulting to women he deems to be ugly,” says one member of the lawsuit, describing the CEO making “degrading comments” on various physical features on various women workers, and more than once telling a woman he deemed to be ugly to “kill it” upon being told that she was with child [23]. Bloomberg and a spokesperson for his company could not be reached for comment…

The Financial Times, 12/6/1985

…The FBI has announced that it is expanding its investigation into the Lukens Hush Money Scandal in light of President Denton’s November 17 firing of Special Prosecutor Stephen S. Trott …Also in political news, SBA Administrator Thomas Beverley Evans Jr. has stepped down over revelations concerning his years-long unprofessional relationship with a D.C. lobbyist…

The Overmyer Network, morning news brief, 12/9/1985

“The President knows that the people of this country are behind him and will continually support him over baseless accusations of wrongdoing.”

– White House Press Secretary Peggy Noonan, 12/9/1985

On December 12, House Majority Leader Bob Michel, with minority leader Hale Boggs, jointly announced the formation of formal hearings to clarify the extent of President Denton’s knowledge of the Lukens and Alexander payments. “We simply seek to determine for the sake of justice and clarification whether or not the President’s actions were unquestionably legal. If we is innocent, he has no reason to not comply with the legal process,” Michel explained, confident that the sooner the justice department cleared matters up, the sooner Capitol Hill could return to other matters. House Ethics Committee chairman Louis Stokes was chosen to co-head the hearings with House deputy whip David Emery, creating a bipartisan panel of experience legislators.


On December 16, Senate leader Howard Baker yielded to Democratic leader Robert Byrd’s demands and greenlit the formation a Special Senate Committee to investigate the extent of President Denton’s involvement in the Lukens Hush Money Scandal...

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988


…more advisory troops and supplies are being sent from the U.S. to Colombia as American military leadership takes the lead in an international effort to end the combination civil war/drug war conflict ravaging the northern South American nation...

The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 12/18/1985


The Chicago Tribune, 12/21/1985


– A Christmas-themed KFC commercial, circa December 1985

With a raspy voice, Lukens requested that the start of his newest trial – this time for the illegal use of State Department funds – be postponed in order for him to seek treatment for throat cancer. The former chain-smoker claimed he needed surgery to correct a saliva gland deficiency and trouble speaking. As his cancer was in the early stages and the “saliva gland surgery” was actually an elective therapy of sorts, the judge overseeing the case against him declined to delay the case – it was still set for January ’86. …In his later years, Lukens would try in vain to become a “poster boy” for various anti-smoking organizations...

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988

[1] Based on comments made by Igeo654 and President_Earl_Warren on page 31 of this thread!
[2] All of his positions here are OTL:
[3] Source 31 on his wikipage states “Alexander frequently shifted assets to his wife's name, yet such transfers are not legal under federal ethics and security laws,” so I don't think this is too implausible.
[4] Italicized parts are from Agnew’s wikipage.
[5] Similar to an OTL quote on his from 1973: “I think the country sure as hell forgot about Chappaquiddick in a hurry, and I think that’s worse than Watergate.”
[6] His wikipage states he ruled “in favor of three-strikes law; LGBT employment discrimination; and the eviction of substance abusers by their landlords,” and cites this article which goes into further detail on said subjects:
[7] italicized parts are from here:
[8] italicized parts are from Source 6 of Luken’s wiki page
[9] The timing/chronology of events here is based on how quickly things went down in OTL (Nov: event; Feb: story breaks; May: testimony; June: conviction)
[10] This oil was not discovered until 2007 in OTL!
[11] Microsoft had only released Windows 1 by this point in OTL (11/20/1985)
[12] The what? This!:
[13] Like it did in OTL.
[14] Who? Some guy who defended Lukens in court in OTL:
[15] An OTL quote he said to the US Senate in September 1981
[16] In case you missed it: As I mentioned in Chapter 27, the “Jane Roe” of Roe v. Wade (birth name: Norma Nelson) was killed by a jilted lover in October 1967; as a result, lawyers Weddington and Coffee failed to find a client whose case could be brought to the Supreme Court (leading to Weddington serving two terms in the US HoR, as previously mentioned), meaning abortion is still a state-by-state thing at this point in the TL...
[17] This/these italicized part(s) is/are from here:
[18] Age and OTL bio found here:
[19] OTL!
[20] They picked that age IOTL; I don’t know why… :confused:
[21] OTL, according to his wiki article.
[22] OTL:
[23] OTL, according to this QT politics video, near the 15:30 mark:
[27] It couldn't find a source stating that Sandusky began doing what he did any earlier than in the 1990s.

Also: @Bree, the Baltodome wasn’t built because Governor Mandel still pulled the plug on it in early 1974; ITTL, the recent oil shock creating a dip in the economy and renewing concerns over unnecessary spending were contributing factors on top of the OTL problems.
Post 46
Post 46: Chapter 54

Chapter 54: January 1986 – June 1986

“If you want to lift yourself up, lift up someone else”

– Booker T. Washington

“First the Vice President, then the Secretary of State, and now the Chief of Staff? This is a crime wave! And somebody’s got to wave back! Let’s Return Dignity To D.C.!”

– Mario Biaggi (D-NY), announcing his bid for a second term in the US Senate, 1/3/1986


…Governor Perot’s approval ratings have dropped down from 45% last month to 37%, lower than the 38% recorded in July 1985. …While Perot was elected on a platform calling for more domestic production and technology-driven innovation – being a longtime supporter of leaders of technological advancement such as businessmen Steve Jobs and Bill Gates [1] – the restricting realities of the limited office of the governorship of Texas have stymied his efforts to curb outsourcing to other countries such as Japan and, more recently, Mexico. In order to balance the state budget, Perot signed into law a substantial fuel tax (passed by the Democrat-dominant state legislature) in July 1984, raising prices for oil and at gas stations across the state of Texas. This, and his support of the Denton administration implementing cutbacks to Social Security, has alienated Perot from lower-income Texans. [2] …It seems that not even his June 1985 visit to Mexico, unsuccessfully calling for the nation to raise wages to match American wages, has improved his approval ratings… …Texans are also concerned over the Governor’s leadership skills. Perot has already gone through two chiefs of staff, both of whom claim Perot is “incredibly” unwilling to follow advice from others, insisting on full control of all gubernatorial operations – leading to multiple private and public feuds with the Lieutenant Governor over their respective levels of power in Texas – and Perot even forces staff members to sign loyalty oaths, according to several other sources [3]. If Perot does not resolve these issues, his prospects of winning re-election this November year will remain low…

The Antonio Express-News, 1/4/1985

Oprah Winfrey led the charge on the talk show front. Her half-hour morning talk program, WLS-TV’s AM Chicago, allowed her to share with her audience her own experiences of sexual abuse in the 1960s and 1970s as 1985 came to a close. Opening up like this made her audience comfortable enough to share their own experiences as well, and this gave strength to those who sought to confront those who have wronged them. This “Second Arkwave” catapulted Oprah to national fame seemingly overnight, a led to The Oprah Winfrey Show premiering on January 12, 1986.

– Feminist writer Eleanor Clift’s The Way We Never Were, Simon & Shuster, 2002

…The Ohio court jury found Lukens guilty after only an hour of deliberating. Soon Lukens’ instincts kicked in and he began to shout at the judge, but quickly calmed down after being threatened with being held in contempt of court. Eventually, he was escorted out of the courtroom, a scowl still on his face.

Lukens had pleaded guilty to bank fraud to receive a light sentence, but the former diplomat had found the reduction to be insufficient. The Judge had given Lukens a sentence of 180 days in jail and a fine of $20,000, plus an order for him to attend sex offender classes and to be tested for all known STDs for good measure. Some D.C. bigwigs and conservatives called the sentencing harsh; most pundits, however, held the opinion that Lukens had gotten off easy. The former Secretary of State appealed several weeks later for a shorter amount of time in prison, arguing that his throat cancer worsening. The lobbying was successful, by only partially – the sentence was only cut down to just 100 days, instead of Lukens’ preferred 60. Additionally, Bond was still set at $100,000, an amount set by a state bill signed into law by then-Governor Lukens in 1975…

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988


…due to the President’s past support for Lukens, congressional lawmakers are preparing for the possibility of the former Secretary of State being pardoned by President Denton. While the White House Press Secretary has stated twice earlier this week that Denton is not “even remotely considering” pardoning Lukens, U.S. Congressman and Senators are “not taking any chances,” according to our D.C. correspondent…

The Baltimore News-American, 1/15/1986


…incumbent Mauno Koivisto, 62, of the Social Democratic party won over Harri Holkeri, 48, of the National Coalition…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, side article, 16/1/1986

FBI DIRECTOR FELT: WH Counsel Jesse Helms “May Have” Lied To FBI Investigators

…also being questioned is other testimony pertaining to the extent to which former members of the White House’s inner circle, Richard Schermerhorn and Newton Gingrich, were involved in obtaining the “hush money” funds, as new evidence suggests that some testimony may have been perjured “under pressure.” When asked to elaborate on this, the FBI Director declined to due to it pertaining to matters of security and due to the “sensitive nature of the situation”…

The New York Times, 1/19/1986 report


[pic: ]

– painter Bob Ross signing autographs in Paducah, Kentucky, during a tour promoting his latest book on painting tips, c. January 1986


…Presidential speech writer Pat Buchanan began his new job as White House Communications Director just earlier today. At the same time, White House Counsel Jesse Helms was clearing out his office, having announced that he was stepping down from the position to “focus fully on helping federal authorities reconstruct the details of the questionable activities of former colleagues,” as Helms put it in a brief statement. In other words, Helms has agreed to cooperate with DOJ authorities investigating his role in the Lukens Hush Money Scandal...

The Washington Post, 1/22/1986

BELL: “Okay! So, what have you got for us tonight, Conspiracy Joe?”

JOE: “It’s being called the Denton Death Count.”

BELL: “Alright, first off, it’s called that by whom?”

JOE: “By me.”

BELL: “I see, and what is it?”

JOE: “A list of people that have all had connections to President Denton and are now all dead.”

BELL: “Alright, I’ll bite.”

JOE: “First off, Senator Walter Flowers of Alabama, a Democrat and early critic of Denton, who up and died suddenly on his 51st birthday in 1984. Then there the singer Elton John. He passes away, and now there’s a dead liberal for the anti-drug brigade to parade around just as anti-drug legislation is underway? How convenient.”

BELL: “But Denton’s platform in 1980 had an anti-recreadrug plank, and – ”

JOE: “And next is Congressman John East, who butted heads with the President while on an ethics committee, and then shot his brains out in early ’85.”

BELL: “Well he did suffer from depression from being paraplegic.”

JOE: “Don’t believe everything you hear, Art. Now listen – Senator Hubert Humphrey, a former V.P. and a big early critic of Denton, died last year, leaving Minnesota with a weak appointee. Senator Frank Church of Idaho – another big-time critic of Denton – died in 1984. Both of those Senator guys were Democrats. And don’t forget Phil Ochs – he wrote many songs criticizing the President, accusing him of war crimes for sending troops to Libya, then, uh, Iran, and then to Colombia – he also died in mid-1984.”

BELL: “Now hold on, there, Joe. Ochs was a drug addict who blew his head off with a shotgun because he thought an alien had crawled into it.”

JOE: “Which is just what a government implant would feel like! They were monitoring him, experimenting on him! The same thing happened to Bob Marley.”

BELL: “Oh come on! Where’s the evidence for any of that?”

JOE: “The government’s spies destroyed all the evidence.”

BELL: “Then how do you know it happened?”

JOE: “I know it happened because of the lack of evidence! Now, let me tell you about the strange and mysterious 1983 disappearance of Bob Lazar…”

– Host Art Bell and recurring caller Conspiracy Joe on KDWN’s late night political call-in talk radio program West Coast AM, Sunday 1/26/1986 [4]

“FOCUS FORWARD”: Denton State Of The Union Address Paints Optimistic Picture Of Current Affairs

…”America’s standing on the world stage give its citizens an unprecedented opportunity to make the world a better place, especially with the economic prosperity Americans are relishing in now, from Maine to Alaska, from San Diego to Miami. Now is the best time for giving back to our communities, when people can afford to contribute to charity, and to stand up for the oppressed, for there are less excuses now than ever before.”…

– The Detroit News, 1/29/1986

February 2, 1986: On this day in history, the U.S.’s Senate Middletown Committee, officially entitled the Senate Select Committee on Contentious Presidential Activities, began its nationally televised hearings; it was named after the Middletown, Ohio inn in which a woman known as Anna Mason was given and accepted $100,000 (funds that were illegally taken from the US State Department) for signing a nondisclosure agreement.



…Halley’s Comet, its last visit being in 1910, is expected to pass us on the 13th. Its next visit will not be until July 2061...

– The Overmyer Network, 2/9/1986 report

ANOTHER LAWMAKER IS “BUZZED OUT”: House Votes To Censor Rep. Packwood


While running for a sixth term in the House in 1980, Bob Packwood was eager to meet his campaign chairwoman for Lane County, Ore. The Congressman invited Gena Hutton to dinner at the motel where he was staying in Eugene for a get-acquainted meeting. Hutton, a 35-year-old divorced mother of two, had brought along pictures of her children and even her cats. Then it was time to go and Packwood offered to walk her to her car. "As I started to put the key in the car door," Hutton recalls, "he just reeled me around and grabbed me and pulled me close to him." For an instant, she thought he was offering a good-night hug. But then the Senator planted a full kiss on her lips, wriggling his tongue into her mouth.

Hutton's first reaction was shame: she didn't think she had given any hint of a come-on. Then she thought of the scandal that might ensue if Packwood, a married man, was recognized by a passer-by. Hustling him into her car, Hutton drove the
Congressman across the motel parking lot to his room, where he tried to talk her into coming inside. "You really don't want me to do that," she said firmly. Eventually Packwood retired alone.

"I knew, without a doubt, I was not going in the room," Hutton says. "I was mortified that he would be willing to risk his reputation and everything he'd done by sexually coming on to his campaign chairperson. It was so totally inappropriate."

A political novice in Oregon, Hutton hadn't heard the rumors swirling for years around Bob Packwood, the graying boy wonder and maverick of the United State
House of Representatives. Tales of Packwood's exploits as a masher, often involving members of his staff, had long been served up for the delectation of insiders, like canapes at a political cocktail party. In the years before sexual pestering became a national catch phrase in 1970, such incidents were usually winked away.

Then came
that change in at the dawn of the 1970s, that seismic shift in social values that relocated the fault line between what was private and what was seen as justifiably public. For Packwood, the shift finally caught up to him when the rumors acquired flesh and blood last November, when an article in The Washington Post cited 10 women who accused Packwood of making unwanted sexual advances, spanning from 1969, a year after an unsuccessful run for the US Senate, to last year. Amid angry calls for his resignation, Packwood fled from sight, checking into the Hazelden Foundation clinic for alcoholism in Center City, Minn. He had reportedly been drinking before several of the harassment episodes. In December, he reappeared at a nationally televised news conference and unenthusiastically apologized to his accusers, admitting "My actions were just plain wrong." At the same time, he testily refused to discuss details. "I'm apologizing for the conduct that it was alleged that I did," he said, an utterance that struck critics as a gem of obfuscation. …It seems that, if anything has become clear in the six years since Hutton’s agonizing confrontation, it's that the national debate over sexual harassment is far from over.

Is ardently kissing a woman goodbye, when a handshake would be expected, a form of harassment? Is telling a dirty joke? Is there a clear line between illegal harassment and simply an awkward and boorish pass?

Does it matter that most of the incidents in the Packwood case took place from the late 60's through the mid-80's,
years after society had seemingly widely agreed to condemn sexual pestering? Does it matter that among the women who worked for Packwood and are prepared to testify, no one is claiming the Congressman penalized her for refusing his advances, and that some even continued serving amicably in his organization?

54-year-old Packwood is cast in the unlucky role of lightning rod just when Washington, D.C. is under pressure to prove its newly awakened sensitivity to the issue of sexual pestering, following the rough, inquisitorial testimony of Anna Mason last year, which prompted 58 Senators and 112 Representatives to adopt anti-sexual-misconduct guidelines framed by the Capitol Hill Women's Political Caucus. Packwood, in an irony no one's failed to note, was an early signer. The fire from women's groups at late is now being fueled by a sense of personal betrayal. For years, Packwood, who is a socially progressive Republican, has been a strong supporter of women's causes. A leader of the abortion-rights brigades, he introduced the first House bill to legalize abortion in 1972, but was unable to attract a cosponsor. He has also regularly hired women to run his campaigns and to serve as his top aides. But after the first wave of news accounts, many more women came forward with accusations of sexual misconduct.

"He's not a warm and fuzzy person," says his ex-wife, Georgie Packwood, whose marriage to the
Congressman ended last December after 22 years and two grown children. She says her husband was never comfortable discussing intimate matters. It was probably no coincidence that he chose as his chief area of expertise the United States tax code. "The intellectual idea of tax reform is absolutely the most titillating thing in the world to him," says Georgie Packwood. "How it affects Mrs. Jones on 13th Street, he doesn't give a darn about."

Packwood lives alone in a two-bedroom basement apartment in Northwest Washington. At the time of his divorce, he testified that his combined checking and savings accounts held $700. He has never been driven by the need for money. Only power.

According to Packwood's accusers,
the Congressman’s advances consisted chiefly of dropping sudden, surprise French kisses on women, usually after forcefully seizing them by their arms or waists. The women, most of them members of Packwood's staff, lobbyists and campaign volunteers, deny sending any signals of romantic interest. When they acted shocked and resisted, Packwood invariably backed off.

Some of Packwood loyalists argue he's being judged ex post facto by newly sensitive standards. …"Not to say it's right, but there was a mind-set then that was totally different than today," says Ed Westerdahl, a member of the steering committee for Packwood's 1968 Senate race and his first successful run for the House in 1970. "Before the Ms. Arkansas Scandal, at parties, I'd see people doing much more than he's being accused of and nobody gave it a second thought. The pinching, touching, feeling was considered to be friendly, not pestering."

However, in the wake of the Ark Wave of 1970, Packwood's innermost circle continuously feared he might one day step over the line and create a genuine scandal. The scandal has arrived, and has led to Packwood being censored, isolated, and abandoned by his fellow Representatives.

– The Washington Post, 2/10/1986 [5]

“It’s my belief that – and this is right on par with the Denton White House’s lack of any government transparency – I believe Denton allowed, or approved of the money payment proposal in order to keep the incident from upending his re-election campaign. If Anna or Sidney Mason had talked before November, you know, gone to the press before then, it could have been curtains, he could have lost re-election, and we could’ve gotten stuck with, ugh, President Gravel. Blech. Denton allowed that non-disclosure agreement meeting to happen to protect us from suffering that kind of fate. That’s what I think.”

“But the Masons did eventually go to the press.”

“Yes, eventually. The non-disclosure agreement made them decide not to, but then they changed their minds.”

“Anna Mason testified she felt intimidated during the August meeting.”

“And Helms told me he would never stab me in the back. People can lie, you know.”

“Did you just call Anna Mason a liar?”

“No, I said people can lie. What really happened in ’84, we may never know, but I think the President did what he thought was the best thing for him to do, whatever that was, back when whatever happened had happened.”

– Newton Gingrich and interviewer, “exclusive” KNN interview, 2/12/1986

THE RISE OF LE PEN: Hard-Right Populist To Challenge Mouroy In Runoff For French Presidency

Tonight, the citizens of France partook in their septennial tradition of choosing whom should be their President. It results saw no candidate receive a majority of votes, requiring a runoff to be held on 28 February between the top two candidates. To the surprise of most analyst, the candidate of the National Front party outperformed his fifth-place standing in most polls to narrowly defeat Republican party nominee Jaques Chaban-Delmas for second place, meaning that he and incumbent President Pierre Mauroy will now face off against one another in two weeks’ time. …Despite Le Pen’s vitriolic past statements, he has amassed a coalition of lower- and middle- income voters, disgruntled and disillusioned by Mauory’s party’s own scandals and in his inability to capitalize on the economy. …The fourth-place finisher in the race was Valery Giscard d’Estaing (MRP), while the fifth-place finisher was Jean Royer (Conservative). The other candidates were Arlette Laguiller (Workers’), Rene Dumont (Independent), Michel Rocard (Independent Socialist), Marie-France Garaud (Centrist), Georges Marchais (French Communist Party (PCF)), and Michel Crepeau (Radical Party of the Left (PRG))…

The Guardian, 14/2/1986

…On February 19, 1986, New York’s Governor Mario Cuomo, running for re-election and wanting to show concerned constituents that he was politically closer to the liberal Democratic NYC Mayor Carol Bellamy than to the conservative Democratic US Senator Mario Biaggi of New York, allowed the state legislature to pass a Universal Health Care Bill…

– T. R. Reid’s Healing America: Medicine and Healthcare in the United States, Penguin Books, 2010

… The “People Power Revolution” of the Philippines began in earnest on February 22, 1986. The overall nonviolent wave of civil resistance and disobedience saw the national Armed Forces fail to carry out Ferdinand Marcos’ orders to disperse the crowds. …One dissenting activist was famously quoted as saying “we have KFC, but we don’t have freedom.” Such criticisms had in recent weeks renewed some greater focus on American companies doing business with controversial governments. KFC was especially criticized for basically shying away from their controversial neutral stance in the matter; Lee Cummings, the CEO of its parent company, Finger Lickin’ Good, Inc., repeated the cliché “no comment” over the next four days, while the company founder retained focus on the ongoing events in India and Washington, D.C. The situation was resolved for both American enterprises and the people of the Philippines three days later, on February 25, when, after nearly two decades of oppressive totalitarian rule, President Marcos and his family fled the country to exile in Hawaii. Corazon Aquino, the widow of resistance leader Benigno S. Aquino Jr., immediately became the nation’s new President. To make amends for his hands-off approach to the revolution, Cummings agreed to raise wages and family health benefits for all Philippine citizens employed by Finger Lickin’ Good, Inc. …

– Mark Pendergrast’s “For God, Country, and Kentucky Fried Chicken,” Perfect Formula Publishing, 2000

As February 28 approached, President Mouroy began to worry. Le Pen’s campaign was divisive and his rhetoric was often vitriolic, sure, but his treasury was growing faster, his base was more energized, and the uninformed and undecided voters of the nations seemed to eat it all up. In an effort to win over former backers of Jacques Chaban-Delmas and Valery Giscard d’Estaing, Mouroy attempted to moderate, only to lose support from the far-left. Mouroy then switched back to more left-leaning policies, angering moderate backers. The President seemed to be flip-flopping and thus failed the win over more support.

Le Pen, on the other hand, stood firm on his political positions, held on strongly to his beliefs, and utilized his eye-catching oration, folksy attitude and crude humor that touched the lower-class French voters. On Election Day, polls showed Le Pen trailing by only 4%; on Election Night, Le Pen was declared the winner by a margin of 2.8% (51.4%-to-48.6%).


[pic: ]
Above: Jean-Marie Le Pen

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999


– The Vestmanlands Lans Tidning, Swedish newspaper, 3/1/1986


…The new President of France, staying true to one of his key campaign promises, is beginning an efforts to get his nation out of the European Economic Community…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 6/3/1986

DUVALIER FLEES HAITI! 28 Years Of Family Rule Ends With Dancing Crowds As “Baby Doc” Goes To France!

…Like the people of the Philippines last month, the Haitian people are overjoyed as the nation’s dictator has finally relinquished power after several weeks of revolutionary turmoil engulfed the island nation’s streets with rebel warfare and riots… Duvalier has scurried off to France due to “Baby Doc” Duvalier “feel[ing] safe hiding behind Le Pen,” says one member of Haiti’s temporary emergency government…

– The Miami Herald, 3/8/1986


The New York Times, 3/10/1986

In early March, another scandalous revelation rocked the Denton White House. On the eleventh of that month, The Birmingham News reported that the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, H. Guy Hunt, has expended more than $500,000 of department funds for his own air traveling expenses, and for purchasing lavish items for his Alabama home, such as marble showers and custom lawnmowers [6]. The House Oversight Committee soon opened a bipartisan investigation into Hunt’s activities. By the end of the month, the Secretary had resigned from his post. He was succeeded by Reagan Veasy Brown, the former state Agriculture Commissioner of Texas.

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988

…I remember being sixteen and having this big argument with my parents. This back in, like, early March of ’86, so before my dad died that August... I’d been sucked into my generation’s hatred of the Republican Party, and I somehow got to arguing with both of my parents about Denton. I thought he should resign, at the very least, but Mom was adamant the President couldn’t be guilty of anything just by having that office. Patriotism is one thing, but blind patriotism is dangerous; false prophets have an easier time when that happens. On the other hand, maybe it was just a reaction to the amount of disrespect that young people, including myself, showed to Denton. …Like many parents who remembered the ’60s, my mother was really unnerved by how similar the anti-Denton protests were to the shoutnik movement’s anti-Johnson protests that President Johnson had had to deal with over twenty years prior. Mom hoped no more elements from that decade would come back…

– P. Davis Ryan, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) segment, 2006


– The Washington Post, 3/19/1986


…the man who allegedly fired a round of bullets at the President’s limousine motorcade at roughly 9:15 A.M. earlier today has been apprehended by a SWAT team unit collaborating with Secret Service…

– The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 3/19/1986


James Oliver Huberty – the detained man who allegedly tried to kill President Denton yesterday – was reportedly uncooperative with law enforcement officers during his interrogation in DC. Nevertheless, here is what we have learned about the man so far:

1. The alleged act was for “revenge” – Huberty reportedly told police that he wanted to “settle my debts owed to those who have wronged me.”

2. He claims to have acted alone – Huberty has not confessed to attempting to kill the President, but he has confessed “I let no one in on this.”

3. He once supported Denton – According to his former co-workers, Huberty claimed that he voted for Denton in 1980 and 1984, but had since grown to believe that the President’s “softness for China” had cost him his job in late 1985 to workers overseas (although his former employers claim that he was let go due to his aggressive behavior on the job). Furthermore, Huberty reportedly believes that Denton and the United States government were conspiring against him [7].

4. He believes the Endtimes are near – A relative of Huberty informed us anonymously that Huberty believed that the recent wave of “Potomac Scandals” were leading to the breakdown of society and the start of the apocalypse.

5. He is a former funeral director, welder and security guard – Huberty worked as a licensed embalmer during the 1960s, then for a welding outfit in Kentucky before moving back to Ohio in the late 1970s. He briefly failed to work as a “pimp” in Tiajuana in 1979. After that, he worked as a security guard. He then moved again in northern Virginia in 1983, where he found work in construction until he was fired five months ago.

6. He has a record of mental health issues and domestic violence incidents – frequent bouts of anger led to his wife leaving him, divorcing him and moving to another state with their two daughters, in 1977. After this, Huberty failed to commit suicide. Multiple former coworkers claim that Huberty was a quiet worker, “but at the same time always had an attitude problem,” as one put it anonymously.

The New York Post, 3/20/1986

Born in Ohio in late 1942 to devoutly religious Methodists, Huberty was emotionally crippled by his mother abandoning the family when he was eight years old. Temperamental and paranoid, he often made dark jokes about murder, and alleviated his consistent rage on the gun range. Fanatic of firearms since his early youth, his home contained no less than one gun every two feet, making his tiny Fairfax, VA apartment seem like it was haphazardly painted black.


Early in the morning on March 19, Huberty piled two semi-automatic rifles, one uzi, five handguns and 28 magazines and rounds into the back on his truck. He drove into Washington, D.C. looking for a something to shoot up. Approaching Constitution Avenue NW at 9:14 AM, Huberty spotted a motorcade of limousines flanked by motorcycles and deduced it was someone important. Not wanting to miss out on killing an important figure, fired a semi-auto upon the first limousine in the motorcade from his truck. Unbeknownst to him, the second limousine was carrying President Denton, and so the “important figure” in question went uninjured in the shooting. Huberty also was not aware that all Presidential limousines had been bulletproof since 1964.

The Secret Servicemen and D.C. police officers present immediately fired back when Huberty’s location was spotted. Not having the time to fire upon the rest of the motorcade, Huberty began to drive away. He received a minor shot across his left arm, and, believing he had killed the limo’s occupants, decided to “take the battle elsewhere.”

Suffering a mild limp, a permanent result of recovering from polio he contracted when he was three, Huberty drove his truck, police in hot pursuit, to a housing zone outside of Annandale that had recently lost funding mid-project, making for a graveyard of skeletal building frames. Huberty held his ground on the second floor of the first house, leading to an intense gunfight with police that culminated in a sniper winging Huberty him in the shoulder, causing him to fall from his “sniper’s nest.” Police immediately jumped him before he could reach another firearm. In total, seven law enforcement officers were injured, one severely.

– Ron Franscell’s Troubled: The Stories of Angry Men, Their Evil Plans & Their Violent Actions, Fair Winds Press, 2011

“Huberty turned to guns after his mother left the family. He is not an isolated incident. By encouraging mothers to abandon their families to pursue selfish careers, we are turning a generation’s worth of American youngsters into little Hubertys.”

– conservative activists, author and commentator Phyllis Schlafly, The Overmyer Network, 1988 interview

While physically unharmed during the kerfuffle, Denton’s private secretary wrote that the President behaved “in an increasingly paranoid” manner. Veteran White House staff members later claimed Denton’s behavior had “eerie similarities” to that of President Johnson after the latter survived an assassination attempt in November 1963. After surviving said incident, Johnson was the center of an infamous incident involving the President tackling a Christmas tree. “He [Denton] would stop in mid-sentence, and after a few seconds of silence, ask something along the lines of ‘did you here footsteps’ or “do you hear someone breathing,’” one former intern revealed in 2003. First Lady Katherine once allegedly found Denton trying to smash in a part of a load-bearing wall at the White House, believing a “damn journalist” was hiding behind it, though this claim has been disputed. Others, such as Denton’s oldest son, claimed the President was actually more sullen and distant than wiry and stressed-out, telling KNN in 2001 that the “perils” and challenges of the office were “beginning to overwhelm him and diminish his confidence in his judgement skills. Being that unsure of yourself can make you second-guess anything if not everything.”

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

Denton’s worries began to subside after Director Felt informed him on March 28 that the FBI investigation had confirmed that the “hush money” payoff funds had been entirely from Lukens’ State Department and not from members of the GOP’s Organization For Re-Electing Denton (OFRED). Upon hearing this – and upon being informally told by Felt that it seemed likely that the investigation would conclude within a few days or weeks – the President told Attorney General Jensen “You know, I really think our problems are almost over.”

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

…breaking news from Washington, D.C., where a former worker for Congressman Robert Packwood claims that the Oregon lawmaker has written documentation concerning the Lukens Hush Money Scandal. The former worker, who is currently anonymous, claims that Packwood has in his possession an extensive collection of diaries – diaries that include both his history of sexual pestering and a meeting Packwood had with Secretary Lukens and President Denton in August 1984 – allegedly, the same meeting in which Lukens and Denton discussed coercing one Anna Mason to sign a non-disclosure agreement and using State Department funds for it. If these claims are true, then it is possible that there is a first-hand, primary account of what exactly actually transpired in August 1984…

– The Overmyer Network, “Breaking News” Alert, 4/3/1986


…Nevertheless, the US Justice Department has given the embattled Congressman a subpoena for the diaries, while a House subcommittee has subpoenaed two members of Packwood’s inner circle to “clarify the situation.”…

The Washington Post, 4/4/1986

…In the midst of the media’s latest “smoking gun,” Senate leader Baker asked for advice from “The Lion of the Senate,” the respectable Richard Nixon. A man with a firm grip on how the Senate approached and addressed foreign affairs, Baker valued Nixon’s opinions. Remembering Nixon’s own head-butting with the media – from “checkers” to his unsuccessful bids for President in 1960 and for Governor in 1962 – Baker was certain Nixon’s view of the situation would benefit the Denton White House.

“Don’t let them get to you,” Nixon told his fellow Senate leader. “We just have to prove to them that the President is not a crook.”

Alone with me, Nixon laughed at the situation, calling it “ridiculousness.” He thought about his use of tape-recording equipment in his senate office, and said that they were “much more accurate,” “reliable,” and “much easier to hide or destroy if sh*t ever hits the fan” than “wimpy little diaries.”

By then, Nixon had expanded the number of people aware of his tapes to a total of five closely trusted individuals – Pat, [E. Howard] Hunt, Bebe, [former Secretary of State Carl] Curtis, and myself. Due to recent calls for Denton "just tell the truth" and "reveal whatever [he] know" in an apparent campaign for government transparency, not even his good friend The Colonel knew about the tapes (Nixon once said to me "We all have secrets that not even those closest to us know about. The Colonel refuses to share with me his secret herbs and spices formula, so why should I share these [his tapes] with him? The Colonel's a good man, I know, but, listen, he really doesn't need to know about this sort of thing, now does he?"...

– Bob Halderman’s The Haldeman Diaries: Three Decades of Tough Decisions and Tricky Dick, Barnes & Noble Press, 1994


[pic: ]
– former US Vice President, US Senator and elder statesman Richard Nixon, c. April 1986

…One policy from the Mitterrand and Mouroy years that Le Pen did continue and promote was the policy of decentralization, both for France’s remaining territories and for France proper. The creation of administrative regions to make the nation less centralized, and the placing of taxation duties, government spending, and other functioning aspects on the shoulders of local, municipal and provincial divisions allowed for greater autonomy and less dependence on the federal government…

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999

WrestleMania 2
was the second annual WrestleMania pay-per-view professional wrestling event that was the World Wrestling Federation and held on Sunday, April 6, 1986. The event’s use of three separate venues was criticized and is often blamed for its poor reception, but is now seen as an important lesson for WWF – ever since WrestleMania 2, all major WWF events have gone with just one arena/venue per event…


“With all the sh*t coming out of D.C., Americans needed an all-American persona like mine more than ever. [8] We as a nation needed renew our confidence in our country. We needed to keep strong the spirits of liberty, equality and justice for all.”

– Hulk Hogan reminiscing in a 2019 interview

Lee Cummings decided to become more involved in KFC by launching a product of his own design and labor. “Lee’s Famous Recipe Chicken” was more commonly known as “the Lee Special” in the Midwest; due to its fairly decent regional success, Cummings convinced Margaret, myself, and the rest of the board members that perhaps “maybe now is its time.” Lee’s “alternate recipe” received tepid approval from Dad over concerns that it was too similar to current menu items. This concern led to it being introduced in select outlets before being released nationwide. The new offering of a special combo deal of chicken, home-style fries, and biscuits to customers outside of the Midwest ended 23 years of regional exclusivity. While Lee’s own catchphrase – “It’s Lip-Smackin’ Good” – never caught on, the “Lee Special” had found its place in a niche pocket of KFC customers by April 1986.



[pic: ]
…The introduction of the Lee Special was paired up to be concurrent with the revamping of several menu items in 1986. These items were known for having poor sales records. For example, the original recipe for The Colonel’s Scalloped Tomatoes (above) was finally updated to a healthier alternative, leading to a sharp uptick its sales, especially in the southern U.S. and in several Latin American countries…

– Mildred Sanders Ruggles’ My Father, The Colonel: A Life of Love, Politics, and KFC, StarGroup International, 2000

Now, I am fully aware that there have been some concerns over recent sentiments that KFC is a “globalist” corporation when compared to Chick-fil-A, our largest domestic competitor, which has yet to expand outside U.S. states and territories. I am aware that Chick-fil-A’s sales rate has been higher of the past three years than our own. I am also aware, however, that Chick-fil-A has seen a shift in demographic that sharply differ from our own customer base. Chick-fil-A’s founder, a deeply devout Southern Baptist, has “pulled a Colonel” and has been in the news in recent years for supporting far-right conservatism and national figures such as Jerry Falwell and Paul Weyrich. This has caused many of our patrons and customers in deeply conservative areas such as rural parts of the Deep South to switch to supporting them over us. Additionally, their closing of all of their locations on Sundays and the fact that the company's official statement of corporate purpose says that the business exists "To glorify God by being a faithful steward of all that is entrusted to us. To have a positive influence on all who come in contact with Chick-fil-A[9] has won over many deeply religious consumers of fried chicken.

Our research department’s official report, which will be released on the 12th, shows that this trend has not negatively affected our sales. Nevertheless, there are fears of a loss of regional jobs. As the CEO of this company, it is my duty and responsibility to do what is best for the customers, the stockholders, and the livelihoods of all of this company’s employees past and present. As a result, to ease fears of layoffs, I am re-allocating marketing funds to four regional departments – KFC Deep South, KFC South Atlantic, KFC Florida, and KFC Texas – in order to boost sales with a an extensive ad campaign focusing on regional loyalty and KFC’s longstanding love for America and its values and ideals.

– KFC CEO Lee Cummings, KFC internal memo on KFC first-quarter sales report, KFC headquarters in Florence, KY, 4/9/1966


…In a 5-to-4 ruling, the U.S. Supreme Court will allow a White House plan to deny green cards to potential immigrants who may need government aid but may have no clear intent to become permanent residents of the US…The Department of Defense raised concerns in 1981 that “an overwhelming number” of people who immigrate to the US depend primarily or entirely on federal government assistance programs without clear intent of permanent residence. With Justices Fogel, Sneed, Nealon and Levi, and Chief Justice Frank Minis Johnson voting in favor of the measure, and Higginbotham, Bacon, Lord, and Brennan voting against the measure, the Denton administration is now set to impose higher limits on immigrants with “confirmed histories” of “excessive dependence” on government assistance programs in their previous country or countries of origin...

The New York Times, 4/18/1986

“There needs to be a paradigm shift – a fundamental change in approach – to how women, minorities, and immigrants are treated in the workforce. …We mustn’t lose our momentum. We mustn’t lose this fight for our rights. We mustn’t let corrupt and bigotry win the day, write the past, control the present, or decide the future.”

– Attorney and activist Janice Fine, Citizens for Justice rally, 4/19/1986


[pic: ]
– Kemp shaking Denton’s hand after a US Cabinet meeting, Friday 4/25/1986


…Governor Martha Layne Osborne today signed into law a bill to switch Kentuckian healthcare coverage to a “universal” model adopted by thirteen other states. The Free Universal Health Care “Pact” began in the 1970s as a response to issues concerning federal health insurance and health care laws...

The Lexington Herald-Leader, 4/29/1986

…Another politician to be “Buzzed Out” of an important occupation or role was Henry Hyde, a Republican U.S. Congressman from Illinois whose 1965 extramarital affair (between him and a married woman, leading to the woman’s husband divorcing her two years later) was revealed in late April 1986. Hyde called the affair a “youthful indiscretion” despite him being 41 when it occurred. When Hyde then refused to step down from the House Subcommittee investigating Denton’s alleged wrongdoing in the Lukens Hush Money Scandal, Republican House leadership removed him from it, reassigning him to a subcommittee concerning national parks and forests…

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

On May 2, we fed the media sharks another satisfying bucket of revelations. Our investigation had found that Packwood had destroyed his diaries prior to our searching of his congressional chambers, his apartment in D.C., and his second apartment in Oregon. The home of his ex-wife was also searched for good measure. What we found were the burned remains of diary pages in a wastebasket outside his D.C. apartment. Packwood was brought in for questioning but was not held as he was not yet formally charged with a crime.

The next day, Denton summoned me to the White House to inform me that I was fired. “Mark,” he explained politely, “you mishandled the overseeing of this here Packwood investigation. Your search took too long and the whole thing was very poorly executed. Very sloppy work.” I suspected, however, that Denton was using my agency’s failure to obtain the diaries as an excuse to fire me for my investigating of the Lukens Hush Money.

On the ninth, Denton nominated Assistant Attorney General Robert H. Bork to lead the F.B.I., passing over the traditional second-in-command, Associate Director James Blackburn Adams. Adams considered resigning in protest, but I convinced him not to do so.

On the twelfth, I received a cryptic letter in my mailbox…

– J. Mark Felt’s Looking For Light Under The Cover Of Darkness, Sunrise Publishing, 1987


The Dayton Daily News, 5/4/1986

…Tonight’s primaries for the Democratic and Republican nominations for Governor have yielded these official results. With a narrow plurality, Republicans chose US Congressman Bud Brown over state senators Paul Gillmor and Paul Pfeifer. Again, that’s Bud Brown for the Republican column, winning roughly 44% to Gillmor’s roughly 39% and Pfeifer’s roughly 17%. On the Democratic side, primary voters chose US Congressman Jerry Springer over state senator Richard Celeste by a roughly 7% margin. Springer, elected to the Buckeye State’s Second U.S. Congressional district in the Arkwave year of 1970, was a very notable and attention-grabbing candidate in this race, as he ran on the campaign theme of “brutal honesty,” admitting that he had on occasion visited brothels during his first two years in Congress, but quit after marrying in 1973. Apparently, such openness has worked. Springer has certainly captured support from voters looking for honesty from their elected leaders, especially in the wake of the Lukens Hush Money Scandal...

The Overmyer Network, 5/6/1986 news broadcast

As protests continue, talk of impeaching Denton begins in earnest in D.C.

The Boston Globe, 5/9/1986


…The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that the billion-dollar company has the right to refuse to divulge its famous 11-herbs-and-spices trade secret, citing the Fourth Amendment’s allusion to the right to privacy extending to businesses and well as to people, and the lack of evidence that the unknown elements “pose any significant, deadly, or dangerous threat to public health and safety,” as had been previously suggested…

The Wall Street Journal, 5/12/1986


…in response to the attack on the President’s life in March, the House is set to sign off on a bill that will demand that states and territories of the U.S. make would-be gun owners take some form of mental health test before being allowed possession of a firearm. The bill means to address concerns over the mental health of James O. Huberty, who possessed “an extraordinary” number of rifles, semi-autos, uzis and pistols despite suffering from known mental health issues, most notably violent bouts of senseless anger, episodes of blind and unfounded rage, and troubling thoughts of both suicide and homicide… Huberty is still awaiting trial for multiple charges…

The Chicago Tribune, 5/13/1986

Just days after the release of Top Gun [on May 16], the reputation of one of its producers, Don Simpson (b. 1943), came under intense media scrutiny. Simpson’s brash demeanor, constant drug use, and “colorful [10] and aggressive” rhetoric was an open secret in Hollywood, but the Second Ark Wave led to further exposure of his unchecked lifestyle of cocaine parties and S&M orgies. Formal accusations of threatening struggling actresses into having sex with him in exchange for film roles [11] prompted Paramount Pictures to remove Simpson from work being done on Beverly Hills Cop II later that month. After refusing to enter rehab, collaborator Jerry Bruckheimer terminated their partnership in June, and Simpson was fired by Paramount in July. Simpson was ultimately found guilty of two counts of sexual pestering in 1988...


…The congressional leader pondered further by adding, “an impeachment process, if one even occurs, would likely be on two counts of obstruction of justice – one for trying to limit an FBI investigation by instructing Attorney General Buddy Cianci to fire the special prosecutor, and another for firing FBI Director Felt for the same motive. Both of those firings could even be considered an overstepping of power”… “However, nothing is official, at least not yet anyways.”…

The New York Times, 5/22/1986

“The President can only be impeached for bribery, treason, or other high crimes and misdemeanors, and President Denton has not done anything even remotely close to any of those things. Period.”

– Roy Black (b. 1945), President Denton’s personal lawyer, during a KNN interview, 5/23/1986


…Theodore Bevry Olson, the 45-year-old Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Legal Counsel, is the officeholder who functions as a legal adviser to the President as well as to all the executive branch agencies, and so worked as an intermediary, or “middleman,” for the offices of Denton and Lukens...

The Washington Post, 5/24/1986

MILLIONS JOIN HANDS ACROSS U.S. TO AID THE HOMELESS AND HUNGRY: Reach Exceeds Grasp in “Hands Across America” Nationwide Event

…at least 5,500,000 people formed a winding and mostly-continuous human chain from San Diego, California, to Houlton, Maine. The major public event was created in order to raise money to fight hunger and homelessness worldwide, but with a focus on Africa and the US, as the event was organized by the “USA for Africa” program and the “End Food Insecurity” program, with support from “Sport Aid,” the Red Cross, and numerous other organizations…

The New York Times, 5/25/1986


…the bill was introduced in the House last month, in response to San Francisco’s city council announcing that they were leaning in favor of making it legal for members of the BLUTAGO community to marry each other within the city’s jurisdiction. …If passed and signed into law, this conservative bill would allow states to refuse to recognize any same-sex marriages granted under the laws of other states…

The Los Angeles Times, 5/27/1986

One of Denton’s most passionate defenders in the House was Earl Landgrebe, a Republican who had represented from Indiana’s Second District since 1969. A law-and-order Republican war hawk, Landgrebe refused to budge from his stalwart position, once famously stating on The Overmyer Network “No amount of so-called evidence is going to change my allegiance to my President. Show me an impeachable offense, and then compare it to the wonderful things for this country this man has done.” [12]


[pic: ]
Above: President Denton, c. June 1986
– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

I was told to meet her at the John Marshall Park at midnight. In some ways, it was like something out of a Humphrey Bogart film. However, the park was fairly well-lit in most parts, and due to its location next to the National Mall, it was not a secluded or secretive place.

Each time I received a letter, I followed it and the informant’s instructions carefully. This time, I sat on the third bench to the right of the northwestern-most corner.

Within minutes, I spotted her out of the corner of my eye. She stepped out from behind a tree and next on the bench behind mine. “Ricky.”

“Lucy,” I kept my eyes forward and my head down as we repeated our cover names (Her idea, not mine).

“Here,” she stealthily handed me an envelope, poking the left side of my torso as she slipped it through the bench rails.

How clichéd. Matches the trench coat, I thought. “What is this?”

“Information as to where Packwood hid his diaries.”

“Hid? Packwood burned them. The investigation found burnt pages in his garbage.”

“He only burned some of them. Not even half of them. And not The Big One.”

Curious, I inquired, “How on Earth is Packwood connected to Lukens and Denton?”

“Lukens and Denton have known each other since both were governors in the latter half of the ’70s. Packwood began a rapport with Lukens in early ’81 when Packwood was on a foreign affairs committee and had to meet with Lukens several times to discuss policy. They ended up also telling each other about their - heh! - their ‘sexual conquests,’ as Packwood referred to them as once," she quietly answered.

“But why did Packwood keep these diaries if they really are so damaging?”

“Pride in his exploits. Or maybe he indents to use them in his autobio.”

I pondered semi-seriously, “Maybe he planned to blackmail others with other entries we don’t know about.”

Judging by the ruffling sound across from my neck, I believe she nodded lightly. “Maybe. He tried to seek higher office before. Ran for the Senate in ’68 and again in ’74. No dice. Thought of running for President six years ago, but nixed it due to his severe drinking problem. Then he tried to become Denton’s running mate, and then tried to become VP last year. He was even going to try to run for House Speaker next year, or possibly even for President in ’88. You’d think, given how conservative the party’s becoming, he’d have given up that ghost years ago.”

The character assessment matched what I knew of the man.

With a sigh, my mysterious contact added “He seems to have forgotten why he got into this game to begin with.” After a pause, during which I must only assume that she checked her watch, she said, “I’ve got to run,” and hastily traversed the park. I turned around in time to see her move past the tree line and disappear around the corner.

– J. Mark Felt’s Looking For Light Under The Cover Of Darkness, Sunrise Publishing, 1987

“…It is absolutely shameful that Democrats are actively discussing introducing articles of impeachment against the leader of our country for something that can’t even qualify as a high crime or misdemeanor, and after surviving an attack on his, no less! …This unreasonable behavior has undeniably doomed their midterm prospects…”

– Rush Limbaugh, KFBK-AM radio, 6/10/1986

“I think the President of the United States should let the judicial system run its course. Political interference and persuasion have no respectable place in a court of law, even if that court is the senate, as it so happened to become 118 years ago, when President Andrew Johnson was tried and acquitted in 1868. The importance of placing law above political allegiance is why I have high regard for Congressmen Stokes and Emery, the Chairman and Co-Chairman, respectively, of the bipartisan House Ethics Committee. Stokes oversaw the ABSCAM scandal, and has consistently proven himself to be a man of strong moral character. …If politics do end up impeding the system of due process, do not worry – the United States Supreme Court can review an unfair impeachment trial…”

– Robert Swan Mueller III, assistant US Attorney for the District of D.C., while on a CBS panel, 6/11/1986

The 1981 repeal of the F.E.C.’s Fairness Doctrine, which required radio stations to provide coverage of both sides of an issue, or, at the very least, provide free airtime for responses to any controversial opinions broadcast, allowed pro-Denton stations to support the President without needing to even include any opposing viewpoints. This liberated the members of both the far-right (Rush Limbaugh, Larry McDonald, Pat Robertson and others) and the far-left (Bern Sanders, Noam Chomsky, and Pete Diamondstone) to express their thoughts on the Great Potomac Scandals of the mid-1980s without any counterarguments. Unfortunately, this exercise of the First Amendment could be, at the least partially, responsible for the rise in political extremism that occasionally plagued the 1980s and 1990s.

The most notable early example of this would be the actions of the right-wing extremist David Lewis Rice (b. 1958), who, on June 13, 1986, bombed a synagogue in Seattle. Rice, an anti-Semite who believed Israeli agents to be behind the then-recent scandals in D.C., planned to detonate the bomb on Saturday the 14th, when the building would be full of people practicing the Sabbath, but accidently clicked the triggering mechanism while planting the bomb, killing only himself and damaging much of the building. The incident sparked another wave of activism as the city community came together to support the local Jewish population and fund the rebuilding of the synagogue. Nationally, conservatives distanced themselves from the radio programs of which Rice had known to be an avid listener. Limbaugh was not one of those programs...

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

…After months of student demonstrations in the capital of Tirana calling vehemently for free elections, the new leader of Albania, Ramiz Alia, agreed to their demands. He privately admitted that his slow and steady attempts to gradually introduce economic reforms and open diplomatic ties to Western Europe is taking too long to yield results. The elections were set to be held in less than a year, giving Alia ample time to make his case for “moderate progress” to the people of Albania…

– Tajar Zavalani’s The Albanian People: A Fiery History, London Books, 2015


The Washington Times, 6/17/1986


[pic: ]

– Colonel Sanders leading a prayer group, c. June 1986

“The battle for justice is underway, but it must pick up its pace! We cannot allow the Republicans to run out the clock! Why we must branch out to the suburbs. To the ‘family people’ who think that somehow these Dentonian Scandals in no way affect them or their families. Except Dentonia does. It affects all of us, and all of us have to be aware of that. This is organizing 101, people. We must always be able to identify the specific forms of power we have and then learn to concentrate it in specific tactics while at the same time expanding it through building the organization. [13] We have the moral power, we have the informative power, we have the media power, and we have the influential power needed to finally bring forth justice, to right what Denton has wronged, and to make Denton be brought to trial and pay for his crimes. To prove to all whom seek to abuse the American people that the American people will never stand for it! Through the expansion of this organization we shall see Denton buckle under the pressure of our voices calling for justice to prevail!”

– Janice Fine, at a Citizens For Justice rally in Washington, D.C., 6/23/1986


…His 1984 song “Jailbait” does exactly help with lines such as “Well I don’t care if you’re just thirteen, you look too good” [L1], neither do other offensive songs such as “Drinking Tap Water In Mexico” and “Each Black and Blue Means ‘I Love You’”…

– The Associated Press, 6/25/1986 [14]

…As the Senate prepares for summer break, the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Bill remains lingering. The Senate Democrats are keeping this large defense restructuring bill under Committee Consideration indefinitely. In other words, they are using it as a bargaining chip against the

President. The Senate Democrats are fully aware that Denton has the votes to get the bill passed, but hope to win some of them over. …For the continued protection and safety of this nation, spend this summer writing to your Congressman and to both of your Senators. Hold them accountable for their actions by demanding that they support the Department of Defense Reorganization Bill…

– The National Review, late June 1986 issue


…in the middle of an argument with CBS correspondent Leslie Stahl during an on-air political news segment, Congressman Earl Landgrebe (R-IN), 70, stopped angrily criticizing the Senate Middletown Committee, grabbed his chest, and collapsed out of his chair, leading to CBS cutting to commercial. …Landgrebe was rushed to a local hospital… he is expected to recover due to the quick actions of paramedics and EMTs…

The Kokomo Tribune, Indiana newspaper, 6/29/1986

[1] According to Source 21 on Ross Perot’s wiki page
[2] Policies that he supported according to his page on that “ontheissues” website, and according to Source 30 on his wiki page:
[3] According to Sources 32 and 33 on his wiki page (see Source/Note 2 for link).
[4] The character Conspiracy Joe is inspired by Conspiracy Bob, a frequent caller on N.J.’s 101.5 radio station back in 2011 or so. Also, the radio program Coast-to-Coast AM was founded by Art Bell and Alan Corbeth in 1978 as KDWN’s late night political call-in talk radio program entitled West Coast AM, and they renamed it “Coast-to-Coast AM” in 1988.
[5] Okay, so apparent from the un-italicized edits, this entire chunk of this chapter is from here:
[6] OTL!
[7] From here:
[8] During the early 1980s, “The WWF became the most colorful and well-known wrestling brand to children because of its child-oriented characters, soap opera dramaticism [sic] and cartoon-like personas. Most notable was the muscular Hulk Hogan, who marked the 1980s with his ‘all-American’ persona. His sheer size, colorful attire, charisma and extravagance made his main events into excellent ratings draws. By January 1984, Hogan's legions of fans and his dominant role in the industry was termed ‘Hulkamania,’” as pulled from here:–2001)
[9] Line found here:
[10] Possibly (likely?) anti-Semitic:
[11] Apparently, this guy was the Harvey Weinstein of the late ’80s/early ’90s IOTL!:
[12] He really did say the italicized parts, though about Nixon, in a 1984 interview IOTL.
[13] PRIMARY SOURCE! Janice Fine was my professor in college, and I can confirm that she really did say this at the beginning of the January 2018 semester!
[14] OTL song and OTL lyrics
Post 47
Post 47: Chapter 55

Chapter 55: July 1986 – December 1986

“We are commanded to always overcome evil with good”

– Romans 12:21

The first Farm Aid benefit concert was organized by Willie Nelson, Neil Young, and Jeff Bridges and led by Bob Dylan in an effort to end the mortgage debt of American farming families and to address “food insecurity” concerns in rural parts of the country. In response to the money raised during the original September 22, 1985 concert, and as its organizers began to understand the complexity of the issues, a second one was held on Independence Day ’86, starting an annual tradition.

For “Farm Aid II,” the venue was the Manor Downs Racetrack in Manor, Texas. The lineup was an impressive assemblage of a wide variety of bands and singers: The Beach Boys, Tommy Chong, Jim Croce, Bob Dylan, The Grateful Dead, Elvis Presley, Julio Iglesias, Rick James, Waylon Jennings, Kris Kristofferson, Nicolette Larson, Gordon Lightfoot, Willie Nelson, Tom Petty and the Heartbreaker, Queen, C.C.R., Steppenwolf, The Unforgiven, Joe Walsh, Neil Young, Frank Zappa, and Led Zeppelin (in alphabetical order).

Wanting to help out his farmers too, Colonel Sanders donated $1million and convinced his company to (albeit slightly) raise wages and benefits for employees of KFCs in rural communities in order to more directly alleviate low-income communities. To this end, the Colonel also convince his good friends Richard Nixon and Jerry Lewis to get involved in the cause as well. While Lewis donated $100,000 and promoted Farm Aid II in a TV promo aired ahead of the concert, Richard Nixon used his power over the Senate to “beef up” the 1987 federal budget for the US Department of Agriculture.


[pic: ]
Above: Farm Aid II, before attendance peaked.

– Josh Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

The “Food For All” Movement, as it was beginning to be called after that, began to focus on the political side of things as the midterms neared. I think Human rights activist Cheri Lynn Honkala said it best at an anti-hunger rally, when she was lambasting Republicans who had supported cutting funding for Food Stamps and other anti-hunger programs: “If you are not with us on ending hunger, we are not with you on re-election.”

– Jim McGovern, 2009 interview

Presidential Approval Rating
Yes (Approve): 39%
No (Disapprove): 45%
Unsure: 16%

– Gallup Poll, 7/5/1986

On July 6, the FBI revealed that a collection of diaries belonging to Congressman Packwood, with entries from both July-to-December 1984, had been discovered in a search of a P.O. Box belonging to a “William Robert Woodpack” in Grants Pass, Oregon, a city within Packwood’s congressional district. The tape was obtained under the direction of acting FBI Director Adams. …As the diaries returned to the public spotlight, Senate leaders decided to hold off on confirming Bork for the position of permanent FBI Director “just yet”…

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988


…With balloon, streamers, free samples and a surprise visit from The Colonel himself in his first-ever trip to Moscow, the first Russian KFC outlet marks the first time an American capitalist enterprise has opened up shop in Russia since 1917. …The outlet’s grand opening comes at least two full weeks before McDonald’s plans to open their own outlet 0.5 kilometers (0.311 miles) away (McDonald’s was set to open last month, but a zoning conflict and a local business concern stalled construction earlier in the year). …“A landmark achievement and a symbolic confirmation that the free market system has been victorious in its fight against Russia’s former political ideology,” says former US Secretary of Commerce Milton Friedman, “this grand opening is a testament to capitalism and its limitless possibilities when paired with human ingenuity and perseverance.”

The Los Angeles Times, 7/17/1986

“Denton wanted [Special Prosecutor] Trott to keep investigators away from what Denton called ‘sensitive information,’ which if you ask me, is pretty suspicious behavior. …I think Denton knows more than he is letting on. …Maybe he [the President] should testify before the Senate Committee. I mean, if he’s so innocent, then what’s the problem, right?”

– Republican nominee for Rhode Island governor Buddy Cianci, KNN interview, 7/18/1986

…In Washington, D.C., the F.B.I. has declined to publicly release the Packwood diaries, sparking speculation as to the nature of the contents found within their pages…

– ABC News, 7/19/1986

Boldly Into Hell
is a 1986 American action/drama war film directed by Clint Eastwood. It is based on a chapter of a 1981 anthology book on POWs that discussed the experience of future US Navy Admiral John McCain III, who, after taking out the Castro brothers in a bomb raid, was shot down over enemy territory and spent 11 months in a Cuban POW prison before leading a successful “jailbreak” and surviving several days in the Cuban jungles before returning home. Bruce Willis played McCain in a breakout role for him. The film premiered on July 19 and was a success with critics and audiences.


Variety called it a “captivating and harrowing story of perseverance and survival,” while The Atlantic wrote it “will remind you what this country is all about…a moving tribute to former P.O.W.s and their families.” The real-life McCain, who was called on to approve certain segments during production but was not otherwise heavily involved in the film’s production, voiced approval of the finished product. McCain would even use the film’s title for his 1996 autobiography…


…The film’s central character was a breakout role for actor Bruce Willis, who went on to have an extensive career in a variety of projects. The film also boosted the career of actor and future Oscar winner Hector Elizondo, who played Valladares, McCain “first mate” in the prison…

GUEST HOST ALAN MASSENGALE: So what you all think of the big news coming from the Houston Astros? It seems their pitcher, the right-handed George W. Bush, has decided to retire after the World Series. Any thoughts, gentlemen?

GUEST 1, SAL MARCHIANO: Well I’m somewhat surprised. I mean, he’s not that young, but I thought he had a few more years in him.

GUEST 2, LEE LEONARD: Yeah, I mean, he just turned 40 on the sixth.

MASSENGALE: Well, apparently, Bush wants to try and stop drinking, as past alcohol-related incidents have been embarrassing and stressful to his wife, Tricia Nixon Bush.

LEONARD: Oh yeah! I remember the time he tried to ride a horse while drunk. He almost broke his neck falling off it.

MARCHIANO: Ah, he’ll be fine. He’s the son-in-law of the most powerful man in the Senate, for crying out loud.

– WPHL-TV discussion, 7/24/1986


…Clarence John “Bud” Brown Jr. has represented Ohio’s seventh U.S. Congressional district since winning a special election in 1965, after his father, Congressman Clarence Brown Sr., died in office. …Brown greeted news reporter Mary Anne Sharkey, who had arrived for a scheduled interview, with the statement "step into my parlor and take off your clothes” [1] …and a similar incident happened roughly a week later with a campaign staff member…

The Chicago Tribune, 7/25/1986


Rep. Brown Still Claims Incidents Were “All…Simple Misunderstandings”

The Washington Post, 7/28/1986

…In confidence, Brown told his personal secretary that “If the liberals are going to take me down, then I’m taking with me as many of their beloved idols as I can.”

On the 29th, Brown accused fellow Congressman Neil Goldschmidt of using funds to cover up an affair that Goldschmidt had had with an underage girl during the 1970s, in a speech in which Brown claimed “there are two things D.C. never runs out of – hot air, and backs that can be stabbed.” ...As the evidence against him mounted, Goldschmidt withdrew from his own gubernatorial bid soon afterward…

– Jack N. Anderson and Katharine Graham’s Discretions & Disgrace: The Great Potomac Scandals of the Denton White House, Simon & Schuster, 1988

“Seriously, did men in power learn nothing from Ms. Arkansas?”

– D.C. lawyer, feminist and progressive Human Rights activist Janice R. Fine, Meet the Press interview, 7/29/1986

“In early August, Denton discovered that I was still friends with Hunter S. Thompson [2]. In a rash fit of paranoia, he came to believe that this meant that was ‘the insubordinate’ that had informed the press about Chief of Staff Schermerhorn, and/or the other indiscretions that had seemingly slipped past his vigilance. So he fired me, too!”

– former White House Communications Director (1986) and author of the book “Me Too! My Truncated Time in the Denton White House” Pat Buchanan, 2015 interview

Presidential Approval Rating
Yes: 35%
No: 49%
Unsure: 16%

– Gallup Poll, 8/4/1986

COLONEL SANDERS: Denton Should “Take It Like A Man”


[pic: ]

Washington, DC – Former President Harland "Colonel" Sanders is receiving some controversy for using allegedly “sexist” language when describing President Denton in a radio interview in the nation’s capital. Sanders, age 95, remarked the President Denton “Has to confess to what he’s done. He has to come clean and face the consequences and take it like a man.” Sanders also said that Denton should “man up” during the ongoing scandals plaguing the current White House administration…

– The San Francisco Chronicle, 8/5/1986


…the former candidate for Illinois’s 14th U.S. Congressional seat, Dennis Hastert, has been accused by several separate individuals of sexually pestering students during his time as the football and wrestling coach of Yorkville High School during the late 1960s and all of the 1970s…

– The Washington Post, 8/6/1986

By the mid-1980s, Epstein’s variety of clientele allowed him to travel often between the US and several places in Europe and Southwest Asia. With fake IDs for Australia and Saudi Arabia, thousands in cash, plus diamonds and other transportable riches, Epstein was ready to leave at a moment’s notice. On August 11, Epstein had just finished a business meeting with Saudi Arabian businessman Adnan Khashoggi when he received a phone call on his private line. His longtime associate, real estate investor Tom Barrack, called him to inform him that police had obtained incriminating evidence on both of them. Encouraged and emboldened by the Second Ark Wave, Barrack’s own personnel had handed over Barrack’s private tapes to police, and officers were on their way up to Barrack’s penthouse to arrest him. Barrack warned Epstein that police would be meeting with him soon, too. Epstein had another idea – he had a plane to catch.

Jeffrey Epstein: Profile of a Monster, 1995 documentary


Associate Arrested; Staff Claim “This Is Not The First Time This Kind Of Thing Has Happened”!

…wealthy financial consultant Jeffrey Epstein, 33, is wanted in connection to video evidence showing a man identified as Epstein with two accomplices, likely assistants, and two girls, estimated to be roughly 13 and 14 years old [3]… The jarring photographic evidence of battery, rape, and sexual abuse was captured on a hidden camera in the private bathroom of the apartment belonging to real estate investor Tom Barrack. Barrack’s security personnel handed over the tape to police upon the two girls informing their parents of the incident and its location… Barrack has been arrested on suspicion of filming people without permission. Epstein is wanted for questioning…

The New York Post, 8/11/1986

Epstein had decided to flee to a nation without an extradition treaty with the US, and live off the millions he had stored away in offshore accounts. In his hurry, the pilot of his private plane failed to close the landing gear, creating turbulence problems. 17 miles east of New York City, the pilot attempted to climb higher, in order to minimize damage from closing the landing gear in mid-air. Unfortunately for Epstein, the pilot was inexperienced and climbed too quickly. The engine stalled, and the plane began a sharp decline. The pilot steadied the plane at low altitude and managed to keep it steady at first, but it was not enough to stop the plane from crashing into the ocean after another minute of flight. At its speed and velocity, it was the equivalent of a bus hitting a concrete wall at 90 miles per hour.

Somehow, he beat the odds. As Epstein was in the back of the plane, he survived – barely. In the destruction of the plane, Epstein’s right foot was ripped off and his left arm was dislocated from its socket. He received lacerations to his back and burns to his face and crotch. Epstein clung to debris from the tail section of the plane as the rest of the vehicle, and its pilot, sank down into the choppy waters. Epstein remained on the wreckage – tying his belt to a piece of metal at some point – until he slowly bled to death from his injuries. By the time the Gulf Stream had washed his body and the wreckage it was still laying on onto the shore of Barrington, Nova Scotia, on September 23, seagulls had eaten his eyeballs, and algae had begun to grow around his leg stump and crotch. As lacerations were found around his neck, the official cause of death was ultimately ruled to be suicide.

A sickening demise for a sickening individual.

Back in New York City, the disappearance of Epstein led to the cooperation of his employees in locating additional evidence of the malicious millionaire’s machinations. In his short time as the manager of his own investment firm, connections he had made with elite businessmen had led to no less than 15 other victims of what Epstein and associates were trying to turn into a major human trafficking operation, only to be stopped by their own employees who, swept up in the anti-pestering feelings of the times, decided to do the right thing.

Jeffrey Epstein: Profile of a Monster, 1995 documentary (part of a larger series on the Second Ark Wave)

The calls for North Ossetia to become united with Georgia’s South Ossetia region increased in volume throughout the post-Soviet years until South Ossetia’s governor declared the Georgian region to be an independent country on August 14, 1986. Fearing this would only encourage talks of secession continuing on in North Ossetia, Volkov put the less active secession movements of Kalmykia and Bashkortostan on the back burner and deployed national troops to North Ossetia. This troop deployment, however, only heightened fears among locals of a return to “the old ways,” and support for Volkov and Russia soon dropped even further in the region.

Soon guerillas demanding the recognition of South Ossetian independence began actively attacking local police in order to intimidate the Georgian government into submission. They were met with hostility as Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia launched a “counter-terrorism initiative.”

…Of all the post-Soviet Russian region contemplating secession, North Ossetia had a decent population favoring the nation, was not that low on military weaponry or military experience, had diplomatic relations with South Ossetia – to the point that there was talk of the two regions unifying into one entity if both managed to secede – and had fairly a decent geographic location, nestled within the Caucasus Mountains…

– Ivan Ivanovich Zassoursky’s After 1984: The Lands and Would-Be Lands of The Post-Soviet Era, 1985-2005, Milton Park Publishers, 2016

Senator Nixon dissuaded Denton from sending troops overseas to Georgia, telling him, “It’s been too soon since the collapse of the Soviet Union for us to be making our moves on Red Russia’s remains.” The US government was still trying to maintain trust and an unfortunately-uneasy sense of camaraderie between them and the fragile Volkov government. Sending troops to a nation “right on Volkov’s doorstep might be taken the wrong way, even with a phone call telling them otherwise.” Instead of intervening in the region militarily, the US instead offered diplomatic assistance to Volkov, Gamsakhurdia, and the leaders of North and South Ossetia. Volkov politely declined, saying “international intervention for a local issue like this.” US-Russian relations were maintained, but the hostilities in the Caucasus continued nonetheless…

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

Presidential Approval Rating

Yes: 38%
No: 48%
Unsure: 12%

– Gallup Poll, 8/15/1986


The Washington Post, 8/16/1986

On August 19, 1986, former Governor Thyra Thompson defeated incumbent Governor Dick Casull in the Republican primary, 70%-to-25%. The results made it clear that Wyomingites had not forgiven Casull’s previous attempts to get rid of the state’s Permanent Mineral Fund. The PMF worked with the federal NITR to supplement income for the state’s poorest residents, many of whom were Republicans who did not care for Casull’s “small government” ideology when it negatively interfered with their finances.

Welcome to the Big River Flat: The History of Wyoming, Victory Publications, 2019


[pic: ]
– Painter Bob Ross, helping a nonprofit organization build affordable housing for low-income families in Fairbanks, Alaska, c. late summer 1986

Presidential Approval Rating
Yes (Approve): 35%
No (Don't Approve): 47%
Unsure: 18%

– Gallup Poll, 8/25/1986

…Gaddafi’s sentence of incarceration was unique because he was recognized as an international criminal. As a result, his trial sparked a conversation at the United Nations that ultimately led to the UN Detention Unit being established in Helmond, a city in the province of North Brabant in the southern part of The Netherlands, in 1991. In the meantime, Gaddafi began his prison term at Guantanamo Bay, a US Navy Base located in Cuba. …Gaddafi was relocated to Helmond in 1992…



Stars and Stripes, US military newspaper, 8/30/1986

…a federal circuit court has thrown out a case regarding Congressman Packwood attempting to keep the FBI from publicly releasing copies of his private diary. Packwood argued that it was a violation of his First-Amendment rights and a violation of his privacy, but the judges disagreed, stating that the materials in question are admissible as evidence in a federal court of law…

– CBS News, 9/2/1986 report


…“President Denton always had the best of intentions. However, as he aimed to be another George Washington, he has instead ended up another Warren G. Harding,” Murphy said in a sharp rebuke of the Denton White House’s “gross misplacement of priorities”...

The Austin American-Statesman, 9/4/1986

ANCHOR: …Well it seems that not even Alaska is immune from political controversy, as a Democratic nominee for governor is in hot water in the coldest state in the union.

[cut to footage of special report]

NARRATOR: In Alaska’s open primary on August 26, state senator-turned-state chief of staff George H. Hohman Jr. won the Democratic nomination with ease over the likes of Steve Cowper, Bill Sheffield, and Red Boucher, while former state House speaker Fink won the Republican nomination over the likes of Arliss Sturgelewski, Terry Miller and Don Wright. Now, Hohman has been accused of bribery. Specifically, the claim goes that in 1982, before becoming retiring Governor Bill Clinton’s chief of staff in 1983, Hohman agreed to accepting money in exchange for unlawfully appropriating anti-forest fire “water bomber” aircraft for a private company. Hohman denies the charge and Governor Clinton has come to his defense. At the moment, it seems the state Democrats are not compelled to remove him from the ticket…

– CBS News, 9/10/1986


…US Rep. Edward M. “Edd” King [4], 53, has joined a list of Republican congresspersons who either openly support impeachment hearings or openly oppose Denton’s handling of the Lukens Hush Money scandal. …The Mayor of a southeastern Iowan town of from 1975 to 1981, King is widely known in Congress for working to improve and diversify Iowa’s economy, an aspect of his career dating back to when he began working for a direct mail company in 1960. Since winning election to the U.S. Congress in 1980, King has kowtowed the party line. But now, King is become part of a growing faction of legislators who believe that, at the very least, the President “severely mishandled” a 1984 incident regarding the Secretary of State. “The pressure of running for President is no excuse for partaking in a hush money scheme,” King argues. "Denton needs to clarify what happened, and if he will only do so if threatened will impeachment, then so be it."

The Des Moines Register, 9/15/1986


[pic: ]
– President Denton deflecting questions from reporters during a brief appearance at the White House Press Briefing Room, 9/16/1986

Former U.S. Senator ROBERT GRIFFIN (R-MI): “Denton is going to protect himself with a circle of loyalists until he leaves office. He’s a fighter, and like an animal in a corner he’s going to fight this all the way.”

Correspondent ROBERT NOVAK: “All the way to where?”

GRIFFIN (R-MI): “We’ll find out!”

– KNN round-table discussion, 9/20/1986

“I agree he did something inappropriate, but I don’t agree he did anything akin to treason, bribery, or high crimes and misdemeanors”

– Lamar Alexander, 9/22/1986 [5]

“He’s the only president we have, so why does the justice department want to weaken his hand in negotiating with other countries? The president says he is innocent, and I for one believe him, because as president he is compelled by the office to be truthful to the American people at all times.”

– US Senator Strom Thurmond in a “media-friendly” White House meeting with Denton to reaffirm GOP support for the President, 9/27/1986

When asked something along the lines of “Should the President be impeached for either his alleged actions in the Lukens Hush Money Scandal, his firing of the Special Prosecutor, or both,” the preliminary internal polling of US Senate showed the following breakdown on September 29:

Jack Edwards (R-AL) – no 1
Albert Lee Smith Jr. (R-AL) – no 2
Hazel P. Heath (R-AK) – yes 1
Frank Murkowski (R-AK) – undecided 1
Paul Fannin (R-AZ) – no 3
Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) – undecided 2
J. William Fulbright (D-AR) – yes 2
Jim Guy Tucker (D-AR) – yes 3
Maureen Reagan (R-CA) – undecided 3
Richard Nixon (R-CA) – no 4
George L. Brown (D-CO) – yes 4
William L. Armstrong (R-CO) – yes 5
Chris Dodd (D-CT) – yes 6
Antonina Uccello (R-CT) – yes 7
William Roth (R-DE) – yes 8
Joe Biden (D-DE) – yes 9
Lawton Chiles (D-FL) – yes 10
Paula Hawkins (R-FL) – no 5
Sam Nunn (D-GA) – yes 11
Mack Mattingly (R-GA) – no 6
Patsy Mink (D-HI) – yes 12
Daniel Inouye (D-HI) – yes 13
Bethine Church (D-ID) – yes 14
George Vernon Hansen (R-ID) – no 7
Paul Simon (D-IL) – yes 15
Alan J. Dixon (D-IL) – yes 16
Vance Hartke (D-IN) – yes 17
Richard Lugar (R-IN) – undecided 4
Roger Jespen (R-IA) – no 8
Harold Hughes (D-IA) – yes 18
Bob Dole (R-KS) – undecided 5
Nancy Kassebaum (R-KS) – undecided 6
Lawrence Wetherby (D-KY) – yes 19
Harley Sanders (R-KY) – yes 20
Russell B. Long (D-LA) – no 9
Clyde Holloway (R-LA) – no 10
Ed Muskie (D-ME) – yes 21
Peter Kyros (D-ME) – yes 22
Charles Mathias (R-MD) – yes 23
John Sarbanes (D-MD) – yes 24
Ed Brooke (R-MA) – yes 25
Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D-MA) – yes 26
Jack Lousma (R-MI) – undecided 7
George Romney (R-MI) – yes 27
Joan Growe (D-MN) – yes 28
Mark Dayton (D-MN) – yes 29
James Meredith (R-MS) – undecided 8
John Stennis (D-MS) – no 11
Thomas B. Curtis (R-MO) – no 12
Jerry Litton (D-MO) – yes 30
John Melcher (D-MT) – undecided 9
Larry Williams (R-MT) – yes 31
Ted Sorensen (D-NE) – yes 32
Orrin Hatch (R-NE) – undecided 10
Paul Laxalt (R-NV) – undecided 11
Barbara Vucanovich (R-NV) – undecided 12
Endicott Peabody (D-NH) – yes 33
Norris Cotton (R-NH) – no 13
Mary Mochary (R-NJ) – yes 34
Frank X. McDermott (R-NJ) – yes 35
Pedro Jimenez (D-NM) – yes 36
Roberto Mondragon (D-NM) – yes 37
Mike Rockefeller (R-NY) – yes 38
Mario Biaggi (D-NY) – no 14
Terry Sanford (D-NC) – yes 39
Nick Galifianakis (D-NC) – yes 40
Mark Andrews (R-ND) – no 15
Arthur Albert Link (D-ND) – undecided 13
John Glenn (D-OH) – yes 41
William B. Saxbe (R-OH) – no 16
Mickey Edwards (R-OK) – no 17
Bud Wilkinson (R-OK) – undecided 14
John R. Dellenback (R-OR) – no 18
Mark Hatfield (R-OR) – yes 42
Bob Casey Sr. (D-PA) – yes 43
H. John Heinz III (R-PA) – undecided 15
Bob Tiernan (D-RI) – yes 44
Claiborne Pell (D-RI) – yes 45
Fritz Hollings (D-SC) – undecided 16
Strom Thurmond (R-SC) – no 19
Frank Farrar (R-SD) – undecided 17
Larry Pressler (R-SD) – yes 46
Al Gore Sr. (D-TN) – yes 47
Howard Baker (R-TN) – no 20
Lloyd Bentsen (D-TX) – yes 48
Ron Paul (R-TX) – undecided 18
Jake Garn (R-UT) – undecided 19
Frank Moss (D-UT) – yes 49
Phil Hoff (D-VT) – yes 50
Peter P. Smith (R-VT) – yes 51
Richard Obenshain (R-VA) – no 21
Harry Byrd Jr. (I-VA) – no 22
Scoop Jackson (D-WA) – yes 52
Catherine Dean May (R-WA) – yes 53
Robert C. Byrd (D-WV) – yes 54
John Raese (R-WV) – no 23
Roman Blenski (R-WI) – no 24
William Proxmire (D-WI) – yes 55
John Wold (R-WY) – no 25
Gale McGee (D-WY) – undecided 20

Thurmond glowered at the composition, “25 are in your corner, Mr. President. 55 are not, and 20 are undecided.”

Denton inquired, “Who are the 20?”

Baker read from off the list, “Murkowski, Goldwater, Reagan, Lugar, Dole, Kassebaum, Lousma, Meredith, Melcher, Hatch, Laxalt, Vucanovich, Link, Wilkinson, Heinz, Hollings, Farrar, Paul, Garn, and McGee. 16 Republicans, 4 Democrats. Seven of them – Murkowski, Lugar, Dole, Vucanovich, Hollings, Farrar, and Garn – are running for re-election this year, all on local issues.”

After a moment of though, Thurmond took a pencil and began to circle 12 of the undecided names. “I think we can rely on Murkowski, Reagan, Lugar, Dole, Kassebaum, Lousma, Hatch, Laxalt, Vucanovich, Wilkinson, Heinz and Garn to all fall in line when the time comes, especially if we pour support into the campaigns of the seven running for re-election. That brings the total to 37. That’s enough to block a conviction.”

Denton shook his head lugubriously. “That’s too close for comfort, in my opinion. Goldwater, Paul, Farrar, and Meredith need to be worked on. Even reaching out to Melcher, Link, Hollings and McGee wouldn’t hurt.”

Baker, though, was optimistic, reminding the small gathering of loyalists, “But we also have to factor in the 12 candidates against impeachment that we’ve got facing off against several pro-impeachment Senators.” He read the last names off his second list. “Mecham, Wilson, Kramer, Eddy, Symms, Koehler, Grassley, Moore, Shaw, Broyhill, Gekas and Olson.”

Thurmond viewed the list and remarked, “If they all win, that’s a gain of 49 from 37 in our corner.” He grinned, and added, “We’re gonna beat this, Jeremiah. I’m just sure of it.”

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

On October 4, Charles Goff, the cousin of the GOP nominee for Governor of Texas – 34-year-old state senator Michael Wayne “Mike” Martin – hastily assembled members of the media for a startling revelation. Goff revealed that he had helped Martin orchestrate a shooting incident in 1981 by firing a gun at his home in a staging of an assassination attempt. The incident, in which several bullets were fired into Martin’s home in an apparent attempt on the conservative populist’s life, was an event that many believed had contributed to Martin winning a state senate seat in 1982 (i.e., the sympathy vote). Goff had recently had a falling out with Martin, and had decide to “tell the truth” about Martin, adding that “Mike’s not fit for even his current job.”

Observant of the anarchy overwhelming Oregon and Ohio, the TXGOP sought to follow suit and replace their “appalling” candidate with a more respectable alternative. Unfortunately, with just a month left until Election Day, the party found it impossible to issue new ballots for its 16 million citizens. As a result, the party launched a write-in campaign for their new official nominee, state senator Ray Hutchison…

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition


The Washington Post, 10/1/1986

Presidential Approval Rating

Yes (Approve): 36%
No (Don't Approve): 45%
Unsure: 19%

– Gallup Poll, 10/5/1986


…in the midst of scandals pouring continuously out of Washington, D.C., too many of us seem to be overlooking the casualties resulting from the presence of American forces in two democratic Latin American countries…

Tumbleweed Magazine, opinion article, early October 1986 issue

…The International Olympic Committee today announced that they have chosen Yugoslavia to host the 1992 Winter Olympic Games. The city of Albertsville, France was a close second place finisher. …In an unprecedented [6] decision, the IOC has allowed hosting duties to be split between two cities – Zagreb and Belgrade…

– ABC News, 10/16/1986

…Earlier tonight, the US military announced that the last of Gaddafi’s supporters had been removed from Libyan territory, having been killed in action, arrested, or forced into surrendering. With the war against these extremists successfully concluding, the US Secretary of Defense has announced that American troops are set to leave Libya, quote, “fairly soon if not very soon,” unquote...

– CBS Evening News, 10/17/1986


…this socially conservative legislation is a blow to the BLUTAGO community, coming months after several municipalities in California, Massachusetts and New York saw steps taken to recognize/legitimize same-sex relationships in documentation relating to inheritance, insurance, and other elements…

The San Francisco Tribune, 10/18/1986 [7]


…a Gallup poll shows a rise in the President’s approval ratings, from 35% two weeks ago to 40% now. This marks the first time that the President’s aggregate approval rating has been at or above 40% since early April…

The New York Times, 10/20/1986

“I think we’re finally getting out of the woods now.”

– Jeremiah Denton to Secretary of State (since January 1986) Morton I. Abramowitz, 10/20/1986 (possibly anecdotal)

Then came the “October Game-Changer.” On October 21, under the direction of Director Adams, the F.B.I. finally published the Packwood Diaries, including the soon-to-be-infamous August 11, 18 and 28 Entries.

The August 11 entry describes in lengthy detail Secretary Lukens meeting with Packwood at Luken’s D.C. home for dinner and drinks. Packwood writes “I expected Buz to brag about his latest sexual conquests, but this time, he was distant and distracted. I finally got it out of him, and it looks like he’s actually gotten himself into some real trouble this time around. ‘You have to go for the older ones, Buz,’ I told him. ‘Younger ones always squeal.’”

Packwood then describes how Lukens revealed to him how the woman known as Anna Mason had confronted him over his sleeping with her underage daughter over two months prior. Packwood uses a cornucopia of misogynistic curse words to describe both Anna and Sidney Mason.

The August 18 entry describes discussing the matter with Lukens again, this time during a quick lunch break near their respective offices. In it, Packwood describes Lukens revealing to him that the President had somehow learned of Anna Mason’s threat to press charges against him and had confronted Lukens on the matter earlier that day. Specifically, Packwood writes “I’m not too surprised Denton found out about it. He keeps a tight ship on his Cabinet. Buz says Mason confronting him over the incident at his office must have caught the attention of Denton’s loyalists in the department. I agree. You just can’t keep a scandal that big and damaging away from the President, not during an election year. I hope he finds which snitch squealed. Happy hunting, Buz!” Packwood continues, “He’s in a much better mood now; he’s bragging that he’s too important to be fired. No doubt. Buz would be on his way out the door if he wasn’t needed so badly right now.”

This line refers to the major geopolitical development ongoing at the time. The entry is dated August 18, 1984 – less than 24 hours after KGB head Vitaly Fedorchuk had launched a coup against Premier Yakovlev of the Soviet Union. The coup would be an abysmal failure, but only after four days of struggle. In the meantime, Lukens reportedly kept the President updated on the situation hourly, making Denton praise Lukens’ dedication to the office. In gratitude, he agreed to help him “solve his personal problem” at a meeting at the White House on August 27.

Packwood’s August 28 entry reads “Buz is bragging that he convinced Denton to even use State Department funds and write the payment off as ‘miscellaneous’ expenditures!” This matched the evidence found in the July 1985 raid of Luken’s offices, and matched the August 1985 testimony of Thomas Tyack, Luken’s legal advisor and assistant who swore Denton approved of Lukens’ hush money scheme on the August 27 meeting, after Denton had asked for a status report on his department ahead of the August 18 encounter. In compliance with Denton’s wishes to know the goings-on in all cabinet and cabinet-level departments, Tyack admitted that he could not recall if Lukens voluntarily disclosed the situation, or if the President brought it up first during the August 18 meeting. Either way, both the diaries and Tyack claim that Lukens was the one who suggested on the second Denton-Lukens meeting the using of state funds, while Denton approved, telling Lukens “Yeah, yes, that’s fine. That’s all right, just do what you have to do. Loose lips sink ships,” according to both Packwood’s August 28 diary entry and Tyack (both accountant state this almost verbatim, except Packwood writes “Yep, yeah, that’s just fine. That’s all right, just do what you have to do. …Loose lips sink ships” is what Lukens claims Denton told Lukens).

Later diary entries from May 1985 hinted that Packwood learned that Denton was outraged at Lukens’ inability to “keep the lid on” the incident once “the news hit the pavement.”


As the diary passages were read and shown on TV screens across America and the world for all to see, read and hear, the Denton White House went silent. No official response came until a full day later, which simply read the vague statement, “The President has always done what he believes is right for the safety and security of the nation.” Press Secretary Peggy Noonan resigned two days after that. Soon enough, all five major TV networks – ABC, CBS, NBC, The Overmyer Network, and KNN – were accusing Denton of committing various “impeachable” crimes, repeatedly discussing abuse of power, bribery, intimidation, conspiracy, misuse of assets, dereliction of duty, failure to supervise, conduct unbecoming of the office of the Presidency, and other legal term phrases. Despite his closest supporters' attempts to either downplay our dismiss entirely the releasing of the diaries, Denton's approval ratings plummeted even further. As did the hopes and odds of several Republicans running for office that November, even after most shifted focus to more local issues…

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


...the Nation Rifle Association, an organization that primarily focuses on sportsmen, hunters and target practice [8], has come out to favor of a broad Gun Reform bill meant to address the ability of citizens with known mental issues to purchase firearms. “Rifles are for hunting animals, not people; pistols are for protecting loved ones, not for killing people; semi-automatics are for military officers in combat overseas, not for unwell people,” a spokesperson for the typically nonpartisan organization said earlier today…

The Washington Post, 10/26/1986


…for pitcher George W. Bush, the game was the last for his career. “What a way to end it!” Bush says…

The Houston Chronicle, 10/27/1986

When I got out of playing baseball, I decided to follow an early passion of mine. I joined my father’s real estate company, E. Trump & Son, and convinced it to go big. For me, it was not enough to just follow in my father’s footsteps, and work the family business in Queens. I had bigger plans. Much bigger.

I remember being amazed at the age of Fenway Park in my second home town of Boston. The stadium had been around since 1912. That was just too old. And it wasn’t spectacular-looking, either. Kinda ugly, kind sad-looking, like it needed to be put out of its misery. Yeah, people were angry, very angry about replacing it, saying it was iconic and all, but let me tell you - if you stand in front of progress, you're going to get run over by it. Deal with it. The Red Sox guys were badly in need of a new stadium to keep the team from moving, and within two years I got the team to sign off on E. Trump & Son’s first Boston venture.

Besides, I wanted the new park to look modern. Sleek and stylish. And Gold. And with a big “T” somewhere on the premises. “T” for “Trump Stadium.” We broke ground right before Halloween, 1986, and we got it built ahead of time and under budget. That's what success looks like. It was a tremendous success, even without the gold or the giant "T." And hey, at least, everyone calls it Trump Stadium!

– Donald Trump, 2001

United States Senate election results, 1986

Date: November 4, 1986
Seats: 34 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Howard Baker (R-TN)
Senate minority leader: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Seats before election: 41 (D), 58 (R), 1 (I)
Seats after election: 53 (D), 46 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 12, R v 12, I - 1

Full List:
Alabama: Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D) over incumbent Jack Edwards (R)
Alaska: incumbent Frank Murkowski (R) over Glen Olds (D)
Arizona: Eddie Najeeb Basha Jr. (D) over Evan Mecham (R); incumbent Paul Fannin (R) retired
Arkansas: incumbent J. William Fulbright (D) over Asa Hutchinson (R)
California: Mario Obledo (D) over Pete Wilson (R); incumbent Maureen Reagan (R) retired
Colorado: Pat Schroeder (D) over Ken Kramer (R); incumbent George L. Brown (D) retired
Connecticut: incumbent Chris Dodd (D) over Roger Eddy (R)
Florida: Michael Bilirakis (R) over Bill Nelson (D); incumbent Paula Hawkins (R) retired
Georgia: John Skandalakis (D) over incumbent Mack Mattingly (R)
Hawaii: incumbent Daniel Inouye (D) over Frank Hutchinson (R)
Idaho: incumbent Bethine Clark Church (D) over Steve Symms (R)
Illinois: incumbent Alan J. Dixon (D) over Judy Koehler (R)
Indiana: incumbent Richard Lugar (R) over Jill L. Long (D)
Iowa: incumbent Harold Hughes (D) over Chuck Grassley (R)
Kansas: incumbent Bob Dole (R) over Guy MacDonald (D)
Kentucky: incumbent Harley Sanders (R) over William P. Curlin Jr. (D)
Louisiana: Buddy Roemer (D) over Henson Moore (R); incumbent Russell B. Long (D) retired
Maryland: Barbara Mikulski (D) over Linda Chavez (R); incumbent Charles Mathias Jr. (R) retired
Missouri: Bill Bradley (D) over incumbent Thomas B. Curtis (R)
Nevada: incumbent Barbara Vucanovich (R) over Myron E. Leavitt (D)
New Hampshire: Emile Dorilas Beaulieu Jr. (D) over Robert F. Shaw (R); incumbent Norris Cotton (R) retired
New York: incumbent Mario Biaggi (D) over Al D’Amato (R), Mark Green (Green) and John S. Dyson (Liberal)
North Carolina: incumbent Nick Galifianakis (D) over Jim Broyhill (R)
North Dakota: Kent Conrad (D) over incumbent Mark Andrews (R)
Ohio: Carl Stokes (D) over Tom Kindness (R); incumbent William B. Saxbe (R) retired
Oklahoma: incumbent Marvin Henry “Mickey” Edwards (R) over James R. Jones (D)
Oregon: Walter Leslie “Les” AuCoin (D) over incumbent John R. Dellenback (R)
Pennsylvania: incumbent Bob Casey Sr. (D) over George Gekas (R)
South Carolina: incumbent Fritz Hollings (D) over Henry D. McMaster (R)
South Dakota: incumbent Frank Farrar (R) over Tom Daschle (D)
Utah: incumbent Jake Garn (R) over Craig Oliver (D) and Mary Zins (Independent)
Vermont: Madeleine M. Kunin (D) over incumbent appointee Peter Plympton Smith (R)
Washington: incumbent Catherine Dean May (R) over Deborah Senn (D)
Wisconsin: Bronson La Follette (D) over Russell Olson (R); incumbent Roman R. Blenski (R) retired

…The Republican Party’s loss of both American congressional chambers tonight clearly shows that the American people have lost faith in their President…

– BBC World News, 11/4/1986

Promoters of diversity could consider 1986 to be a boon to their cause. With Maureen Reagan and Paula Hawkins retiring but Mary Texas Hurt Garner, Patricia Schroeder, Barbara Mikulski and Madeleine Kunin winning seats, the night led to the Senate getting a net gain of two more female Senators, making for a historic first of fourteen woman serving in the Senate at the same time. The House also achieved a historically high number of women Representatives, going from 26 (4.9% of the House) to a whopping 59 (11.0% of the House). This was a larger jump in women composition than experienced in the original Ark Wave of 1970, which saw the number of female Representatives leap from 14 (2.6%) to a high of 25 (4.7%).


In early 1987, freshmen newcomers Mike Bilirakis of Florida and John Skandalakis of Georgia met with three of their now-fellow Senators – Peter Kyros of Maine, John Sarbanes of Maryland and Nick Galifianakis of North Carolina – to form the semi-serious “Greek Caucus.”

A more serious group of Senators that was expanded by the midterms was the “Hispanic caucus,” comprising of Senators Pedro Jimenez and Roberto Mondragon of New Mexico, and their then-newest member, Senator Mario Obledo of California...

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

United States House of Representatives results, 1986

Date: November 4, 1986
Seats: All 435
Seats needed for majority: 218
New House majority leader: Hale Boggs (D-LA)
New House minority leader: Robert H. Michel (R-IL)
Last election: 181 (D), 254 (R)
Seats won: 232 (D), 202 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 51, R v 52, I ^ 1


The Los Angeles Times, 11/5/1986

The 58-year-old Mexico-born L.A. Times journalist-turned-editor, progressive member of the Chicano community, and former Civil Rights activist Ruben Salazar was elected to an open US Congressional seat from California. ...Another female California Democrat to win a U.S. Congressional seat was the centrist-leaning Cammie King, a 52-year-old former child star from northern California who worked as the marketing coordinator for the Fort Bragg-Mendocino Coast Chamber of Commerce before election to said chamber in 1984.


Democrat Charlie Dean was elected to a US House seat from New York’s 2nd District at the age of 36. The brother of state congressman Howard Dean of Vermont, Charlie Dean was a life-long peacenik who had worked as a coordinator for the Presidential campaign of Mike Gravel in 1972. After backpacking across Southeast Asia without incident, Charlie Dean joined the Peace Corps, served from 1975 to 1981, and then entered private practice upon passing the New York state bar exam in 1982.


The sole independent elected to the House in ’86 was William Sorrell of Vermont. Sorrell was Chittenden County State’s Attorney from 1977 to 1978 before election to the state senate in 1980, switching from Democratic to Independent in 1982 to protest the state Democratic Party chairman’s support of a less progressive primary challenger to Sorrell’s re-election bid that year.

– Gary C. Jacobson’s The Power and the Politics of Congressional Elections, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015

United States Governor election results, 1986

Date: November 4, 1986
Number of state gubernatorial elections held: 36
Seats before: 26 (D), 22 (R), 2 (I)
Seats after: 35 (D), 15 (R), 0 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 9, R v 7, I v 2

Full list:
Alabama: William J. “Bill” Baxley II (D) over John Hall Buchanan Jr. (R); incumbent Ann Bedsole (R) was term-limited
Alaska: Tom Fink (R) over George H. Hohman Jr. (D), Don Wright (Green), Andre Marrou (Liberty) and Bill Hudson (Alaskan Indep.); inc. Bill Clinton (D) retired
Arizona: Carolyn Warner (D) over incumbent Richard Kleindienst (R)
Arkansas: Lynn Lowe (R) over incumbent Orval Faubus (D)
California: fmr Stanford U Pres. Donald Kennedy (D) over Anthony M. Kennedy (R); incumbent George Christopher (R) retired
Colorado: Byron L. Johnson (D) over Bob Leon Kirscht (R); incumbent Bill Daniels (R) retired
Connecticut: incumbent Robert K. Killian (D) over Julie Belaga (R)
Florida: Bruce A. Smathers (D) over Louis Frey (R); incumbent Jack Eckerd (R) was term-limited
Georgia: Billy Carter (D) over Guy Davis (R); incumbent Hal Suit (R) was term-limited
Hawaii: incumbent Jean King (D) over Dominis Garrida “D. G.” Anderson (R)
Idaho: incumbent Larry Jackson (R) over Marjorie Ruth Moon (D)
Illinois: incumbent John Anderson (R) over Adlai Stevenson III (D)
Iowa: incumbent Jo Ann McIntosh Zimmerman (D) over Roxanne Conlin (R)
Kansas: Jim Slattery (D) over incumbent Robert Frederick Bennett (R)
Maine: Libby Mitchell (D) over John McKernan (R) and Sherry Huber (I); Helen Longley (I) retired
Maryland: William Oswald Mills (R) over Stephen H. Sachs (D); incumbent F. P. Blair Lee III (D) retired
Massachusetts: incumbent Michael Dukakis (D) over George Kariotis (R), John Cassavetes (Liberty), Christy Mihos (I) and Nick Paleologos (I)
Michigan: incumbent Elly M. Peterson (R) over William B. Fitzgerald Jr. (D)
Minnesota: incumbent Coya Knutson (D) over Jon Grunseth (Independent-Republican-Liberty) and Florian Chmielewski (I)
Nebraska: Helen Boosalis (D) over Kay Orr (R); incumbent Charles Thone (R) retired
Nevada: incumbent Joseph Yale Resnick (D) over Ed Fike (R)
New Hampshire: incumbent Calvin Warburton (R) over Paul McEachern (D) and Paul N. Gagnon (Independent)
New Mexico: Fabian Chavez Jr. (D) over Joseph H. Mercer (R); incumbent Toney Anaya (D) was term-limited
New York: incumbent Mario Cuomo (D) over Paul J. Curran (R), Denis Dillon (Life) and Lenora Fulani (Green)
Ohio: Jerry Springer (D) over Paul E. Gillmor (replaced Bud Brown) (R); incumbent Jim Rhodes (R) was term-limited
Oklahoma: Mike Turpen (D) over Robert N. Goodhead (R) and Mike Fair (I); incumbent George Nigh (D) retired
Oregon: Norma Paulus (R) over Edward Fadeley (D (write-in)) and Neil Goldschmidt (D (withdrew)); incumbent Victor Atiyeh (R) retired
Pennsylvania: William W. Scranton III (R) over incumbent Stewart Greenleaf (D)
Rhode Island: Buddy Cianci (“Anti-Denton” R) over Anthony J. Solomon (D), Robert J. Healey (I) and Tony Affigne (I); incumbent Lincoln Almond (R) retired
South Carolina: Jesse Jackson (D) over Floyd Spence (R); incumbent Nancy Stevenson (D) was term-limited
South Dakota: Lars Herseth (D) over incumbent Clint Roberts (R)
Tennessee: Frank Goad Clement (D) over H. D. Patty (R), Charles G. Vick (Country) and Gentry Crowell (ID); incumbent Buford Pusser (R) was term-limited
Texas: Rick Perry (D) over incumbent Ross Perot (I), Ray Hutchison (R (write-in)), Mike Martin (R) and Maria “Rosie” Castro (La Raza Unida)
Vermont: incumbent Richard Snelling (R) over Ralph G. Wright (D) and Richard F. Gottlieb (Liberty Union)
Wisconsin: incumbent Paul R. Soglin (D) over Robert Walter Kasten Jr. (R)
Wyoming: Thyra Thomson (R) over Al Hamberg (D); incumbent Dick Casull (R) lost re-nomination


In an “all-Greek” race, Dukakis achieved a third full term in a landslide victory over his four challengers:

Incumbent Michael Dukakis/Demo. Party organizer Joyce Spiliotis (Democratic) – 58.25%
Businessman George Kariotis/businessman developer Nicholas M. Nikitas (Republican) – 27.29%
Actor-activist John Cassavetes/fmr US Rep. Nick Mavroules (Liberty) – 9.06%
Businessman Christy Mihos/lawyer-activist Gale D. Candaras (Independent) – 4.14%
Fmr state rep. Nick Paleologos/fmr GOP Party Chairman Andrew Natsios (Independent) – 1.12%
Others tickets/Write-in candidates/blank votes – 1.14%


PERRY BEATS PEROT! GOP Blames Martin Scandal For Loss


[pic: ]

…Perry, b. 1950, won a Purple Heart in 1976, at the age of 26, while being a member of the “Uganda Rough Riders” ground forces that overthrew the dictator Idi Amin from the African nation of Uganda in an international effort that year. Returning home to a hero’s welcome, Perry was soon elected to the state senate, serving there from 1979 to 1983, before being elected Lieutenant Governor in 1982, after defeating 10-year-incumbent Bill Hobby in an upset. Perry often sparred with Governor Perot, most noticeably over tax hikes and Perot’s apparent indifference to agricultural concerns. Perry, a conservative Democrat, campaigned on his deep Texas roots and humble rural upbringing to win a decisive victory last night over incumbent Governor Perot, an Independent. …The GOP vote, still reeling from the scandal concerning their original gubernatorial nominee, ended up split between the controversial and deeply conservative and Martin, who remained on the ballot, and the relatively more moderate Hutchison, the state party’s official write-in candidate…


…in the race for Lieutenant Governor, the Democratic nominee, incumbent San Antonio Mayor Henry Cisneros, defeated Republican challenger, David Davidson, by a five-point margin. Cisneros will be the state’s first Hispanic Lieutenant Governor…

The Dallas Morning News, 11/5/1986

ROWLAND EVANS: …as you can see by this chart, the upcoming composition of the Senate will be much like the upcoming House composition – unfriendly to the President.

CHART: “Should the President Be Impeached?”
Jack Edwards (R-AL) – no; (Senator-Elect) Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D-AL) – leaning to yes
Paul Fannin (R-AZ) – no; (Senator-Elect) Eddie Basha (D-AZ) – yes
Maureen Reagan (R-CA) – undecided; (Senator-Elect) Mario Obledo (D-CA) – yes
Paula Hawkins (R-FL) – leaned to no; (Senator-Elect) Mike Bilirakis (R-FL) – yes
Mack Mattingly (R-GA) – no; John Skandalakis (D-GA) – yes
Russell B. Long (D-LA) – no; (Senator-Elect) Buddy Roemer (D-LA) – yes
Thomas B. Curtis (R-MO) – no; Bill Bradley (D-MO) – yes
Norris Cotton (R-NH) – no; (Senator-Elect) Emile Beaulieu (D-NH) – yes
Mark Andrews (R-ND) – no; (Senator-Elect) Kent Conrad (D-ND) – leaning to yes
William B. Saxbe (R-OH) – no; (Senator-Elect) Carl Stokes (D-OH) – yes
John R. Dellenback (R-OR) – leaned to no; (Senator-Elect) Les AuCoin (D-OR) – yes
Roman Blenski (R-WI) – no; (Senator-Elect) Bronson La Follette (D-WI) – yes

EVANS: When it comes to the subject of impeachment, the midterms have given the Senate twelve more politicians who either believe the President is guilty or at the least favors the House voting for impeaching President Denton. That raises the number of pro-impeachment Senators, or anti-Denton Senators, pending on how you look at, from 59 to 71 – more than enough for the Senate to convict the President and remove him from office if the new House does indeed vote to impeach, which will likely happen.

ROBERT NOVAK: Hm, well I agree that last night spelled bad news for the Denton White House, but we can’t confirm that a lot of these Senators will stick to what they’ve said. Senator-elect Garner, for example, is from Denton’s home state, where he’s still fairly popular.

EVANS: The results clearly show that Denton’s lost the support of the American people. It’d be political suicide to continue for even someone from Alabama to stick by the President after such a pro-impeachment mandate…

– KNN, 11/5/1986 broadcast


[pic: ]

– President Denton on the White House grounds, reportedly deep in somber contemplation, 11/5/1986


…Nebraska became the 11th state to ratify the proposed U.S. Constitutional Amendment earlier today. The BBA was passed by both chambers of the U.S. Congress two years ago, but its ratification process has slowed in recent years over multiple concerns… [9]

The Boston Globe, 11/9/1986


The San Francisco Chronicle, 11/14/1986


…Senate leaders have agreed to replace the mental health test measure with one demanding background checks and waiting period requirements instead… there is also ongoing debate over the extent of responsibility that state governments would have in enforcing such a bill…

The Chicago Tribune, 11/23/1986

THE N.F.U. & YOU: Why Kansas Workers Are Joining Unions In Droves

…an increasing number of farmers are unionizing, joining the Nation Farmers Union, and other organizations, as Governor-Elect Jim Slattery promises to work with such groups to solve the current crisis facing Kansas’ rural workers. More cooperatives are also being unionized as outgoing Governor Bennett’s hands-off approach to farm debt led to a rise in approval of government intervention in recent years across the state.

…Over two years of mobilizing to implement pro-farmer policies akin to economic agrarianism culminated in a fairly liberal Democrat (Slattery) being elected Governor earlier this month in a two-man, scandal-free campaign focused almost entirely on local issues…

– Time Magazine, late November 1986 issue

“There will be at least one Article of Impeachment will likely be for one count of conspiracy with Donald E. Lukens to control the unlawful disbursements of monetary funds appropriated solely for the Department of State,” GOP Representative and House Ethics Committee member Doug Bereuter (R-NE) informed the President.

“Congress’ house judiciary committee members are planning to form the articles – er, or article – in January,” House Whip David Emery added. For only the second time in American history, an impeachment vote was indisputably going to be held. “From what I’ve gathered, though, they’re actually looking to go with two articles: obstruction of justice and abuse of power.”

“Affirmative,” White House Counsel Mitchell Kobelinski agreed with Emery. “The new Democrat-led House leadership, headed by that Boggs b@stard, plans to schedule Impeachment Hearings for January, and expect to hold a vote on them by the end of February. After that, it’ll be up to the Senate to either convict or acquit.”

“Furthermore,” Emery offered additionally details, “it’s projected to be on bipartisan lines, as some Republican elected in November won on anti-Denton platforms.”

Kobelinski continued, “And as I was saying, the Senate’s planning to start the impeachment trial as soon as the House votes to impeach, and the Senate won’t be slow to act. They have the diaries as evidence, they have people willing to testify, and they have the votes. Some of them even think they’ll vote before the end of April, but I think we can push that date farther down the calendar when the time comes.”

“If the time comes,” Denton sullenly thought aloud. “Any other bad news?”

Bereuter sighed before answering. “Inner-party support for you has fallen considerably. Several former supporters have switched to the pro-conviction side. Even some Party Leaders and members of the G.O.P.’s “old guard” – Dole, Wilkinson, Goldwater, and even Richard Nixon – have hinted as much.”

“Yes, I spoke with Nixon earlier today on the phone,” Denton remarked, “He said resigning would allow me to save face and control the narrative.”

“He wants you to resign?!” Emery replied with a slight startle.

“He didn’t rule it out as a possible solution. Neither did I. He just thinks I shouldn’t be impeached, that much was made clear by our talk.” After a beat, the President asked, “Well, let’s just see how bad the damage is.”

Kobelinski went first with his breakdown of the Senate. Preliminary internal polling of the 100th Congress (the 1987-1989 session), counting Senator-Elects instead of outgoing Senators, showed the following breakdown as of the start of December:

Query asked (essentially) “Should the President be impeached for his alleged impeding of FBI investigators and/or other actions of his that pertain to the cover-up of former Secretary of State Buz Lukens’ sexual impropriety via an improper use of State Department funds?”:

Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D-AL) – yes 1
Albert Lee Smith Jr. (R-AL) – no 1
Hazel P. Heath (R-AK) – yes 2
Frank Murkowski (R-AK) – yes 3
Eddie Basha (D-AZ) – yes 4
Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) – yes 5
J. William Fulbright (D-AR) – yes 6
Jim Guy Tucker (D-AR) – yes 7
Mario Obledo (D-CA) – yes 8
Richard Nixon (R-CA) – no 2
William Armstrong (R-CO) – yes 9
Pat Schroeder (D-CO) – yes 10
Chris Dodd (D-CT) – yes 11
Antonina Uccello (R-CT) – yes 12
William Roth (R-DE) – yes 13
Joe Biden (D-DE) – yes 14
Lawton Chiles (D-FL) – yes 15
Mike Bilirakis (R-FL) – yes 16
Sam Nunn (D-GA) – yes 17
John Skandalakis (D-GA) – yes 18
Patsy Mink (D-HI) – yes 19
Daniel Inouye (D-HI) – yes 20
Bethine Church (D-ID) – yes 21
George Vernon Hansen (R-ID) – no 3
Paul Simon (D-IL) – yes 22
Alan J. Dixon (D-IL) – yes 23
Vance Hartke (D-IN) – yes 24
Richard Lugar (R-IN) – no 4
Roger Jespen (R-IA) – no 5
Harold Hughes (D-IA) – yes 25
Bob Dole (R-KS) – undecided 1
Nancy Kassebaum (R-KS) – undecided 2
Lawrence Wetherby (D-KY) – yes 26
Harley Sanders (R-KY) – yes 27
Buddy Roemer (D-LA) – yes 28
Clyde Holloway (R-LA) – no 6
Ed Muskie (D-ME) – yes 29
Peter Kyros (D-ME) – yes 30
Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) – yes 31
John Sarbanes (D-MD) – yes 32
Ed Brooke (R-MA) – yes 33
Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D-MA) – yes 34
Jack Lousma (R-MI) – undecided 3
George Romney (R-MI) – yes 35
Joan Growe (D-MN) – yes 36
Mark Dayton (D-MN) – yes 37
James Meredith (R-MS) – yes 38
John Stennis (D-MS) – no 7
Bill Bradley (D-MO) – yes 39
Jerry Litton (D-MO) – yes 40
John Melcher (D-MT) – undecided 4
Larry Williams (R-MT) – yes 41
Ted Sorensen (D-NE) – yes 42
Orrin Hatch (R-NE) – undecided 5
Paul Laxalt (R-NV) – undecided 6
Barbara Vucanovich (R-NV) – undecided 7
Endicott Peabody (D-NH) – yes 43
Emile Beaulieu (D-NH) – yes 44
Mary Mochary (R-NJ) – yes 45
Frank X. McDermott (R-NJ) – yes 46
Pedro Jimenez (D-NM) – yes 47
Roberto Mondragon (D-NM) – yes 48
Mike Rockefeller (R-NY) – yes 49
Mario Biaggi (D-NY) – no 8
Terry Sanford (D-NC) – yes 50
Nick Galifianakis (D-NC) – yes 51
Kent Conrad (D-ND) – yes 52
Arthur Albert Link (D-ND) – undecided 8
John Glenn (D-OH) – yes 53
Carl Stokes (D-OH) – yes 54
Mickey Edwards (R-OK) – no 9
Bud Wilkinson (R-OK) – undecided 9
Les AuCoin (D-OR) – yes 55
Mark Hatfield (R-OR) – yes 56
Bob Casey Sr. (D-PA) – yes 57
H. John Heinz III (R-PA) – undecided 10
Bob Tiernan (D-RI) – yes 58
Claiborne Pell (D-RI) – yes 59
Fritz Hollings (D-SC) – undecided 11
Strom Thurmond (R-SC) – no 10
Frank Farrar (R-SD) – yes 60
Larry Pressler (R-SD) – yes 61
Al Gore Sr. (D-TN) – yes 62
Howard Baker (R-TN) – no 11
Lloyd Bentsen (D-TX) – yes 63
Ron Paul (R-TX) – yes 64
Jake Garn (R-UT) – yes 65
Frank Moss (D-UT) – yes 66
Phil Hoff (D-VT) – yes 67
Madeline Kunin (D-VT) – yes 68
Richard Obenshain (R-VA) – no 12
Harry Byrd Jr. (I-VA) – no 13
Scoop Jackson (D-WA) – yes 69
Catherine Dean May (R-WA) – yes 70
Robert C. Byrd (D-WV) – yes 71
John Raese (R-WV) – no 14
Bronson La Follette (D-WI) – yes 72
William Proxmire (D-WI) – yes 73
John Wold (R-WY) – no 15
Gale McGee (D-WY) – undecided 12

“What’s the total?!” Denton asked in disbelief.

Kobelinski re-read the sheets laid out on the coffee table before him. “73 are favoring conviction, 15 are still on your side," including Biaggi, who still claimed Lukens duped Denton in spite of Tyack's claims, "and 12 are still on the fence.”

“F@#, just 15?!”

“And 12 more on the fence, so, 27 at the most,” said Kobelinski.

“At the most,” noted Emery.

“Don’t try to sugar-coat it, Dave,” said the President. “I know a chopping block when I see one, and they’re putting my head to one come January.” After a moment of contemplation, Denton continued. “I refuse to go out that way. A pack of traitors, the lot of them! Going AWOL and abandoning me like this, feeding me to the wolves to protect their cushy career. I know what they’re saying. That this is it. They’re going to abandon the past six years of unprecedented success, all because I made one little error in judgement.” He sighed, “Why did I pick Lukens for State? That’s all it took. A misjudging of character…” After another pause, he concluded his monologue. “They want to put me in a keyless cell and drag me and my name, my family, and our policies, our accomplishments, our legacies – our country – through the mud. Through their sh*t. No. Oh, no, no, no, no, no. They’re not doing that. They don’t get to decide how this administration comes to an end; I do!”

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002


…In the final days before the holiday break, the House and Senate managed to pass several bills in the typically low-action winter period, including several conservative bills that would likely failed to be passed in the new Democratic-majority congress that will convene in January. …Two of these bills were the controversial Gun Reform bill and the Mental Health Research bill, both introduced earlier this year in response to the violent “Motorcade Incident” of March 1986. Originally one bill on demanding mental health tests for all gun purchasers, fears of the bill being abused to deny citizens their Second Amendment rights led to the contents being split into two bills – one calling for background checks and waiting periods for gun purchasers, and another boosting federal funds for research into mental health treatment…

The Washington Post, 12/8/1986

Denton agreed with Senate and House leaders to do it in exchange for him being allowed to sign into law several key pieces of legislation, including the Mental Health Act, the Gun Reform Act of 1986, The Nuclear Waste Repository Act, and a bill that was possibly most important to him, the massive Goldwater-Nichols Defense Bill…

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

[First Lady] Katherine [Jane Maury Denton] wanted to spend one more Christmas at the White House, as she had been overseeing the plans for a celebratory extravaganza for weeks, if not months. …On Christmas Eve, after the festivities had come to an end, Katherine and I, with all seven of our children, gathered around the tree set up in the Yellow Oval Room. We shared stories, sang hymns, and relished in the ambiance. Instead of lamenting the close of this chapter of our lives, I did my best to give thanks to our Lord and Savior for giving me and my family an experience shared by only thirty-six families before us.

– Jeremiah Denton’s Take My Yoke Upon You And Learn From Me: My Memoirs, Simon & Schuster, 1991

“Ladies and Gentlemen, and the press, I would like to thank you all for being here.

For the past five years, eleven months and eight days, I have overseen an administration and a Congress that has accomplished many amazing feats of greatness and glory. Together, we tackled a runaway budget. We improved the economy by decreasing the poverty and unemployment rates by taking an ax to unnecessary taxes. We expanded the possibilities of the free market system. We protected the environment and preserved our national landmarks. We preserved family values and valiantly fought back crime and teenage delinquency plaguing our communities. We defended our allies in Latin America, brought peace and justice to North Africa, and ensured American victory in the decades-long standoff that was the Cold War.

Unfortunately, my fellow Americans, it has come to my attention that my Presidency has been compromised. The past several months have been tiring on us all, as the unfortunate details of the actions of members of my administration – including my own misjudgments – have come to light, dragging the names of people through the mud regardless of their innocence or guilt and placing them before the court of public opinion, clogging up America’s judicial system in a show that distracts us all from more important issues. Ending disease and hunger, strengthening national defenses, lowering taxes even further, ending inequality, and combating crime – all more important matters that require far more greater attention than this administration has given them as of late. We all need to focus and work on curing these social ailments, but I myself can no longer fight these good fights in this compromised office. And so, I am shutting down this media circus, and, with it, regrettably, my Presidency.

A good soldier never surrenders in the middle of a battle; a soldier keeps on fighting until the battle is won or lost. It is with shame and reflection that I confess that the battle to execute the agenda of this White House has been lost.

To make myself perfectly and legally clear: in order to better focus on strengthening America from a freer vantage point, and to return the attention of this country that I love so much to the real issues that matter and affect us all, I hereby resign from the office of the Presidency, effective noon today.

Good luck, Jack.

Thank you all for listening, God bless you all, and God Bless the United States of America.”

– Jeremiah Denton in a live televised announcement, White House Press Briefing Room, 1/28/1986, 7:30 A.M. EST


[pic: ]
Jack French Kemp, the 39th President of the United States

“Denton was, is, and remains an innocent man who resigned to spare the nation he loves, then, now, and forever more, from having to go through the awkwardness and embarrassment of seeing an incumbent President be forced to sort out the sordid affairs of those who betrayed his trust in front of the insensitive media, a sorting that would have continued to drag on for months on end, impeding his ability to serve his country as its leader. He took a bullet for us all!”

– Southern Baptist clergyman Billy Ervin McCormack of Louisiana, CBN broadcast, 9/9/1989

“In retrospect, maybe I should have seen it coming. I mean, I met the man now an’ again. Didn’t really talk to me that often about foreign or domestic policy, though. I guess he wanted to make his time in the White House different than how mine was. Distinct. And it did end up like that, I guess. I mean, I was aware that he could fly off the handle at times, but I am still surprised by just how badly he muddied everything up! I just hope this new fella, Kemp? I hope he’s a better and more open and transparent kind of leader than Denton. That’s what should have tipped me off – when the scandals started coming out, he didn’t step up and confess what he knew like what I did. Well, what’s done is done. His chickens came home to roost, and that’s that. I just wonder what’ll happen to ol’ Jer next, now that he’s out of a job an’ all.”

– Colonel Sanders to a reporter, 12/29/1986

[1] Italicized snippet pulled from here:
[2] Real thing!: “Ancient Gonzo Wisdom” book, page 360).
[3] In OTL, in December 2019, a lawsuit was filed in New York on behalf of nine anonymous accusers for battery, assault, and intentional emotional distress, with the claims dating from 1985 through the 2000s, and included individuals who were 13, 14, and 15 when they first encountered Epstein. These are the only publicly disclosed accounts of sexual abuse at the hands of Jeffrey Epstein that actually date back to the 1980s, suggesting his reign of evil did not truly begin until the early 1990s: So, yeah, it’s getting nipped in the bud here.
[4] Who? This guy:
[5] OTL quote from early 2020!!!
[6] But it will happen OTL for the 2026 Winter Olympics in Italy!
[7] TTL’s 1986 P.O.M.A. is based on OTL’s 1996 D.O.M.A., F.Y.I.!
[8] ITTL Harlon Carter died in an accident in October 1975 (see corresponding chapter for further details), and without him Neal Knox and the pro-politicization faction of the NRA failed to take over the organization’s leadership ranks!
[9] To be covered in the next chapter, along with more stuff concerning Le Pen and what will happen with Denton and all that (E.T.A.: no later than the 24th)

NHobson said:
Uh, when exactly did the White Sox and Comiskey Park move to Boston? Did the Red Sox and Fenway Park move to Chicago at the same time?
D'oh! Sorry about that, I think I confused the White Sox for the Red Sox (meant for it to be the Red Sox (maybe)) - I'll fix that!
EDIT: fixed (I think...)

FDRFan1943 said:
How did Elton John die?
Drug overdose in the early 1980s, a death used by anti-recreadrug persons as an example of the danger/consequences of using such drugs.

Thanks for the comments; I really appreciate them!
Last edited:
Post 48
Post 48: Chapter 56

Chapter 56: December 1986 – July 1987

“Giving your enemy a drink does not mean you are excusing their misdeeds, but that you are recognizing them, forgiving them, and loving them in spite of their sins – just as Christ did for us.”


“Hello, America. My name is Jack Kemp, and I’ve been your President for the past four hours. …What we have been through as a nation over the past two years has tested us all. It has tested our faith in our government, our belief in our judicial system, and our loyalty to each other... Now is the time to move on. Now begins a time of healing, and making amends. As your new President, I vow to uphold every part of my oath of office, and will begin by calling for greater transparency in all White House positions, cabinet departments, and cabinet-level departments, administrations, and agencies… I will strive to be the kind of President that the American people deserve to have – open, sincere, hardworking and loyal to all Americans everywhere. Together, as we enter the New Year, we will also enter a new chapter in American history. Thank you and good evening.”

– Jack French Kemp’s first televised Address to the Nation, 12/28/1986, 11:30 A.M. EST

They called him JFK – Jack French Kemp. He was an NFL quarterback-turned-politician, and at 51, he was fairly young and fairly charismatic. Becoming President in the wake of Denton’s sudden but not-too-surprising resignation, Kemp enjoyed a “honeymoon period” of fairly high approval ratings after assuming office. The initial approval of the new man – a savvy, charming, aesthetically pleasing and fair-haired jock with presumably broad appeal – sitting behind the Resolute Desk even made some Republican pundits optimistic that the GOP would manage to put the Great Potomac Scandals behind them, and rebuild their reputation in time for the 1988 elections.

– Morton Kondracke and Fred Barnes’s Jack Kemp: The Bleeding-Heart Conservative Who Changed America, Sentinel Books, 2015

“The U.S.A. would not have survived a scandal like this during the Cold War. The President resigning under a cloud of suspicion, amid claims he’d committed impeachable crimes? The Soviets would have never let that go! We’d have been an embarrassment on the world stage, and we very likely would have lost the Cold War, or at least the moral superiority front of the Cold War!”

– William F. Buckley Jr., Meet the Press interview, 12/30/1986

At the start of the New Year, President Kemp began assembling his cabinet. Only roughly a quarter of the members of the Denton Administration retained a position in the Kemp Administration, as J.F.K. sought to “start fresh with a clean house.”

For State, Kemp nominated Lawrence Eagleburger, a statesman and diplomat and a veteran of the Denton, Mondale and Sanders administrations. ...Retired Brigadier General Donnie Dunagan was Kemp’s choice for the position of U.S. Secretary of Defense; Dunagan began his military career in 1952, becoming the youngest-ever Marine Corps drill sergeant before serving two tours in Cuba and five tours in Indochina. He was wounded several times in Laos, North Vietnam and Cambodia but received a Bronze Star and four Purple Hearts (taking bullets in the chest, arms, and legs, in total) for his actions in three of those incidents; he had retired in 1983 after overseeing some troop activities in Libya. He was nominated without incident… Leander J. Shaw Jr., a Democrat African-American state judge from Florida, became Attorney General... The position of Secretary of Education was filled by Cleveland Sellers, Jr., an African-American educator and veteran civil rights activist…

…It was not surprising when Kemp selected economist and author Arthur Laffer to be his Chief Economic Policy Advisor and Ed Rollins to be his White House Counsel… the 74-year-old retired 4-star General of the Marine Corps Lew Walt became Kemp’s Chief Foreign Policy Advisor, while Democrat Bettye Fahrenkamp of Alaska became Kemp’s Chief Domestic Policy Advisor…

…For the Small Business Administration, Kemp chose Democratic U.S. Congressman George Joseph Hochbrueckner of New York… US Congressman Vin Weber (R-MN) became the youngest-ever H.U.D. Secretary at the age of almost 37… Ralph Nader retained his post at the EPA… NASA Director Mary Lowe Scranton was promoted to Secretary of Health and Welfare, while NASA scientist Farouk El-Baz became said agency’s new Director…

…Former US Senator Maureen Reagan was chosen to be the new US Ambassador to the UK…

– Jonathan Applebaum’s Tackling What Ailed Us: The Trials And Triumphs of The Jack Kemp Presidency, Borders Books, 2010


The Wall Street Journal, 1/5/1987

When it came to choosing a Vice President, Kemp knew exactly who he wanted. On January 15, Kemp nominated someone who Kemp had worked with on legislation in the House for years, a man he respected and trusted – U.S. Congressman and the new House Minority Leader Joseph J. Polonko Jr. [1]. Born in July of 1939, Polonko served in the Army, rising to the rank of Captain, before receiving two purple hearts for getting shot in the legs during the Cuban War. Retiring from the military, he soon went into politics, leading to him being elected to Congress in 1970. While the pairing of Kemp and Polonko was not at all regionally balanced, it was politically wise because not only was Polonko able to work well with lawmakers across the aisle, he was also more conservative and religious than Kemp, and thus appealed to the right wing of the GOP.

– Curt Smith’s From No. 15 to No. 39: The Life And Presidency of Jack French Kemp, Cornell University Press, 2015


…the possibility of a former President being indicted for crimes allegedly committed during his time in office is very real, as the DOJ continues to probe the US State Department…

The Birmingham News, 1/19/1987

“Should Kemp pardon Denton before he is placed on trial?” That was the question on the minds of Kemp, Polonko, House Whip Emery, Fahrenkamp, Attorney General Shaw, and D.C. Circuit Appeals Court Justice Patricia Wald when the four men and two women sat down in the Oval Office for a lengthy discussion.

“The DOJ investigation still ongoing, former Congressman Packwood has already been charged, and it is very possible that criminal charges may in fact be filed against Denton,” Shaw broke down the situation.

“To allow the former leader of the Free World to be dragged out to trial, which in itself could drag out for several more months, possibly even a full year – a year of the trial dominating news cycles, TV, papers – it would ruin the nation’s psyche and prevent the healing process to begin,” worried Fahrenkamp.

“But I you do pardon him, Mr. President,” countered Wald, “You run the risk of the rest of your time in office being overshadowed by an action that could be seen as a shady and obvious attempt at a cover-up. Innocent men do not need pardons, and Denton accepting a pardon will be seen by the American people as a confession of guilt from him. It could take pressure off you, but, then again the American people may not approve of the image of a guilty man walking away with nothing more than a slap on the wrist. I know I wouldn’t.”

“So I’m damned if I do, and I’m damned if I don’t.” Kemp analyzed the situation, “Is there any possible third option? Anyone?”

“Um, maybe some kind of commutation?” Emery half-heartedly suggested after a moment, “It’s not a pardon or a complete exemption from indictment. We simply make it so what sentence he receives is changed to something much less severe.”

Shaw shot the notion down easily. “It would upset the justice department. Would probably piss off Denton’s remaining supporters, too. And most people don’t even know the legal difference between a pardon and a commutation, and even if they do, they won’t like it. Besides, I does nothing for us now to talk about what to do later, and furthermore – ”

“Alright, I get it!” Emery interjected, “Don’t subpoena me for spitballing!”

“The people just want this over and done with. I say we go with a full-on blanket pardon so we can all talk about something else for a change,” Polonko returned to the topic at hand.

“Why blanket?” asked Fahrenkamp.

“So as to not admit guilt.” Polonko answered.

“But wouldn’t that just anger the people who are certain that Denton’s guilty?” was Fahrenkamp’s second question.

“I got it!” Wald exclaimed, “Issue a specific pardon, saying you pardon Denton for obstructing justice and directing the misuse of department funds. Then the ball will be in Denton’s corner.”

“Isn’t it ‘the ball’s in your court?’” Fahrenkamp continued with the questions.

“Whatever,” Wald dismissed the query, “My point is, if Denton accepts it, it’ll be like admitting guilt but not going to trial. But if he refuses, claiming innocence, the trial will commence, and if the American people don’t like it…”

“…then we can go ‘hey, we offered Denton a pardon and he refused to take it. Blame him.’ I get it!” Shaw nodded his head in approval.

“I don’t know,” Kemp commented. “It seems underhanded. I want to start my presidency off on the right foot.” Already working on new cabinet transparency laws, Kemp was thinking ahead. Even if he won a full term in 1988, it’d be the only one to which he’d be entitled. He thought back to December, how, upon being informed that the President had resigned without informing him of the plan, he felt betrayed, and a bit angry. He remembered how one of the first things he thought was “You couldn’t have waited 23 more days, Jer?”

Returning his mind to the present, he conceded. “Analysts will understand this, but will the American people?”

– Jonathan Applebaum’s Tackling What Ailed Us: The Trials And Triumphs of The Jack Kemp Presidency, Borders Books, 2010

DENTON PARDONED FOR SPECIFIC CRIMES! Kemp Issues Pardon For Obstruction And Misuse of Funds!

– The Washington Post, 1/30/1987

As the President faced the reactions to his pardoning controversy – which was mostly positive, save for criticisms from Republican Party leaders – Kemp pressed on by unveiling his agenda for the rest of the year. Considering growth to be an economic goal that was superior to a balanced budget, he implemented a 60-day-freeze on government spending. Championing free markets and free trade, he sought to lower tax rates on both employment and investment income, and to pass a tax simplification bill. He also sought to implement a flat tax, saying “a rising tide lifts all boats” in more than one speech on the subject. Kemp won support from members of the GOP’s growing libertarian wing such as Senator Ron Paul for supporting the gold standard, but not for his decision to continue on American military involvement in Colombia and Nicaragua. …Due to the experience that was his wife Joanne’s miscarriage, Kemp opposed abortion. …Kemp soon found out that working with the Democrat-majority Congress would be easier than expected in some areas but quite difficult in others…

– Curt Smith’s From No. 15 to No. 39: The Life And Presidency of Jack French Kemp, Cornell University Press, 2015

Support for gay marriage began to rise almost immediately after Denton left office. A February 1987 Gallup poll showed Support for Gay Marriage among Republicans to be at 15%, a 2% rise from an early 1986 Gallup poll; among Independents to be at 30%, a 8% rise; and among Democrats to be at 36%, a 5% rise. In Washington, D.C. legislators began debating the repealing the 1986 Protection of Marriage Act...


Outside of politics, a large Oxford poll conducted in February 1987 showed that the number of people who thought “sexual relations between two adults of the same sex” was “always wrong” was at 54%, up from the 48% level of 1983, while the number of people who thought “sexual relations between two adults of the same sex” was “not wrong at all” was at 19%, down from the 21% level of 1983. [2]

Society was further split on more nuanced details, though; for instance, a UK poll showed 41.0% of American citizens supported giving school boards the authority to fire teachers who were known members of the BLUTAG community.

– Brandon Teena’s The Rise of BLUTAG Rights: The Story of the Bi-Lesbian-Undefined-Trans-Asexual-Gay Movement, Scholastic, 2019

…Still combating diabetes, the Colonel continued to experiment with various recipes, searching for more healthy items to add to KFC’s menus. In January 1987, for instance, a new item based on an old recipe of the Colonel appeared. “The Colonel’s Own” Crispy Cornmeal Chicken is made with chicken breasts or legs, beaten egg, cornmeal, and the secret herbs and spices blend; the blend is mixed with the cornmeal, and then the chicken is dipped into the egg and the cornmeal mixture before being pressure-fried. The special item sold fairly well, notably most successfully in parts of the American South…


[pic: ]
Claudia and Harland regularly inspected the company’s offerings, from the salads to the gravy (above), to assure the customers top quality items.

– Josh Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012


…the Governor of Massachusetts, in office since 1977, is rumored to be considering running for President next year…

– The Hollywood Reporter, 2/16/1987


…Margaret Anne Learoyd Mitchell of Vancouver East, one of the first members of parliament to raise the issue of violence against women in the wake of the First Ark Wave, won over Audrey McLaughlin, Rosemary Brown, Bill Vander Zalm, and long-shot candidate Anna Aquash…

The Globe and Mail, Canadian newspaper, 17/2/1987

…Things were good until one fateful morning in February 1987. I tried to swipe some coin from a geriatric vacationer. Now, usually, I could spot an ex-cop from miles away. They always had some kind of tell. Good posture, “phantom belt” or “phantom gun” gestures, moving their head around as they scouted out the place. I avoided them well, but this one hid himself even better. And once they brought me in, he was real good at making sure they ran me through the system.

That was it for me. Well, first I tried to escape, but after they caught me just half a mile from the station, then it was it for me.

Okay, fine, it was three months later, when I jumped out of the squad car after being transferred back to the state but got caught just around the corner just ten minutes later. That’s when it was it for me.

– James Earl Ray’s memoir, How I (Almost) Got Away With It: The True Story of The Man Known As Eric Starvo Galt, Borders Books, 1999

Kemp admitted that implementing the “flagship” policy idea of his 1987 presidential agenda, the creation of “economic zones,” officially known as “Zones of Economic Development,” or “ZEDs” for short, would be politically complex and difficult, but not impossible. The policy would open “forsaken corners of various communities” to all newcomers, with minimal government involvement. The small-bureaucracy plan appealed to libertarians and showed to observers that this new administration was aware of the slow decline of the Rust Belt’s levels of jobs and businesses over the past many years, arguably starting in full with the decline of US Steel in 1959 [3].

The idea was that the ZEDs would renew existing stocks of social capital – highways, railroads, housing, utilities and the like – via deregulation. The loosening up of building codes and zoning laws, occupation licenses, and other property details – but not safety codes (given the abandoned nature of certain zones) – would also be implemented, as well as the cutting of tax rates. It soon made its way onto the House floor, introduced as the “Economical Urban Redevelopment Enterprise Clearance Assistance,” bill or the EURECA bill, for short.

“This will allow anyone to open a small business in an enterprise zone and gain tax credits and wage benefits,” argued the President at a press conference on February 19. Strip malls, community computer education centers, medical clinics, retail shops, and other such businesses were example given in regards to the “benefits of state governments working with local governments to incentivize businesses, via tax breaks and other incentives, to locate or invest in poor areas in order to bring employment opportunities to said areas.”

While the bill had bipartisan appeal, several Democrats, such as freshman US Senator Bronson La Follette of Wisconsin, believed the lack of “job market entryways” for people with criminal records, recreadrug/alcohol issues, and mental health issues, was “a bigger, more pressing issue that this bill does not resolve or even address.”

Other details of the large bill included prohibiting firearm possession in public housing, promoting ZEDs at the state level more-so than at the local level, and most controversially, the concept of tenant ownership...

– Jonathan Applebaum’s Tackling What Ailed Us: The Trials And Triumphs of The Jack Kemp Presidency, Borders Books, 2010 [4]

Since their independence, United Turkestan and Tajikistan had quietly backed Uyghur separatists, and offered asylum to refugees. Chinese government officials responded to this by doubling down on border crackdowns. Xiaoping, as he anticipated retirement at the end of the year, refused to reconsider his repressive policies on Tibetans, either, causing many of them to rebel to an extent that seemed to eclipse, if not surpass, the violence of the 1959 Tibetan Rebellion [5]. Tibetan “terrorists” began to co-ordinate with anti-PRC Uyghurs in India, Nepal and United Turkestan. The East Turkestan Islamic Movement led by the Turkestan Unification Organization and the Uyghur Liberation Organization [6] sought to end the PRC’s policies of forcing locals of out Xinjiang and Tibet to move in Han Chinese “settlers” through a variety of methods. A faction in both groups pushed for the repelling of all Han Chinese peoples from their borders; a similar faction of Tibetans were critical of the Dalai Lama calling for a “peaceful resolution.”

Outside of China, international groups admonished the Chinese government to little effect. In the United States, the Kemp administration considered calling for peace talks, but were held back by the reality that China was a major player in American mineral markets, being the largest supplier of steel in American construction projects.

Many analysts believed that Colonel Sanders could return to geopolitics and play a key role in changing Chinese policy due to his popularity among many members of the Han Chinese population…

– Bo Yibo’s The Dragon and The Eagle: Chinese and American Dances, Daggers and Dinners, English translation, 1998

In the wake of Le Pen’s upset election, Socialist Prime Minister Georges Marchais argued that the next parliamentary majority should refuse to govern if President Le Pen attempted to abuse power or in any other way violate the powers of his new office. Edouard Balladur and others also noted that while impeachment did not exist in the French Constitution, the policy of "cohabitation" did. Under this policy, Le Pen was compelled to retain Marchais, who had maintained majority support in the 1986 elections despite the Socialist alliance losing seats, while the new cabinet would enforce its domestic policy programme and Le Pen would keep control of foreign and military affairs, meaning that for the first time of the history of the Fifth Republic, the parliamentary majority was opposed to the President. In France, the Prime Minister is appointed by the President, but can be revoked by the National Assembly. As a result, Le Pen’s efforts to dismiss the Socialist Prime Minister Georges Marchais were unsuccessful. [7]

However, the President of France also appoints members to the Constitutional Council, which ensures that measures passed by parliament are constitutional, or conform to both the Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Le Pen’s efforts to block parliamentary measures through his appointees on the Constitutional Council led to Parliament failing to pass several bills meant to limit the power of the President or implement legislation supporting several policies that Le Pen opposes in regards to taxes and immigration; thus, 1986 and 1987 saw a 20% drop in parliamentary productivity.

France is also a unitary state in which the regions, departments and communes – administrative subdivisions – have various legal functions and capabilities; as the national government – and thus Le Pen – are prohibited from interfering with the standard operations of these divisions, leading to several areas and cities passing local laws that directly defied President Le Pen.

In March 1987, Le Pen’s Nation Front faced additional opposition when the new cabinet finally managed to abolish proportional representation for the next legislative elections. [7]

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999


…the act, introduced separately from the larger “EURECA” bill, will allocate $4billion to a nationwide project involving the selling of public housing to its tenants, a proposal that had both bipartisan support and bipartisan opposition. With Kemp calling it a form of “welfare adjustment of government offsets,” the new act will also increase subsidies for low-income renters and lower taxes for first-time home buyers… Critics of the bill are now voicing their concern over Kemp’s other proposals, such as expanding some social service programs for the homeless and elderly while somehow still cutting taxes overall…

The Rutland Herald, 3/2/1987


…tonight’s general elections in the Democratic Republic of Libya went smoothly and saw high turnout for the popular head of state… Incumbent Prime Minister Mustafa Ben Halim, representing Libyans sympathetic to the West but not necessarily entirely trusting of the West, led his Libyan Movement party to victory over his two main challengers – Aguila Saleh Issa of the slightly pro-West but anti-US Independent Pathway party, and Sadiq Al-Ghariani of the conservative “third-way” National Identity party…

– The Guardian, UK newspaper, 3/3/1987

Governor Thyra Thomson oversaw the state’s population growth continue on, as a massive project concerning underground water distribution systems created even more jobs for the new residents. …While some environmentalist groups voiced some concern over the proximity of some of these water-distributing pipes to Jackson Hole, a low-lying valley, and Grand Teton, a popular mountaineering site, both on the edge of Wyoming’s Idaho border, Thompson managed to prove to most of those concerned that the project was environmentally conscious... The success of the waterworks project is usually cited for why Thompson’s approval ratings were usually the highest of all other Governors in the US during most of her third term in office…

Welcome to the Big River Flat: The History of Wyoming, Victory Publications, 2019


…The bill, co-sponsored and heavily supported by Senator Joseph Biden (D-DE), provides over $1billion towards enhancing investigations into prosecutions of violent/abusive crimes against women, increases the pre-trial detention of the accused, provides automatic restitution of those convicted, and allows for civil redress in cases that prosecutors choose to leave unprosecuted. The bill is meant to better protect and defend women victimized by domestic violence, sexual assault, and financial intimidation...

The Washington Post, 3/5/1987


The Washington Times, 3/10/1987



[pic: ]
The Star Ledger, NJ newspaper, 3/14/1987

…President Kemp announced today his support for the Sorensen-Schneider bill going through the House that will raise business taxes for wealthy American in exchange for lowering personal income taxes for poorer Americans, explaining he backs the bill because, quote, “this moves the weight of the government to those who can carry it and will lower taxes overall,” unquote. Kemp, who agreed to support the new bill, as a form of compromise with the Democrat-majority Congress, argues that smaller government will incentivize people into working, saving, and investing into business and market enterprises, and to follow beneficial pursuits such as advancing their education, interests, and other possibilities…

– KNN, 3/16/1987

“Wealthy businessmen launched wave of attacks on Kemp after that – articles in places like the National Review, conservative radio, TV spots, the works – calling him a sellout for not sticking to his convictions and simply refuse to support such a bill. But the legislation did lower taxes overall, so it wasn’t Kemp beliefs they were worried about – they cared about their fortunes, and nothing more.”

– political analyst Morton Kondracke, KNN interview, 2009

“KEMP’S HONEYMOON IS OVER!”: The New President’s “Grace Period” May Have Finally Closed

The New York Times, opinion article, 3/23/1987

“I had a positive experience with liberal classmates growing up in the ’70s and ’80s. Exposure, um, learning in high school how corporations had responded to the ’78 crash, and sense of betrayal by Nixon, and the way that Kemp got hounded by his own fellow Republicans for raising taxes on the rich in, uh, 1987, it, you know, it just p- it really angered me. And my attitude toward the Republicans only worsened during my college years. By the time I graduated, I was definitely what you could call a ‘Financial Justice Progressive’ liberal kind of guy. …Since registering as a Democrat in ’88, I’ve only rarely voted Republican…”

– P. Davis Ryan, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) segment, 2006


…One prominent voice absent from the recent wave of angry wealthy Republicans is arguably America’s most identifiable businessman, the 96-year-old former President Colonel Sanders. While increasingly apolitical in recent years, one source close to the Colonel claims the politician-turned-philanthropist believes “successful businessmen have a responsibility to the people that made them successful in the first place.” This comment reminds this reporter of what the Colonel said in an interview in 1983: “the Market should be ‘free to a degree’ – businessmen should have the ability to explore new possibilities and inspiring ideas, but should not do so in any way or ways that endanger things like the public, the environment, their workers, and the like...”

The New York Post, 3/26/1987


…The Senate and House approved of his nominations by wide margins last month…

The New York Times, 4/2/1987

…black rain is a form of precipitation caused by the immediate aftermath of a nuclear detonation, in which water is black and sticky due to radioactive materials in the air… the notable incident of “black rain” in the United States came roughly eight years after the Trojan Tower Disaster of northern Oregon. On April 4, 1987, the region of eastern Montana was “bombarded” by “pitch-black storm clouds [that] delivered small tar-like globs, some the size of a wristwatch, others larger than a fist!” The rain the covered the region for over an hour, affecting several hundred acres of crops. Nobody was reported hurt, but there were reports of animals being sick from eating the tar. As a result, most of the affected areas were evacuated for same measure, with the Governor at the time, Thyra Thomson, following the precedents established in the aftermath of the Trojan Tower Disaster to address the situation…



The Wall Street Journal, 4/5/1987

…NASA’s projects continued on unchanged under Kemp. By the time Kemp began to consider cutting our budget, we had already awarded contracts to American companies for the US portions of the International Space Station.


All companies that work with NASA are legally required to use the metric system for all measurements, even for domestic projects, in order to avoid any snafus – a lesson we learned the hard way. In April 1987, one of the companies contracted to build a section of the Mobile Servicing System did so with inches instead of centimeters, requiring a rebuilt and causing the launch of that section to be delayed by fourth months. While an embarrassment for NASA and the company, it did, on the other hand, lead to more support from NASA for the rest of the nation to shift to metric. Even thought this is not currently a major movement, the clichéd phrase does state that hope springs eternal…

– Former NASA Administrator Farouk El-Baz’s Up and Away: How The Cold War Competition Pushed Us into The Stars, MacFarland & Company, 1994

It was becoming clear that President Ramiz Alia would not win the election on April 12, 1987. His slow-moving reaction to the student demonstrations had just been too damaging to his campaign. Thus, it became mighty suspicious when the government announced that the elections were too close to call. After a day of uncertainty, the Communists announced the formation of an “emergency government” for an indefinite period. Naturally, the riots and protests returned to the streets, this time larger and louder in the face of alleged voter fraud. This period is often referred to as either a time of revolt, crisis, unrest, or an unofficial civil war.

The general strike that soon followed the student protests worsened the economy, causing Alia’s remaining support to deflate even further. The political organization called Democratic League, led by the youngish Sali Berisha, took over the capital on April 25. Alia agreed to relinquish power on the condition of amnesty; both sides of the deal were kept. Berisha, the new President of Albania, announced that Albanians had the freedom to travel abroad and establish diplomatic ties to the West. However, corruption and the abysmal economy were still major problems in the country.

As their northern neighbor’s economy kept on soaring because of their investments into Africa (especially post-Civil War Ethiopia), Yugoslavian politicians began to offer assistance to Albania. Encouraged and influenced by vocal members of the Kosovan region of Yugoslavia, Albania’s northern neighbor made the move, and the two nations agreed to an open-borders policy in August 1987.

In the subsequent years, Albanians began to share high opinions of their northern neighbor, so much so that in a national poll conducted in 1989 revealed that roughly 7% of Albanian citizens approved of the idea of unifying with them. The semi-serious [8] proposal either demonstrated the closeness of the two nations, despite Yugoslavia’s socialist government, or the amount of Albanians that preferred a return to life under socialist rule…

– Tajar Zavalani’s The Albanian People: A Fiery History, London Books, 2015

“Yeah, me and Yoko had known Paul [McCartney] for a few years, but the first time we ever collaborated on anything was in, I want to say, in April of ’87. Yoko never really liked Paul on a professional level, leading to there being no love lost between the two of them, but when we were out of that recording studio, and we were all fine with each other. Paul’s a real cool dude…”

– Tommy Chong, 2014 interview


…the former Vice President claims that the 1984 election “exhausted” him, that he did not wish to put himself thought “another election cycle of arguing with superficial mudslingers as they dance around the issues.” However, Gravel did not rule out a late, last-minute entry, saying that “I will endorse any and every candidate that both supports a National Initiative plan and addresses the 800-pound gorilla in the room that is the military-industrial complex, and if nobody steps up to the plate and supports those two things, then maybe I might just have to run after all.” There were reportedly concerns over his electability among several former members of the 1984 campaign, which makes sense given his electoral history. Apart from winning a second term as Vice President in 1976, Gravel last won an election over sixteen years ago, when he was elected to the US Senate in 1970… Since leaving the Presidency, Gravel has remarried and has founded the True Democracy Foundation, a non-profit organization that promotes direct democracy proposals, non-interventionism, and several other progressive and libertarian ideas...

The New York Times, 4/27/1987


…Standing next to his political counterpart at the White House, President Kemp spoke of seeking to “work closely with” President Miquel de la Madrid “to better address our mutual concerns” such as issues regarding recreadrugs and immigration…

The El Paso Times, 4/28/1987

...The Second Arkwave spurred the abortion debate from being a regional state-by-state discussion to being a major national controversy…

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

…Since 1978, Dr. Richard Strauss had worked in the Athletics Department and Student Health Center at Ohio State University as a physician for sports teams. …Strauss’s abusing of male students since 1979 were known to some members of the OSU faculty, being an allegedly “open secret” to the sports department, but not the higher-ups. Strauss was fired in January 1987 without explanation, likely to avoid a scandal during the Second Ark Wave still occurring at the time. …Students, inspired by the Ark Wave, decided that it was “time for male victims to step forward, too,” and a group of students formally complained about the nature of Strauss’ physical examinations on April 29, 1987. The allegations came at a time when Strauss was attempting to open a private off-campus clinic near OSU…


On May 3, 1987 [9], Dr. James Hansen, professor and research climatologist, testified before the US Senate that “our computer climate simulations indicate that the greenhouse effect is already large enough to begin to effect the probability of extreme events such as summer heat waves. …Altogether the evidence that the earth is warming by an amount which is too large to be a chance fluctuation and the similarity of the warming to that expected from the greenhouse effect represents a very strong case. In my opinion, that the greenhouse effect has been detected, and it is changing our climate now.” [10]

Dr. Hansen’s comments, while initially criticized by some of his colleagues for its “alarmist” delivery, were nevertheless instrumental in increasing public awareness of the man-made phenomenon eventually dubbed “Global Climate Disruption,” or GCD for short…

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018

The Devil’s Doctors
(released in Argentina under the name Edeljude)

Premiered: May 5, 1987



Alternating between various points in history, the film focuses on the lives of two of Adolph Hitler’s physicians, Eduard Bloch and Hugo Blaschke. Both men are being interviewed in 1945 to determine their role in Hitler’s rule, and to understand why both men were given special treatment by Hitler himself.

Bloch (1904-1907) of Linz, Austria was the family doctor for the Hitlers. Adolph was forever grateful for helping his mother during her final months of life during her battle with breast cancer, as Bloch had charged reduced rates and sometimes worked free of charge. Hitler inquired about Bloch’s well-being for twenty years, called him a “Edeljude” (“noble Jew”).

In 1938, as the dictator of Germany, Hitler puts Bloch and his immediate family under special protection by the Gestapo after Austria became a part of Germany, the only Jew in Linz to get such status. This creates tension for Bloch, as his friends, neighbors and patients accuse him of betraying his religion for not rejecting the protection. In 1939, Bloch and his family are allowed to receive emigration paperwork, sell their home at market value, and leave the country without any interference from The Gestapo, leading to Bloch’s neighbors and remaining friends accusing him of being a Nazi collaborator. Despite his insistence, his family receives jeers from townsfolk as they leave, and various items are thrown at them, with the Gestapo leader in charge of escorting them out of the country implied that the townsfolk will be “punished” for being so “hostile,” much to Bloch’s horror.

Years later, in 1944, Hugo Blaschke, Hitler’s dentist, visits the dictator to fix his infected teeth. Hitler thanks Blaschke for his 12 years of loyal service, even though Blaschke, a member of the Nazi party since 1931, has begun to feel regret and guilt, but dismisses the feelings by justifying that he has “no real power here.” A year later, after surviving the last days of the Third Reich, Blaschke is arrested by American forces and comes with authorities to identify Hitler’s jaw remains, concluding that they are in fact Hitler’s.

Throughout the film, Bloch and Blaschke verbally spar over their roles in history, with Bloch regretting he did not “do something” to stop his rise to power, and Blaschke claiming Hitler’s rise was an inevitability that was “out of [their] control.” The climax of the film is a heated debate over the “filth on [their] souls,” which culminates in Blaschke finally admitting that he feels guilt, and asks Bloch for forgiveness. Seeing that he is sincere, Bloch does.


Critical Reception:

The film was highly controversial when it was released. Critical reviews were polarized; audiences were similarly split. Despite the filmmakers publicly going through great strides to make the film historical accurate (the conversation between the two doctors was fictionalized while the flashbacks based on real events), the film allegedly depicting Hitler as sociopathic and almost bipolar in how he was heartless to millions but not to the Jewish doctor led to accusations that the director and writers were anti-Semitic. They denied these claims, but the film’s plot (though not necessarily the film itself) became a common talking point and “fan favorite” for neo-Nazis and anti-Semitic groups, especially during the 1990s and 2000s decade, when the film began being circulated and sold ontech.



The Columbus Dispatch, 5/9/1987


The Dayton Daily News, 5/10/1987

On May 11, Prime Minister Sir Billy Snedden stunned the nation by announcing that he was stepping down after less than two years in office. To those closest to him, it was not a surprise. The leader of the Liberals had been suffering from declining health for years. Despite only being 60, the effects of atherosclerosis and heart disease had taken their toll on the life-long politician; he would pass away from heart failure three years after leaving office.

Soon the Liberals were on the hunt for a new leader, and found one in Shirley de la Hunty. De la Hunty, who was born in 1925, was originally a professional athlete, winning Gold medals in the 1952 and 1956 Olympics for hurdles, before entering politics. She won a seat in the legislative council in the 1971 Western Australian state elections, then rose in rank and prominence over the next fifteen years. By succeeding Snedden, Shirley de la Hunty became Australia’s 23rd Prime Minister and the nation’s first female head of state…

– Jeremy Moon and Campbell Sharman’s Australian Politics And Government: A History, Cambridge University Press, 2003

Several congresspersons on both sides of the aisle were restive and some even petulant over the passing of the EURECA bill on May 15. The anger, however, was not endemic to conservative Republicans. Concerned that tenant empowerment could cost more than the expected “high bar” of $4billion to implement via HUD appropriations led to, prior to its passing, freshman US Senator Barbara Mikulski told Kemp she had “great reservations” about his whole tenant-ownership plan. She contended that most public housing tenants were too poor to purchase their units and that the cost of rehabilitating units to make them purchase-worthy prohibitive.” [11] Kemp pressed on regardless, and managed to win the support of several Democrats by supporting the spending of money on necessary emergency relief, restoration and rebuilding of regions struck by natural disasters, which angered members of the GOP even further.

– Curt Smith’s From No. 15 to No. 39: The Life And Presidency of Jack French Kemp, Cornell University Press, 2015

…an independent investigation is collaborating with the Ohio Department of Justice to investigate sexual pestering allegations that have been made against a physician formerly employed by Ohio State University…

The Overmyer Network, 5/18/1987 broadcast


The Augusta Chronicle, 5/20/1987

After two tours of duty in Libya, partaking in combat missions as a naval aviator over Tripoli and Sirte, McCain retired from the Navy and enrolled in Columbia University in early 1984. McCain faced negative backlash from some of his fellow students on campus for serving in Libya, reporting incident ranging from verbal spats to passive-aggressive insults. “The piercing glances were ambiguous – I asked myself ‘were they offended by my skin color or my uniform?’ more than once –but the shouters at least made their thoughts clear. …but after surviving dogfights and anti-aircraft missile fire, verbal spats were nothing I couldn’t handle.” McCain graduated from Columbia University with a BA in May 1987 at the age of 26.

By this point in his life, McCain’s adoptive father, Admiral John McCain III, was becoming “quite the celebrity” from the theatrical film “Boldly Into Hell,” leading to him declining a Presidential run in 1988 and continue serving in the Navy. McCain’s mother, meanwhile, was continuing her work at the US Department of Education, focusing on rural development, microcredit for low-income families, and human rights work with Native American nations and the World Food Bank. This work proved interesting enough to Barack McCain for him to begin work as a community organizer in the US Department of Veterans’ Affairs, an occupation that “made my mother and both of my fathers [his biological father and his adoptive father] proud” of him…



[pic: ]
– A low-resolution family photo of Barack McCain (far right) at Columbia University with (left-to-right) Barack Obama, Ann Dunham, and John McCain, c. April 1987

On May 29, Kemp embarked on a three-day tour of Europe, becoming the first US President in a generation to visit the now-“wall-free” Berlin… While considering himself to be a moderate interventionist – most notably his promoting of the activities of Poland’s Solidarity labor union during his time in the House – Kemp was more critical of China than had been Denton [12], leading to him paying more attention to their activities in Xinjiang than had his predecessor…

– Jonathan Applebaum’s Tackling What Ailed Us: The Trials And Triumphs of The Jack Kemp Presidency, Borders Books, 2010

The industrial restructuring of the US economy during the 1960s led to economic crises and a rise in crime rates for the city during the late 1960s. Starting in the late 1960s, Mayor Joey Pericone (R) worked on occasion with New York Governor Mario Biaggi (D) on several measures to combat criminal activities. To nip the issue in the bud, Pericone capitalized on the economy growing in the US overall and offered tax breaks for small businesses that hired low-income employees and non-harmful ex-cons. The crime rate noticeably dropped from 1970 to 1978, though it spiked briefly during the close of the decade. Revised police strategies under Mayor Bellamy allowed the crime rate to continue to drop during the 1980s, though at a slower rate than under Pericone.

Issues such as healthcare reform and police brutality began to rise during the late 1970s and early 1980s, contributing to Bellamy’s election in 1981 and 1985. As Mayor, Carol Bellamy solved a financial crisis in 1982 via austerity measures that, while initially unpopular, proved to be successful enough for Bellamy to win re-election in a landslide. Bellamy’s formation of community groups to make the city’s police precincts known to and trusted by their communities was coupled with superior processes for vetting police officer candidates.

During the 1980s, the city’s culture changed as well, as more immigrants from Asia and Latin America moved in, as well as many technology-based companies. By 1987, the city had a reputation of being crime-free, which only contributed to its rise in population and economic prosperity.


CROWDED OR CLEAR?: Democratic Voters Uncertain Ahead of Presidential Primaries

…Early speculation on how the 1988 primaries will go is focusing on the campaigns of several potential candidates such as Kentucky Governor Martha Layne Osborne, longtime US Senator Eunice Kennedy-Shriver, and even long-shot candidate Carol Bellamy, the progressive Mayor of New York City…

The New York Post, 6/6/1987


…the Senator passed away peacefully in his sleep just days after turning 75, most likely from heart failure according to a source close to the family…

The Washington Post, 6/8/1987


…Clifford Leopold Alexander Jr., 55, an African-American lawyer, was elected the Mayor of our nation’s capital in 1966, 1970, 1974, and 1978. While he has not held elective office since leaving the mayor’s office in 1983 and moving to New York, he has stayed involved in politics by serving as a political lecturer at NYU and as a political correspondent for NBC.

His announcement comes unusually early, as most politicians since the primary reforms of the 1970s typically wait to officially announce their Presidential aspirations in the autumn, and after Independence Day at the earliest... We will have to wait and see if this early announcement benefits his campaign, or leads to fatigue for his candidacy by the time the primaries actually begin…

The Washington Post, 6/11/1987

America’s “N.A.S.A.” is their version of Roscosmos. Formerly a part of the USSR’s Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosviakosmos), Roscosmos re-established Russian interest in out space. …Launching facilities were constructed in several areas south of Volgograd during the late 1980s because Russia-Turkestani relations were not warm enough for us to successful open launch facilities in the Kazakh region of United Turkestan until 1993. …when the Russian Space Agency was formed by a decree from the President, Volkov appointed me its inaugural director… cash flow concerns forced us to play a smaller role in the I.S.S. development than we had hoped. However, 1987 saw the Russian economy begin to finally recover from the effects of the USSR’s collapse. Our funding increased, and with it, our ability to contribute more to space travel – not only with constructing more pieces for the I.S.S. project, but with a return to manned orbital missions soon afterwards as well.

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995


…in the case of Freeman v. Aguillard, the Court considered a state law in Louisiana that required the additional teaching of creationism in any public school that taught evolution to its students. The US Supreme Court ruled against the law because it violated the Establishment Clause of the Frist Amendment, as it purposely intended to advance one idea over another instead of giving all ideas equal footing. With the decision, Chief Justice Frank Minis Johnson explained “teaching opposing scientific theories in public schools must be done in a manner that is valid and, most importantly, with clearly secular intent.”…

The San Francisco Chronicle, 6/19/1987


…Kemp, sticking to his long-held promotion of minimizing most aspects of the federal government, states that he is “disappointed” in the vote results, but believes that, “with proper tweaking,” the bill can be revised, be re-introduced, and be passed…

The Washington Post, 6/24/1987

MAUREEN REAGAN TO STEP DOWN AS US AMBASSADOR TO THE UN; Will Leave Diplomat Post Over “Conflicting Ideas,” Arguments With Kemp White House

The San Francisco Chronicle, 6/25/1987


The Dayton Daily News, 6/27/1987

In the end, Dr. Robert Strauss, tried and found guilty of 1 count of attempted rape and 5 counts of sexual pestering. In early 1988, at the age of 49, Strauss was sentenced to 40 years in prison. While serving his sentence, he twice attempted suicide and sent for mental health examinations and therapy each time. Attempts to appeal his sentence as his health worsened failed repeatedly. After battling numerous health issues for roughly twenty years, Strauss passed away in 2019, at the age of 81.

Dr. Strauss & The Horrors of Larkins Hall, Episode 4 of a documentary series, 2025

[vid: watch?v=nuwAMztxL1E ]

– Colonel Sanders in a KFC commercial, first aired 6/30/1987

Even the region’s name was controversial. It was Xinjiang (“New Frontier” in Chinese) to some, “Chinese Turkestan” to others, “East Turkestan” to the separatists, and “Uyghuristan” to most of its many Uyghurs. In the capital of Urumqi, PRC officials organized the almost-daily treks to distant villages. Uyghur, Han, Kazakh, Tibetan, Hui, Tajik, Mongol, Russian and Xibe ethnic groups were all persecuted whenever dissident activities sprouted up.

The land was divided geographically by mountains, with the Dzungarian Basin making up most of the north and the Tarim Basin the south. We sent thousands of urban dwellers to the expansive region despite knowing that less than 10% of the total land area was actually fit for human habitation.


Most of the local inhabitants opposed to our activities began demanding autonomy, those some “radicals” pushed for an all-out war for independence, either by treaty or by force. The precedence of United Turkestan made many support the latter, but the circumstances were woefully different for them and China when compared to those of the UT and the USSR. There was less unity among the local non-Han Chinese populations, and the population itself was spares – over 90% of China’s population lived in the easternmost third of its land territory. Their numbers were simply too small...

– Bo Yibo’s The Dragon and The Eagle: Chinese and American Dances, Daggers and Dinners, English translation, 1998

…Breaking News: a Chevron oil tanker has hit a reef and run aground in Alaska, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Alaska…

– KNN, 7/9/1987 morning broadcast

…Standard Oil of California and Gulf Oil merged in 1984 and soon after adopted the legal name of Chevron Corporation. …The “Stargazer Delight” oil tanker headed south of the town of Valdez and passed through Prince William Sound. It was almost done passing by Hinchinbrook Island when the captain, failing to inspect the proper measurements, misjudged the tanker’s proximity to said island’s easternmost coast. Upon attempting to correct the error, said captain failed to turn the tanker away quickly enough. The collision created an opening along a third of the ship’s hull, and pierced deep into the bowels of the vessel’s cargo of crude oil.

After spilling into the Gulf of Alaska, the oil found its way onto the shoreline, covering the coast and its animal inhabitants with the black substance. The oil hit the shores of the coastal village of Cordova, and to a lesser extent, the villages of Alaganik and Katalla, both of which were to the east of Cordova. All of the coastlines hit belonged to the Chugach National Forest bordering the town of Valdez. Hundreds of miles of shoreline was disastrous for the local ecological habitats and local wildlife. Thousands of sea birds, otters, and other local marine life were killed by the spill.


While more celebrities simply sent in funds, Bob decided to that and more. Bob took action; he flew down from Fairbanks to the coastal villages hit and joined the recovery project. Heartbroken by the sight of nature’s most innocent creatures hurt and sick, Bob spent most of his time in Cordova keeping the animals warmed, fed, hydrated and rested before being washed in several alternating tubs of a diluted cleaning agent mixture and hot softened water.

Since breathing crude oil is toxic, cleaning up the oil-coated rocks on the beach led to EPA Administrator Ralph Nader making certain that volunteers received legitimate safety training ahead of their efforts. You can’t spray hot water onto the rocks without wearing proper sanitation equipment, including gloves and masks at the very least. As a result of his precautionary actions, claims of respiratory or nervous system damage was at a minimal during the post-spill actions – roughly 95% lower than the cases reported in the aftermath of the California Oil Spill of 1969.


[pic: ]
Above: Typically jovial, Bob speaks to a reporter, during a break from nighttime cleanup efforts, to express the need protect “God’s happy little creatures”

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014

Chevron was ordered to pay for cleanup expenses as EPA and ODERCA collaborated in the subsequent cleanup procedures. Months later, cleanup efforts were still far away from complete as Governor Fink’s efforts were criticized as lackluster. Later, in a civil settlement, Chevron agreed to pay $700 million in ten annual payments to the state of Alaska. Two months after that, in a class action lawsuit, Chevron was also ordered to pay an additional $4billion in punitive damages, and the company agreed to begin disbursements of this sum in annual installments for the next ten years. After years of delay on this, appellate litigation enforced the company to begin payments in 1992, ending years of Chevron challenging the ruling in circuit court.

The environmental disaster led to filibusters and demonstrations against Governor Fink’s efforts to open up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to drilling for crude oil, supposedly for the benefit of the Alaskan Permanent Fund, trade unions, and “traditional energy” businesses…


The Russian Mafia mounted a resurgence in the wake of the Soviet Union collapsing in Russia. Several decentralized groups quickly increased their efforts to expand into post-Soviet Russia and Eastern Europe. Many ex-KGB agents and veterans of the Soviet-Turkestani War offered skills to crime bosses in order to maintain employment.

One of the largest of the “families” – close-knit groups much different than the mafia “families” found in the US – was the Tambov Gang in Tambov Oblast, which was run by boss, or “pakhan,” Vladimir Kumarin. His main rival was the ruthless Vyacheslav “Yaponchik” Ivankov (b. 1940), who unleashed a reign of terror onto urban centers in Russia with events concerning extortion, and narcotics from contacts in the US, particularly Boris Nayfeld (b. 1947).

To prevent the mafia from “growing into an undefeatable problem,” Russian President Vladimir Volkov privately launched a massive anti-corruption campaign in collaboration with regional governments. Police raids and drug busts became more common. However, instead of targeting mobsters directly, Volkov raised sentences for any politician found guilty of “doing business” with known mafia members, and formed special National Assembly committees to oversee criminal activity in oblasts and other divisions. Arresting the Pakhans was tantamount to the success of this campaign. Crime rings are certain to keep their top brass and highly connected members in secret. Good intelligence was a must.

In April 1987, intelligence efforts paid off when government informant learned of the whereabouts of key players in transfers and inter-family deals. On the 18th of that month, a hit on Kumarin was misinterpreted as an attack from Ivankov’s Gang. The two went to war with one another.

Meanwhile, the US Senate Special Committee on International Organized Crime, chaired by US Senator Mario Biaggi, worked to FBI officials who were working with Russian agents to “stomp out” Russian mafia members in the US. On August 19, 1987, the largest nationally coordinated organized crime bust in the FBI’s history unfolded, taking down Boris Nayfield. Without his American contact, Iankov went on defense in his attacks against Kumarin, while the Russian government agents continued their plans to orchestrate infighting among the Russian mafia families...

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

…In July ’87, Finger Lickin’ Good, Inc. introduced the Shrimp Burger in select locations in the US, and in all Wendyburger outlets in China, Japan, South Korea, and the Philippines. While merely financially profitable in back home, it was very wildly successful in Asia...

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

The Xinjiang Issue was not uncommon from the perspective of someone like me. I was one of many who voluntarily moved out there. In my younger years, I had sided with Mao against Deng in the 1975 Civil War. There was a strong undercurrent of animosity against people like me, who were on the wrong side, especially in the coastal cities. Places were overcrowded; we needed to spread out, and the government’s answer was to say to people like me, ‘make a fresh start. Conquer the western regions and make your country proud to have you in it.’ The government also told us that the natives were savage terrorists who wished war on the state. When I took a train out to the Tienshan mountains in 1982, though, I didn’t see the locals acting savage. Martial law crackdowns were carried out by PRC military officials. But after a while, the suicide bombings began. Muslim minorities believed such actions would make the world finally do something about how the government was treating them. Government officials told us that most of the locals were like this – "unhinged radicals who wished to destroy the state and all who supported it," and all that – and we believed them wholeheartedly. We had no reason to not believe them. ‘They were our leaders, so why would they lie to us?’ or however that phrase goes… …But soon the Buddhist activists began to perform self-immolations as well, begun out of desperation. Those self-immolations were showed to the world by what few American journalists could capture them on tape and then send them out for the rest of the world to see.

– Zhang Li, Han Chinese, in interview for a part of a 2008 documentary


…the Kemp administration believes that the creation of jobs for Colombians will lower that nation’s “poverty and crime” crisis, and with it, the number of guerillas combating government forces…

The Washington Post, 7/28/1987


[1] Who? This guy:

[2] Table 1.7 on shows that in OTL 1987, the number of people who thought “sexual relations between two adults of the same sex” was “always wrong” was at 64% even though it was at 50% in 1983; and “not wrong at all” was at 11% even though it was at 17% in 1983.

[3] As was covered in the 1959 chapter.

[4] Several passages are pulled or paraphrased from the Washington Examiner article “An Idea Whose Time Never Came”

[5] OTL:

[6] Similar in spirit to this OTL group:

[7] Italicized bits are from here:

[8] An idea a bit more prominent and a bit more serious than the OTL talk of Albania becoming a US state: (“At the time of ex-Secretary of State James Baker’s visit in 1992, there was even a move to hold a referendum declaring the country as the 51st American state.[154][155]”)

[9] One year earlier than TL due to President Sanders promoting educational institutions during the 1960s and 1970s

[10] Quote from here:

[11] Italicized part is from this book:

[12] According to this book:, “Kemp used his position to protect aid to Israel, fight China’s mandatory ‘one child population policy,’ and effect smaller changes important to various countries… He once asked China’s ambassador to the United States how many children he had. When the ambassador produced pictures of three, Kemp said, ‘Now, which one would you give up under your country’s one child policy?’” He also “Kemp also backed dissidents in Eastern Europe, notably the Solidarity labor union in Poland. He urged Reagan to impose economic sanctions on the” USSR IOTL as well.
Post 49
Post 49: Chapter 57

Chapter 57: August 1987 – December 1987

“The only person you are destined to become is the person you decide to be”

– Ralph Waldo Emerson

The young woman showed no hesitance or fear as she traversed the street holding nothing but lighter fluid and one match. She proudly wore the flag of Tibet on her like a cape. When she was well within view of the media – made obvious by the cameras swinging around their necks – the young woman stopped in front of the building. She stood on the green mats before the Embassy of the US in Beijing (the mats were for a diplomatic function set for later in the day) for only a moment before dowsing herself in the flammable liquid and striking the match on her garment. As she performed the act of self-immolation, she did her best to stand upright before collapsing. Captured on film before Chinese and American officials and bewildered onlookers, some sought to intervene; one iconic photograph captured one man hitting the flames with pillows and clothing in an attempt to put out the fire. Minutes later, other Chinese citizens used a hose to put out the flames and quickly whisked the woman away. Her ultimate fate, and very identity – apart from her being a Tibetan national – remained unknown for 29 years.


[pic: ]
Above: the unknown Tibetan youth collapses from the effects of self-immolation as nearby citizens attempt to put out the flames.

The incident could not be ignored. Soon after, President Kemp met with former President Colonel Sanders to discuss options.

“I’m very disappointed by Deng’s disrespect for his fellow citizens,” said The Colonel. After several attempts, Sanders failed to make contact with the PRC Premier.

Kemp got down to business by revealing to the elder statesman his ideas. “This is tricky business. We can’t tolerate the treatment of the western minorities, but to oppose the domestic activities of another nation could be seen as imperialistic. Even with probable cause, this breakdown in communication,” referring to the PRC going silent on the matter, “could build up into a military confrontation. And since both of us have nukes, that could spell disaster. So, think economic sanctions could suffocate them into submission.”

The Colonel disagreed. “Economic sanctions hurt the people and businesses that benefited from both sides of open trade. You close up trade and you’ll hurt Chinese merchants more than the Chinese military. Don’t punish the people with economic sanctions – the cut-off could create a recession in China and one over here, too, which could spill over into effecting our Western trading partners. It’d be like cutting off the limb you’re sittin’ on.”

“Well troop mobilizations would be an overreaction, and a strongly-worded admonishment of their actions is practically nothing but hot air. Maybe I should call for a UN resolution? What do you suggest?”

The Colonel answered, “Punish the government, never the people. If you impose economic sanctions, the masses suffer, and it’s much easier for Americans to voice their complaints than Chinese masses can. So don’t punish them, punish the higher-ups.”

– Doris Helen Kearns Goodwin (b. 1943)’s Leadership In Turbulent Times, Simon & Schuster, 2018

“These measures are long overdue, and will be kept in place for as long as the government of the People’s Republic of China continue these atrocious human rights violations.” The President said as he announced that his administration, with congressional approval, had placed sanctions on top Chinese government officials and business organizations that were involved, directly and/or indirectly, in the campaign to eradicate the culture and language of nearly 1 million Uyghurs and over 1 million Tibetans and other local ethnic groups in the provinces of western china.

Additionally, the White House blocked a number of Chinese officials involved in the suppression from gaining visas to the United States. The next week, Japan announced similar restrictions, with South Korea and the Philippines following suit in a showing of solidarity.

These “high-end” sanctions created a major chasm in US-Chinese relations. Several pro-PRC far-right conservatives admonished the Kemp White House for allegedly, in the words of Republican state party chairman Mitchell McConnell, “undoing twenty years of diplomacy in one foolish fell swoop.”

– Jonathan Applebaum’s Tackling What Ailed Us: The Trials And Triumphs of The Jack Kemp Presidency, Borders Books, 2010


The Wall Street Journal, 8/11/1987


Premiered: August 12, 1987

Genre(s): documentary

Directed/written by: investigative journalist Al Gore Jr. in his film directing debut


The documentary analyzes all evidence suggesting that the expulsion of fuel such as coal, symbolized by factory smokestacks (i.e., “the pipes”), into Earth’s atmosphere is influencing global temperatures, climate, and weather patterns. The narrator (Gore) visits several areas hit by natural disasters such as Botswana’s droughts, Oregon’s nuclear meltdown, Chicago’s heat waves, West Virginia and Tennessee’s coal plants, United Turkestan’s irrigation projects, and California’s oil spill recovery. Several prominent experts and personalities are interviewed such as then-EPA Administrator Ralph Nader, then-editor of Mother Jones and future politician Michael Moore [1], scientist Roger Revelle, and former Governors Victor Atiyeh and Julia Hansen Butler.

Al Gore Jr., the son of US Senator Al Gore Sr., served in the US Army from 1969 to 1971, serving in Laos for most of that time. He began working as an investigative reporter in 1971, saying “I can expose corruption and my father can help do something about it.” Seeing the impact the film “The China Syndrome” had on the US populace in the wake of the Trojan Tower Nuclear Disaster, Gore turned to filmmaking, and in 1983 began work on "an audio-visual exposé” on the effects of fuel on the environment. After roughly four years of “learnin’ the business” of creating a documentary – most importantly, how to make data analysis “exciting” to the typical American film-watcher – “Before It’s Too Late” was finally released in August 1987.

Reactions from critics and audiences were overwhelmingly positive. Praised by the New Yorker as an “intellectual eye-opening work,” the documentary received substantial attention as it premiered shortly after the Alaskan Oil Spill Disaster of ’87... Moore later revealed that his experience being interviewed for this film encouraged him to become more involved in politics, leading to him stepping down from Mother Jones to run for public office in 1988…


…Earlier today, Governor Tom Fink’s chief of staff, uh, a one Paul Fischer, was accused of taking illegal political campaign contributions from an oil field construction company during the 1986 campaign, which, in the wake of his piss-poor response to that freakin’ oil spill, is just more fuel for the fire that is the growing effort to recall Governor Fink…

– KBYR (AM) Anchorage, Alaskan news/talk radio, 8/23/1987 broadcast

Tim Berners-Lee actively pursued the idea of a “technological net,” shortened to “the technet,” that spanned the globe, connecting nations and creating a communications and info-sharing mechanical apparatus the likes of which the world had never before seen. Later that same year [1987], the first permanent technet link was made between the US (NSFNET at Princeton) and Europe (Nordunet in Sweden), soon followed by the first technet chat protocol.

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018

...After eighteen years as MLB Commissioner, Bowie Kuhn’s anti-recreadrug policies and his attitude toward and handling of both unions and strikes had made him very unpopular. Ahead of the 1987 World Series, his contract was not renewed, but Kuhn was allowed to stay as Commissioner until November. In the meantime, MLB sought out a successor. George W. Bush, who was assistant coach for the Houston Astros at the time, expressed interest in the job, while the CEO of Trans International Airlines Peter Ueberroth was heavily considered. However, in the end, CEO of Chrysler Lee Iacocca was elected to succeed Kuhn, ushering in a new era for Major League Baseball…

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994


…With stability finally returning to the once war-torn nation of Libya, thanks to the establishing of what seems to be a functioning democracy, the President has determined that America’s military presence is no longer required in the northern African country…

The Lexington Herald-Leader, 8/26/1987


Premiered: August 29, 1987

Genre(s): apocalyptic/survival/alternate history/action/drama

Directed by: Bernardo Bertolucci

Written by: Michael Herr and Gustav Hasford

Produced by: Jer Thomas

Cast: Lukas Haas, Danny Glover, Max Sommer, Randy Quaid, Dennis Dun, Alexander Godunov, Viggo Mortensen, James Hong

See Full List Here


In 1970, an American ship of merchant mariners are traveling near the disputed Paracel Islands during their trip from Saigon to Tokyo. There is clear tension between Sid Yun-Cho (Dun), who is of Korean descent, and a fellow mariner, the racist Bill (Quaid). Other merchant mariners include Jake the deckhand (Haas), Captain Morris (Glover), and Tony “The Greek” the chef and second deckhand (Sommer).

As the ship passes near the islands claimed by the PRC and several other nearby countries, radio reports inform the crew of an escalation of tensions between the US and China over a vague international incident. After discussing the situation over a private line with his superiors, Morris agrees with Jack and Tony that it is best for them to continue to head to Tokyo.

That night, the radio reports that Red China has launched a nuclear attack on US naval forces in Taiwan and the crew sees streaks of light in the night sky, followed by faint booms way off in the distance, the closest (implied) nuclear explosion being a faint ball of light on the horizon.

As radio contact goes silent, the crew begins to believe that a M.A.D.-style nuclear exchange unfolded. Upon arriving in Kagoshima, Japan in the morning, they find the city a state of havoc, and receive little information on what has unfolded. Morris fails to contact the American embassy, and again fails to contact his superiors. Amid the chaos of people trying to leave on boat, the crew only stay long enough to acquire some supplies.

They then sail to Tokyo, where they are shocked to discover it has been hit by a nuclear device, confirming the crew’s suspicions. Traveling north to Sendai, they are attacked by rogue members of the Japanese merchant marines. Boarding their boat, their leader (Hong) explains to Sid that they believe it is The Endtimes, and that the “new world” must be “cleansed of all Americans.” The rogue mariners hold the crew at gunpoint, but Bill manages to disarm their leader, enabling the rest of the crew to overpower the rogue mariners. However, as they make their escape, Jack is mortally wounded.

During their voyage across the Atlantic to return to the US and re-establish contact with American authorities, Bill blames Jack’s death on Sid, leading to an intense fight between them. Captain Morris breaks up the fight, reminding them that they have to work together to survive “whatever the hell has happened to the world.” After holding a more formal memorial service for Jack, a typhoon soon hits and their boat becomes extremely damaged. With their navigation equipment no longer functioning, Morris must track the star to avoid becoming lost at sea.

As much of their food was lost during the typhoon, the crew begin fishing, but are soon attacked by a shark Bill caught on his line. Sid manages to kill it, saving Bill’s life, but not before the shark severely injured Sid. Bill tries to help Sid recover from the injury, but Sid dies from the blood loss.

The next day, Morris and the crew finally make it to Seattle. They soon see that the place is hustling and bustling with emergency crews trying to help everybody and anybody. They finally see on a TV set that China, the US, and the USSR all hit each other with nukes in a Mexican standoff-the event. The TV shows how much damage has occurred from the Mutually Assured Destruction. As Morris, Tony and Bill sit down at the city’s merchant marines office, Bill politely offers Tony a beer, contrasting to an earlier scene showing Bill being racist to Tony as well as Sid, thus completing Bill’s story arc.

A few years later, the surviving crew members all meet up at a bar, and we see how the US is slowing rebuilding itself from the devastation of the war’s nuclear bombardment and subsequent nuclear fallout. Despite Morris’s optimism, both Bill and Tony are pessimistic that the wounds of WWIII will ever heal.


The film almost doubled the amount of money put into it, and so was and still is considered a box office success. Praised by critics and audiences for its acting, atmosphere, and social commentary, but criticized for its uneven pacing, the film has garnered a small cult following.

Trivia Facts:

Trivia Fact No. 1:

The original script for the film, released ontech in 2007, mentioned a “President Westmoreland,” suggesting the backstory to the film is that Colonel Sanders declined running for a second term, leading to General Westmoreland being elected President in 1968 and escalating tensions with China. Neither of the film’s writers have confirmed or denied this theory.


“Popeye Doyle ran from 1987 to 1993, but the pilot was made back in 1986. Doyle was based on the character Gene Hackman played in The French Connection, but soon after we starting making Season 1 we realized we needed to add some humor and some kind of an edge to the character to keep the show interesting and more distinct from shows like Colombo and Quincy, MD. …Christopher Jones did a wonderful job playing Chief Franklin, and it think it was the role that encouraged him to get back into the acting game full wing, because he left semi-retirement just a year later…”

– Ed O’Neill, 2006 interview [2]

The Collapse of the Soviet Union and the Second Ark Wave affected popular culture in the United States and Europe toward the end of the decade. For example, thriller novels more critical of established institutions became more common, while more geopolitical thriller literature set in the new post-Cold War era suffered from what L. Brent Bozell III has described as “an enemy deficit”: “Who were we at war with? Nobody! The US had losing its way, its importance on the world stage, because we had nobody to fight against, no perceived enemy to take down.”

The Music industry saw the award-winning Michael Jackson became a definitive icon of the decade, while MTV hosted music videos from Prince, Duran Duran, and other major performers of the day that heralded them into fame. The slow economic growth of the 1980s led to a rise in new wave, synthpop, neo-punk and new-reeflex art styles with anti-establishment and anti-tradition undertones/overtones. On “the other side of the music spectrum,” country music skyrocketed in popularity among old and young alike, making Hank William Jr., Reb McEntire and Randy Travis nationally famous, along with Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings, Merle Haggard Dolly Parton and others.

Movies and Television programming reflected the perceived instability of the decade. The filmmaker-driven films of the 1970s continued into the decade while the post-’78 Crash economic recovery allowed studio-driven films to finally return to prominence. Big-budget film franchises such as Star Wars, Indiana Jones, and Beverly Hills Cop dominated the box office, but low-budget and experimental/high-concept independent films were still prominent as well, and appealed to younger audiences by tackling or reflecting contemporary issues such as government corruption, BLUTAGOism and the Second Ark Wave. The “Teen flicks” of the 1970s were seemingly replaced by “revolutionary” films that reflected said social unrest of the decade, especially in its second half.

Similarly, the animation saw a rise in more grim and low-budget works, clearing the way for animator Don Bluth (who would later collaborate with Tim Burton of several projects) and others. Meanwhile, Disney Animation Studios executives, remembering the success of their lighthearted 1974 classic “The Snow Queen,” bucked the “dreary drawings” trend by producing more uplifting works such as “Midnight Madness” (February 1980), the live-action “Honey, I Shrunk the Kids” (June 1989), and the long-awaited animated classic “Don Quixote” (September 1987). Japanese animation saw a resurgence in prominence domestically and on the world stage as Japan continued on through its “two decades of bliss” economic period.


The animated series “Life In Heck And Other Fun Places” premiered on September 4, 1987. It was one of the first original series programs of The Overmyer Network’s “TON-TV” and based on your comic strip “Life In Hell.”

SMITH: Life In Heck And Other Fun Places Follows the Binky family and their misadventures, and is known for being heavily critical of nuclear power – more than half the episodes have something to do with it or its effects. How did that come about?

GROENING: Well it didn’t start out that way. I started making “Life In Hell” in ’77 as a way of taking on the problems faced by young adults – college, finding work, living on your own, making friends and looking for love. Then Trojan Tower Disaster of ’79 hit my home state. I went back up there to help get out some family members freaking out over the radiation. That experience made me take the comic in a more political direction, and that actually led to me fleshing out the characters and build up their word a bit more. And you know the rest – after a co-worker at the L.A. Reader got a collection of them published in book form in ’83, it started to get more attention. In ’85, Richard Sakai of the Overmyer Network contacted me about making the comics into animated shorts as filler for the network. After about a year of haggling with lawyers, I signed a contract with them that allowed me to keep the publication rights. That way, I could keep making the regular comics regardless of how the shorts ended up.

SMITH: The shorts were aired starting in late 1986 and continued until September 1987. But how exactly did the shorts become a regular TV show?

GROENING: Well it’s certainly not a “regular” show, far from it, it broke a lot of “rules” and mores at the time of its debut, but to answer your question, the network was very impressed with how popular the quick, non-sequitur shorts were – they contained a high amount of political commentary masked behind twisted and edgy humor. Daniel Overmyer lacked that it turned heads, and thought it was just what the network needed to stay afloat in an increasingly saturated market.

SMITH: Which characters in the show do you identify with or agree with the most?

GROENING: When I started this, I was a lot like Bongo, the one-eared rabbit – rebellious, politically active, and angry about how things were but hopeful that they’d get better. Now that I’m 40, though, I think I can relate more to Bongo’s dad, Binky. He’s just trying to keep everything together. I’m not as jaded as Binky, though.

SMITH: The show was controversial immediately for the characters Jeff and Akbar being implied to be homosexuals. Do you think this issue was detrimental, or distracting, in any way, to the show’s other messages, with its most notable ones being anti-nuclear power and pro-environmentalism?

GROENING: No, because it brought attention to the show. People like Anita Bryant, Terry Rakolta, and Pat Robertson railed against it, and that made people curious, so they tuned in and you know what they saw? Two guys who cared for each other. Not debauchery, but two guys who lived next door to a family of anthropomorphic bunnies – the effects of nuclear radiation – disguised as regular human people. And they got to see the social and political messages and the jokes and gags and stories that made the show so popular.

–, 2005 interview


[pic: ]

– Early incomplete (note the main characters are not colored yellow) concept art for “Life In Heck And Other Fun Places,” c. 1986


…the singer-songwriter famous for hit singles “Fire And Rain” and “You’ve Got A Friend,” plus many folk rock albums, says the US “has to get out of this rut we’ve been in” since the Great Potomac Scandals. Taylor, who himself recovered from drug abuse and a nasty public divorce in 1985, says he wants to “restore trust, dignity and pragmatism to Washington”…

The Fayetteville Observer, North Carolina newspaper, 9/5/1987


…sentenced to 3 months in jail for minor-related charges and an additional eight months for misusing State Department funds, Lukens has already paid thousands of dollars in fines to state and federal courts…

The Cincinnati Post, 9/7/1987

“Unions are the best line of defense for labor as they protect workers from exploitation and oppression. If I am elected President, I will implement the same kind of pro-union, pro-labor policies that I have implemented in Wisconsin.”

– Wisconsin Governor Paul Soglin, announcing his bid for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States, 9/9/1987


The Washington Post, 9/12/1987

Only a few nations of the world remained “in the red,” as President Kemp once called it, long after the collapse of the USSR: the “final five” of South Yemen, Yugoslavia, Mongolia, China, and North Korea all maintained socialist governments of various degrees, but the truly surprising nation of the group was North Korea. The phrase “the North will fall any day now” was initially an honest prediction in South Korea in 1985, but by the end of the decade had become a joke of sorts. Analysts had predicted that the fall of the Soviet government, a major financial and agricultural supporter of North Korea, would spell disaster for the North, culminating in its demise alongside the communist governments of Poland, Hungary, and the rest. As the Hermit Kingdom’s famine crisis grew from bad to worse, it seemed to outsider eyes that the fall of Kim Il-Sung was fast approaching.

But Kim’s popularity among his nation’s practically-brainwashed masses, and among its military and wealthy classes, never faltered. In late 1986, North Korea secured aid from China, and the nation turned inward even further. In September 1987, the North Koreans began mining heavily for precious metals. However, annual droughts and famines continued to devastate the lives of all North Koreans outside of the nation’s top elitist circles, as any offerings of humanitarian aid were rejected outright.

As President, Kemp offered a grain deal to Kim Il-Sung in September 1987. When Kim rejected considering such a proposal, Kemp sought to use the moment to tout being more humanitarian and caring than Kim, in an effort to win over Republican doves and undecided voters. However, the very public debacle of deliberately offering a proposal that all involved parties knew would go nowhere made Kemp seem weak on foreign policy to uninformed voters. Kemp coming off as seemingly unwilling to start a war with a non-nuclear [3] nation also made him lose support among GOP war-hawks…

– Morton Kondracke and Fred Barnes’s Jack Kemp: The Bleeding-Heart Conservative Who Changed America, Sentinel Books, 2015


The Fresno Bee, 9/15/1987

Le Pen’s efforts to withdraw France from the EEC were repeatedly blocked by Parliament, which resulted in him declaring by Presidential Decree, sort of the French equivalent to a US President’s Executive Order, the scheduling of a national referendum [4] in order “to prove to parliament that it is what the people want.” Parliament relented, with PM Marchais later explaining, “After months of belligerency, we figured, ‘alright, we will give you your stupid referendum,’ because we knew it would fail. We were that confident.”

On September 25, 1987, the voters of France were asked simply “should France withdraw from the European Economic Community?” The people rejected the proposed move in a landslide: 32.2% “yes” versus 67.8% “no.” Voter turnout was above 90%.

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999


…The Democratic-controlled House Budget Oversight Committee tonight struck down President Kemp’s request for the allocation of $31million for the US military, citing the fact that the Armed Forces already received significant funding boosts twice earlier this year...

– The Omaha World-Herald, 9/30/1987

Kemp continued trying to make the GOP more attractive to minorities. In the autumn of 1987, he backed a lengthy extension of the Voting Rights Act, which passed, and an effort to enact a comprehensive immigration law, which did not. Kemp had favored the bill as it would offer ‘earned citizenship’ to illegal immigrants… [5]

– Morton Kondracke and Fred Barnes’s Jack Kemp: The Bleeding-Heart Conservative Who Changed America, Sentinel Books, 2015


[pic: ]

– Bob Ross, on stage at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, TN, as part of a post-Chevron Oil Spill cross-country anti-pollution campaign, 10/2/1987

“Denton was framed in an elaborate scheme concocted by FBI Director Felt and carried through by Dark Agents in the Republican and Democratic parties. …We need to impeach President Kemp, we need to withdraw from the UN, we need to cut all foreign aid and assistance, and we need to blunt the subversion of our way of life and culture.”

– former U.S. Congressman Larry McDonald of Georgia, announcing his run for President on a “Western Goals” third-party ticket, 10/2/1987


…the state legislature-approved bill was signed into law by Governor Farrar, after years of former Senator George McGovern and other natives of the state co-leading the charge for joining the healthcare pact…

The Virginia Gazette, 10/8/1987

…After months of speculation, Governor Mario Cuomo has declined to mount a bid for President…

– NBC News, 10/9/1987

…As US-PRC tensions continued, the memories of 1975 – the first KFC in China being vandalized, employees fearing for their lives as the Chinese people took their anger out of an establishment the world had come to see as the embodiment of Americana (which was either a good or a bad thing, pending whom you asked) – returned to the forefront of our minds. In October, Finger Lickin’ Good, Inc. sent updated instructions on what to do in case of violence to all PRC-based outlets of KFC, Wendyburger, H. Salt Esq., and other franchises in the nation whose government officials (but not necessarily its citizens) were becoming increasingly critical of the United States…

– Mildred Sanders Ruggles’ My Father, The Colonel: A Life of Love, Politics, and KFC, StarGroup International, 2000

[vid: watch?v=eKPQLl5rupg ]

…The Great Storm of October 15-16, 1987 hit the UK and parts of France, Spain, Belgium and Norway, killed 19 people, destroyed thousands of buildings and created major transportation problems…

– BBC compilation video, 2017

…In other news, Senator Joseph Biden of Delaware has today announced that he will not run for President next year after months of speculation. The statement comes less than a month after the first-term Senator and former two-term Governor suffered a life-threatening brain aneurysm, a health scare from which is reportedly still recuperating...

– CBS News, 10/19/1987


…As the Democrats maintain majorities in both chambers of Congress, the 1987 Tax Reform Bill, meant to reverse parts of the 1981 Tax Reform Act, was passed by a fairly comfortable margin… President Kemp vetoed the bill on the fourth of this month, only for congress to overrule said veto on the fifteenth. ...A rising number of politicians, ranging from the conservative Senator Dole to the liberal Senator Mike Rockefeller, are voicing concerns over Kemp’s leadership capabilities. “Jack [Kemp] is showing himself to be too ineffective to deserve a term of his own,” says Arthur Fletcher, the former Secretary of Education under both Denton and Kemp…

The Washington Post, 10/21/1987


…Edith Killgore Kirkpatrick (b. 1918), a Democrat, was the state Board of Regents for Higher Education from 1977 to 1984 before being elected to the state senate in 1983… Kirkpatrick, a moderate with wide appeal, easily defeated conservative Democratic US Representatives Billy Tauzin and Speedy Oteria Long, along with progressive Democratic state Secretary of State Democrat James H. “Jim” Brown, and Republican Bob Livingston, in tonight’s blanket primary. Because Kirkpatrick received a majority of the vote – with her closest challenger, Tauzin, winning only 20% of the vote to her 55% – there will be no need for a runoff election. ...Kirkpatrick, who turns 69 next month, will be sworn into office early next year…

– The Beauregard Daily News, Louisiana daily newspaper, 10/24/1987

CHAMPIONS! Twins Make Minnesota No.1!

…This year’s World Series ended tonight with the Minnesota Twins defeating the San Francisco Giants 5-to-2…

– The Star Tribune, Minnesota newspaper, 10/25/1987

On October 25, [1987,] Barry Goldwater formally announced that he would challenge Kemp in the next year’s primaries, after previously failing to win the GOP Presidential nomination in 1964, 1972, 1976, and 1980. Running on an almost entirely libertarian platform, Goldwater by then was already a divisive and polarizing figure within the GOP for criticizing the party’s religious arm, and for being the most prominent Republican to support BLUTAGO rights at the time. Announcing his bid at the age of 78, he promoted the idea of “let[ting] the people keep their money and spend it how they like,” even for morally subjective uses like abortion and recreadrugs. Widowed for over a year, the elder statesman was joined on the campaign by his children and adult grandchildren…

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989

With expenses for farm equipment and farmland on the rise for years, along with high interest rates despite a strong US dollar, the Farm Credit System successfully lobbied for a federal financial assistance package for vulnerable institutions. Kemp signed into law the Farming & Agriculture Relief Management Act, also known as the FARM Act, which essentially bailed out small bankrupt farms and lowered rates for struggling farms through the FCS. This led to Kemp’s approval ratings rising considerably among rural voters.

– Joseph Perkins’ The Bleeding-Heart Heartland: Agricultural Politics in America Since 1985, Simon & Schuster, 2015

“THE FACES OF THE NEW SOUTH”: Liberal Democrats Dominate Elections In MS, KY

…In the Bluegrass State, state senator Bucky Ray Jarrell [6] was elected Kentucky’s 55th Governor. Running a “progressive populist” campaign, he supports passing a variation of free universal healthcare at the federal level “that allows anyone to drop out if they dislike it.” Jarrell, 45, won over Republican nominee John Harper by an impressive margin of 22%; he will be inaugurated in December…

…In Mississippi, Evelyn Gandy, who has been Governor ever since Governor Cliff Finch died in office from a massive heart attack last year, was not a candidate for a full term. The election came down to state auditor Ray Mabus, a 39-year-old Democrat with wide appeal and an ambitious campaign platform, versus Republican nominee Rex Armistead [7], a former state Highway Patrol officer, private detective, and last year’s GOP nominee for the state’s 1st Congressional District. Mabus won the election by a margin of roughly 9.5%...

– The Rocky Mountain News, 11/3/1987

...Officer Thompson's additional attempts to apprehend suspect/assailant Vernon Wayne Howell proved successful. Upon Howell firing addition rounds at Roden, Thompson, and myself, Thompson fired back. Thompson killed Howell via a single gunshot to the forehead... Upon Roden surrendering, he informed Officer Thompson that the shoot-out between rival Branch Davidian sect leaders Roden and Howell was over the jurisdiction of local establishment Mount Carmel Center...

– Police report on George Roden's 11/3/1987 arrest, Axtell, TX, submitted and filed 11/5/1987


[pic: ]

– Mario Biaggi at his US Senate desk, reading the latest issue of UFO Magazine, shortly before announcing his latest bid for the US Presidency, 11/8/1987

ELECTION ’87: LABOR BEATS LIBERAL: Manfred Cross “Set All” To Be Prime Minister Again

…incumbent Prime Minister Shirley de la Hunty (Liberal) failed to lead her party to victory tonight…

The Canberra Times, Australian newspaper, 11/11/1987


…The two-term US Senator opposes the President’s housing reform endeavor on the principle of minimal government…

The Houston Chronicle, 11/12/1987

is a 1987 action-adventure-comedy Columbia pictures film starring Warren Beatty and Dustin Hoffman. In the spirit of the Hope-Cosby “Road To…” films, the plot follows an untalented duo of American songwriters who travel to Morocco for a gig, only to accidently begin a four-part revolution in said country. After extensive rewrites and reshoots delayed its release by several months, the film finally premiered on November 18, 1987. While the reviews were lukewarm, the film was ultimately considered to be a sleeper hit. After its success at home video sales, the film was theatrically re-released on July 4, 1988, and it finally turned a profit for Columbia. A proposed sequel, however, was never made…

…Across the channel, more scandals are shaking the Le Pen Presidency of France. Several more groups have come forward with claims that Le Pen allies have attempted or are attempting to suppress certain freedoms, claiming it is, quote, “for the sake of security,” unquote… With Le Pen’s anti-immigration campaign dead in the water, his Presidency still reeling from an unsuccessful EEC Withdrawal referendum, his abysmal response to the Great Storm that ravaged parts of his country’s northern areas in October, and two members of his inner circle departing from his administration last week over accusation of bugging the offices of the Prime Minister, it is of no surprise that Le Pen’s approval rating has gone from 42% in March 1986 to its current rating of 28%…

– BBC World News report, 19/11/1987


…the departure of EEC supporters, environmentalists, peaceniks, and the most far-left of social progressivists from the Labour party to the United Kingdom Intrepid Progressive party could have been an opportunity for Labour to shift focus to middle-class issues. However, the real issues of our times have been overshadowed during the past several weeks, which have instead seen Prime Minister Williams fail to unite the remains of her party – especially a minor faction skeptic of the EEC – going into the general election…

– TODAY, UK tabloid, 21/11/1987

NOW THERE’S A GOODLAD! Conservatives Win Thin Majority; Leader Alastair Goodlad to Become Next PM

…Alastair Goodlad (b. 1943), of the moderate “dry” wing of his party, was first elected to Parliament in a 1970 by-election, and has led the Conservatives ever since the previous “wet” conservative party leader, Jim Prior stepped down after losing the previous general election in February 1985… The Conservatives won 329 seats, three more than needed to obtain a majority, while Labour (led by PM Shirley Williams) won 294 seats, a downward swing of 45 seats. The SDP-Liberal Alliance saw their total number of seats plummet from 25 to 14, while UKIP (led by Eric Heffer) doubled their number of seats, from 5 to 10. The Moralist party retained their 1 seat, while the SNP and SDLP each won only 1 seat, and all other parties won no seats. …when asked for comment, Labour MP John Lennon stated “this is a sign that Labour’s got to shift back to the left and return to focusing on the needs of the poor, the working-class, and the middle-class; we as a party have got to stop the infighting - it didn't keep together the last group I was in - and promote the messages of care and love. That’s the way to go.”

The Guardian, 24/11/1987

HAROLD WASHINGTON DIES! Beloved Mayor’s Sudden Demise Stuns City!

The Chicago Tribune, 11/25/1987



[pic: ]

…the self-proclaimed anti-corruption D.C. outsider, former Governor of Kentucky Martha Layne Osborne, already in the throes of organizing campaign headquarters in the early primary states, today officially announced her bid for the Democratic nomination for US President in Baghdad, Kentucky, the place of her birth, earlier today…

The New Hampshire Gazette, 11/27/1987

“She’s The One”

– Osborne for President slogan, used from late November 1987 to early December 1987

On December 1, exactly twelve years after rising to power, Chairman Deng Xiaoping left office to enjoy a comfortable and influential retirement. At the age 79, Vice Chairman Bo Yibo had long anticipated to take the reins. The party’s old guard had other intentions.

Several within the party, and even some within Deng’s inner circle, opposed Bo Yibo’s pro-reform positions. They instead promoted a man who had work closely with Deng during the 1975 Civil War and had become a major supporter of orthodox central planning and sociopolitical conformity. Planning to shift the nation’s focus away from the events in its west by redeveloping the north via heavy industry and energy production projects, Li Xiannian (b. 1909) called for the PRC government to, essentially, “double-down and stick to their guns,” as the famous Colonel Harland Sanders put it. Deducing the power struggle between him and Li Xiannian could lead to bloodshed, Yibo accepted the position of Chairman of the Communist Party instead.

However, in order to maintain party unity, which conservative party members believed would best prevent another Civil War from breaking out, as the 1975 war still within the nation’s memory, Bo Yibo’s most influential ally was allowed to become the new Vice Chairman – Lee Teng-hui. Born in 1923, Lee, 65, was considered “young blood,” and privately supported full democratization of China’s markets and the gaining allies around the world to improve their international reputation and trading possibilities. This meant that the Premier and his second-in-command were often at odds; most notably, Li Xiannian found no faults in the “Xinjiang Restructuring Plan,” while Lee Teng-hui supported a “change in strategy” that called for redesigning the Han Chinese-majority provinces in the center of the country.

In addition to Lee Teng-hui, Wan Li (b. 1916), a moderate and advocate for constitutional reforms, was promoted from Minister of Railways to Minister of Internal Affairs, while the more unifying Zhao Ziyang (b. 1919) became third in line for the Premiership. …In a possible sign that even the People’s Republic of China was not immune to the politics of the Second Ark Wave, Mao Zedong’s daughter Li Na (b. 1940), a worker for the state-run newspaper the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) Daily since 1965 and a Communist party official since 1973, was promoted to the heading the state’s “Publicity Department”…

– Shan Li’s China in the Twentieth Century, Cambridge Press, 2003

…After discussions with family over the Thanksgiving break, former Senator and former US Ambassador to the UK Maureen Reagan has announced her intention to challenge President Kemp for the Republican nomination for President, calling for a, quote, “return to common-sense conservatism and holding those in power responsible for their wrongdoings,” unquote. Her announcement speech jabbed at Kemp’s recent legislative failures and his connections to former President Denton...

– CBS News, 12/5/1987

SOURCE: MAUREEN’S AILING FATHER WANTED TO SEE HER RUN anonymous source close to the Reagan and Davis families claims the ageing former Governor Ronald Reagan urged her daughter to run. The claim, if true, clashes with Maureen’s voting record being notably more to the left than Ronald’s, and conflict with other recent claims that the elder Reagan either opposes Maureen’s run, or is not confident that Maureen can win the nomination…

The New York Post, 12/7/1987


…the nation’s President Aquino is overseeing rescue and repair efforts in 17 provinces where Typhoon Nina, locally known as Typhoon Sisang, destroyed hundreds of homes and killed several dozen people. …The American Red Cross, The Roman Catholic Church, and dozens of charities have donated thousands of thousands of dollars to help house and feed the displace and remove the wreckage and debris that the powerful storm heaped onto the island nation…

The Honolulu Star-Advertiser, 12/8/1987

“Universal healthcare for children and the elderly is decent, but we can do even better than that! 16 states have already formed a universal healthcare pact to ensure coverage for everyone in those states – and we need universal healthcare in every state and territory for every American! Wealthy elitists and conservative pundits claim such a policy would bankrupt the economy, but they are wrong. Last month’s elections proved that the people want progressive and forward-thinking policies, and I plan to deliver these policies to the American people!”

– NYC Mayor Carol Bellamy announcing her bid for President, 12/9/1987


Tarpon Springs, FL – After 22 years, 18 of which have been under Finger Lickin’ Good, Inc., H. Salt Esquire Authentic English Fish and Chips opened its 100th location today in a grand ceremony. The “Big Fish Fry” celebration in Tarpon Springs, northeastern Florida, featured food-theme activities and contests and an appearance from the Salt man himself. The founder of the fish-and-chips mega-chain, Haddon Salt, is often called the British version of the Colonel in terms of appearance. Donning a bowler hat atop his now-grey head and black suit, Salt swings his cane like a British Bat Masterson, the yin to Colonel Sanders’ “antebellum South” yang...

The Miami Herald, 12/15/1987

In 1987, I was still with the company. After I seriously considered retiring in 1982 and again in 1985, I was convinced to stay until the company was doing better. Thus, in order to retire, I increased our advertising expenses.


I began appearing in commercials, starting with the holiday season of 1987, in order to compete against the brand recognition of McDonald’s, Burger Chef, the “roller-coasting” (as in repeatedly alternating between doing wonderfully and teetering on the edge of collapse, going up and down like being on a roller coaster) Burger King, and even the niche Ollieburger of Ollie’s Trolleys. Because of all the time I had spent with the Colonel, I had also spent enough time around cameras for me to think that I would be comfortable in front of them. Instead, I was incredibly nervous, and to offset it, I would throw into the mix some self-deprecating humor that test audience reacted positively to, leading to us keeping it for the early Christmas ’867 commercials. This style of promoting Wendy’s was successful, I believe, because it contrasted enough with the Colonel’s boisterousness and Salt’s merry-go-lucky demeanor for me to stand out and be popular with consumers as well.

– David Thomas’ Dave’s Way, Penguin Group USA Inc., 1992 [8]


Washington, D.C. – While Jack loves the spotlight, bear-hugging supporters and giving fiery speeches, Joanne is fine being on the sidelines, cheering him on. She knows she is the solid rock, the unwavering touchstone for her busy family and frenetic husband’s very public life. There is a reason her secret service name this fall is “Cornerstone.”

“I’m a very common-sense person. I’m comfortable out of the limelight but not uncomfortable in the limelight,” Kemp said
during an interview last week. “I think that’s why I get along so well with [former First Lady] Katharine [Denton]. We have very similar interests.”

A deeply religious person, Kemp grew up Presbyterian and went to school to become a schoolteacher, but stopped working to raise a family. She has been a gracious White House hostess maintains a sense of modesty and dignity that becomes her and her new residence.

However, Joanne Kemp’s self-effacement and complete lack of gamesmanship is not only refreshing, it’s almost disconcerting. She’s been known to turn her back on a TV camera – unheard of in campaign sound-bite land. Joanne Kemp has none of the plastic, practiced air of camera-ready spouses. Instead, our First Lady seems to work more efficiently – and, possibly, much more comfortably – behind the scenes. Joanne is active in several national organizations, including Community Bible Study, Prison Fellowship and the Best Friedns Foundation, which encourages teens to postpone sex and reject recreadrugs and alcohol. When she is not traveling, Kemp hosts a weekly philosophy and Bible study group in her home for wives of congressmen, Supreme Court justices and Cabinet members.

Since becoming First Lady, she has also used her post to pursue issues involving “families and youth and relationships.” [9]

The Kemp’s two sons, Jeff and Jimmy, are 28 and 16, respectively; Jeff plays quarterback for the Seattle Seahawks while Jimmy plays football in high school. With Jimmy living in the White House, the brothers visit each other as often as they can. The First Couple’s daughters Judith, 26, who is seeking a medical career, and Jennifer, 24, who is pursuing academic and journalism interests, plan to join their parents on the campaign trail next year, optimistic that 1988 will be “a good one... After a tumultuous first year, Dad’s second year in office will likely fare better,” argues Jennifer.

– Time Magazine article, December 1987 issue


…Eunice Kennedy-Shriver, 67, has served as the senior US Senator from Massachusetts since 1962. A devout Catholic, she opposes abortion… she is a firm supporter of “all-inclusive” healthcare, which she has advocated for over twenty years... She joins a crowded field of progressives, moderates, and conservatives [11]

The New York Times, 12/19/1987

“The real issue is not whether you’re black or white, whether you’re a woman or a man. In my view, a woman could be elected President of the United States. The real issue is whose side are you on? Are you the side of workers and poor people? Or are you on the side of big money and the corporations?”

– media mogul Bern Sanders, co-founder of Tumbleweed Media, KNN interview in which he ruled out a Presidential run of his own, 12/20/1987 [10]

Tim Berners Lee, contributing to earlier work, continued to be a major player in the concept of a pan-global technological network, or “tech-net,” for information/data-sharing computer systems. …Soon, extensive transoceanic satellite links and nodes began to be placed across the floor of the Atlantic to connect computer networks in Europe and the United States to each other...

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018

The Colonel was amazed by how much KFC had become a yearly tradition in Japan over the years. Upon reading a December 1987 Newsweek article describing many consumers in Japan viewing the 97-year-old self-made man as a wise “sensei”-type figure, Sanders had mixed emotions; he was glad they enjoyed his food, but did not want to relish in the sin of pride. A more pressing issue for the Colonel, though, was how it appeared that KFC had essentially become synonymous with December 25 in the predominantly atheist nation of Japan. In a recorded conversation with his friend Richard Nixon, the Colonel laments “not many of them are turning to Christianity,” and even suggests “maybe plasterin’ my face all over everything – the signs, the buckets, everything – it may have been a mistake,” explaining “My name is overshadowing the Lord’s birthday. That’s sacrilege!”

In a 1991 interview, wife Claudia Sanders claims she got her husband to at least try and see the situation differently. “I said to him, ‘Look at the pictures,’” referring to the photographs accompanying the article. “I asked him, ‘What do you see? You see people, lovers, friends,, amilies. All smiling, all getting along, and all giving thanks in their own way. Before you brought KFC to Japan, December 25 was just a regular ol' day for them, but now, it is a day more like Christmas for them, a day of thanks and being together. I think the Lord approves, Harland.’ And I think I got Harland to think about it like that from then on...”

– Josh Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

[1] IOTL, Moore was elected to the Davison, MI school board at age 18 (1972), then founded a weekly magazine in Flint, MI, then became the editor of Mother Jones in 1986. Here, though, he isn’t fired from said publication after a few months, and instead steps down in early 1988 to seek public office!
[2] IOTL, a Popeye Doyle pilot was filmed but never greenlit into a TV series, leading to O’Neill needing to look for other work; he was chosen for the role of Al Bundy in “Married…With Children” because a casting agent saw him performing in Connecticut in 1986, shortly after filming the Popeye Doyle pilot. Because of how incidental it was (as described here: /watch?v=GGD83M4e0vc?t=1155 ) I doubt the same situation would play out here, given the POD was over 50 years ago by this point in the TL, especially if the show gets greenlit (which it does here due to the Potomac Scandals increasing interesting in crime dramas). If “Married…With Children” still came into existence here, though, I’m at a loss for who could portray the misanthropic character Al Bundy as greatly as did O’Neill.
[3] IOTL, they didn’t get their first nuke until 2006.
[4] It turns out they have these in France, too!:
[5] Italicized passage from here:
[6] IOTL, Jarrell died in the Prestonville Bus Disaster of 1958 (, but here, as mentioned way back in the 1958 chapter, the crash didn’t happen because the Colonel, who was Governor of Kentucky at the time ITTL, implemented road repair programs, leading to there being traffic-slowing construction crews on the road that day, which in turn prevented the bus from fatally crashing.
[7] Who? This guy!:
[8] OTL book:
[9] Italicized passages are pulled from here:
[10] OTL quote!

[11] Speaking of which, ahead of the 1988 primaries, I made two preference polls. Please vote! :) :

The Republican Primary:

The Democratic Primary:

And here’s a quick breakdown of the 14 candidates on the Republican primary poll:
Ed Brooke, 69, is the junior US Senator from Massachusetts; he is running on a liberal platform that stands out in the increasingly conservative GOP but could prove to be able to win over a diverse coalition of voters in both the primaries and the general election, but not without precision and care.
Bill Daniels, 68, was the moderate/centrist Governor of Colorado from 1979 to 1987 and is a sharp critic of Kemp “butting heads” with the People’s Republic of China; a former sports team owner and television network executive with many connections to political donors and prominent media personalities, he seeks to rely on Cable TV ads to make his name a household one.
Bob Dole, 65, a US Senator from Kansas since 1969, is running on a conservative platform with some thin moderate streaks; having run for the Presidency before, he is hoping his Senate record can win over voters in key primary states, but he is also hoping to win over the party establishment ahead of said states.
Arthur Fletcher, 64, is the former head of the United Negro College Fund who served as the US Secretary of Education from 1985 to 1987, Lieutenant Governor of Washington state from 1969 to 1975, and Governor of Washington state from 1975 to 1977; despite having a conservative record, he is often described and misidentified as being a moderate due to him being from a left-leaning state; his Presidential campaign is focused on lowering unemployment, improving education standards, and improving housing issues.
Barry Goldwater, 80, a US Senator from Arizona since 1953 and running for the White House for the fifth time, is doing so on an almost entirely "moderate libertarian" platform this time around; he now defends "a woman's right to choose," regulations to protect the environment and public lands, and "diminishing the number and prominence of our troops stuck abroad."
Paula Hawkins, 61, a consumer advocate-turned-former US Senator from Florida, is a conservative member of the D.C. "establishment" who is focused on child welfare "at the state-by-state level" and opposing all recreadrugs; while praised for being the first Senator to demand Lukens resign, she was criticized for staying on the fence during the “should Denton be impeached” debate and for lacking a concise foreign policy record due to focusing almost entirely on domestic economic issues and domestic social issues since entering the US Senate chamber.
Carla Anderson Hills, 54, the state Attorney General of California from 1975 to 1983, and a US Congresswoman since 1983, has begun a fairly moderate bid that is considered a longshot but could still win voters over by her playing into the "underdog" image.
Jack French Kemp, 53, the incumbent President is politically all over the map, from being pro-life and economically conservative on the one side, to being pro-immigration and pro-“economic zones” on the other side; he is trying to walk a thin line of balance between the moderate, libertarian, and conservative factions of the party to be a “unifying” candidate, but in doing so runs the risk of not appealing to any of the factions.
Billy Ervin McCormack, 60, a South Baptist clergyman from Louisiana and a leader of the “Religious Right,” is running a socially hard-c conservative campaign already endorsed by Pat Robertson, Ben Kinchlow of the Christian Broadcasting Network, and other prominent religious figures in the US in a call to “return morality to the White House;” he could win over suburban voters, especially mothers with young children, with his "child protection" talking points.
Ron Paul, 53, the polarizing two-US Senator from Texas who previously ran for President in 1980, is the effective leader of the Libertarian movement within the GOP, but has been sharply criticized and praised for his dramatic but ineffective actions in the Senate, his lackluster voting record, and his inability to get meaningful legislation passed; nevertheless, his supporters could very possibly aid him in his quest to clinch the nomination, or, at the very least, play kingmaker at a brokered convention.
Buford Pusser, 51, the sheriff-turned-constable-turned-Mayor who served as Governor of Tennessee from 1983 to 1987, is running a tough-on-crime/anti-corruption campaign, as supporters convinced him to do so; he is vilified by some members of the GOP for launching the investigation that took down VP Alexander; nevertheless, he could win over a wide array of voters, including supporters of Democrat Mario Biaggi, another well-known law-and-order politician.
Maureen Reagan, 48, is the former US Ambassador to the United Kingdom, and was the US Senator from California from 1981 to 1987; as the daughter of the party’s 1976 nominee for President, she is well-connected in the electorally-rich Golden State; she is a pro-choice social moderate who is also strongly fiscally conservative, and thus has some libertarian appeal and could potentially form a wide coalition ahead of or even during the primary season.
Thyra Thomson, 72, is running on her impressive record of accomplishments while serving as the Governor of Wyoming from 1975 to 1983, and again since 1987, such as bringing in businesses, lowering unemployment and poverty rates, and even overseeing some "clean coal" initiatives; she is a soft-c conservative who could easily appeal to moderates and libertarians.
Antonina Uccello, 66, a US Senator from Connecticut since 1971, is running a centrist campaign focused more fiscal issues than social issues, as well as highlighting her record on several US Senate committees.

And here’s a quick breakdown of the 20 candidates on the Democratic primary poll:
Clifford Alexander Jr., 55, was the first African-American Mayor of Washington, D.C., serving 4 progressive terms from 1966 to 1983 that saw the city improve its relations with international businesses, and saw him oversee social programs being implemented to curb "urban decay" and oversee the city's government be reformed; he currently lives in NY.
Carol Bellamy, 47, has been the very progressive Mayor of New York City since 1982, winning election in 1981 and 1985 by wide margins; she is running on her record of lowering unemployment and food insecurity as well as her being in office during a period of declining crime rates.
Mario Biaggi, 71, in his fifth campaign for President, hopes his longtime anti-corruption crusade as "the law-and-order candidate" may actually appeal him to primary voters this time around despite his noted camaraderie with Denton and several other Republican politicians, which he sees as a sign that he could bring together a bipartisan coalition for the November election; a conservative, he served as Governor of New York from 1967 to 1981, and has been a US Senator since 1981.
Julian Bond, 49, is an African-American human rights activist, former Civil Rights activist, and shoutnik who served in the Georgia state House of Representatives from 1967 to 1974, the Georgia state Senate from 1974 to 1980, and has served in the U.S. House of Representatives since 1981; strongly progressive, he supports the BLUTAGO community and the legalization of certain recreadrugs; he believes he can win over enough African-American, white ethnic, and Hispanic voters to win in both the primaries and the general election.
Jim Florio, 51, the left-leaning moderate Governor of New Jersey from 1978 to 1986, hopes to perform better in what will be his second Presidential run; he is running on his financial accomplishments while governor and believes he can win over urban and suburban voters better than any other candidate in the race.
John Glenn, 67, the centrist US Senator from Ohio and famous former astronaut, plans to build on his second-place finish in the 1984 Democratic primaries by appealing to middle-class and "fiscally conscious" primary voters.
Eunice Kennedy-Shriver, 67, the senior US Senator from Massachusetts and sister of the party’s nominee for President in 1968, is finally running for President, and is doing so on her consistent voting record; a pro-life progressive, she is focusing on single-payer “all-inclusive” (“universal”) healthcare, an idea she has promoted since the early 1970s; with deep pockets and extensive political fundraising connections, she can easily prove herself to be a formidable candidate in this race.
Jean Sadako McKillop King, 63, the pragmatic, female and multiracial Governor of Hawaii since 1982, is running on a broad left-leaning moderate platform dubbed “inclusive centrism” that aims to win over disillusioned Republicans as well as moderates and progressives in both the primary contests and the autumn campaign.
Peter Kyros, 63, who served as the Governor of Maine from 1971 to 1979, has been a very progressive, NASA-loving technocrat since becoming a US Senator in 1985; he is doubling down on the platform he ran on in the 1984 primaries, and seeks to win over former Gravel supporters.
Roberto Mondragon, 48, has been a progressive US Senator from New Mexico since 1973, and is running with a focus on environmentalism and labor rights, and could assemble a winning coalition consisting of not only Hispanic-American voters but rural voters, white voters, African-American voters, and middle-class voters as well.
John Emerson Moss, 73, served as a US Congressman from California for 20 years before serving as the US Secretary of Commerce from 1973 to 1981; a progressive, he is especially focused on defending the First Amendment and on calling for greater government transparency
Martha Layne Osborne, 52, was the Governor of Kentucky from 1980 to 1987; a pro-life liberal with rural and blue-collar appeal, she has made it very clear that improving education by funding schools better, protecting unions to protect worker rights, and reforming healthcare (but in a moderate matter) are her top three concerns.
Endicott Peabody, 68, the former Governor of Massachusetts recently elected to the US Senate from New Hampshire, is running a progressive campaign; while it is a long-shot bid, he is confident that is self-proclaimed status as a political "outsider" will appeal to party voters dissatisfied with the likes of "moderates such as Glenn and Osborne."
Fred Shuttlesworth, 66, an influential Reverend from Alabama and a progressive former Civil Rights activist, is calling for higher living standards for everyone; he discourages abortion, but supports freedom of choice, and one using one’s own morals to decide when abortion should be used, and thus is pro-choice.
Paul Simon, 60, the US Senator and former Governor of Illinois, is running as a fiscally-conservative moderate who supports the Balanced Budget Amendment, but has also demonstrated and performed a multitude of progressive stances and actions throughout his political career.
Paul Soglin, 43, the very progressive Governor of Wisconsin since 1983, was the very progressive Mayor of Madison, WI, from 1973 to 1981, and before that was an anti-war shoutnik during the 1960s; he blames Gravel’s loss in 1984 on the hype of the USSR falling and promotes many of the former VP’s policies.
Nancy Stevenson, 60, the former Governor of South Carolina, is a conservative who supports intervention overseas, historic preservation, and education, as his running as a "conservative feminist," hoping to appeal to blue-collar, middle-class, rural and suburban voters who had voted for Denton but had become disillusioned with the "integrity" of the Republican party.
Louis Stokes, 63, the liberal US Congressman from Ohio, became a household in the mid-1980s by overseeing the investigations into the Great Potomac Scandals as Chair of the House Ethics Committee; championing his midwestern appeal, it is yet to be determined if he can retain support as the time for actual voting approaches, or if his opponents are correct and he proves to be a flash in the pan.
James Taylor, 40, the famous singer-songwriter from North Carolina, has been politically active for years, and is running a “unifying outsider” campaign that only Taylor himself seems to take seriously, as so many believe it to be some odd stunt to promote his latest record, “Never Die Young.”
Andrew Young, 56, an African-American US Congressman from Georgia since 1973, is a left-leaning moderate centrist seeking to revive the Guaranteed Basic Income concept first promoted by MLK and supported by President Sanders in 1965, in order to win over both progressives and conservatives.
Post 50
Post 50: Chapter 58

Chapter 58: January 1988 – August 1988

“Mud thrown is ground lost.”

– Texan proverb

HOT ON THE TRAIL!: Presidential Candidates Make Their Cases To Early Primary Voters

…The Democrats have a wide field, with the Gravelite progressive wing (led by Soglin, Bellamy, and Alexander) vying for voters against liberals (led Kennedy-Shriver, Osborne, and Florio) and centrists (led by Glenn, King, and Simon), with candidates like James Taylor and Andrew Young running on unique campaign platforms …In the GOP, President Kemp is attempting to fight off several challengers – most notably Pastor McCormack of the “deeply conservative” wing, Governor Thomson of the Colonelite “rational conservative” wing, Senator Goldwater of the growing "libertarian" wing, and former Senator Reagan of the right-of-center "moderate" wing – to win the nomination for a full term. …Ronald Reagan says “You can always count on Mermie,” using to the retired politician’s nickname for his daughter…

– The New Hampshire Gazette, 1/7/1988

Guest political commentator Bern SANDERS: “The economy has doubled since 1978, but wages have only grown by 30%. Where is the money going? With slashed taxes for those who can afford taxes, revenues are shrinking, instead of expanding. Where is the money going?”

Special Guest Senator Ron PAUL: “Well let me just say that Jack [Kemp] should count his lucky stars that the Balanced Budget Amendment hasn’t yet been approved by enough state legislatures, because this year’s federal deficit shows that congress can’t budget their own checkbook, and they so shouldn’t touch other people’s checkbook until they fix their own! Buying and borrowing slowly during the 1980s was a terrible idea, because if the economy dips down again, the continuation of these irresponsible policies will lead to an anemic recovery the next time a recession hits.”

SANDERS: “And rest assured the way moderate elitists run things, the next recession is right around the corner.”

PAUL: “I agree. That’s why I’m running for President - to get the feds off the necks of the working class.”

SANDERS: “The feds should work with the working class, not against them like that.”

PAUL: “Naw, naw, that’s where they get you. When governments say they want to work with you, they really mean they want to control you. To take your hard-earned money and use it to pay for unnecessary things like more cameras in space, more weapons for their sick war games, and more red tape to suffocate businesses.”

SANDERS: “Now hold on, Senator, taxes should go where they are needed – paying for hospitals, Medicare, Medicaid, road repair – things that the individual American cannot pay for on their own.”

MODERATOR: “Gentlemen, we’re running late, so let’s move on to the continuation of partial American intervention in Civil War-torn Colombia.”

SANDERS & PAUL (in unison): “We need to bring our boys home!”

– Round-table discussion on the topic “the changing economic landscape in America,” KNN, 1/11/1988


The Bismarck Tribune, North Dakota newspaper, 1/12/1988

“The Politburo in China is working with the dictatorial Xi Liannian to round up hundreds of thousands of Uighur Muslims into what essentially are concentration camps. Now I’m not one to point fingers, but this current administration has not done enough to address this issue, and the previous one, the Denton administration, worked with the P.R.C. more than once, such as getting Premier Deng to join international trade, energy, resources, and technology –related accords. We shouldn’t be doing business with dictators, plain and simple.”

– House Speaker Hale Boggs (D-LA) to a reporter, 1/12/1988


…with Kemp signing off on the measure with little fanfare, the sanctions will affect Chinese exports of plastics, electronics, and multiple other items…

The Washington Post, 1/13/1988

KEMP TOUTS LAST YEARS’ HOUSING REFORMS IN STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS: Claims ZEDs, Tenant Ownership Laws Are The Start of “A Better Era For Millions Of Americans”

The New York Times, 1/18/1988


[pic: ]

– Kemp’88 logo, c. January 1988

“In 1983, a promotion to Major General was on the horizon for me, but then a falling-out kind of thing happened between President Denton and I over his refusal to disclose certain military information to certain military officers for the sake of security. When I confronted the President on the manner, he coolly replied, ‘Well, we all have our secrets, now don’t we…’ and then referred to me by a name I had been running from for decades. I should have known that I couldn’t hide it forever, but it still shocked me in the moment. I think I turned pale. Denton continued, saying he could have the blemish permanently expunged from all obtainable records, that only he and I would ever know, but only if I stopped complaining about the Defense Department continuing to keep a tight lid on their long-term plans, strategies and goals for Libya. I retired from the military instead.”

– Former US Secretary of Defense Donnie Dunagan, 1991 interview

On January 19, researchers at the Pentagon discovered the misfiled personnel documents and records for Secretary Dunagan and promptly showed them to their supervisors to confirm their authenticity. During that sharing of information, one employee anonymously contacted the Walt Disney Company for confirmation of a curious detail concerning Dunagan’s young life. At some point during these communications, the story was picked up by the tabloids…

The Houston Chronicle, article “Dunagan Reflects on Embracing His Past Life,” 2008


…Dunagan recorded the voice of the young deer character ten years before joining the Marines…

The New York Post, 1/22/1988

“Cammie King visited me to tell me stay on, as her own voice acting past had not been a hindrance to her success in the U.S. House of Representatives. She told me, ‘You should never be ashamed of where you come from; what you’re doing now is more important than what you did way back when. Just look at how far you’ve come!’ She said to me I should be press on and ignore the critics. But I insisted I spare my Commander-in-Chief the embarrassment. The President was already facing numerous confrontations, and I did not wish to contribute to them with the brand new claims that I withheld information during my Senate confirmation hearing. Which I didn’t – they didn’t ask about my pre-pubescent years, so I didn’t tell. Anyway, I did not wish to be a burden or a nuisance. After some reluctance, Kemp accepted my letter of resignation.”

– Former US Secretary of Defense Donnie Dunagan, 1991 interview


The Washington Post, 2/7/1988

“You can’t lead soldiers, direct them into battle, order them around, if you have that kind of thing in your background. You just won’t be taken seriously.” Dunagan went back into retirement in shame. Despite his exclusivity, fans still managed to send him fan mail after his home address was leaked to the press by a nosy neighbor later that year. Dunagan was touched by the sheer number of people who had enjoyed films such as Bambi and Young Frankenstein growing up, and confessed he himself had always enjoyed the film Bambi. “I would put in on for my grandchildren all the time,” he explains. He soon started to see “the reveal” of his secret as a positive thing, and ultimately agreed to appear at Disney’s official promotion of the 50th anniversary of Bambi in Anaheim, California.

After half a century, Dunagan finally embraced the identity of being Bambi’s voice, at last seeing it as a source of personal pride and fame, not shame.

The Houston Chronicle, article “When Bambi Fought The Viet Cong,” 2001

“The unmerited ridicule that the War Hero Don Dunagan had to put up with during the past two weeks will likely help Kemp in the long run. The sympathy vote could go a long ways in the primaries if Kemp reminds people of how unfairly his administration has been attacked since day one.”

– Political commentator William Saxbe, CBS roundtable discussion, 2/8/1988

GLENN (a Senator since 1971): “We need a president who can stand up to China. Their new leader, Li Xiannian, is unleashing a new wave of terror on the ethnic minorities in the western regions of his nation. We cannot sit idly by and let it continue any further. Sanctions are not enough – we need to get the UN and all our allies to take a stand in solidarity with one another. We need to push China out of the world economy and off the world stage, and not let them back in until they end their human rights violations. For that, you need the kind of experience that spending two decades in the Senate gives you.”

KENNEDY-SHRIVER (a Senator since 1962): “And for it to work you need to spend three decades in the Senate, that's three total.”

MODERATOR 1: “Senator Kennedy-Shriver, please wait your turn.”


BELLAMY: “China is tricky business because it is a nuclear power, an important trade partner, and a nation of people controlled by a ruthless national government. We have to do the opposite of what Senator Glenn proposes and open up talks with Chairman Li in order to find a better solution to China’s overpopulation crisis, one better than replacing the people of Xinjiang and Tibet with excess people from the Chinese coastline.”


OSBORNE: “We need a federal law that helps state law with abortion by allowing federal funds to go to necessary abortions – rape, incest, danger to the mother – but not to voluntary abortions. A child should not be killed before they are born just because the family is poor or the mother don’t feel ready to be a mother. Financial or emotional burdening is no excuse to end any life!”


OSBORNE: “Carol, you don’t have the experience of a Senator or a Governor, and in this moment in our nation’s history, with tensions with China on the rise and Colombia still in turmoil, we need a President with actual governing experience!”

MODERATOR: “Alright, now, Mayor Bellamy, your rebuttal?”

BELLAMY: “Martha, Kentucky has about three-and-half million people right now, while New York City’s population passed the seven-million-people mark less than eight years ago. And like any state, the city does business with countries the world over, so geopolitics comes with the job. Demographically, New York’s actually more diverse in terms of race and jobs than Kentucky. In the past six years, New York City’s economy has nearly double, while Kentucky is the twentieth most prosperous state in the nation right now. I have the experience necessary to be President. I’ve tackled issues big and small. From fixing potholes to maintaining funds for free daycare when President Denton cut federal grants in ’83; from improving relations between police and their communities, to keeping big companies in the city despite raising taxes on them because of the opportunities the city provides. Vote for me in New Hampshire, then in the March Cluster, and in November, and America will have a President with actual governing experience!”

– Snippets from the Democratic primary debate in Concord, NH, 2/10/1988

Bellamy and Kennedy-Shriver were ideologically similar on several domestic policy issues. Both favored All-Inclusive Health Care, expanding Social Security Benefits, increasing US-led humanitarian efforts abroad, and making more frequent adjustments to the nation’s Negative Income Tax Rebate in lieu of the Balanced Budget Amendment. Both were heavily involved in causes promoting the protection of children long before being elected to public office, and both had consistently left-leaning voting records. As a result, what made their campaigns distinct from one another was style more so than substance.

Both politicians were not exactly cut from the same cloth. Bellamy was born to a middle-class family in New Jersey, her parents being a nurse and a telephone installer; Kennedy-Shriver was born into the wealth accumulated by her father, a successful stock and real estate investor who later became the US Ambassador to the UK and considered running for President in 1940. The Bellamy campaign sought to depict the Mayor as having grown up wanting, while the Senator grew up in luxury and excess. This was no difficult task – Kennedy-Shriver’s eldest brother Jack was a former Senator, and her second-eldest brother Robert had raised a family of 14 children on a lavish estate in Virginia known for having several exotic pets and hosting “wild” birthday parties.

Their differing backgrounds were highlighted – if not outright exaggerated – by how the media depicted their personalities. In an early example, New York magazine ran an article in 1982 that claimed Bellamy was temperamental and impatient around her interns: “Her staff meetings resemble nothing so much as Federal Express commercials. She jiggles her knee, taps a pencil against her head, slips into mild snits over the wording of press releases no one will remember… Even with a reporter present, Bellamy’s temper flares with slight provocation whenever a staff member seems to be moving – or even just explaining – too slowly.” [1] Kennedy-Shriver, however, was often depicted by her many friends and connects in the media – thanks to her brother, KNN co-founder Ted Kennedy – as the very epitome of the term “presidential.” Classy and sophisticated, Eunice was presented as refined but relatable, elegant but electable, in tune to the domestic and geopolitical issues in DC while still exuding a charm that appealed to suburban housewives, college-educated white-collar workers, and the white-ethnic skeletal remains of the New Deal Coalition responsible for Presidents Roosevelt, Truman Johnson and Mondale. In her defense, Bellamy embraced the image of having a rough exterior as a way to standing out from “the prim, polished, pro-status-quo politicians,” and of being detached from “the Potomac elite,” a term Bellamy campaign aide Rosina Abramson thought up to remind voters of the Potomac Scandals and to “hammer in” Mayor Bellamy’s “outsider” status.

Their respective families played into the Kennedy-Shriver game plan as well, especially once Bellamy began to rise in polls, and initial frontrunner Martha Osborne underperformed in the New Hampshire debate. KNN reported more than once on the Mayor being single, childless, and having no apparent love life. These “critiques” were nothing new to Bellamy, though, as she once controversially stated in 1985 “I love it when people say I don’t understand the problems of raising a family. Well, I’m not raising a family, but I come from a family. I have a mother. I’ve watched a nephew growing up. I’m not saying I understand what it was like to go to the market yesterday and shop for four people.” [1]

As the primaries began, Bellamy’s chief of staff, Karen Burstein, complained that such inquiries were of sexist origin: “There’s just no grace given to a woman in politics. If she put government service over being in love, how does that distinguish her from any number of male politicians who are married?[1] Bellamy’s campaign could not take such defense when criticized by the likes of Kennedy-Shriver and Osborne, and thus the Mayor sought to instead focus on the “real” issues on the race.

Indeed, two major issues that set Bellamy and Kennedy-Shriver apart from one another were abortion and the use of wealthy donors. The Mayor favored legalizing the former in all states and territories, while her campaign was almost entirely grassroots-oriented – the bulk of Bellamy’s base basically being of blue-collar bona fides – and breaking from the use of big bucks. Conversely, Kennedy-Shriver fiercely opposed abortion, while the well-connected Senator – and her well-connected family – had deep ties to top Democratic donors.

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989

Ahead of the New Hampshire primary, rumors began to circulate that Governor Osborne was ineligible for the Presidency. The claim went that she was born in Bagdad, Iraq, to British parents and moved to the US a short time later; in reality, Osborne was born in the town of Bagdad, Kentucky, and family moved to Shelbyville, Kentucky, when she was in the sixth grade. While Osborne was quick to denounce the rumors as “attacks on [her] momentum-building campaign,” the attention did not boost her poll numbers, not even out of sympathy, due to her poor performance in the pre-primary debates…

In the GOP, President Kemp declined to participate in the last debate before New Hampshire. With his approval ratings hovering between 45% and 49%, he believed he would weather the competition, and decided to best spend his time overseas his 1988 agenda – cutting further regulations, boosting the economy, and addressing Japan’s growing presence in American markets…

– Caroline Heldman’s Historic: The Unfolding of the Presidential Election of 1988, Meredith Books, 2018

THOMSON: “Our economy can’t afford the Democrats’ tax-and-spend ideas. Americans are adventurous and braves, willing to cure diseases and go into space, but Americans are also smart. Americans know that inundating businesses, schools, and communities with federal red tape and tight regulations do not lead to adventure and bravery in the economy.”


BROOKE: “When people treat corruption as a routine part of the process, you have something far worse than wrongdoing or moral failing. You have a political cancer that breeds cynicism about democratic government and infests all of society. Fortunately, the Denton Presidency exposed to the world that Americans will never stand for corruption. And I will not ever stand for it either …My entire life has been devoted to breaking down barriers, to finding common ground. I am the only candidate on this stage that has proven time and again to be able to work with Democrat-majority congresses like the one we have right now. Bipartisanship is the best direction for our party and for our country…” [2]


McCORMACK: “There’s been a lot of talk about reversing Protection of Marriage Act, of making it illegal to stop BLUTAGs from teaching in schools in all fifty states, and of even letting them serve in the military. A Democrat in the White House would do nothing to stop this corruption of our morals.”

MODERATOR 1: “Senator Goldwater, you raised your hand first, you have one minute.”

GOLDWATER: “Billy, there’s nothing wrong with BLUTAGs in the military because you don’t need to be straight to fight and die for your country. You just need to shoot straight.” [3]

McCORMACK: “What you are saying is an affront to all things natural.”

GOLDWATER: “And you’re an affront to all things political. You have no first-hand experience for this kind of job. You don’t see preaching from your pulpit, do you?”

McCORMACK: “It bucks nature.”

GOLDWATER: “Oh buck off with that bull! These men and women love each other, and there’s nothing unnatural about that. There’s nothing wrong with consenting adults in love.”

MODERATOR 2: “Gentlemen, please, let’s keep this civil and professional.”

GOLDWATER: “Tell that to the people running the pastor’s campaign.”


REAGAN: “I’d like to take this moment to congratulate how far we’ve come as a party and as a nation. Women candidates have historically had two unique problems, those being trouble raising money and being taken seriously by the media. Women tend to give political candidates only about 10 percent of what males give, and males give women candidates only 10 percent of what they give to males. But here, on this stage, are Thyra and I, and not once have we been asked if a woman can win major office thanks to the efforts of Republican women and organizers everywhere responsible for there being fourteen women in the US Senate, and for Thyra and I being on this stage in the first place.” [4]

– Snippets from the GOP debate held four days before the New Hampshire primaries, 2/12/1988


…Larry Miles Dinger (b. 1946) grew up in Iowa, graduated from Macalester College in 1968, and served in the US Army in Cambodia from 1968 to 1970. Dinger graduated from Harvard Law in 1974, and practiced law as his home town’s sole practitioner in 1975 before election to a U.S. Congressional seat in 1976. After losing a bid for a US Senate seat in 1980, Dinger was chosen to be the U.S. Ambassador to Guatemala 1981, and became the U.S. Ambassador to Ecuador 1982; he served both position until 1985. In 1985, he took on the position of U.S. Ambassador to Chile, but stepped down in September 1986 in protest of the Potomac Scandals. Five months later, Dinger returned to Washington to become President Kemp’s U.S. Undersecretary of Defense...

The Washington Post, 2/14/1988

On Tuesday, February 16, President Kemp won the GOP New Hampshire primary with a plurality of 35%. Senator Brooke came within 5% of taking first place; Reagan came in fourth, while Goldwater surprised pundits with an impressive fifth place finish (after initially polling in seventh behind Thomson and McCormack), cementing his position as the libertarian wing’s choice. These results were far from the landslide that Kemp, his supporters, and early polling had anticipated, and sent Kemp’s election campaign into an uproar of havoc. …Senator Ron Paul withdrew from the race after, acknowledging that the more popular and better-funded Senator Goldwater was “the libertarian choice of this season,” as he bitterly put it later that May…

In the Democratic Party, history was made with Mayor Bellamy upsetting Kennedy-Shriver to become the first woman to win the Gravel state in a presidential primary. Despite Senator “EKS” spending twice as much funding as Bellamy, the Senator lost to the Mayor by a 1% margin. Coming in an impressive third was the state’s US Senator Endicott Peabody, knocking Glenn down to fourth place. The biggest “loser” of the night, though, was Governor Osborne, who underperformed with a sixth-place showing…

– Caroline Heldman’s Historic: The Unfolding of the Presidential Election of 1988, Meredith Books, 2018

The ’88 Winter Olympics in Falun, Sweden, ended on the eighteenth. The US’s humiliatingly crushing defeats in several events worsened American morale, already low due to the lingering court cases stemming from the Great Potomac Scandals and the Second Ark Wave, and the rise in tensions between the nuclear powers of US and China raising fears of warfare not seen since the fall of the USSR four years prior…

– Jonathan Applebaum’s Tackling What Ailed Us: The Trials And Triumphs of The Jack Kemp Presidency, Borders Books, 2010

CERN became the largest technet node in Europe in 1988, and was soon followed by Berners-Lee joining hypertext with the technet. With domain name systems, NSFNET and Nordunet, essentially, partially co-created the International Network, the largest documentation system in history... [5]

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018

McCormack gained momentum by narrowly winning the February 23 Georgia primary over Kemp, with Thomson coming in a close third, boosting her prominence in the race as well. It became apparent that Thomson and McCormack were winning over “religious right” party members, with McCormack appealing to the bulk of the faction and its most conservative members, and Thomson appealing to female and suburban religious conservatives alongside more libertarian-minded and fiscally-concerned voters. Concurrently, Maureen Reagan edged Kemp for victory in the GOP’s primary in Maryland; with Brooke tapping into the state’s minority populations, the race was a three-way tie. Kemp campaign leaders began to sweat more profusely as the President lost the first three contests, and soon began to invest heavily in the March Cluster contests. …Bob Dole dropped out soon after, having failed to gain traction or even that much attention in such a crowded field…

That same night, Senator Kennedy-Shriver won the Democratic Party’s Georgia primary over Glenn, with Bellamy predictably coming in third. Former frontrunner Osborne against heavily underperformed. Kennedy-Shriver also secured victory in Maryland, likely thanks to the state’s high level of Catholic voters, despite US Senator Paul Sarbanes (D-MD) praising Bellamy’s actions as Mayor (though he did stop short of an official endorsement). The group “Youth for Eunice,” which oversaw young activists from high school and college organize, coordinate and mobilize volunteer campaigners across Maryland and Georgia, was seen and thus often cited as being responsible for making Kennedy-Shriver’s victories in both contests so comfortable and propelling her to frontrunner status ahead of the March Cluster...

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

In an unpopular move, Kemp raised interest rates incrementally from September 1987 to February 1988 in an attempt to control economic growth. While the shift in fiscal policy, albeit temporary, was meant for the “long-term” goal of holding back the next recession, the rates aggravated many voters “in the short-term”. [snip] ...On February 24, Kemp attended the funeral of Emperor Hirohito instead of campaigning ahead of the March Cluster. He had considered sending Secretary of State Dinger in his place, but decided that the photo-ops there could boost his foreign policy bona fides. Kemp surrogates such as VP Polonko took to the campaign trail in his stead.

– Jonathan Applebaum’s Tackling What Ailed Us: The Trials And Triumphs of The Jack Kemp Presidency, Borders Books, 2010

In late February 1988, increased diplomatic pressure from the Kemp administration to end Li Xiannian’s “relocation” policies in western China led to the new Premier threatening, via communicating through US-Chinese liaisons, to formally recognize the US government’s genocide and ethnic cleansing of the Native Americans during the 1700s and 1800s during a trip to the UN later in the year. Kemp considered this a bluff, believing that Li knew that to do such a thing would damage US-Chinese relations. “The truth is that with the Soviets gone, America is the world’s last superior. We won the Cold War. We lead the western world. What we say goes, and if we say ‘Europe, cut China out of everything,’ suddenly their rudimentary free markets are going to experience a recession that could make China crumble like they’re the USSR.” Kemp relayed back to China that if Li followed through on this, he would acknowledge “the unadulterated truth about my country’s history – something that you have not done with your own country’s history.” Li did not reply to the remark.

– Bo Yibo’s The Dragon and The Eagle: Chinese and American Dances, Daggers and Dinners, English translation, 1998


[pic: ]

In It To Win It; Let’s Restore America’s Pride

– Reagan’88 logos, c. early March 1988

“When you’re a Senator, you sit behind a desk and support whatever bill your party tells you to. But it takes real leadership to sit behind a Governor’s desk. You have to be pragmatic to get done what has to get done. To return safety to our streets, to our cities, to our schools, to our country. When you vote for me in November, you will turn the promise of a vision into a mighty fine and grand reality!”

– Former Governor Martha Layne Osborne (D-KY) in a Las Vegas, NV stump speech, 3/1/1988

OSBORNE: “Look, I just think that perhaps we should just keep abortion a state-by-state issue due to the differences in culture. You can’t force morality, or at least your own version of morality, onto someone else.”

BELLAMY: “Tell it to a missionary, Martha. Banning abortion in only some places creates travel issues, interferes with business practices and trade between the states, and complicates women’s health insurance policies. The state-by-state system is divisive, too; it has led to liberals moving into some states and conservatives moving to others.”

MODERATOR 2: “Mayor, Governor, please settle down. Senator Kennedy-Shriver, you raised your hand first, you have thirty seconds.”

KENNEDY-SHRIVER: “Thank you and let me just say that I agree with Bellamy, not on abortion, but on the notion that it should be a federal-level decision, because letting it be a state-by-state decision promotes the notion that we aren’t a united country. Decentralization has historically been a cause for much trouble in many countries around the world. We as a nation need to be united – it’s in our name, after all! This is the United States, not the Self-governing states!”

OSBORNE: “But this very discussion proves that some state are too different for either side to be alright with things being centralized!”

MODERATOR 3: “Governor Osborne, please wait your turn!”


GLENN (when asked about an inconsistency in his fiscal centrism voting record): “Whatever my position is, it’s always been the same, if not consistent.”


KENNEDY: “No, I do not at all believe that my religion, or anyone’s religion, can impede any ability to serve a secular position. …One of the bills I am most proud of was a bill that became law in 1964, a law the established the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. This institute aims to study problems of pregnancy and early childhood development so that infants who were lost because of birth problems and lack of research on fetal life could survive. My interest in children stems from my moral values, but do we not understand that religious beliefs and moral values are not the same? The right to life of a newly conceived fetus is a value held by many people who are not Catholic. And while I disagree with them, I as President would defend the rights of the Abortion Rights League to advance its views.[6]


OSBORNE: “I turned my words into action during my time as Governor. I addressed integral social issues and worked with Republicans and Democrats, liberals and conservatives, and achieved legislative victories for hardworking people in my state. That’s the difference between Senators and Governors – actual executive experience. It’s vital. With experience, I learned how to turn words into action as a state senator, I perfected the skill as governor, and I’ll take those skills into the White House and continue to turn words into actions as your next President.”


BELLAMY: “The next President must return pride and pragmatic change to Washington and the White House, to do away with the seeds of corruption and return focus to the issues that truly matter – expanding healthcare, aiding our allies abroad, and protecting children from food insecurity and disease. I have worked hard on these issues all my life, and that will not change regardless of what happens this year.”

– Snippets from the Democratic primary debate in Las Vegas, NV, 3/2/1988

“I think it’d be a good thing if I won this election. I think I could bring people together with universal common ground, you know, things like the love we have for family, the love we have for our country, the love we have for this planet, for our health and happiness. That’s what’s it’s all about in the end. And I also think that it’ll be good to know that you’ve got a friend in the White House, winter, spring, summer and fall.”

– Presidential candidate James Taylor (D-NC), stump speech in Reno, Nevada, 3/3/1988

The March 4 contests of Nevada and Vermont set the stage for the March 8 “cluster” of 12 primary contests. The GOP saw Brooke win Nevada in his first primary victory, while Thomson won Vermont in an upset over Kemp and Brooke; this was due to Brooke appealing to minorities, of which Nevada has many, while Vermont has few.

On the other side of the political aisle, Democratic Party saw Bellamy win her second contest of the season by picking up Vermont in a landslide. Nevada went to Glenn, his first victory of the race, with Kennedy-Shriver and Bellamy virtually tied for second place, and Osborne once more underperforming. With her campaign hemorrhaging money, and not wanting to experience the loss of her home state in four days, Osborne dropped out the next day. Senator Kyros followed suit on the sixth.

– Caroline Heldman’s Historic: The Unfolding of the Presidential Election of 1988, Meredith Books, 2018


[pic: ]

– Former Presidential frontrunner Martha Osborne (D-KY) solemnly suspending her campaign, 3/5/1988

…It is now 7:00 PM on the east coast, and we’re starting tonight’s breakdown with the results of Massachusetts, the easternmost contest of the night, where Senator Kennedy-Shriver and Brooke have already been declared the winners of the Democratic and Republican races there, respectively. …Early results indicate that Brooke will also win Washington, D.C.’s GOP primary while the city’s former Mayor Clifford Alexander will win the nation’s capital’s Democratic primary… In the state of Florida, President Kemp is the projected winner, giving him his first contest victory of this primary season, while the contest remains too close to call on the Democratic side… In Kentucky, for the Democrats, we’re projecting that when the votes are counted there, Kennedy-Shriver will be the victor, while the Bluegrass State will likely vote for Reagan on the GOP side. In Tennessee, on the Republican, here’s something interesting, it is currently still too close to call, with Kemp and Reagan vying for first, while Senator Glenn has already been declared the winner on the Democratic side of the state…


…It is now 11:00 PM Eastern Standard Time, and for those of you just tuning in to tonight’s primary contests, President Kemp is trailing former Ambassador Reagan in the delegate count, and has won only two primaries tonight, the states of Arkansas and Florida. At the same time, Democrats faced off in twelve contests, and the night has been very good for Senator Glenn and Mayor Bellamy. Glenn is the projected winner of Alabama and Arkansas, while Bellamy has been declared the victor in North Carolina and, surprisingly, Louisiana, while she is expected to win the state of Washington as well. On the Republican side, Pastor McCormack has won the state of Louisiana, while Senator Reagan is projected to win North Carolina and Washington state, and Governor Thomson has impressively won Alabama, and the delegate-rich state of Texas.


…Kentucky has just announced a winner – it seems Kennedy-Shriver will win the state of Kentucky, along with the state of Texas…


Alright, and finally, the last primary state election has been called. With a plurality of roughly 30%, Pastor McCormack carries Hawaii. On the Democratic side, again, Governor Jean King will win all of the state’s delegates…


…Last night yielded a lot of interesting votes, but most importantly, I think, has proven that women politicians can win elections outside of their home regions. But Bellamy and Kennedy-Shriver are from the northeast, and yet they each won several states in the west and south last night… The night left former Ambassador Reagan with a total of five contest victories of the primary season so far. Compare that to the campaigns of Kemp, Brooke, Thomson and McCormack, each of whom have won only three contests so far. This does not bode well for President Kemp… Kemp will definitely have to focus more on the primary contests coming up later this month and possibly in April, too, if he wants to stay viable for a term of his own…

– KNN, 3/8-9/1988 broadcast

“China’s ‘re-education camps’ in Eastern Turkestan target, repress and commit borderline genocide to the indigenous people there. The creators of this atrocity must be put on trial and the atrocity itself must be brought to an end. We have to do more than pay lip service to human rights. China’s government leaders have to be held accountable, their actions must have consequences. That’s why I am calling for everyone to stop buying from China. It’s a better strategy than threatening them with warfare!”

– Presidential candidate Carol Bellamy (D-NY), 3/10/1988

It almost became a trend of sorts for Muslims to rise up against totalitarianism after the Cold War ended. The post-Soviet people of Central Asia, for example, began resuming traditional practices like pilgrimages and festivals, including at shrines located deep in the Taklamakan Desert, or even travelling to Mecca for the hajj.

With attitude came to a boiling point in the western Chinese city of Urumqi. The capital of Xinjiang saw unrest on March 13, when Uyghur and Hui Muslims raided a local police station to free five Muslim youths arrested for throwing rocks at Han Chinese police officers. The next day, martial law was declared after 150 people in total were injured and three more people were killed in the subsequent riot-turned-impromptu street warfare. The day after that, UK PM Alastair Goodlad joined US President Jack Kemp in once again condemning “Li’s atrocious treatment of his fellow citizens.”

– Bo Yibo’s The Dragon and The Eagle: Chinese and American Dances, Daggers and Dinners, English translation, 1998


…all of the other candidates are at an unfair disadvantage… The Senator is continuously praised by the 24-hour news channel, the aptly-named Kennedy News Network, co-headed by her brother Edward M. “Ted” Kennedy. …If there was ever a reason to re-instate the FCC’s Fairness Doctrine (the legislation that led to the suspension of KFC commercials featuring the Colonel during Sanders’ 1964 run for the Presidency that was repealed under Denton), the fourth-largest news channel in the United States being unapologetically biased in favor of one candidate would be it…

The New York Times, 3/13/1988 op-ed

On March 14, a piece by The New York Post resurfaced “the Jack issue,” concerning Senator Eunice Kennedy-Shriver’s older brother Jack. Jack, the former Senator from Massachusetts and unsuccessful Democratic nominee for President in 1968, had since led a quiet retirement raising his family, managing a liberal think tank in D.C., and writing several non-fiction best-sellers. However, he had barely survived the Frist Ark Wave, and his use of marijuana for his Addison’s disease was been fairly well-known by the politically-savvy. To the average voter, though, the Post’s coverage made this news to them, and it had mixed emotions. While Kennedy-Shriver’s poll numbers took a hit among the party’s more conservative voters who opposed recreadrugs, further coverage of Jack’s use did expose the idea of medical marijuana to a wider array of Americans, which impacted the nation’s viewing of recreadrugs in the long run…

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

On March 15, Bellamy won Alaska and Colorado, while Kennedy-Shriver barely won South Carolina, with Glenn coming in second. Glenn won his home state of Ohio with ease. On the GOP side of the night, Maureen Reagan won Colorado and Ohio, while Kemp carried South Carolina, his fourth victory. The Republican contest in Alaska was the most interesting one of the night, as it saw Goldwater win first place with just under 30% of the vote, with McCormack coming in second place in a five-way split between the pastor, the then-79-year-old Goldwater, and Kemp, Thomson and Reagan…


The contests held on March 22 saw Kennedy-Shriver recover from the previous week’s losses in Colorado and Alaska by picking up the states of Connecticut, Illinois and Virginia. However, Bellamy’s momentum, and her endorsement from the pro-union Governor Jim Slattery, allowed her to win Kansas; Bellamy’s campaign touted this victory as proof that the Mayor of New York City could win over voters in Rural America… On the Republican side of the night, Thomson won Kansas, Reagan carried Connecticut and Virginia (via plurality, as Thomson and McCormack again split much of the conservative vote), and Kemp achieved victory in Illinois. The next day, Brooke, having failed to bounce back into contention by investing resources into Virginia and Illinois, conceded that his “window through the primaries [had] closed,” suspended his campaigned, and endorsed President Kemp.

– Caroline Heldman’s Historic: The Unfolding of the Presidential Election of 1988, Meredith Books, 2018


…the Federal Election Commission claims the Senator’s campaign violated donation limits by accepting hefty sums from wealthy philanthropist backers who back the Senator’s support for the arts. …Kennedy-Shriver’s campaign includes calls for more historic preservation efforts, and expanding music and art programs in grade and vocational schools…

The Los Angeles Times, 3/24/1988

…Tonight, on the Democratic side, Mayor Bellamy has won both primary contests held in Michigan and Maine, while on the Republican side of the political aisle, Kemp won Michigan and Reagan won Maine…

– The Overmyer Network, 3/29/1988 broadcast


…After a string of primary losses and in the wake of a shrinking war chess, Glenn had placed all of his chips on a win in Michigan last night. The veteran Senator instead came in a distant third behind Bellamy and Kennedy-Shriver… The only male candidates left in the race are singer James Taylor, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, and former US Secretary of Commerce John Moss, whom, as of yesterday, are polling at 5%, 3% and 2%, respectively. The withdrawal of Glenn from the race thus all but guarantees that this year’s Democratic nominee for President will be a woman – either Mayor Bellamy, or Senator Kennedy-Shriver. The question that remains, then, is to which of these two campaigns Glenn’s supporters will flock.

The Dayton Daily News, 3/30/1988

…The CEO of Kmart, the national retail store, has today announced that the American company will join the UK’s Asda Stores Ltd in boycotting Chinese products! Another major distributor to recently join the list of capitalist enterprises refusing to conduct business activities with China’s government, due to that nation’s human rights violations in its western provinces, is J. G. McCrory’s Department Stores…

– CBC Radio One, Canadian radio station, 3/31/1988 broadcast

In 1986, the US Defense Department began helping United Vietnam build up their military posts in the disputed Spratly islands in the South China Sea, off the coast of Vietnam and China and claimed by both Vietnam and China, after learning that Deng Xiaoping had been doing the same since the previous year.

On the second day of April 1988, the Johnson South Reef in the Union Banks region of the Spratly Islands saw a skirmish unfold between a Vietnam military patrol boat and a Chinese military transportation ship. From my perspective, they fired first after we sailed to close to them, but they claim the opposite.

Either way, the fact remains that the Chinese officer who responded to reports of an attack on Chinese officers, Chen Weiwen, initially believed that we were an American vessel, and then he gave the order to fire back. I received three bullets to the arm before I made it below deck. A gun battle broke out between the two ships, and both were damaged badly until, suddenly, the Chinese guns stopped. Officially, Weiwen’s C.O. had been ordered to cease firing because his higher-ups had discovered that we were a Vietnam ship. They apparently did not see our flag due to it being a fairly cloudy day. At least, that is their official telling of the events. Personally, I, and the rest of my shipmates believe this too, we are certain they knew were we Vietnamese soldiers, and that they kept firing because they either wanted to try and drag the US into a military conflict, or to intimidate Vietnam into one. Who can say for sure?

– Deputy Brigadier Tran Duc Thong of Vietnam, Saigon-TV interview, 2001

…Breaking news: newly-discovered documents reveal that China tried to lure the US into a war with them in April 1988 in order to intimidate the US into ending their economic sanctions on them…

– KNN “Breaking News Alert,” 2019 broadcast


– The Los Angeles Times, side article, 4/3/1988

GOLDWATER: “When it comes to choosing whom should be your next President, ask yourself this: what really makes a leader? Take, for instance, my opponent, Billy McCormack. Does condemning people of a lifestyle different from his own make him a leader? Or how about his promoting of hatred under the guise of spreading Christian Doctrine, or endorsing underhanded tactics to get what you want even if the stats show most people don’t want it? Does that make for a good leader? No. Those actions and rhetoric make him a whole lot of things, but none of them is a good leader. And I will never acknowledge such a person as leader, either. Not now, now ever.”

THOMSON: “I won't lockstep or goose-step with those who apply political pressure either. I think I'm probably somewhat more liberal than a lot of my fellow conservatives and I am not ashamed of that.” [7]


KEMP: “Every time in this century we’ve lowered the tax rates across the board, on employment, on saving, investment and risk-taking in this economy, revenues went up, not down. There are no limits to our future if we don’t put limits on our people. But economic growth doesn’t mean anything if it leaves people out. I unabashedly, unashamedly, unequivocally support the explosion of entrepreneurs in the capitalist system. There’s no limit to what free men and free women in a free market with free enterprise can accomplish when people are free to follow their dream.” [8]


MODERATOR 1: “And Ambassador Reagan, same question – your stance on immigration.”

REAGAN: “Our borders should be open but secure. Open to refugees and hardworking people seeking a better and more prosperous life that is the American experience, but secure from potentially dangerous elements. Borders that are inviting but clearly defined are the best way to maintain order and simultaneously appeal to the people and businesses of other countries. Those kind of borders promote open trade with allies and potential allies. Speaking of which, I think greater investments into the economies of Africa and the Middle East would yield great results short-term and long-term, and making trade and immigration deals with key players in those areas will be a major part of a Reagan White House.”


GOLDWATER: “You cannot be a good leader without having certain qualities – logic, tolerance, understanding, honesty, and integrity. Billy McCormack has none of these. Billy McCormack has taken to depicting conformity and bigotry as individuality and order. As President, I will bring honesty and integrity to the White House and I will bring peace and justice to the USA.”


THOMSON: “Four years ago, when I traveled to Wales to trace my ancestor’s roots homes, I stayed in inns that date from the 1400s. One of the most beautiful inns we stayed in—Sugamvar—is older—dates from before Plymouth Rock. You know, it just blew my mind to think that these beautiful places are still being used when in the United States we tear down buildings because they're 30 years old. It made me even more supportive of architectural, historic, and environmental preservation. We have to protect the remnants of the past and the wonders of the present for the generation of the future.” [7]

– Snippets from the GOP debate held on 4/3/1988

The next “pairing” of primaries (this time, Wisconsin and Minnesota) was on Tuesday, April 5. Democrats saw Bellamy again win both contests of the night, worrying EKS donors and supporters. On the Republican side, Reagan narrowly won Wisconsin while Kemp narrowly won Minnesota...

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989

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– KFC advertisement first published in numerous magazines and newspapers, c. 4/9/1988

The April 12 primaries shifted the dynamics of the race. The Democratic Party saw Bellamy win Arizona and Wyoming, while EKS won West Virginia. EKS’ victory was noted for being much easier than expected, as her brother Jack had had to work extensively to win over the state in 1968 amid anti-Catholic prejudice. Twenty years and one Catholic President (Denton) later, though, the Kennedy family’s religion was no longer an issue; instead, the conservative state embraced Eunice and rejected Carol over the latter’s pro-choice stance. The GOP saw more significant change-ups, as Goldwater won his home state while Thomson won her home state; this gave both of these campaigns a boost while the frontrunners Reagan and Kemp continued their focus on the next pairing of primaries – New York and Idaho…

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989

…With the final results in, we can confirm that Reagan has won yesterday’s Presidential primary contests in both Idaho and New York, defeating regional favorites Thyra Thomson and Jack Kemp, respectively. The dual victories come after Reagan, the second-best-funded candidate in the GOP field, renewed her campaign’s focus to fiscal conservatism talking points. On the Democratic side of things, last night saw Mayor Bellamy easily carry New York; Bellamy also won Idaho, but by a very narrow margin. This gives Bellamy sixteen contest victories to Senator Kennedy-Shriver’s ten, and the night also gives former Ambassador Reagan thirteen primary victories to President Kemp’s seven. This was considered to be a make-or-break night for Kemp, as he risks becoming the first incumbent President to lose a bid for his own party’s nomination in well over a hundred years…

– CBS News, early 4/20/1988 broadcast

“Abortion is a slippery slope. It could lead to greater irresponsibility and selfishness, which could lead to sexual immorality, which could lead to the devaluation of human life. And where could that lead us to? Eugenics, that’s where!”

– US Senator Bob Casey Sr. (D-PA), stumping for fellow pro-life US Senator Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D-MA) in Harrisburg, PA, 4/25/1988

LAST NIGHT’S PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARIES: Carol & Eunice Still Neck-&-Neck, Maureen Pummels Jack Again!

…Republicans saw Reagan again beat Kemp in both contests, this time in Utah and Pennsylvania, though each victory came with a very narrow margin. For the Democrats, last night saw the continuation of the fight between the Mayor and the Senator. Bellamy won Utah, while “EKS,” backed by Senator Bob Casey, narrowly won Pennsylvania. This is Kennedy-Shriver’s first contest victory (except for West Virginia two weeks ago) to come after a string of failures. …The Senator has noticeably begun shifting to trying to appeal to more conservative members of her party, calling for a less ambitious version of Bellamy’s tax reform ideas, and for a foreign policy that is considered to be tougher than the Mayor’s. The Kennedy-Shriver campaign likely hopes this will better distinguish the Senator campaign from Bellamy and breathe fresh air and momentum into her campaign, as the conclusion of the primaries nears…

The San Diego Union-Tribune, 4/27/1988

…Alright, so the recall campaign launched last year reached a crucial step today. After submitting an impressively large number of signatures – 115% of the number required, if I remember correctly – uh, to request a recall petition from the state Division of Elections department, the state Attorney General, a Republican appointed by Fink, reviewed the signatures submitted to determine if the petition presented a legitimate case for recall. After declaring that said petition had failed to meet any of the listed grounds for a recall, the Division of Elections rejected the petition. However, the group organizing the recall effort immediately filed an appeal of the AG’s decision in state supreme court. The appeal hearing was held last week. And now, earlier today, the judge presiding over the case has ruled in favor of the recall bid! This means that he’s allowing it, the recall, to finally move forward to the next phase of the process. However, it’s another big thing – collecting a second, even larger gathering of signatures to force a recall…

– KBYR (AM) Anchorage, Alaskan news/talk radio, 4/29/1988 broadcast

“Maureen’s personal life says about her character. She’s been married three times. Her first marriage, to a cop, lasted less than a year. Her second marriage last three. Her current husband is some PR fella named Dennis Revell that she married seven years ago. And while I bet there are some really interesting stories behind why those first two marriages ended, it’s more noteworthy that none of her marriages have yielded any children. I mean, yes, except for two little girls that she adopted from some Polish orphanage during her time in the Senate, but, again, why no kids for her marriages, hmm? What about that? Because, well, you know, that makes me think that she’s bad at judging character, and the last President we had who was bad at judging character got impeached. Do we really want to go through all that mess again?!”

– Controversial conservative commentator Stanley Bruce Herschensohn, 5/2/1988 radio interview


…separately, the two Presidential contenders have openly condemned “nasty and misogynistic attacks” on their respective campaigns, “attacks” that have risen in recent weeks alongside the campaigns of both politicians… Senator Eunice Kennedy-Shriver has also been the subject of negative media attention as of late as well…

– The Boston Globe, 5/4/1988

…Le Pen’s fight with teachers unions over history books that included the Holocaust was the final straw for most. His approval ratings slipped down to 28%, and calls for Le Pen’s removal from office began to grow in earnest. Legal experts went about reviewing constitutional law to determine the requirements that would allow parliament to remove Le Pen from office, as the President refused to resign in spite of everything…

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999

“Eunice’s victory in Pennsylvania encouraged her wealthier supporters to continue backing her despite it prolonging the primary process. On May 10, Bellamy lost to Eunice in Nebraska, and almost lost Indiana to her as well. A week later, the tit-for-tat evenly-split race continued, with Bellamy winning Oregon, but losing Rhode Island by a hair.”

– Former US Congressman Hamilton Jordan (D-GA), Southern states primaries coordinator for the Kennedy-Shriver’88 campaign, KNN interview, 2011

In a futile effort to slow the “Maureen Momentum,” Kemp decided to double down and call for further tax cuts overall. This fiscal shift to the right led to Kemp and Congress disagreeing on the appropriation of funds for several federal operations and agencies, which in turn led to the nation’s first-ever Federal Funding Gap [9]. Ever since a 1980 interpretation of the 1884 Antideficiency Act, a "lapse of appropriation" due to a political impasse on proposed appropriation bills requires that the US federal government curtail agency activities and services, and close down non-essential operations. [10] Non-essential personnel were furloughed in a “mandatory temporary leave of absences,” raising public awareness of a condition dreaded in D.C. because of how it disrupts the government’s systems’ processes. The FFG did a number on the stock market, but the DOW recovered once Kemp yielded to the Democratic majority in the House and signed two “center-lane” appropriation bills into law two weeks later on May 21. What did not recover, however, was Kemp’s approval ratings.

– Jonathan Applebaum’s Tackling What Ailed Us: The Trials And Triumphs of The Jack Kemp Presidency, Borders Books, 2010


[pic: ]

– President Kemp speaking to reporters after attending a re-election fundraiser in Sioux Falls, SD, 5/22/1988

Kemp was certain he would win Mississippi despite his dropping poll numbers due to Reagan’s moderate pro-life stance, and thus focused solely on South Dakota. The day before the election, Kemp failed to mount a horse, stumbling and falling in a comic manner in front of reporters who hurriedly printed the story. Meanwhile, Reagan campaigned across Mississippi, maintaining her focus on the fiscal, not social, issues near and dear to her.

When Kemp lost the South Dakota and Mississippi primaries, it blocked him from having a clear path forward. Even if he won all five primaries remaining, his delegate count would still be short of the number required for him to win on the first ballot. Reagan, however, would clinch that number if she won all five contests, and she had a substantial plurality of the primary popular vote. Kemp had to decide – drag out the nominating process by sending the party to a brokered convention and deny the primary voters the candidate who won the most votes, or give up the ghost?

On May 24, Kemp held a press briefing in the White House in which he shocked pundits by withdrawing from the race. This made Reagan the de-facto nominee-in-waiting.

– Morton Kondracke and Fred Barnes’s Jack Kemp: The Bleeding-Heart Conservative Who Changed America, Sentinel Books, 2015

Another contentious region formerly belonging to the Soviet Union was Nagorno-Karabakh, a mountainous forested region in the middle of Azerbaijan, distinct from the rest of the overwhelmingly-Muslim nation by having a mostly-Armenian population. Soon after Azerbaijan’s independence, this ethnic enclave experienced the escalation of an enthusiastic nationalist movement in favor of Uniting Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia. The movement’s leadership, however, was torn between navigating peaceful venues such as demanding a referendum or for Armenia to purchase the region from Azerbaijan, or navigating more militant venues such as armed guerilla warfare. The 23-year-old nationalist organizer Tatul Krpeyan soon joined the latter groups and formed the “Dashnaktsakanner” volunteer group meant to intimidate the Azerbaijani government into capitulation. Tensions steadily mounted as massive demonstrations were held in cities such as Baku and Stepanakert. Most Armenians in the regions, however, hoped a peaceful resolution could be found before the enclave’s leaders “felt obliged to resort to Krpeyan’s way of thinking,” as described by President Vazgen Manukyan of Armenia in 1996. With this in mind, prominent movement member Movses Gorgisyan, who actually favored independence for Nagorno-Karabakh, called for the situation to be discussed at the 10th Annual Chicken Dinner Summit in Jerusalem, or the very least, for regional and national leaders to formally meet and address the increasing hostile scenario threatening to pull both nations into a state of outright warfare.

Back in Moscow, Volkov supported Azerbaijan’s suggestion of granting the region nothing more than greater “cultural and educational but not economical” autonomy, likely due to Russia benefiting from mutually-beneficial trade relations with that nation, but the Soviet President himself privately sympathized with the Armenian rebels. As a result, Volkov hoped the two nations would settle the matter without direct Russian interference being necessitated.


On domestic issues, relations between Volkov and Commerce Secretary Boris Yeltsin continued to worsen. Yeltsin was continually at odds with Volkov of the pace of economic reform, with the Secretary believing drastic “macroeconomic stabilization” austerity measures were necessary to combat inflation, and the President believing that a slower pace would better ease the former command economy into a market-reliant one. Volkov’s refusal to cut the last remains of the Soviet-era economy – subsidies and welfare programs for the poorest regions – was supported by some and opposed by others. One such supporter, in an odd alliance of sorts, was Mikhail Gorbachev. Gorbachev, once a rising star and briefly the second-most powerful man in Russia under Premier Yakovlev, had fallen from grace. Unwelcomed in Moscow for his role in the collapse of the Communist system that he still supports even to this day, Gorbachev nonetheless has remained prominent and influential, establishing a political talk radio program in the southern Russian city of Privolnoye. From there, Gorbachev praised Volkov retention of “the best parts of the old system – the parts that worked best for the people.”

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

“Alright, so, tonight’s Presidential primaries were in Oklahoma and Missouri, and we’ve got the results back, so here’s the breakdown: for the Democrats, Bellamy won Oklahoma and Missouri, both by thin margins, while for the Republicans, Reagan once again won both contests. Now, I think the victory in Missouri could be tossed up to surprisingly high young voter turnout in the state, a lot of support from urban centers like St. Louis, and from Senator Litton’s endorsement of Bellamy. That seemed to have helped the New York Mayor win them mostly-rural Show-Me State Democratic primary by roughly 5 or 6%. Uh, Senator Kennedy-Shriver was hoping to win over pro-life Republicans upset that their likely nominee in August is going to be a pro-choice politicians to and win rural and more conservative counties, but, uh, well that didn’t work for her tonight. But, you know, if ‘EKS’ can pull off an upset next week and win the nomination, and Reagan does the same as she is expected to, then we’ll be seeing a unique situation where the general election is between a pro-life Democrat and a pro-choice Republican!”

– WDRC-AM’s late 5/31/1988 radio broadcast

In the final “cluster” of contests, held on June 7, the last five states – California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, and North Dakota – finally voted. With Kennedy-Shriver still lagging behind, Bellamy swept all five states, finally allowing her to clinch the nomination thanks to the hefty number of delegates allotted by California and her birth state of New Jersey. In the GOP, Reagan swept the final round with ease. McCormack as her sole remaining competitor; the pastor, still bruised from the beatings he took from Goldwater in the debates, failed to crack 15% in any of the contests.

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989

[vid: youtube, N_dOc8FBiCI ]

– Video of Carol Bellamy in 1979


…Key provisions of the bipartisan-approved “Fair and Simple” Tax bill include reducing the tax rate for 8 out of 10 Americans to 15% while increasing the personal exemption to $2000... At the signing ceremony, Kemp noted “I want to challenge my fellow Americans to reach our highest ideals and greatest potential. I believe in a future of unlimited and boundless opportunity for all Americans. I believe that this law, along with the many other bills I’ve signed into law during these past 18 months, will make this future a reality.” [11]

The Washington Post, 6/17/1988


The Wall Street Journal, 6/18/1988


…France’s highest judiciary court, the Supreme Court of Appeals, has struck down French President Le Pen’s latest round of efforts to end funding for publicly-owned institutions and subsidized cooperative businesses… the ruling also favored French parliament’s decision to reject Le Pen’s latest attempts to expand the powers and law exemptions of private businesses… The ruling is a boon to the people of France who are empowering unions by forming a united front against Le Pen’s presidency… Le Pen’s approval ratings have already sunken below 30%...

The Guardian, 20/6/1988

…Governor Fink’s misuse of funds, accounting errors in budget vetoes costing the state millions, and his lowering of oil and gas transportation regulations both before and after the Chevron Oil Spill, and other improper authorizations and actions, qualify as recallable actions of “incompetence,” “negligence of duty” and, possibly, “corruption.” [12] And the people of this great state are clearly frustrated with Fink’s frequent failures to lead. His approval ratings are in the proverbial toilet, and even major state Republicans are distancing themselves from him. That’s why I’m happy to report some really big, big news to all of you out there listening to KBYR radio this morning. The big news of the day is this – the date for the recall has finally been set! State law says it has to fall on a regularly scheduled election unless one is more than 180 days away, in which case it may be held as soon as 80 days after the recall’s certification. However, after Lieutenant Governor John Lindauer, a Republican crony of Fink, dragged out the inspection of the second petition, he’s now announced today that the recall has been certified, as we expected it would, but since the Alaskan presidential primaries have already passed – we can thank Lindauer for that – and since the next regularly scheduled election – which is the Presidential Election in November – is now less than 180 days away, Alaskans will vote for a new Governor the same night they will vote for a new President. The first part of the recall ballot – hold on, I got the sample right here, fresh off the presses – yeah, the question “Should Governor Tom Fink be recalled?” will be the first of two parts of the ballot. And the second part is the vote for Fink’s replacement should the first part lead to his recall. A majority of the votes is not needed; a plurality victor will be declared the winner even if receiving less votes than the “yes” column of the first part of the ballot. [12] So, yeah, basically, it’s now just a matter of who will run for the job, and who will convince us they’re the best person for the job…

– KBYR (AM) Anchorage, Alaskan news/talk radio, 6/21/1988 broadcast

Prime Minister Chretien faced further criticism for his handling of multiple cases of First Nations protests, an off-shoot of the Second Ark Wave, in which First Nations began calling for better treatment from Canada’s government. Former MP Annie Aquash supported the growing Fist Nations movement for equal treatment, pushing for a string of laws that both Conservatives and Liberals opposed for being too extreme. While Chretien simply claimed that Aquash “want[ed] the government to redefine its powers and position, to overstep the boundaries and interfere with the MPs, and to do the job of Premiers of the Provinces,” MP Erik Nielsen accused her of “treason” for “putting radical ideology ahead of her country.”

– Richard Johnston’s The Canadian Party System: An Analytic History, UBC Press, 2017


…Hu Yaobeng, a high-ranking member of China’s Communist Party until his rival Li Xiannian rose to power, now lives in an undisclosed location in Australia. …Hu’s claims match those made by members of the South Korean intelligence community and anonymous members of the CIA – that the global movement to reject doing business with China is beginning to have its intended effect on China’s ruthless leader…

The Los Angeles Times, 6/24/1988

It is now clear that Chinese leaders are concerned that their Orwellian experiment in Xinjiang will come undone if it is met with broad censure from the international community. A stronger, more coordinated effort is thus required to force them into finally capitulating to international pressure and cease their actions in Xinjiang. We owe it to the courageous people who are speaking out in the face of direct harassment by China’s security forces to keep this situation firmly on the international agenda until that time comes. [13]

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 26/6/1988 op-ed

...With the film Used Cars finally joining the other notches on his metaphorical belt upon its release in June 1984, Zemeckis returned his focus to another film that had been “on the back-burner” for a very long while – a science fiction project entitled “Back to the Future.” …The film follows the adventure of an 18-year-old High School student named Marty McFly (played by a then-25-year-old Michael J. Fox) who accidently time travels to 1958 via going 99 mph in his eccentric scientist friend’s "time-car," a modified DeLorean. Bob Gale considered 1958 to be “an excellent year for a time travel story – it’s at the rise of the beatniks, it’s at the apex of the idealistic teen era of malt shops, Rock-and-Roll, civil rights, and suburban expansion – it’s a time right before all hell broke loose in the early ’60s.”


The film was originally conceived in 1980. The first draft of the Back to the Future script was finished in February 1981, but every major film studio rejected the script for the next four years for not being what studio executives were looking for, as the film did not match the popular risqué “anti-establishment” teen films of the day [14]. Meanwhile, Zemeckis worked on other projects. He was convinced to work with Spielberg again after producing the successful Romancing the Stone film of 1985 [15], which to Zemeckis proved that he wasn’t successful just because of working with Spielberg. Additionally, legal problems concerning ownership of the script and who owned the rights to the film and ideas thought up for film while under Columbia came up after the film switched over to a Universal Studios Production in 1985.


Filming did not begin until 1986, by which point original cast members John Lithgow (as Doc Brown), Eric Stoltz (as Marty McFly) and Claudia Wells (as Jennifer Parker) had moved on to other projects, their roles being filled by Christopher Lloyd, Michael J. Fox, and Courteney Bass Cox (after Bridget Fonda also left production), respectively. …The film was finally released on July 3, 1988.


…Another famous, though somewhat dated, set of lines was the following exchange that reveals Doc Brown’s knowledge of football:

Brown: “Then tell me, Future Boy, who’s President of the United States in 1988?”

McFly: “Jack French Kemp.”

Brown: “Jack Kemp? The new quarterback for the Pittsburgh Steelers? Ha! And who’s Vice President, Alan Ameche? …And I suppose Elroy ‘Crazy Legs’ Hirsch is the Secretary of the Treasury!”

– Norman Kagan’s The Cinema of Robert Zemeckis, 2003


Mexico City, MEXICO – Luis H. Alvarez of Chihuahua, 66, leader of the “Christian Democrat” center-right National Action Party (PAN), secured roughly 62% of the vote in last night’s elections. Running on a platform of government transparency and a zero-tolerance stance on crime, Alvarez will be the first President to not be of the National Revolutionary Party (PRI) in over 50 years. Alvarez won over the initial frontrunner, PRI nominee Carlos Salinas, after Salinas became embroiled in a scandal concerning an alleged plot to rig the election in his favor; he came in second place with roughly 29% of the vote. Another prominent candidate in the race was Cuahtemoc Cardenas of the newly-formed National Democratic Front (FDN), who underperformed and received roughly 8% of the vote in the end. …The term-limited incumbent President Miguel de la Madrid could be seen as the reason for Alvarez’s stunning rise to power, as de la Madrid presided over several economic and foreign policy crises, a devastating earthquake, uneasy relations with the US, and an increasingly problematic and deadly recreadrug-related crime spike, all problems that de la Madrid apparently failed to handle, tanking his approval ratings…

– The El Paso Times, 7/6/1988

Two years ago, the United States spent months contemplating removing their President from office via the process of impeachment. In France, this procedure is called “destitution.” As French Parliament apparently believes that their President, Jean-Marie Le Pen, has willingly and willfully violated France’s national laws and Constitution, both the French National Assembly and the French Senate are seeking to begin the process of Le Pen’s destitution. Upon both bodies completing the process of “acknowledging” this impeachment process and both the upper house and lower house have agreed to it, said houses will unite to form the High Court, which will ultimately decide whether or not to declare the impeachment of President Le Pen…

– BBC World News, 7/7/1988 report

Bellamy chose her running mate carefully. The most commonly discussed were US Senators Paul Simon of Illinois and John Glenn of Ohio, Governor Paul Soglin of Wisconsin, and US Congressman Itimous Valentine Jr. of North Carolina. Simon, like Glenn and Soglin, could win over crucial states in the Midwest; however, a fact that many pundits overlooked was Bellamy’s opposition to the Balanced Budget Amendment (which was still working its way through the state legislatures at the time), for which Simon’s legislative work was often credited. Glenn, on the other hand, had spent nearly twenty years in the Senate, was a popular figure among supporters of NASA and the military, and could win over undecided and less left-leaning voters with his experience and name recognition. Be that as it may, the fact remained that Glenn disagreed with several of Bellamy’s campaign platforms; no love was lost between the two when Bellamy declined to select him in the end, reportedly telling his people that he would be more helpful if he remained in the Senate. The same could be said about the uninspiring Valentine. Soglin, on the other hand, was a strong surrogate for Bellamy in the early primaries, after the former peacenik suspended his own Presidential bid in January due to low funds and polling; however, Soglin as running mate would fail to win over more center-leaning members of the party, and was dislike by military veterans for his life-long opposition to the army forces, most notably his controversial 1962 arrest for partaking in a sit-in at an Army recruitment office in Milwaukee to protest the Cuban War.

Ultimately, though, Bellamy believed that the four men had been reviewed so often by the news that selecting any of them would be unexciting and not even interesting, minimizing the affect their selection would have on the typical post-selection boost in polls. As a result, the Mayor began to think outside the box as the DNC neared. The Mayor wanted someone ideologically close to her, and would counter her urban appeal and alleged inexperience; most importantly for her, she wanted a second-in-command with whom she could enjoy working on policy. With this last note in mind, she initially considered veteran politician Ralph Nader, officially an Independent, of Washington, D.C.; both were progressive-leaning, anti-corruption, pro-reform, and career-obsessed politicians. However, as both were dedicated entirely to their jobs, neither had a spouse or children, and so such a pairing would turn away parents at the polls; Bellamy ultimately decided to keep him in mind for a Cabinet spot. Governor Jim Slattery of Kansas was a major supporter of the Mayor and would bring in rural support, but he had been in office for less than two years, and was roughly seven years younger than Bellamy, as so he was not chosen, either. Then, after heavily considering US Senator Paul Sarbanes of Maryland, US Senator Nick Galifianakis of North Carolina, former Governor Jim Hunt of North Carolina, and US Senator Mark Dayton of Minnesota, Bellamy ultimately decided to go with a populist from a rural background – US Senator Jerry Litton of Missouri.

With folksy charm and demeanor, the 50-year-old Litton had served on the Senate Budget Oversight Committees and on the chamber’s military-related committees. After mulling a bid for the Presidency in 1984, he decided against running for President in 1988 to instead run for a third term in the Senate, due to the anti-D.C. mood that had followed the Potomac Scandals. Litton had endorsed Glenn prior to the March Cluster despite being closer aligned with Bellamy and EKS, and had endorsed both women prior to the Missouri primary. Bellamy’s campaign believed that Litton could appeal to both the west, the Midwest, and the south, to rural voters, and to parents due to Litton’s large family. Litton would also give the ticket more experience without creating a “bottom-heavy” ticket, as Litton was, surprisingly to many who worked on his first Senate campaign, not that major of a player on the national scene, instead finding that his job was easier to actually do if he did not, let’s say, stop to smile for the cameras.

– Jules Witcover’s The American Vice Presidency: From Irrelevance to Power, Colonial Press, 2014


[pic: ]

Date(s): July 18-21, 1988
City: Atlanta, Georgia
Keynote Speaker: Houston Mayor Kathryn Whitmire of Texas

Alexander – 990,456 (4.1%)
King – 845,512 (3.5%)
Young – 362,365 (1.5%)
Simon – 338,201 (1.4%)
Taylor – 265,732 (1.1%)
Peabody – 193,264 (0.8%)
Osborne – 72,485 (0.3%)
All other votes – 48,114 (0.2%)


Total Delegates: 4,105
Votes Needed for Nomination: 2,054

Results (for President):
Bellamy – 2,516 (61.3%)
Kennedy-Shriver – 1,215 (29.6%)
Glenn – 325 (7.9%)
All others – 49 (1.2%)

No. of Ballots: 1


…Bob’s sister-in-law June later revealed in an interview, “Not too many people know this, but in 1988, Bob attended the D.N.C. in disguise and nobody knew. He had his hair straightened for the occasion, he wore sunglasses, and he put on a baseball cap.” Bob was reportedly interested in Bellamy’s environmental policies, and did not want his presence to distract from the political goings-on. In truth, Bob was actually a fairly shy man. In an interview that Bob gave with Egg Magazine, who specifically sought him out because they realised nobody knew anything about him, Bob sheepishly admitted that he liked to stay hiddenadding that he was sort of hard to find[16] whenever he was not on camera, making his latest tutorial or promoting a cause…

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014


– Gallup, 7/28/1988

DAN RATHER: History was made tonight when former Senator and former Ambassador to the UK Maureen Reagan officially received the Republican nomination for President of the United States. This marks the first time that an incumbent President was denied his party’s nomination since Chester A. Arthur lost a bid for a full term of his own in 1884. More importantly, this nomination confirms that for the first time in our nation’s history, both major party nominees are pro-choice women, and all but assuring that the next President of the United States will be woman. Joining us now live is Bob Schieffer, who’s our correspondent at the Republican National Convention in New Orleans. Bob, what does Reagan’s nomination mean for the general election?

BOB SCHIEFFER: Well one thing I can tell you, Dan, is that the matchup of Bellamy and Reagan is dissatisfying to many social conservatives in the party. Even at the convention tonight, a small group of former McCormack were protesting Reagan’s ascension, jeering at the candidate they consider too liberal for them. The former Senator’s stance on abortion was a tricky issue during the primaries, and the controversy surrounding it does not seem to be going away anytime soon. I was surprised no walkout occurred tonight, but I wouldn’t be surprised if a more conservative third-party candidate, like former Congressman Larry McDonald, started to gain more support after this, or if even a new candidate entered the general election.

RATHER: Any word yet on the President’s reaction to Reagan’s official nomination?

SCHIEFFER: The White House has been mute thus far, Dan, but the President is expected to give a speech on the final day of the convention. We spoke to a former member of the Kemp campaign who told us that he will endorse Reagan. I’ve heard rumors that Kemp will not give a boisterous, stirring speech, but a milquetoast, lukewarm-like speech, but is yet to be seen.

– CBS News, 8/16/1988 broadcast

As Maureen Reagan had expected Bellamy to select John Glenn for running mate, another astronaut-turned-Senator, Republican Jack Lousma of Michigan, had already been vetted and expected to be chosen for the number-two spot on the GOP ticket. Earlier in the race, Reagan considered picking early drop-out Bill Daniels, the former Governor of Colorado with many media connections, to combat EKS’s media advantage should she had won the Democratic nomination.

Once Litton picked, though, Reagan began to consider other potential picks. The conservative US Senator Richard Obenshain of Virginia was known for supporting tax cuts, “preserving and expanding the realm of personal freedom in the life of this country,” [17] but was also known for opposing immigration and the Democratic Party in general. US Senators William Armstrong of Colorado, Bob Dole of Kansas, Roger Jepsen of Iowa, and Clyde C. Holloway of Louisiana were all considered as well. Moderate Governor Lyon G. Tyler Jr. of Virginia, pro-Balanced Budget Amendment former Governor Charles Thone of Nebraska, and former Governor Hal Suit of Georgia each could appeal to Southerners – if they were not so uninspiring, that is. Former Governor Vernon B. Romney of Utah received some support from Reagan herself, but her campaign ruled it out due to the regional proximity of Utah to Reagan’s home state of California. Governor-turned-Congressman-turned-former US Ambassador to Panama James Carson Gardner of North Carolina could win over conservative Democrats in the eastern South, but it was uncertain how influential he would be. Buford Pusser, who underperformed in the primaries and dropped out before the March Cluster, was briefly considered, too.

Ultimately, Reagan decided to mimic Bellamy’s decision, and looked for a politician that she could work with, and got along well with when “off the clock.” Reagan found that in fellow Senator Richard Lugar of Indiana. One of the few Republicans to survive re-election in 1986, Lugar and Reagan had gotten along well together in the Senate, working on legislation well and visiting each other’s families on occasion. The Reagan/Lugar ticket was announced two weeks before the convention and made official on the second day of the RNC, the 16th of August.

– Jules Witcover’s The American Vice Presidency: From Irrelevance to Power, Colonial Press, 2014


[pic: ]

– Colonel Sanders attending the 1988 Republican National Convention, 8/17/1988

“Folks, we ain’t going to fly if we flap around with two right wings. That’s why I think Reagan is our best chance at winning in November. Her campaign, I think, has found the correct balance between liberalism and conservatism. Maureen Reagan supports moral values without trying to tie any particular church to any particular state, seeing how this here nation is a democracy, not a theocracy. Maureen Reagan understands that businesses big and small are like wild stallions; they’ll flourish if let out of the barn that if federal red tape, but will become careless, wild, and harmful to the people around if they’re not fenced in. And Maureen Reagan knows that divisive distractions, backward backroom deals, and unpopular pernickety proposals will not win in November. But if we all get together and get behind them and support them, the Reagan/Lugar ticket will win in November, or my chicken ain’t fried!”

– Colonel Sanders’ speech on the penultimate day of the RNC, 8/17/1988


[pic: ]
All other votes – 277,924 (1.4%)


[1] Italicized quote/claim found here:
[2] Found here:
[3] He said this IOTL, as quoted in “Goldwater Backs Gay Troops” in a June 11, 1993 NYT article.
[4] Pulled from here:
[5] Full disclosure: I’m not entirely sure what the heck I’m talking about here; basically, the long-term effects of the pro-entrepreneur policies of the Sanders administration has led to TTL’s internet assembling/being co-created/forming earlier than IOTL…
[6] OTL quote from 5/8/1990 opinion piece (found through her Wikipedia page)!
[7] Italicized part is quote found here:
[8] Quote is a compilation of quotes from here:
[9] TTL’s version of/term for a government shutdown
[10] Italicized part is from here:
[11] The part in italics was grabbed from here:
[12] Details from here:
[13] Italicized passages (or, at least, the second passage (the first one was from The Guardian for sure)) are from The Guardian’s OTL article “Bulldozing Mosques: The Latest Tactic in China’s War Against Uighur Culture” by Rachel Harris, 7 April 2019
[14] Like in OTL, only here, it’s that but even more so, as Denton anti-teen “moral crusade” made for more antiestablishment films to be more popular among anti-Denton teen crowds.
[15] Released a year later than OTL due to production problems of its own.
[16] Italicized quote nabbed from here:
[17] OTL quote found on his wiki page.

Also: the primary results here are based on the previous post's polls' results on/as of Thursday (noonish), which showed Bellamy leading EKS by 1 vote and Reagan leading Kemp by 2 votes.

The next chapter's E.T.A.: early March 14 at the very latest.

Clorox23 said:
It's good to see Back to the Future finally get made ITTL, even if it's three years late. However, and this is going to sound nitpicky, but changing the speed of the DeLorean from 88 to 77 feels... off to me. Like, I understand there's practical reasons why (the movie's production was delayed three years, meaning this isn't 100% the same script as IOTL; having the top speed be 88MPH in a movie made in 1988 is a little too on the nose; possibly some aspect of the production of "Used Cars" meant that Zemeckis decided to lower the speed), it just... feels weird, is all, feels too slow...
You're right; I'll change it to 99 mph, @Clorox23
Ogrebear said:
Click to expand...
1) I'll look up if veggie burgers were around / a thing back in the 1980s...
2) Good to know, thanks! Maybe here, PM Goodlad will, in a twist, implement it based loosely on or inspired by the US model!
3) Yeah, I mentioned before that they both were high-ranking congressmen (both were first elected in 1970, in fact) and have worked well with each other for years. It's also an example of the ripple/domino/for-want-of-a-nail/butterfly effect, a result of the Colonel's handling of Vietnam in the late 1960s (see Polonko's link for detail)
4) Thank you! I wasn't certain how realistic this was
5) Good idea!
6) Maybe. . .
7) It's an acquired taste :)
Ogrebear said:
Click to expand...
1) I'm honestly not sure, but an anthology series focused on exploring places and the non-main characters could work. I'll look into it, and thanks for the suggestion!
2) Yes, the age question will be brought up, but in Goldwater's defense is the fact that the Colonel was President from the age of 74 to the age of 82.
3) Sinn Fein won 1 seat (Adams') while Plaid Cymru won 3, IIRC.
4) Maybe not immediately due to Li Xiannian's anti-reform attitudes, but long-term? We shall see...
Unknown said:
Good updates; glad Strauss got exposed, BTW...

I'd probably like living in this version of the US; New York is probably not completely "crime-free", but the crime rate is likely similar to NYC in the late 1990s IOTL (and without some of the...questionable policies that made NYC have a lower crime rate in the late 1990s IOTL)...

And congrats for going over 500k words--this TL is a doorstopper...
Thanks! I'm glad you're enjoying this!

Igeo654 said:
I cannot believe that Carol managed to pull off this kind of upset.
What? @Igeo654 Dude, either I didn't explain it well in the write-up despite putting a lot of thought into it, or possibly you misread it. Your inability to entertain the idea of Bellamy mounting a successful primary bid (based on her "outsider" status/executive experience/urban appeal coupled with Democratic voters rejecting the "elitist"/much-closer-to-DC Eunice in the aftermath of the Great Potomac Scandals) makes me wonder why you were so enthusiastic about her candidacy before, and it also makes me wonder if you read the bit at the end mentioning how these primary results were based on the results of the poll. And it was never a surefire thing that EKS would "have a coronation" or anything like that, in neither the TL nor the poll. Again, the whole romanticization of the Kennedy dynasty never happened here. Basically what I am saying is that I think this is a realistic scenario, and that you have given no explanation as to why you "cannot believe" it. So...why can't you believe it?

Igeo654 said:
I have no doubt in my mind that, even with the colonel supporting Maureen, Bellamy will in fact become the president for 1989 onwards and I'd be willing to vote on that in another straw poll.
I don't make polls for the November elections; otherwise the entire TL would be one big unrealistic liberal-wank. Didn't you notice their absence in all the previous November Election-related posts?

Igeo654 said:
As for Litton, It's great to know that he and his family survived that crash.
@Igeo654 I mentioned Litton being elected to the Senate in 1976 and 1982. Did you miss those parts?

Igeo654 said:
Isn't it high time that Britain had it's first female PM, for better or for worse? I nominate either Edwina Currie or Virginia Bottomley.
Shirley Williams was the UK's PM from 1983 to 1987. She was discussed in the last chapter (late 1987).

I'm beginning to suspect you're not actually reading this TL. If true, it's a bit disappointing, but I'll get over it...

Igeo654 said:
Click to expand...
Don't worry about it, @Igeo654 ; no harm no foul!
[Insert sympathetic/understanding smile emoji thingy here].
"Sonny, you're putting the cart before the horse there," is what I think the Colonel would say.
I think we should see how the primaries (remember: the early primary states (the ones prior to the "March Cluster" (a.k.a. "Super Tuesday")) are NH, MD, NV, and GA) unfold first.

Both Democratic frontrunners have good points and bad points: Bellamy is unapologetically dedicated to progressive/humanitarian causes and comes from humble origins, but (as documented in Source 2 of her wiki article) she is temperamental, childless, and single (the latter two bits will likely hurt her polling among mothers / older / married voters); Eunice, on the other hand, supports universal healthcare and can appeal to suburbanites with her pro-life/pro-family views, but hails from a very wealthy/elitist/well-connected family (one that, remember, never had OTL's romanticizing "Camelot" era in this TL).

Regardless/nevertheless, I appreciate your enthusiasm for and interest in this TL's upcoming primaries; thank you for the videos and for the comments!
Post 51
Post 51: Chapter 59

Chapter 59: August 1988 – January 1989

“An artist is anyone who is ahead of his time and behind on his rent”

– Kinky Friedman [1]

As Alaska Gubernatorial Recall Election required entrance fees that were much more affordable than those of regular gubernatorial elections, a record-breaking number of Republican, Democratic, and third-party candidates sought to replace Governor Fink in the event that he was, in fact, successfully recalled. Five Republicans – businessman Joseph L. Hayes, state senator Arliss Sturgelewski, retiring US Congressman Jalmar “Jay” Kerttula, State Senator Robert W. Ward, and Lieutenant Governor John Lindauer – entered the primary-free race. Three members of the conservative-leaning libertarian third-party “Liberty” party – former State Representatives Dick Randolph and Andre Marrou, and activist Kathleen Dalton – followed suit, as did two members of the Green party – former State Senator Kathryn “Kay” Kennedy-Poland-Silides, and activist Jeanmarie Larson-Crumb. The seemingly most prominent third-party in Alaska, the Alaskan Independence Party, saw four from their ranks – State Representative Bill Hudson, activist Roger Dee Roberts, party founder and perennial candidate Joe Vogler, and former State Trooper Al Rowe – entered the chaotic and clustered free-for-all run, joining two independent candidates, too – former President of the Alaska Federation of Natives Don Wright, and former Mayor of Juneau William D. “Bill” Overstreet.

Democrats, however, were considered most likely to win in November, and thus eight candidates – former US Congressman William L. Hensley, State Commission on Judicial Conduct member Georgianna Lincoln, state senate leader Benjamin Franklin Grussendorf Jr., state senator Sarah J. “Sally” Smith, former state senator Steve Cowper, former Lieutenant Governor and technet enthusiast Red Boucher, state representative Olga Katherine Torkelsen “Katie” Hurley, and businessman Bill Sheffield – entered the race.

While early polling showed no clear frontrunner, it did show that only six of these candidates – Hensley, Overstreet, Lindauer, Sheffield, Grussendorf and Kerttula – had enough funding and/or name recognition to have a shot at winning. However, not one of these “careerist” candidates appealed to Bob…

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014

…Earlier today, Air Force One touched down in Cairo, Egypt, as part of President Kemp’s “camaraderie crusade” across several nations meant to strengthen US relations abroad. Kemp reportedly seeks to do, quote, “as much good as he possibly can,” unquote, before leaving office in January…

– CBS News, 8/20/1988 report

“In an odd way, I was actually almost glad that I had lost re-election. It freed me of having to balance between campaigning and governing, and it allowed me to focus more on the issues that I cared about, political consequences be damned.”

– Jack French Kemp, KNN interview, 2003


– Time Magazine, special August 1988 issue

IT’S ABOUT TIME! Finally, America Will Have a Madame President

…furthermore, both nominees being female will mean the voters’ decision will be based on which candidate and her policies seem best for the next four-to-eight years, not on which is more “historic”…

The New York Times, 8/22/1988 op-ed


[pic: ]

– Mayor Bellamy campaigning with former President Mondale and US Congressman Ed Koch (D-NY) in Republican-leaning upstate New York, 8/23/1988


…the rise in international sanctions against China has sent markets in Beijing and Shanghai into a sharp decline that may best be described as a recession if not a full-on depression… The PRC’s currency, the renminbi, which is called the yuan when referring to the unit of currency, has plummeted in value… It seems the people of China are very well going to experience some of the worst economic detriments of the capitalist system for the first time since the nation’s market reforms were implemented in the early 1970s…

The Wall Street Journal, 8/25/1988


San Bernardino, CA – Perhaps the idea to run for the White House began as a play on his former company’s newest slogan, “Make a Run For The Border.” [2] Or maybe he's inspired by Colonel Sanders. Regardless of its origin, the fact remains that 64-year-old businessman Glen Bell officially launched an independent bid for President earlier today at a formal event in his home town of San Bernardino, California. The wealthy restauranteur and railroad investor plans to immediately begin taking the steps necessary to appear on the ballot in all fifty states in November. Bell also plans to launch “a wave” of television and radio advertisements nationwide.

Rumors and speculation had circulated since the conclusion of the primaries that a prominent conservative would defy the GOP’s official Presidential ticket out of opposition to Presidential nominee Maureen Reagan’s socially-moderate-to-liberal views. Her selection of the more conservative Senator Lugar for running mate, and her recent support of a more libertarian proposal to “give women complete access to abortion clinics, but heartily discourage their use except in cases of rape, incest and endangerment to the mother,” were meant to win over bitter conservatives.

At least one socially conservative individual – Mr. Bell – finds these decisions to be “weak” and unacceptable. “Life begins the moment the stick-thing turns blue,” Bell says in his first-ever run for public office. “Neither major-party candidate understands this. We are better than this; we deserve a better option.” At the launching event, Bell also discussed several fiscally conservative positions, especially his support of further business deregulation.

Glen William Bell Jr., who was born in Lynwood, California, in 1923, is the California-based businessman who in 1962 founded Taco Bell, a restaurant chain that sells “Mexican-inspired meals,” derived by some as “Mockxican” food. Taco Bell expanded to 300 locations by the start of the 1970s, and is now a well-known fast-food brand. After selling Taco Bell to PepsiCo in 1978, Bell, a lifelong railroad enthusiast, invested in railroad companies across the West Coast. While suffering financially immediately after the Trojan Tower Disaster scared investors away from the Pacific Northwest, Bell has since bounced back by investing in infrastructure projects across the southwestern states. According to Forbes magazine, Bell was worth over $250million in 1986…

The Houston Chronicle, 8/26/1988


…the at-times deadly heat waves that characterized the past four months for many parts of the U.S. took a toll on domestic production and exports, which could weaken the economy if not rectified soon...

The Bartlesville Examiner-Enterprise, Oklahoma newspaper, 8/27/1988


…set to enter office next month, Antoine “Tony” Frangieh is the 46-year-old son of former President Suleiman Frangieh. Due to his ties to Syria, Frangieh fought back attacks from his opponents during the campaign that claimed he would “upset Our Delicate Peace,” referring to the region’s relative stability over the past ten years. Frangieh countered the claims by hosting “peace meetings” with Jewish, Christian and Muslim community organizers in Beirut in a publicity stunt clearly modeled off the annual Chicken Dinner Summits in Jerusalem. …The popular (but term-limited) outgoing President, Musa al-Sadr, 60, made headlines six years ago when he became the first leader of modern Lebanon to not be a Maronite Christian. His historic tenure was market by expanding the nation’s electric power grid and water systems, along with partial education reforms, and most notably by steady economic progress and stable relations with Israel…

The Guardian, side article, 28/8/1988

“The final straw for me was when the Governor decided to cut state funding for art programs by 80%. He thought it would win him support from voters who don’t care about those sort of things. I went on radio programs like this one and called him out for it, saying that I was disappointed in him, but decides talking about, I couldn’t do anything about it on my own. My show, The Joy of Painting, it can be seen nationwide, but that doesn’t mean it turns that much a profit. Residuals from the works of mine that are in Disney’s The Snow Queen are something, but not that much. People see you on television and they think you make the same amount of money that Clint Eastwood does. But this is PBS. All these shows are done for free. [3] That’s what I’d say. But people at least know me, and I know the people of Alaska. That’s what it came down to; that’s what clicked. I’ve been here long enough to know this state, to love this state, to love its beauty and its possibilities and potential and its people. And by golly, when the people you love and the place you call home is in danger, well, you just have to do something about it. Some problems are brushes – you just have to beat the devil out of them. Hah, and I also thought that I would do a really better job than the politicians in Juneau.”

– Bob Ross, NBC KTUU-TV interview, early 1989

He had given it so much thought. He had studied the other candidates, and he talked about it with Jane and Steve, and with Walter and I about it. One morning, he finally had made up his mind. After the wrap-up of The Joy of Painting’s latest episode, he walked over to Jane nearby, and he said to her, “Honey, for years I’ve been painting own little happy worlds, while the real world falls apart. I can’t ignore the badness anymore. And if painting has taught me anything, it’s that you have to do the work yourself – nobody can paint your world for you.” A few days later, Bob went on TV with a plan and a message: “Hi. I’m Bob Ross. And I’m running for Governor.” …The Joy of Painting took an indefinite hiatus…

– Annette Kowalski’s One Happy Man, Borders Books, 2007


…At the campaign launch, Ross stated “I often say that if it’s not what you want, stop and change it. Don’t just keep going and expect it will get better. Well, I don’t think thing will get better unless we have a governor that truly loves this state, understands its problems, and wants to try and do everything possible to make things better for Alaska and all who live here. …We each see the world in our own way. That’s what makes it such a special place. I will admit that mounting a statewide campaign like this is very intimidating for me, as I’ve never done something quite like this before. But you know what? One shouldn’t be afraid to go out on a limb, because that’s where the fruit is![4] …The environmental activist and host of a public-access TV show that has a large niche following can captivate audiences with his soothing voice and impressive artistic skills, but can he captivate the voters of the Last Frontier?

The Los Angeles Times, 8/30/1988


[pic: ]

– Bob Ross campaigning in Fairbanks (the warmest city in Alaska), c. early September 1988


…The Pro-Life organization’s backing of independent candidate Glen Bell over major party nominees Maureen and Bellamy marks the first time the Anti-Abortion group has ever endorsed a third-party over a major party… Similar groups such as Feminists For Life (which endorsed Senator Kennedy-Shriver during the Democratic primaries), the National Right to Life Committee, and the Pro-Life Action League, have not endorsed any Presidential tickets – for now…

The Washington Times, 9/2/1988

To win over former primary voters still bitter about Kennedy-Shriver’s “unexpected” loss, Bellamy’88 adopted a “conciliatory” plank meant to appease anti-abortion members of the party and former Kennedy-Shriver supporters. The campaign mirrored the 1964 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Act that Kennedy-Shriver had headed, as it called for expanding funding for examining problems of birth defects and intellectual and developmental disabilities in children, infants, and the soon-to-be-born; improving funds for understanding reproductive health; enhancing function across the lifespan through rehabilitation research, research aimed at improving the health of children, adults, families, and communities, including reducing infant deaths, promoting healthy pregnancy and childbirth, and investigating growth and human development. [5]

– Caroline Heldman’s Historic: The Unfolding of the Presidential Election of 1988, Meredith Books, 2018

COLONEL: “There’s no reason you can’t maintain social programs without raising taxes or breaking a budget. If I figured out how to for eight years without a college education, than it shouldn’t be any problem at all for D.C.’s computer-heads!”

BERN: “Alright, but here’s the thing, Colonel, with all due respect, being fiscally conservative won’t keep the economy from dipping as it inevitably will. Social programs are investments on our country’s future. It’s acceptable to end one year with a deficit if the social programs from that year more than makes up for it in the second or third year. The Balanced Budget Amendment, if ratified, will confine and severely limit the scope and capabilities of social programs like Medicare & Medicaid. We can’t afford to keep a balanced budget every single year.”

COLONEL: “We could during the 1960s.”

BERN: “Yes, because the situation was different, then. The economy was on the rebound from the Salad Oil Scandal. It had nowhere to go but up. But right now, Colonel, it’s been up. It’s only a matter of time before it goes back down again. That’s the thing about capitalist markets, it continuously cycles between feast and famine.”

COLONEL: “And it self-adjusts along the way. The economy dips, the government opens the markets and urges people – and I mean everyone, including the wealthy – to spend and invest into the economy to get themselves out of recession.”

BERN: “Except wealthy people do not so easily give up the fortunes they’ve hoarded. Except for you, Colonel, you are one of the exceptions, and for that, do you have my respect.”

COLONEL: “Thanks, I like the cut of your jib, too.”

BERN: “Your wealthy friends, though, they have got to start understanding that to keep money to yourself instead giving it back to the people who gave it to you in the first place is not a fair system. High taxes on the rich –”

COLONEL: “Well forcing them to give up the money they worked hard for is not going to win them over –”

BERN: “And yet they keep their fortunes when left alone. Money hoarding doesn’t help the economy, Colonel.”

COLONEL: “I agree, but raising taxes will spook ’em; startle a donkey, expect a kick to the face. Suddenly, the Cayman Islands will be looking mighty nice to ’em.”

– CBS roundtable discussion with Colonel Sanders, media magnate Bern Sanders, and moderators, 9/7/1988


…Daniels was the Republican Governor of Colorado from 1979 to 1987, briefly ran for President last year, and is the brother of Democratic US Congressman Jack Daniels of New Mexico. One of the country’s wealthiest ex-Governors, Daniels was most likely chosen due to his executive experience and his deep financial pockets from his time as a cable TV executive and professional sports team owner…

Financial Review, 9/9/1988


…“As Governor, Daniels backed up his religious rhetoric [6] with meaningful action, as has Mr. Bell throughout his years as a businessman”…

The Charlotte Observer, North Carolina newspaper, 9/10/1988

…The rise in the power and control of drug lords over towns across northern Mexico became a contentious, but somewhat second-tier issue in the election. It received a high amount of attention, however, in September, when Colombia witnessed an increase in intensity their own drug crisis. On September 12, the Medellin Cartel, the international drug cartel headed by Pablo Escobar, detonated a remote-controlled cam bomb in Bogota in an attempt of the life of Colombia’s President, the anti-cartel/anti-corruption/pro-US Virgillio Barco Vargas. While the President survived with merely a broken arm, the explosion partially wrecked his car and destroyed a bridge. The damage from the bomb made the front page of American newspapers, more American became concerned that the next President needed foreign policy experience. With Reagan having previously served as the US Ambassador to the UK as well as serving on some foreign affairs-related committees in the US Senate, the GOP nominee received a boost in the polls, Reagan seemingly had much more diplomatic experience than Mayor Bellamy...

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989

…in the state recall election, one underdog is standing out in a crowd of candidates with his optimistic and reassuring personality. Fairbanks resident Bob Ross, a painter with a nationally-televised public access show, has risen from just 4% in the polls on September 1st to nearly 20%, outperforming political bigwigs such as former US Congressman Will Hensley, and several state legislators. Ross is currently running a grassroots campaign heavily reliant on radio to get out his nonpartisan message of improving education and environmental protection…

– KAKM Channel 7, Alaskan news station, 9/16/1988


Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, Alaskan newspaper, 9/18/1988

“RING THE BELL OF LIBERTY!” The Rise of Glen Bell?

…The Bell campaign is becoming increasing appealing to both “hard-hat” workers and business-owning voters, along with other members of the working class, middle-income suburban voters, and even some independent-minded high-income voters, which could be vital to expanding the campaign’s message and mobilizing more campaign workers… Polls currently show Bell rising in popularity; the most recent Gallup poll shows Bell is currently at 11%, with Bellamy at 41%, Reagan at 38%, and Undecided/Other at 10%...

The Wall Street Journal, 9/22/1988

“When was the last time YOUR voice was heard? When was the last time YOU trusted the Government to do the right thing? When was the last time YOU received your fair share? When was the last time YOU didn’t worry about paying a medical bill? When was the last time YOU didn’t fret over your children’s safety? These situations should not exist. We are America. We are strong, we are smart, and we are bold. It’s time YOU had a President that solves problems. A transparent President that will pass universal health care and protect children, humanity’s greatest asset. A President for YOU. Vote for Carol Bellamy for President of the United States. Because YOU deserve the best.”

– narration from a Bellamy/Litton ’88 TV ad, first aired 9/24/1988


The New York Times, 9/26/1988


[pic: ]

“A painting of Colonel Sanders in a home in Beirut, Lebanon. Many Christian, Jewish, and even some Muslim families across the Middle East are often found to keep an image of the Colonel in their homes to honor the man they see as contributing to the making of the current but precarious ‘era of delicate peace’ in the Middle East that began in the mid-to-late 1970s”

–National Geographic, September 1988 issue

Putting America First; Join The Fight to Protect Your Rights

– Bell’88 logos, c. September 1988


...An alleged “undertone” of millionaire businessman Glen Bell’s independent run for President has caught the ire of three women’s rights group, who claim Bell’s campaign – consisting almost entirely of male workers (and of male supporters, according to polling) – is misogynistic and “unwelcoming” to women. …Sometimes the tone is not so subtle. Last week, a banner reading “send ’em back to the kitchen,” likely referring to Bellamy and Reagan, was seen at a Bell rally in Bethesda...

The Boston Globe, 9/28/1988

[vid: ]
– Carol Bellamy participating in a magic act years earlier; this footage was recirculated by the Bellamy campaign to show off her fun side, amid concerns her serious campaign was too cold and impersonal; first re-aired 9/30/1988

SUMMER OLYMPICS END TODAY: U.S. Teams Again Underperformed

The Miami Herald, 10/2/1988

"Getting this nation's schools back on the track will be one of the top priorities of the
Bellamy Administration. Everything depends on strong schools and strong colleges; a healthy economy, a strong defense, social justice, opportunity for all. There is no reason whatsoever why the next generation of Americans cannot be the best educated and trained in this nation's history. Give the nation's laboratories, libraries, and research centers the support they must have. Start a crash effort to give our kids better training in math, science, and languages. That's where tomorrow's jobs will be. Strengthen programs for rural and inner-city schools to give poor children an even break. Make sure that every American family, and not just the wealthy few, can afford to send their kids to college. Stop the loss of talent that occurs because of discrimination and sex stereotyping in schools. That’s what we must do and it’s what Carol Bellamy will do once we send her to 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue!" [7]

– Former President Walter Mondale, stumping for Bellamy at a rally in Minneapolis, MN, 10/1/1988


The Wall Street Journal, 10/2/1988

…leadership at PepsiCo seem to be distancing themselves from Glen Bell in the face of accusations that the millionaire Presidential candidate is at the very least turning a blind eye to claims that his campaign harbors misogynistic supporters. The company reminded reporters that “Mr. [Glen] Bell sold Taco Bell to PepsiCo in 1978” three times at a press conference earlier this week. …PepsiCo also recently began converting several Taco Bell locations in California and Texas into Zantigo Mexican Food outlets, the official reason for it being “the need to expand the Zantigo brand takes priority over the well-established Taco Bell brand,” and reportedly over the rise of Chi-Chi’s, a rival Mexico-themed outlet…

Nation’s Restaurant News, monthly trade publication, October 1988 issue

…The radical campaign of former Congressman Larry McDonald was overshadowed by the Bell campaign, depriving McDonald of all but the most right-wing of politically-interested Americans. McDonald’s anti-corruption policies, in the wake of the Great Potomac Scandals appealed to many others, though, and that is what made it catch on among fringe communities, to the point that in early October, 1988, C. Farris Bryant, the former Governor of Florida who ran against Sanders and Johnson in ’64, endorsed McDonald over all the other candidates…

– research analyst Chip Berlet, CBS interview, 2000


...Taco Bell has come under fire over its contract with tomato farmers that use underpaid illegal workers in their Florida fields...

The New York Times, 10/8/1988

“Hey, don’t look at me – I sold Taco Bell to PepsiCo in 1978!”

– Glen Bell to reporters, 10/8/1988


“It’s disgraceful. These folks are willing to work their rear ends off to become our fellow Americans; all they want is a reasonable salary, not threats of deportation. No amount of profit is worth the dehumanizing of people, especially the people who work for you and make your profit even possible in the first place.”

The Courier-Journal, Louisville-based Kentucky newspaper, 10/10/1988

The first Presidential debate of the 1988 general election drew in a record-breaking number of viewers, making for the highest ratings for a Presidential campaign in 20 years, when Colonel Sanders and Jack Kennedy debated in 1968. With Bell polling between 10% and 15%, he was allowed to participate; while he received the highest amount of airtime, most of it came from ranting about the “establishment candidates” and failing to answer questions about the economy and foreign affairs. Bell also voiced support for maintaining Denton-era proposals such as higher “monitoring” of violence in books, films and television shows meant for young audiences; praise for the Balanced Budget Amendment; and support for deregulating if not eliminating the US Department of Education. Bellamy was considered the most lucid and professional of the three, but often went over her time limit when describing policy proposals. Reagan, meanwhile, sought to cast herself as a “new” Republican, one more transparent and socially moderate than both Denton and Kemp. The most notable of the exchanges between the major party nominees pertained to the cost of Universal Health Care, with Bellamy pointing to the 19 states already covered by state-level UHC insurance, all but two of which had joined the UHC Pact without significant financial shortfalls. Both Bellamy and Reagan, however, were almost on the same side when the issue came to abortion; Bell denounced its practice and called for it to remain “a state-by-state issue” and Reagan focused on examples of “necessary abortion” such as birth defects and the health of the mother, while Bellamy described “self-determin[ed] motherhood” as “a right,” which received both cheers and jeers from the audience. Bellamy and Reagan were again on the same side when the issue of Bell’s reportedly “chauvinistic” campaign was discussed; Bell failed to deflect the subject, leading to scrutiny from the two other candidates on stage, especially from Bellamy.

The debate was considered a draw for Bellamy and Reagan and a loss for Bell. Bellamy, though, received scrutiny from some media figures for allegedly being “too aggressive” or “hostile” toward Bell, though her supporters described her as “fiery,” a “spitfire,” and other, similar descriptions. Claims that she was “emotional” led to former Vice President Mike Gravel chastising these sort of comments as being biased, saying in an appearance on CBS “If a man acts stoned-faced, he’s ‘strong’ or ‘reserved,’ but if a woman acts like that, she’s ‘cold’ and ‘unwelcoming.’ If a man calls an opponent out on something like that, he’s called ‘passionate,’ while a woman is called ‘emotional.’ This is a clear double-standard that should not be tolerated anymore. The American public, the consumers of these kind of programs, they deserve better. They deserve reporters who stick to the principles of unbiased journalism and proper professional conduct.” KNN and CBS soon responded to this and further complaints by sending more female reporters to cover the Democratic and Republican campaigns.

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989


Juneau, AK – The sole gubernatorial debate to be held ahead of next month’s recall election surprised pundits and exposed audiences to a promising political newcomer. Earlier tonight, with Lieutenant Governor John Lindauer declining to participate and all other candidates not being invited, the top five candidates in the polls – former Congressman Will Hensley (D) in fifth place, TV show host Bob Ross (I) in fourth, retiring US Congressman Jay Kerttula (R) in third, former Juneau Mayor Bill Overstreet (I) in second, and businessman Bill Sheffield (D) in first – discussed the merits of the Alaska recall and their cases for why they should replace Governor Fink. …While a heated exchange broke out between Sheffield and Overstreet, Ross stood poised and collected, likely due to his many years working on TV. His call for “less squabbling, more speaking” made him come off as gubernatorial material…


[pic: ]
Above: Bob Ross (I-AK) stood out in tonight’s debate with both his unique getup and his mesmerizingly convincing rhetoric

– The Los Angeles Times, 10/15/1988


…Ross has risen to third place in the polls, behind businessman Bill Sheffield and former Juneau Mayor Bill Overstreet. Sheffield and Ross have never held public office before; both Ross and Overstreet are Independents while Sheffield is a Democrat…

Juneau Empire, Alaska newspaper, 10/18/1988

REAGAN: “An issue that isn’t getting enough attention is the farming crisis in the Great Plains. Coupled with a drought ravaging the Midwest, the rural workers of the US need a break – a tax break. That will free them from the burden of unruly taxation and in turn give millions the independence to tackle the problems they are facing.”


BELLAMY: “Social Security was called communistic. Medicare was called communistic. Peaceniks and Civil Rights activists were even called communistic. Now the naysayers, including Maureen and especially Glen, call Universal Healthcare communistic, even after communism collapsed in Russia. The Soviet Union is gone; the people are moving on, and so must we. We have to rise above the false narratives of the opponents of positive change. The rest of the world is adopting Universal Healthcare; it’s proving and proven to work across Europe, in Canada, and elsewhere. It is a new chapter in world history, and I think America should join the rest of the world, if not lead the rest of the world, onto the new pages that lay ahead of us.”


BELL: “A job – an honest living – is when an employer buys your work, your abilities, your talent. When you’re starving, you work for food, when you’re thirsty you work for water. Government bureaucracy interferes with that whole thing. [snip] Me, though, I’m a hard worker – I was a farm kid, I don’t know when to stop working – and if you elect me President, I’ll work for you, the custo- uh, the American people.”

– Transcript of the Second Bellamy-Reagan-Bell Presidential debate, 10/20/1988

Guest Star JANE CURTIN (as Carol Bellamy): “I know what you’re thinking, America – how did the bookworm behind the desk at your local library end up as your next President? Well that’s the magic of the Big Apple. One minute you’re fighting down contractors trying to rip you off over the hack job they did filling in potholes, and the next minute you’re on the cusp on having the nuclear launch codes, and the well-being of a country of over 245 million people, right in the proverbial palm of your hands. Ah, we’re in for some fun times here, people!”


Regular cast member JAN HOOKS (as Maureen Reagan): “But Daddy, I want the White House. Women can be terrible Presidents, too!”

Regular cast member PHIL HARTMAN (as Ronald Reagan): “No offense, Mermie, but if I couldn’t get the White House, and I had most of the GOP’s support, what chance do you have?”

HOOKS/REAGAN (sing-song, to the tune of Veruca Salt's "I want it now" song from the 1971 film "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory"): “I want the house, I want the White House. Executive orders, and cens’ring reporters, and closing the borders, all now! Don’t care how, I want it now!”


Regular cast member VICTORIA JACKSON (as Moderator 1): “Mr. Bell, what do you have to say about accusations that your campaign offices are glorified man caves and that your regional managers are all sexist pigs?”

Regular cast member JON LOVITZ (as Glen Bell): “Heh-heh, hey, easy there. Down, girl. Ha – ” (booed by audience) “I’m kidding, I’m kidding, come on, can’t you women ever take a joke? Heh! But seriously, I think women – I mean woman reporters – I mean women – I mean reporters, they’ve got it all wrong. A lot of my supporters like my image more than they regret marrying their wives or resent their erectile dysfunction.” (counts on fingers) “I like beer, I like football, I’m a simple Colonel Sanders-like farm boy from coastal California, I’m a successful businessman who likes trains like Colonel Sanders, I’m not some chick wanting to be in charge of America’s nuclear arsenal, and even though I’m loaded, I don’t drive a Cadillac – my chauffeur does. And did I mention I like beer and football? And that I’m like the Colonel? Because I’m practically a wealthy version of Jack Kemp plus Colonel Sanders. A Jacknel Kempders if you will.”

Guest Star JOHN BELUSHI [8] (as Jack Kemp): (jumps onto stage): “Hold it right there!”

Cast member DENNIS MILLER (as Moderator 2): “President Kemp! What are you doing here?”

BELUSHI/KEMP: “If any meathead is going throw a wrench into the works here and mess up this election, it’s going to be me! Gimme that!” (grabs entire podium prop away from Lovitz/Bell, places it in center of stage and stands behind it) “People, you’re all regretting not voting for me now, aren’t ya? Now that tensions are heating up in India, China, and some fantasy realm called Armenia, suddenly having to choose between these people – a schoolmarm lookalike, a do-nothing ex-Senator, and a guy who can’t even make a real Mexican taco – doesn’t sound too great now, does it? Listen, if I can keep track of four sons all named ‘Jay,’ I can keep track of the economy and foreign affairs. So let’s just write-in my name in November and we can go back to the way things were – terrible, but predictably terrible! Nothing more American than that, right?!”

CURTIN/BELLAMY: “Hey, Jack, maybe people don’t want to go back in time to the primitive and backward days of 1985. Unlike the others here, I want to upend the status quo." (dramatic lighting) "I want all of my fellow Americans from every corner of the country – from the Bronx to Staten Island – to have universal health coverage via a cost-effective healthcare system, to have women’s rights and children’s health protected, to win the fight against poverty and hunger nationwide and worldwide,” (sing-song) “to dream…the impossible dream…to reach…the unreachable…stars!” (cheers from audience)

LOVITZ/BELL: “You know something, Carol? You’re kinda hot when you’re feisty!”

– Snippets of Saturday Night Live comedy sketch, Saturday 10/22/1988

BOB ROSS: An Unexpected Insurgent

…Standing tall a 6-foot-2 (and even taller if you include the iconic 'fro), Ross is utilizing his captivating speaking voice with a massive public radio campaign. Feeling no shame in being a ninth grade drop-out (in order to better support himself and his family by becoming a carpenter with his father), a tidbit with which he compares himself to President Sanders to prove “you don’t have to be in academia to be smart,” Ross nevertheless promotes more funding for public schools all across Alaska. A naturally shy man who does not like to toot his own horn too much, he only occasionally mentioning his military service during the Cuba War, which nevertheless has led to him winning the support of pro-peace war veterans across the state. Ross does not even talk about is small percentage of Cherokee Nation DNA despite it possibly helping him win over Native Americans in the states, says business associate and friend Annette Kowalski: “Bob doesn’t like to brag about himself too much.” In regards to Ross’ surprisingly significant amount of support from middle class Alaskans, Kowalski adds “Bob could be a steward of nature, a healer, a democratic builder of communities, and a magnetic teacher, and the Alaskan people are beginning to take note of this.” …Ross says, “You won’t find my paintings in a museum because most painters want recognition, especially by their peers. I achieved that a long time ago with TV. I don’t need any more.[9] This campaign is like that – this is not for me but for the people of Alaska, because they deserve a governor who cares. They deserve a pragmatic Governor that will address the major and minor concerns of all who live and work and play in this beautiful and blessed state.”

– Time Magazine, late October 1988 issue

…the latest polls show that businessmen Glen Bell’s numbers are continuing to slide amid claims of sexist bigotry from surrogates as well his subjectively poor performances in both Presidential debates. The latest numbers have Bell at roughly 8.3%, with Bellamy still leading at roughly 42.4%, but with Reagan narrowing the gap between her and the Mayor, as the former Ambassador's numbers have risen to roughly 41.1%. The remaining roughly 8.1% is undecided…

– NBC News, 10/25/1988 broadcast


…despite being 98 years old and suffering from diabetes, The Colonel still has a spring in his step. Travelling first to Nashville, Tennessee today in a five-state sweep, the living American icon aims to aid Reagan in her bid to keep the GOP in the White House…

The Dayton Daily News, 10/26/1988


…says one supporter certain that Bell’s victory is inevitable, “People will go to the polls, see who the major parties are offering, and turn them down.”…

The Washington Post, “exposé” article, 10/28/1988

“Build a Better Future Today” “Democracy Calls”

– Reagan/Lugar slogans, c. late October 1988

…It’s 11:30 PM. Bellamy is leading Reagan in the popular and electoral vote. While several states in the Midwest are currently leaning to Bellamy, several states farther west are still too close to call, while the electorally-rich state of California is still too early to call... As you can see on the map here, where we are using blue for Bellamy and red for Reagan [10], the Mayor of New York City is doing very well in the east… Senator Litton can be credited for Bellamy winning the state of Missouri…

– CBS Evening News, 11/8-9/1988 broadcast


[pic: ]

Carol Bellamy (NY) / Jerry Litton (MO) (Democratic) – 44,593,331 (46.5%)
Maureen Reagan (CA) / Richard Lugar (IN) (Republican) – 39,894,249 (41.6%)
Glen Bell (CA) / Bill Daniels (CO) (Independent) – 7,288,371 (7.6%)
Larry McDonald (GA) / James B. Irwin (CO) (Exposure) – 1,630,293 (1.7%)
Utah Phillips (UT) / Robert Edmund Poli (OH) (American Democratic Labor) – 1,054,896 (1.1%)
Danny Davis (IL) / Dorothy Ray Healey (DC) (Progressive Society) – 479,498 (0.5%)
Robert Franklin Williams (NC) / Angela Davis (CA) (Communist Party USA) – 383,598 (0.4%)
All others – 191,799 (0.2%)
Total – 95,516,035 (100%)


Voter turnout among male voters was lower than usual, while young voters and female voters showed up at the polls in record-breaking numbers. The narrowest states of the night were California, North Carolina, Michigan, Virginia, and Ohio in that order. Bell underperformed; his support spread practically evenly across the nation, his highest state-level shares of the vote came from his running mate’s home state of Colorado (10.0%), and the conservative state of Utah (9.1%).

McDonald’s Exposure Party – a broad conservative anti-establishment party meant to unite the former backers of the “Country,” “Defense” and “Heritage and Independence” parties of yesteryear – sought to capitalize on Bell’s drop in support. Utah Phillips of the Democratic Labor party (listed as Labor or American Democratic Labor in some states) received some media attention during the race, as well as fellow candidate Robert Franklin Williams (a controversial African-American “radical” heavily supportive of China’s government and Li Xiannian).

The commonly-stated claim that Bellamy would have lost the election if Bell and McDonald had not split the conservatives are unfounded. While Reagan and Bell’s combined total was 49.2%, compared to Bellamy’s 46.5%, exit polling in November revealed that nearly a third of Bell’s supporters were conservative Democrats, most of whom stated Bellamy was their second choice due to party loyalty. Bellamy’s numbers (46.5%) combined with that 30.0% of Bell’s total of 7.6% (2.3%) creates 48.8%, while Reagan’s numbers (41.6%) combined with Bell’s remaining votes (5.3%) and McDonald’s votes (1.7%) equals 48.6%, meaning that theoretically Bellamy still would have won more votes (albeit only roughly 0.2% more of the total vote) than Reagan if Bell had not entered the race. That does not even take into account the number of liberal voters who voted for Reagan, as those figures are muddled by conflicting polling data. However, adding the votes won by left-leaning candidates Phillips and Davis to Bellamy’s total rises it even further, to a majority of 50.4% of the total popular vote.

Additionally, polls prior to Bell’s entry showed Bellamy leading by five points on average, though “undecided” voters received 20% on average in said polls as well...

– Steven J. Rosenstone and Edward H. Lazarus’ Third Parties in America: Citizens Responding to Major Party Failures, Princeton University Press, 1992

United States Senate election results, 1988

Date: November 8, 1988
Seats: 33 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Senate minority leader: Bob Dole (R-KS)
Seats before election: 53 (D), 46 (R), 1 (I)
Seats after election: 54 (D), 45 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 1, R v 1, I - 0

Full List:
Arizona: incumbent Barry Goldwater (R) over Harry Braun (D) over Peter Dunn (Independent Republican)
California: incumbent Richard Nixon (R) over Stetson Kennedy (D), Stanley Bruce Herschensohn (Conservative), Hugh G. Bagley (Independent), Maria E. Munoz (Natural Mind) and Merton Short (Country)
Connecticut: incumbent Antonina P. Uccello (R) over Rosa DeLauro (D)
Delaware: incumbent William Victor Roth Jr. (R) over Shien Biau Woo (D)
Florida: incumbent Lawton Chiles (D) over Louis Frey Jr. (R)
Hawaii: incumbent Patsy Mink (D) ov