Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Chapter 58: January 1988 – August 1988

China under sanctions- risky, but might pay off
I kinda felt sorry for Secretary Dunagan here. Hardly reason to quit your career.
Mayor Bellamy seems nice enough. Mayor of NYC is a big job, but she is a Washington outsider which might help.
Kennedy-Shriver seems a bit too 'monied' to me. Too posh.
I want Senator Goldwater to be the nominee!
This 'technet' won't amount to anything :)
China seems very unstable...
"re-instate the FCC’s Fairness Doctrine" - seems like very fine idea!
Poor Glenn. Hope he gets the NASA job.
Korean Fried Chicken sounds nice.
Resign Le Pen!
Poor President Kemp. Not able to get your own term must hurt.
Hope the Colonel can sort out Nagorno-Karabakh.
Yeltsin is an ass here.
Out Fink Out!
Hooray for Back to the Future! Such a good movie.
Is that a good change in Mexico?
Bellamy vs Reagan - I wonder how many sexist coots will simply not vote due to the candidates?

Nice chapter @gap80
The biggest question is, if or rather when Reagan fails to become President, which direction will the GOP go in? More Objectivist Libertarian, perhaps? It's a possibility to be sure and has the potential to be even worse than the War Hawk Repub Party we know today. In fact, I can predict that Ron Paul, or even Charles Koch, in 1996, will have a better chance of turning people, in particular, the billionaires and corporate tycoons, against Bellemy and her policies. How this is, I don't know. Maybe through lies, maybe a huge corporation ends up going bust near the end of Carol's presidency due to new regulations put in place by her administration and millions end up out of work, but it makes sense that this would be the turning point for the GOP.
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Congratulations on the Turtledove Nomination! Despite loving the the Beaten Path too I think I know where my vote will be going.

Honestly, the breadth and depth of each of this timeline's updates (as well as the frequency of them) is something you really should be proud of.

Best of luck at the Turteldoves
Chapter 59: August 1988 – January 1989
Chapter 59: August 1988 – January 1989

“An artist is anyone who is ahead of his time and behind on his rent”

– Kinky Friedman [1]

As Alaska Gubernatorial Recall Election required entrance fees that were much more affordable than those of regular gubernatorial elections, a record-breaking number of Republican, Democratic, and third-party candidates sought to replace Governor Fink in the event that he was, in fact, successfully recalled. Five Republicans – businessman Joseph L. Hayes, state senator Arliss Sturgelewski, retiring US Congressman Jalmar “Jay” Kerttula, State Senator Robert W. Ward, and Lieutenant Governor John Lindauer – entered the primary-free race. Three members of the conservative-leaning libertarian third-party “Liberty” party – former State Representatives Dick Randolph and Andre Marrou, and activist Kathleen Dalton – followed suit, as did two members of the Green party – former State Senator Kathryn “Kay” Kennedy-Poland-Silides, and activist Jeanmarie Larson-Crumb. The seemingly most prominent third-party in Alaska, the Alaskan Independence Party, saw four from their ranks – State Representative Bill Hudson, activist Roger Dee Roberts, party founder and perennial candidate Joe Vogler, and former State Trooper Al Rowe – entered the chaotic and clustered free-for-all run, joining two independent candidates, too – former President of the Alaska Federation of Natives Don Wright, and former Mayor of Juneau William D. “Bill” Overstreet.

Democrats, however, were considered most likely to win in November, and thus eight candidates – former US Congressman William L. Hensley, State Commission on Judicial Conduct member Georgianna Lincoln, state senate leader Benjamin Franklin Grussendorf Jr., state senator Sarah J. “Sally” Smith, former state senator Steve Cowper, former Lieutenant Governor and technet enthusiast Red Boucher, state representative Olga Katherine Torkelsen “Katie” Hurley, and businessman Bill Sheffield – entered the race.

While early polling showed no clear frontrunner, it did show that only six of these candidates – Hensley, Overstreet, Lindauer, Sheffield, Grussendorf and Kerttula – had enough funding and/or name recognition to have a shot at winning. However, not one of these “careerist” candidates appealed to Bob…

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014

…Earlier today, Air Force One touched down in Cairo, Egypt, as part of President Kemp’s “camaraderie crusade” across several nations meant to strengthen US relations abroad. Kemp reportedly seeks to do, quote, “as much good as he possibly can,” unquote, before leaving office in January…

– CBS News, 8/20/1988 report

“In an odd way, I was actually almost glad that I had lost re-election. It freed me of having to balance between campaigning and governing, and it allowed me to focus more on the issues that I cared about, political consequences be damned.”

– Jack French Kemp, KNN interview, 2003


– Time Magazine, special August 1988 issue

IT’S ABOUT TIME! Finally, America Will Have a Madame President

…furthermore, both nominees being female will mean the voters’ decision will be based on which candidate and her policies seem best for the next four-to-eight years, not on which is more “historic”…

The New York Times, 8/22/1988 op-ed

[pic: ]
– Mayor Bellamy campaigning with former President Mondale and US Congressman Ed Koch (D-NY) in Republican-leaning upstate New York, 8/23/1988


…the rise in international sanctions against China has sent markets in Beijing and Shanghai into a sharp decline that may best be described as a recession if not a full-on depression… The PRC’s currency, the renminbi, which is called the yuan when referring to the unit of currency, has plummeted in value… It seems the people of China are very well going to experience some of the worst economic detriments of the capitalist system for the first time since the nation’s market reforms were implemented in the early 1970s…

The Wall Street Journal, 8/25/1988


San Bernardino, CA – Perhaps the idea to run for the White House began as a play on his former company’s newest slogan, “Make a Run For The Border.” [2] Or maybe he's inspired by Colonel Sanders. Regardless of its origin, the fact remains that 64-year-old businessman Glen Bell officially launched an independent bid for President earlier today at a formal event in his home town of San Bernardino, California. The wealthy restauranteur and railroad investor plans to immediately begin taking the steps necessary to appear on the ballot in all fifty states in November. Bell also plans to launch “a wave” of television and radio advertisements nationwide.

Rumors and speculation had circulated since the conclusion of the primaries that a prominent conservative would defy the GOP’s official Presidential ticket out of opposition to Presidential nominee Maureen Reagan’s socially-moderate-to-liberal views. Her selection of the more conservative Senator Lugar for running mate, and her recent support of a more libertarian proposal to “give women complete access to abortion clinics, but heartily discourage their use except in cases of rape, incest and endangerment to the mother,” were meant to win over bitter conservatives.

At least one socially conservative individual – Mr. Bell – finds these decisions to be “weak” and unacceptable. “Life begins the moment the stick-thing turns blue,” Bell says in his first-ever run for public office. “Neither major-party candidate understands this. We are better than this; we deserve a better option.” At the launching event, Bell also discussed several fiscally conservative positions, especially his support of further business deregulation.

Glen William Bell Jr., who was born in Lynwood, California, in 1923, is the California-based businessman who in 1962 founded Taco Bell, a restaurant chain that sells “Mexican-inspired meals,” derived by some as “Mockxican” food. Taco Bell expanded to 300 locations by the start of the 1970s, and is now a well-known fast-food brand. After selling Taco Bell to PepsiCo in 1978, Bell, a lifelong railroad enthusiast, invested in railroad companies across the West Coast. While suffering financially immediately after the Trojan Tower Disaster scared investors away from the Pacific Northwest, Bell has since bounced back by investing in infrastructure projects across the southwestern states. According to Forbes magazine, Bell was worth over $250million in 1986…

The Houston Chronicle, 8/26/1988


…the at-times deadly heat waves that characterized the past four months for many parts of the U.S. took a toll on domestic production and exports, which could weaken the economy if not rectified soon...

The Bartlesville Examiner-Enterprise, Oklahoma newspaper, 8/27/1988


…set to enter office next month, Antoine “Tony” Frangieh is the 46-year-old son of former President Suleiman Frangieh. Due to his ties to Syria, Frangieh fought back attacks from his opponents during the campaign that claimed he would “upset Our Delicate Peace,” referring to the region’s relative stability over the past ten years. Frangieh countered the claims by hosting “peace meetings” with Jewish, Christian and Muslim community organizers in Beirut in a publicity stunt clearly modeled off the annual Chicken Dinner Summits in Jerusalem. …The popular (but term-limited) outgoing President, Musa al-Sadr, 60, made headlines six years ago when he became the first leader of modern Lebanon to not be a Maronite Christian. His historic tenure was market by expanding the nation’s electric power grid and water systems, along with partial education reforms, and most notably by steady economic progress and stable relations with Israel…

The Guardian, side article, 28/8/1988

“The final straw for me was when the Governor decided to cut state funding for art programs by 80%. He thought it would win him support from voters who don’t care about those sort of things. I went on radio programs like this one and called him out for it, saying that I was disappointed in him, but decides talking about, I couldn’t do anything about it on my own. My show, The Joy of Painting, it can be seen nationwide, but that doesn’t mean it turns that much a profit. Residuals from the works of mine that are in Disney’s The Snow Queen are something, but not that much. People see you on television and they think you make the same amount of money that Clint Eastwood does. But this is PBS. All these shows are done for free. [3] That’s what I’d say. But people at least know me, and I know the people of Alaska. That’s what it came down to; that’s what clicked. I’ve been here long enough to know this state, to love this state, to love its beauty and its possibilities and potential and its people. And by golly, when the people you love and the place you call home is in danger, well, you just have to do something about it. Some problems are brushes – you just have to beat the devil out of them. Hah, and I also thought that I would do a really better job than the politicians in Juneau.”

– Bob Ross, NBC KTUU-TV interview, early 1989

He had given it so much thought. He had studied the other candidates, and he talked about it with Jane and Steve, and with Walter and I about it. One morning, he finally had made up his mind. After the wrap-up of The Joy of Painting’s latest episode, he walked over to Jane nearby, and he said to her, “Honey, for years I’ve been painting own little happy worlds, while the real world falls apart. I can’t ignore the badness anymore. And if painting has taught me anything, it’s that you have to do the work yourself – nobody can paint your world for you.” A few days later, Bob went on TV with a plan and a message: “Hi. I’m Bob Ross. And I’m running for Governor.” …The Joy of Painting took an indefinite hiatus…

– Annette Kowalski’s One Happy Man, Borders Books, 2007


…At the campaign launch, Ross stated “I often say that if it’s not what you want, stop and change it. Don’t just keep going and expect it will get better. Well, I don’t think thing will get better unless we have a governor that truly loves this state, understands its problems, and wants to try and do everything possible to make things better for Alaska and all who live here. …We each see the world in our own way. That’s what makes it such a special place. I will admit that mounting a statewide campaign like this is very intimidating for me, as I’ve never done something quite like this before. But you know what? One shouldn’t be afraid to go out on a limb, because that’s where the fruit is![4] …The environmental activist and host of a public-access TV show that has a large niche following can captivate audiences with his soothing voice and impressive artistic skills, but can he captivate the voters of the Last Frontier?

The Los Angeles Times, 8/30/1988

[pic: ]
– Bob Ross campaigning in Fairbanks (the warmest city in Alaska), c. early September 1988


…The Pro-Life organization’s backing of independent candidate Glen Bell over major party nominees Maureen and Bellamy marks the first time the Anti-Abortion group has ever endorsed a third-party over a major party… Similar groups such as Feminists For Life (which endorsed Senator Kennedy-Shriver during the Democratic primaries), the National Right to Life Committee, and the Pro-Life Action League, have not endorsed any Presidential tickets – for now…

The Washington Times, 9/2/1988

To win over former primary voters still bitter about Kennedy-Shriver’s “unexpected” loss, Bellamy’88 adopted a “conciliatory” plank meant to appease anti-abortion members of the party and former Kennedy-Shriver supporters. The campaign mirrored the 1964 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Act that Kennedy-Shriver had headed, as it called for expanding funding for examining problems of birth defects and intellectual and developmental disabilities in children, infants, and the soon-to-be-born; improving funds for understanding reproductive health; enhancing function across the lifespan through rehabilitation research, research aimed at improving the health of children, adults, families, and communities, including reducing infant deaths, promoting healthy pregnancy and childbirth, and investigating growth and human development. [5]

– Caroline Heldman’s Historic: The Unfolding of the Presidential Election of 1988, Meredith Books, 2018

COLONEL: “There’s no reason you can’t maintain social programs without raising taxes or breaking a budget. If I figured out how to for eight years without a college education, than it shouldn’t be any problem at all for D.C.’s computer-heads!”

BERN: “Alright, but here’s the thing, Colonel, with all due respect, being fiscally conservative won’t keep the economy from dipping as it inevitably will. Social programs are investments on our country’s future. It’s acceptable to end one year with a deficit if the social programs from that year more than makes up for it in the second or third year. The Balanced Budget Amendment, if ratified, will confine and severely limit the scope and capabilities of social programs like Medicare & Medicaid. We can’t afford to keep a balanced budget every single year.”

COLONEL: “We could during the 1960s.”

BERN: “Yes, because the situation was different, then. The economy was on the rebound from the Salad Oil Scandal. It had nowhere to go but up. But right now, Colonel, it’s been up. It’s only a matter of time before it goes back down again. That’s the thing about capitalist markets, it continuously cycles between feast and famine.”

COLONEL: “And it self-adjusts along the way. The economy dips, the government opens the markets and urges people – and I mean everyone, including the wealthy – to spend and invest into the economy to get themselves out of recession.”

BERN: “Except wealthy people do not so easily give up the fortunes they’ve hoarded. Except for you, Colonel, you are one of the exceptions, and for that, do you have my respect.”

COLONEL: “Thanks, I like the cut of your jib, too.”

BERN: “Your wealthy friends, though, they have got to start understanding that to keep money to yourself instead giving it back to the people who gave it to you in the first place is not a fair system. High taxes on the rich –”

COLONEL: “Well forcing them to give up the money they worked hard for is not going to win them over –”

BERN: “And yet they keep their fortunes when left alone. Money hoarding doesn’t help the economy, Colonel.”

COLONEL: “I agree, but raising taxes will spook ’em; startle a donkey, expect a kick to the face. Suddenly, the Cayman Islands will be looking mighty nice to ’em.”

– CBS roundtable discussion with Colonel Sanders, media magnate Bern Sanders, and moderators, 9/7/1988


…Daniels was the Republican Governor of Colorado from 1979 to 1987, briefly ran for President last year, and is the brother of Democratic US Congressman Jack Daniels of New Mexico. One of the country’s wealthiest ex-Governors, Daniels was most likely chosen due to his executive experience and his deep financial pockets from his time as a cable TV executive and professional sports team owner…

Financial Review, 9/9/1988


…“As Governor, Daniels backed up his religious rhetoric [6] with meaningful action, as has Mr. Bell throughout his years as a businessman”…

The Charlotte Observer, North Carolina newspaper, 9/10/1988

…The rise in the power and control of drug lords over towns across northern Mexico became a contentious, but somewhat second-tier issue in the election. It received a high amount of attention, however, in September, when Colombia witnessed an increase in intensity their own drug crisis. On September 12, the Medellin Cartel, the international drug cartel headed by Pablo Escobar, detonated a remote-controlled cam bomb in Bogota in an attempt of the life of Colombia’s President, the anti-cartel/anti-corruption/pro-US Virgillio Barco Vargas. While the President survived with merely a broken arm, the explosion partially wrecked his car and destroyed a bridge. The damage from the bomb made the front page of American newspapers, more American became concerned that the next President needed foreign policy experience. With Reagan having previously served as the US Ambassador to the UK as well as serving on some foreign affairs-related committees in the US Senate, the GOP nominee received a boost in the polls, Reagan seemingly had much more diplomatic experience than Mayor Bellamy...

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989

…in the state recall election, one underdog is standing out in a crowd of candidates with his optimistic and reassuring personality. Fairbanks resident Bob Ross, a painter with a nationally-televised public access show, has risen from just 4% in the polls on September 1st to nearly 20%, outperforming political bigwigs such as former US Congressman Will Hensley, and several state legislators. Ross is currently running a grassroots campaign heavily reliant on radio to get out his nonpartisan message of improving education and environmental protection…

– KAKM Channel 7, Alaskan news station, 9/16/1988


Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, Alaskan newspaper, 9/18/1988

“RING THE BELL OF LIBERTY!” The Rise of Glen Bell?

…The Bell campaign is becoming increasing appealing to both “hard-hat” workers and business-owning voters, along with other members of the working class, middle-income suburban voters, and even some independent-minded high-income voters, which could be vital to expanding the campaign’s message and mobilizing more campaign workers… Polls currently show Bell rising in popularity; the most recent Gallup poll shows Bell is currently at 11%, with Bellamy at 41%, Reagan at 38%, and Undecided/Other at 10%...

The Wall Street Journal, 9/22/1988

“When was the last time YOUR voice was heard? When was the last time YOU trusted the Government to do the right thing? When was the last time YOU received your fair share? When was the last time YOU didn’t worry about paying a medical bill? When was the last time YOU didn’t fret over your children’s safety? These situations should not exist. We are America. We are strong, we are smart, and we are bold. It’s time YOU had a President that solves problems. A transparent President that will pass universal health care and protect children, humanity’s greatest asset. A President for YOU. Vote for Carol Bellamy for President of the United States. Because YOU deserve the best.”

– narration from a Bellamy/Litton ’88 TV ad, first aired 9/24/1988


The New York Times, 9/26/1988

[pic: ]
“A painting of Colonel Sanders in a home in Beirut, Lebanon. Many Christian, Jewish, and even some Muslim families across the Middle East are often found to keep an image of the Colonel in their homes to honor the man they see as contributing to the making of the current but precarious ‘era of delicate peace’ in the Middle East that began in the mid-to-late 1970s”

–National Geographic, September 1988 issue

Putting America First; Join The Fight to Protect Your Rights

– Bell’88 logos, c. September 1988


...An alleged “undertone” of millionaire businessman Glen Bell’s independent run for President has caught the ire of three women’s rights group, who claim Bell’s campaign – consisting almost entirely of male workers (and of male supporters, according to polling) – is misogynistic and “unwelcoming” to women. …Sometimes the tone is not so subtle. Last week, a banner reading “send ’em back to the kitchen,” likely referring to Bellamy and Reagan, was seen at a Bell rally in Bethesda...

The Boston Globe, 9/28/1988

[vid: ]
– Carol Bellamy participating in a magic act years earlier; this footage was recirculated by the Bellamy campaign to show off her fun side, amid concerns her serious campaign was too cold and impersonal; first re-aired 9/30/1988

SUMMER OLYMPICS END TODAY: U.S. Teams Again Underperformed

The Miami Herald, 10/2/1988

"Getting this nation's schools back on the track will be one of the top priorities of the
Bellamy Administration. Everything depends on strong schools and strong colleges; a healthy economy, a strong defense, social justice, opportunity for all. There is no reason whatsoever why the next generation of Americans cannot be the best educated and trained in this nation's history. Give the nation's laboratories, libraries, and research centers the support they must have. Start a crash effort to give our kids better training in math, science, and languages. That's where tomorrow's jobs will be. Strengthen programs for rural and inner-city schools to give poor children an even break. Make sure that every American family, and not just the wealthy few, can afford to send their kids to college. Stop the loss of talent that occurs because of discrimination and sex stereotyping in schools. That’s what we must do and it’s what Carol Bellmay will do once we send her to 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue!" [7]

– Former President Walter Mondale, stumping for Bellamy at a rally in Minneapolis, MN, 10/1/1988


The Wall Street Journal, 10/2/1988

…leadership at PepsiCo seem to be distancing themselves from Glen Bell in the face of accusations that the millionaire Presidential candidate is at the very least turning a blind eye to claims that his campaign harbors misogynistic supporters. The company reminded reporters that “Mr. [Glen] Bell sold Taco Bell to PepsiCo in 1978” three times at a press conference earlier this week. …PepsiCo also recently began converting several Taco Bell locations in California and Texas into Zantigo Mexican Food outlets, the official reason for it being “the need to expand the Zantigo brand takes priority over the well-established Taco Bell brand,” and reportedly over the rise of Chi-Chi’s, a rival Mexico-themed outlet…

Nation’s Restaurant News, monthly trade publication, October 1988 issue

…The radical campaign of former Congressman Larry McDonald was overshadowed by the Bell campaign, depriving McDonald of all but the most right-wing of politically-interested Americans. McDonald’s anti-corruption policies, in the wake of the Great Potomac Scandals appealed to many others, though, and that is what made it catch on among fringe communities, to the point that in early October, 1988, C. Farris Bryant, the former Governor of Florida who ran against Sanders and Johnson in ’64, endorsed McDonald over all the other candidates…

– research analyst Chip Berlet, CBS interview, 2000


...Taco Bell has come under fire over its contract with tomato farmers that use underpaid illegal workers in their Florida fields...

The New York Times, 10/8/1988

“Hey, don’t look at me – I sold Taco Bell to PepsiCo in 1978!”

– Glen Bell to reporters, 10/8/1988


“It’s disgraceful. These folks are willing to work their rear ends off to become our fellow Americans; all they want is a reasonable salary, not threats of deportation. No amount of profit is worth the dehumanizing of people, especially the people who work for you and make your profit even possible in the first place.”

The Courier-Journal, Louisville-basd Kentucky newspaper, 10/10/1988

The first Presidential debate of the 1988 general election drew in a record-breaking number of viewers, making for the highest ratings for a Presidential campaign in 20 years, when Colonel Sanders and Jack Kennedy debated in 1968. With Bell polling between 10% and 15%, he was allowed to participate; while he received the highest amount of airtime, most of it came from ranting about the “establishment candidates” and failing to answer questions about the economy and foreign affairs. Bell also voiced support for maintaining Denton-era proposals such as higher “monitoring” of violence in books, films and television shows meant for young audiences; praise for the Balanced Budget Amendment; and support for deregulating if not eliminating the US Department of Education. Bellamy was considered the most lucid and professional of the three, but often went over her time limit when describing policy proposals. Reagan, meanwhile, sought to cast herself as a “new” Republican, one more transparent and socially moderate than both Denton and Kemp. The most notable of the exchanges between the major party nominees pertained to the cost of Universal Health Care, with Bellamy pointing to the 19 states already covered by state-level UHC insurance, all but two of which had joined the UHC Pact without significant financial shortfalls. Both Bellamy and Reagan, however, were almost on the same side when the issue came to abortion; Bell denounced its practice and called for it to remain “a state-by-state issue” and Reagan focused on examples of “necessary abortion” such as birth defects and the health of the mother, while Bellamy described “self-determin[ed] motherhood” as “a right,” which received both cheers and jeers from the audience. Bellamy and Reagan were again on the same side when the issue of Bell’s reportedly “chauvinistic” campaign was discussed; Bell failed to deflect the subject, leading to scrutiny from the two other candidates on stage, especially from Bellamy.

The debate was considered a draw for Bellamy and Reagan and a loss for Bell. Bellamy, though, received scrutiny from some media figures for allegedly being “too aggressive” or “hostile” toward Bell, though her supporters described her as “fiery,” a “spitfire,” and other, similar descriptions. Claims that she was “emotional” led to former Vice President Mike Gravel chastising these sort of comments as being biased, saying in an appearance on CBS “If a man acts stoned-faced, he’s ‘strong’ or ‘reserved,’ but if a woman acts like that, she’s ‘cold’ and ‘unwelcoming.’ If a man calls an opponent out on something like that, he’s called ‘passionate,’ while a woman is called ‘emotional.’ This is a clear double-standard that should not be tolerated anymore. The American public, the consumers of these kind of programs, they deserve better. They deserve reporters who stick to the principles of unbiased journalism and proper professional conduct.” KNN and CBS soon responded to this and further complaints by sending more female reporters to cover the Democratic and Republican campaigns.

– Paul F. Boller’s Campaign’88: An American Melodrama, Viking Press, 1989


Juneau, AK – The sole gubernatorial debate to be held ahead of next month’s recall election surprised pundits and exposed audiences to a promising political newcomer. Earlier tonight, with Lieutenant Governor John Lindauer declining to participate and all other candidates not being invited, the top five candidates in the polls – former Congressman Will Hensley (D) in fifth place, TV show host Bob Ross (I) in fourth, retiring US Congressman Jay Kerttula (R) in third, former Juneau Mayor Bill Overstreet (I) in second, and businessman Bill Sheffield (D) in first – discussed the merits of the Alaska recall and their cases for why they should replace Governor Fink. …While a heated exchange broke out between Sheffield and Overstreet, Ross stood poised and collected, likely due to his many years working on TV. His call for “less squabbling, more speaking” made him come off as gubernatorial material…

[pic: ]
Above: Bob Ross (I-AK) stood out in tonight’s debate with both his unique getup and his mesmerizingly convincing rhetoric

– The Los Angeles Times, 10/15/1988


…Ross has risen to third place in the polls, behind businessman Bill Sheffield and former Juneau Mayor Bill Overstreet. Sheffield and Ross have never held public office before; both Ross and Overstreet are Independents while Sheffield is a Democrat…

Juneau Empire, Alaska newspaper, 10/18/1988

REAGAN: “An issue that isn’t getting enough attention is the farming crisis in the Great Plains. Coupled with a drought ravaging the Midwest, the rural workers of the US need a break – a tax break. That will free them from the burden of unruly taxation and in turn give millions the independence to tackle the problems they are facing.”


BELLAMY: “Social Security was called communistic. Medicare was called communistic. Peaceniks and Civil Rights activists were even called communistic. Now the naysayers, including Maureen and especially Glen, call Universal Healthcare communistic, even after communism collapsed in Russia. The Soviet Union is gone; the people are moving on, and so must we. We have to rise above the false narratives of the opponents of positive change. The rest of the world is adopting Universal Healthcare; it’s proving and proven to work across Europe, in Canada, and elsewhere. It is a new chapter in world history, and I think America should join the rest of the world, if not lead the rest of the world, onto the new pages that lay ahead of us.”


BELL: “A job – an honest living – is when an employer buys your work, your abilities, your talent. When you’re starving, you work for food, when you’re thirsty you work for water. Government bureaucracy interferes with that whole thing. [snip] Me, though, I’m a hard worker – I was a farm kid, I don’t know when to stop working – and if you elect me President, I’ll work for you, the custo- uh, the American people.”

– Transcript of the Second Bellamy-Reagan-Bell Presidential debate, 10/20/1988

Guest Star JANE CURTIN (as Carol Bellamy): “I know what you’re thinking, America – how did the bookworm behind the desk at your local library end up as your next President? Well that’s the magic of the Big Apple. One minute you’re fighting down contractors trying to rip you off over the hack job they did filling in potholes, and the next minute you’re on the cusp on having the nuclear launch codes, and the well-being of a country of over 245 million people, right in the proverbial palm of your hands. Ah, we’re in for some fun times here, people!”


Regular cast member JAN HOOKS (as Maureen Reagan): “Daddy, I want the White House. Women can be terrible Presidents, too!”

Regular cast member PHIL HARTMAN (as Ronald Reagan): “No offense, Mermie, but if I couldn’t get the White House, and I had most of the GOP’s support, what chance do you have?”

HOOKS/REAGAN: (sing-song) “I want the house, I want the White House. Executive orders, and cens’ring reporters, and closing the borders, all now! Don’t care how, I want it now!”


Regular cast member VICTORIA JACKSON (as Moderator 1): “Mr. Bell, what do you have to say about accusations that your campaign offices are glorified man caves and that your regional managers are all sexist pigs?”

Regular cast member JON LOVITZ (as Glen Bell): “Heh-heh, hey, easy there. Down, girl. Ha – ” (booed by audience) “I’m kidding, I’m kidding, come on, can’t you women ever take a joke? Heh! But seriously, I think women – I mean woman reporters – I mean women – I mean reporters, they’ve got it all wrong. A lot of my supporters like my image more than they regret marrying their wives or resent their erectile dysfunction.” (counts on fingers) “I like beer, I like football, I’m a simple Colonel Sanders-like farm boy from coastal California, I’m a successful businessman who likes trains like Colonel Sanders, I’m not some chick wanting to be in charge of America’s nuclear arsenal, and even though I’m loaded, I don’t drive a Cadillac – my chauffeur does. And did I mention I like beer and football? And that I’m like the Colonel? Because I’m practically a wealthy version of Jack Kemp plus Colonel Sanders. A Jacknel Kempders if you will.”

Guest Star JOHN BELUSHI [8] (as Jack Kemp): (jumps onto stage): “Hold it right there!”

Cast member DENNIS MILLER (as Moderator 2): “President Kemp! What are you doing here?”

BELUSHI/KEMP: “If any meathead is going throw a wrench into the works here and mess up this election, it’s going to be me! Gimme that!” (grabs entire podium prop away from Lovitz/Bell, places it in center of stage and stands behind it) “People, you’re all regretting not voting for me now, aren’t ya? Now that tensions are heating up in India, China, and some fantasy realm called Armenia, suddenly having to choose between these people – a schoolmarm lookalike, a do-nothing ex-Senator, and a guy who can’t even make a real Mexican taco – doesn’t sound too great now, does it? Listen, if I can keep track of four sons all named ‘Jay,’ I can keep track of the economy and foreign affairs. So let’s just write-in my name in November and we can go back to the way things were – terrible, but predictably terrible! Nothing more American than that, right?!”

CURTIN/BELLAMY: “Hey, Jack, maybe people don’t want to go back in time to the primitive and backward days of 1985. Unlike the others here, I want to upend the status quo." (dramatic lighting) "I want all of my fellow Americans from every corner of the country – from the Bronx to Staten Island – to have universal health coverage via a cost-effective healthcare system, to have women’s rights and children’s health protected, to win the fight against poverty and hunger nationwide and worldwide,” (sing-song) “to dream…the impossible dream…to reach…the unreachable…stars!” (cheers from audience)

LOVITZ/BELL: “You know something, Carol? You’re kinda hot when you’re feisty!”

– Snippets of Saturday Night Live comedy sketch, Saturday 10/22/1988

BOB ROSS: An Unexpected Insurgent

…Standing tall a 6-foot-2 (and even taller if you include the iconic fro), Ross is utilizing his captivating speaking voice with a massive public radio campaign. Feeling no shame in being a ninth grade drop-out (in order to better support himself and his family by becoming a carpenter with his father), a tidbit with which he compares himself to President Sanders to prove “you don’t have to be in academia to be smart,” Ross nevertheless promotes more funding for public schools all across Alaska. A naturally shy man who does not like to toot his own horn too much, he only occasionally mentioning his military service during the Cuba War, which nevertheless has led to him winning the support of pro-peace war veterans across the state. Ross does not even talk about is small percentage of Cherokee Nation DNA despite it possibly helping him win over Native Americans in the states, says business associate and friend Annette Kowalski: “Bob doesn’t like to brag about himself too much.” In regards to Ross’ surprisingly significant amount of support from middle class Alaskans, Kowalski adds “Bob could be a steward of nature, a healer, a democratic builder of communities, and a magnetic teacher, and the Alaskan people are beginning to take note of this.” …Ross says, “You won’t find my paintings in a museum because most painters want recognition, especially by their peers. I achieved that a long time ago with TV. I don’t need any more.[9] This campaign is like that – this is not for me but for the people of Alaska, because they deserve a governor who cares. They deserve a pragmatic Governor that will address the major and minor concerns of all who live and work and play in this beautiful and blessed state.”

– Time Magazine, late October 1988 issue

…the latest polls show that businessmen Glen Bell’s numbers are continuing to slide amid claims of sexist bigotry from surrogates as well his subjectively poor performances in both Presidential debates. The latest numbers have Bell at roughly 8.3%, with Bellamy still leading at roughly 42.4%, but with Reagan narrowing the gap between her and the Mayor, as the former Ambassador's numbers have risen to roughly 41.1%. The remaining roughly 8.1% is undecided…

– NBC News, 10/25/1988 broadcast


…despite being 98 years old and suffering from diabetes, The Colonel still has a spring in his step. Travelling first to Nashville, Tennessee today in a five-state sweep, the living American icon aims to aid Reagan in her bid to keep the GOP in the White House…

The Dayton Daily News, 10/26/1988


…says one supporter certain that Bell’s victory is inevitable, “People will go to the polls, see who the major parties are offering, and turn them down.”…

The Washington Post, “exposé” article, 10/28/1988

“Build a Better Future Today” “Democracy Calls”

– Reagan/Lugar slogans, c. late October 1988

…It’s 11:30 PM. Bellamy is leading Reagan in the popular and electoral vote. While several states in the Midwest are currently leaning to Bellamy, several states farther west are still too close to call, while the electorally-rich state of California is still too early to call... As you can see on the map here, where we are using blue for Bellamy and red for Reagan [10], the Mayor of New York City is doing very well in the east… Senator Litton can be credited for Bellamy winning the state of Missouri…

– CBS Evening News, 11/8-9/1988 broadcast

[pic: ]
Carol Bellamy (NY) / Jerry Litton (MO) (Democratic) – 44,593,331 (46.5%)
Maureen Reagan (CA) / Richard Lugar (IN) (Republican) – 39,894,249 (41.6%)
Glen Bell (CA) / Bill Daniels (CO) (Independent) – 7,288,371 (7.6%)
Larry McDonald (GA) / James B. Irwin (CO) (Exposure) – 1,630,293 (1.7%)
Utah Phillips (UT) / Robert Edmund Poli (OH) (American Democratic Labor) – 1,054,896 (1.1%)
Danny Davis (IL) / Dorothy Ray Healey (DC) (Progressive Society) – 479,498 (0.5%)
Robert Franklin Williams (NC) / Angela Davis (CA) (Communist Party USA) – 383,598 (0.4%)
All others – 191,799 (0.2%)
Total – 95,516,035 (100%)


Voter turnout among male voters was lower than usual, while young voters and female voters showed up at the polls in record-breaking numbers. The narrowest states of the night were California, North Carolina, Michigan, Virginia, and Ohio in that order. Bell underperformed; his support spread practically evenly across the nation, his highest state-level shares of the vote came from his running mate’s home state of Colorado (10.0%), and the conservative state of Utah (9.1%).

McDonald’s Exposure Party – a broad conservative anti-establishment party meant to unite the former backers of the “Country,” “Defense” and “Heritage and Independence” parties of yesteryear – sought to capitalize on Bell’s drop in support. Utah Phillips of the Democratic Labor party (listed as Labor or American Democratic Labor in some states) received some media attention during the race, as well as fellow candidate Robert Franklin Williams (a controversial African-American “radical” heavily supportive of China’s government and Li Xiannian).

The commonly-stated claim that Bellamy would have lost the election if Bell and McDonald had not split the conservatives are unfounded. While Reagan and Bell’s combined total was 49.2%, compared to Bellamy’s 46.5%, exit polling in November revealed that nearly a third of Bell’s supporters were conservative Democrats, most of whom stated Bellamy was their second choice due to party loyalty. Bellamy’s numbers (46.5%) combined with that 30.0% of Bell’s total of 7.6% (2.3%) creates 48.8%, while Reagan’s numbers (41.6%) combined with Bell’s remaining votes (5.3%) and McDonald’s votes (1.7%) equals 48.6%, meaning that theoretically Bellamy still would have won more votes (albeit only roughly 0.2% more of the total vote) than Reagan if Bell had not entered the race. That does not even take into account the number of liberal voters who voted for Reagan, as those figures are muddled by conflicting polling data. However, adding the votes won by left-leaning candidates Phillips and Davis to Bellamy’s total rises it even further, to a majority of 50.4% of the total popular vote.

Additionally, polls prior to Bell’s entry showed Bellamy leading by five points on average, though “undecided” voters received 20% on average in said polls as well...

– Steven J. Rosenstone and Edward H. Lazarus’ Third Parties in America: Citizens Responding to Major Party Failures, Princeton University Press, 1992

United States Senate election results, 1988

Date: November 8, 1988
Seats: 33 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Senate minority leader: Bob Dole (R-KS)
Seats before election: 53 (D), 46 (R), 1 (I)
Seats after election: 54 (D), 45 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 1, R v 1, I - 0

Full List:
Arizona: incumbent Barry Goldwater (R) over Harry Braun (D) over Peter Dunn (Independent Republican)
California: incumbent Richard Nixon (R) over Stetson Kennedy (D), Stanley Bruce Herschensohn (Conservative), Hugh G. Bagley (Independent), Maria E. Munoz (Natural Mind) and Merton Short (Country)
Connecticut: incumbent Antonina P. Uccello (R) over Rosa DeLauro (D)
Delaware: incumbent William Victor Roth Jr. (R) over Shien Biau Woo (D)
Florida: incumbent Lawton Chiles (D) over Louis Frey Jr. (R)
Hawaii: incumbent Patsy Mink (D) over Maria M. Hustace (R) and Ken Schoolland (Liberty)
Indiana: Katie Hall (D) over incumbent Earl Landgrebe (R)
Maine: incumbent Edmund S. Muskie (D) over Jasper S. Wyman (R)
Maryland: incumbent Paul Sarbanes (D) over Alan Keyes (R)
Massachusetts: incumbent Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D) over Joseph Malone (R)
Michigan: Elly Maude Peterson (R) over Milton Robert “Bob” Carr (D); incumbent George W. Romney (R) retired
Minnesota: incumbent Joan Growe (D) over Arlen Overvig (R)
Mississippi: William Webster “Webb” Franklin (R) over Dick Molpus (D); incumbent John C. Stennis (D) retired
Missouri: incumbent Jerry Litton (D) over Norvell William “Bill” Emerson (R)
Montana: Jack Mudd (D) over incumbent Ron Marlenee (R)
Nebraska: incumbent Ted Sorensen (D) over David Karnes (R) and Ernie Chambers (New Alliance)
Nevada: incumbent Paul Laxalt (R) over Richard Bryan (D)
New Jersey: Mary V. Mochary (R) over Jim Florio (D)
New Mexico: incumbent Pedro Jimenez (D) over Bill Valentine (R)
New York: incumbent Michael Rockefeller (R/L) over Edolphus Towns (D), Adelle R. Nathanson (Conservative) and Charlene Mitchell (Progressive)
North Dakota: incumbent Arthur Albert Link (D) over Kenneth C. Gardner (R)
Ohio: incumbent John Glenn (D) over John R. Kasich Jr. (R)
Pennsylvania: Darcy Richardson (D) over incumbent Bud Shuster (R)
Rhode Island: Claudine Schneider (R) over incumbent Robert Owens Tiernan (D)
Tennessee: incumbent Albert Gore Sr. (D) over Bill Anderson (R)
Texas: Ann Richards (D) over Audie Murphy (R), Eldon Boulter (Liberty), Albert G. Bustamante (La Raza Unida); incumbent James M. Collins (R) retired
Utah: incumbent Frank E. Moss (D) over Wilford V. Oveson (R)
Vermont: incumbent Phil Hoff (D) over Mike Griffes (R) and Jerry Levy (Liberty Union)
Virginia: incumbent Harry F. Byrd (I) over Abner Linwood “Lin” Holton Jr. (R) and Gerald Baliles (D)
Washington: Jolene Unsoeld (D) over John Spellman (R) and Floyd Hicks (Independent Democratic); incumbent appointee Norm Dicks (D) lost nomination
West Virginia: incumbent Robert C. Byrd (D) over M. J. Wolfe (R)
Wisconsin: Susan Engeleiter (R) over Herb Kohl (D); incumbent William Proxmire (D) retired
Wyoming: incumbent John S. Wold (R) over John Vinich (D)


United States House of Representatives results, 1988

Date: November 8, 1988
Seats: All 435
Seats needed for majority: 218
New House majority leader: Hale Boggs (D-LA)
New House minority leader: Robert Smith Walker (R-PA)
Last election: 232 (D), 202 (R), 1 (I)
Seats won: 235 (D), 198 (R), 2 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 3, R v 4, I ^ 1


United States Governor election results, 1988

Date: November 8, 1988
Number of state gubernatorial elections held: 11
Seats before: 35 (D), 15 (R), 0 (I)
Seats after: 38 (D), 11 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 3, R v 4, I ^ 1

Full list:
Alaska (recall): Bob Ross (I) over various others; incumbent Tom Fink (R) successfully recalled
Delaware: incumbent Michael Castle (R) over Jacob Kreshtool (D)
Indiana: Evan Bayh (D) over John Mutz (R); incumbent Dan Quayle (R) retired
Missouri: incumbent Betty Cooper Hearnes (D) over Mike Roberts (R) and John Ashcroft (Country)
Montana: incumbent Dorothy Bradley (D) over Stan Stephens (R)
New Hampshire: incumbent Calvin Warburton (R) over Paul McEachern (D)
North Carolina: Harvey Gantt (D) over incumbent Liddy Gardner (R), Ruby T. Hooper (Independent) and Jesse Helms (Exposure)
North Dakota: incumbent George A. Sinner (D) over Rosemarie Myrdal (R)
Utah: John Huntsman Sr. (R) over incumbent Wayne Owens (D)
Vermont: Jan Backus (D) over David Gates (R) and Richard F. Gottlieb (Liberty Union); incumbent Richard A. Snelling (R) retired
Washington: Ellen Craswell (R) over John Jovanovich (D); incumbent Daniel J. Evans (R) retired
West Virginia: Gaston Caperton (D) over incumbent Cecil Underwood (R) and Jack Fellure (Exposure)


Reagan’s “Rational Conservativism” renewed faith in the GOP’s electability for many Republicans, leading her candidacy to perform better than expected in November. Furthermore, in states that had voted for Reagan, Republicans actually saw some gains in respective state legislatures. The narrowness of the election was credited to the campaigning of former President Colonel Sanders and other “rational conservatives” who made up most of what few Republicans had won election to the federal and state legislative elections. A week before the election, The Colonel stated, “There’s no sense in only focusing on candidates in some states here or there. There’s only 50 states. It’s not like in Russia where they have, I think, over 70 states and several different types of states. You don’t have to be from Kentucky to know to not put all your eggs in just a few baskets. That’s why I’m supporting Republican candidates everywhere, from Oregon to Maine.” In total, Sanders spent more than twice as much time campaigning for congressional and gubernatorial candidates – most notably Webb Franklin and Jon Huntsman Sr. – than for Maureen Reagan. However, the victories of moderate Republicans such as Susan Engeleiter and Claudine Schneider made many Republican donors, pundits, and bigwigs begin to suspect that the GOP would benefit from leaning further to the center than to the right, causing some party organizers to begin to plan accordingly in preparation of races in 1989 and 1990…

– Gary C. Jacobson’s The Power and the Politics of Congressional Elections, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2019


…One of the most closely-followed elections this year finally ended this morning, at 2:00 AM EST, when art instructor and environmental activist Bob Ross was declared the victor in the race to recall Governor Tom Fink of the state of Alaska. His stunning victory comes after polls on the eve of the election showed a close three-way-tie between Ross (I), the more conservative Bill Overstreet (I), and the moderate Bill Sheffield (D), with Congressman Kerttula in a distant fourth… Ross’ campaign appealed to progressives, liberals, and libertarians due to its apolitical tone and its positive and optimistic demeanor that dominated Alaska talk radio for the past several weeks…

The Los Angeles Times, 11/9/1988

[pic: ]


The Washington Post, 11/15/1988

What the American people did not know was that over the course of the campaign, a troubled man had been lurking in the shadows, trying to disrupt the democratic process. George Pierre Hennard, a 32-year-old unemployed former member of the US Merchant Marines from Texas, known for being belligerent and temperamental, had tried and failed to find an opportunity to assassinate either Maureen Reagan or Carol Bellamy several times throughout the general election. In late November, he decided to try and assassinate Bellamy on her inauguration day. However, Hennard, living out of his car in Baltimore, Maryland, was running low on cash, and so attempted to hold up a convenience store on November 23, only to be tackled to the ground by two women customers – one of them being an off-duty police officer. His journals found soon afterward revealed his desire to kill women he deemed to be “evil vipers,” and described how it was easier to “get close to” Bellamy due to her being more welcoming with crowds of supporters, and due to her having less security, while Reagan, who was both a former Senator and part of a political dynasty, was often well-guarded. It was these revelations that lead to the passing of a federal law in 1990 that allowed presidential candidates to obtain Secret Service protection. Also in 1990, Hennard was found guilty of attempted murder and other charges relating to previous incidents of misogynistic pestering and threats. He was sentenced to life in prison, and died of colorectal cancer last year.

– Caroline Heldman’s Historic: The Unfolding of the Presidential Election of 1988, Meredith Books, 2018

…Tonight in South America, the people of Venezuela took to the polls to pick for their nation a new President. The results are in, and it appears that neoliberal economics professor, former Commerce Secretary, and former member of congress Teodoro Petkoff has won the election with roughly 55% of the vote. Petkoff, who is of Bulgarian, Jewish and Polish ancestry, was supported by the popular-but-term-limited incumbent populist President Jose Rangel as rival political parties, quote, “fail to understand the issues as expertly as Petkoff,” unquote. The runner-up, Carlos Andres, is calling for a recount despite winning only roughly 30% of the vote earlier tonight…

– BBC World News, 4 December 1988

China’s recession led to anti-Li sentiment arising within the politburo, making the Premier and his followers finally take note of the reality of their situation. The coastal cities were becoming less overcrowded not because of sending former Lin Biao supporters to live out west, but because housing reform under the supervising of Deng’s Minister of Housing had led to the populations of Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Foshan and Shenyang to become more evenly spread out among the surrounding areas. An excellent example of this was actually found in Chonqing, which is closer to the center of the country than to the coast; this urban municipality (and its corresponding province) saw its population nearly double from 1977 to 1987, but it received little fanfare. Regardless, the fact remained that the catalyst for the genocide against the western ethnicities – the overcrowded coastal cities – was dissipating, and with it, the “need” for the genocide. Deciding to stay the course, Li opted to hold out on making any major moves on the world stage until America’s Carol Bellamy was sworn into the office of the US Presidency, in order to better see if she would be a weak leader to confront, or a strong leader to which Li would be forced to in some way yield.

– Bo Yibo’s The Dragon and The Eagle: Chinese and American Dances, Daggers and Dinners, English translation, 1998


…with this year’s Presidential election dominating the airwaves, President Kemp has been busy on the sidelines getting several bills passed and improving America’s standing and influence abroad. Earlier today, Kemp visited Mexico City on a diplomatic trip, and was highly celebrated in a speech given by President-Elect Luis Alvarez for Kemp’s recent immigration policies. Most recently – last week – Kemp extended working visas for workers with families living with them in the US, and ordered his Attorney General to investigate accusations of labor abuse law violations in Florida. Since Alvarez’s election this past July, US-Mexico relations have been increasingly friendly, with Kemp calling his counterpart “the good kind of game-changer [for] America’s next-door neighbor.” Kemp has also stated he hopes Alvarez and Bellamy will retain this relationship come January 20…

The Santa Fe New Mexican, 12/9/1988

…talks between the heads of state of Azerbaijan and Armenia have broken down as militant groups overwhelm Azerbaijan officials in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh…

– The Overmyer Network, 12/10/1988 news report


The Washington Post, 12/11/1988


Washington, DC – Just ahead of their winter recess, the US Senate failed to advance an anti-abortion bill earlier today, the first vote on an abortion-related bill Congress has held this year, in an election year that saw abortion access become a major playing role in campaigns at the federal, state and even local levels. The vote failed on bipartisan lines, demonstrating the complexity of the topic in regards to our lawmakers’ political positions concerning it…

The Washington Times, 12/14/1988


…The nation awaits the administration of its first Madame President...

– The New York Times, 12/21/1988

In 2003, Kemp’s former Attorney General revealed that Kemp had considered resigning from office prior to the two-year mark of his Presidency. “The 22nd Amendment makes it so no President can serve two full, or four-year, terms if they have already served for more than half of a term, or two years, meaning that Kemp 'missed' qualifying for a second full term by just under a month. Jack was considering running for President again in 1992, and believed that if he resigned before December 28th, before serving more than half a term, he would become eligible for two full terms instead of for just one. I agreed with his interpretation of the law, but informed him that others might not, and thus could potentially create a constitutional crisis.” Apparently, the situation was rendered moot when First Lady Joanna and Vice President Polonko, both of whom opposed the idea, talked Jack out of it, the latter worrying that it would create a “dangerous precedence” of some sort.

– Curt Smith’s From No. 15 to No. 39: The Life And Presidency of Jack French Kemp, Cornell University Press, 2015

…On January 1st, 1989 [11], the first technet companies catering to commercial users began selling technet access to commercial customers in the United States and the Netherlands…

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018

…After working for several veterans’ affairs non-profit organizations and going on a book tour, Murphy announced on January 30, 1988, that he would run for the US Senate. He ran on foreign policy issues, emphasizing his war record and the positive aspects of his time in the Denton Cabinet. After winning the GOP primary by a sizeable margin, the 63-year-old faced state treasurer Ann Richards in the general election, along with right-leaning Liberty party nominee Eldon Boulter, and left-leaning La Raza Unida party nominee Albert G. Bustamante. In two debates with Richards, Murphy was described as more charismatic and charming, but failed to efficiently answer questions on domestic policy issues; Richards was declared the winner of both debates. Murphy’s campaign was damaged further when Boulter began criticizing his former gambling issues. The election was one of the most closely-watched of the November 1988 races, with Richards winning by a 4.1% margin and both prominent third-parties underperforming; Bustamante received 2.1% of the vote, while Boulter received 1.7% of the vote.

In early January 1989, Murphy re-entered military academia by accepting a professorship position at West Point…



Minsk, BELARUS – United Turkestan’s Mukhtar Ablyazov and Russia’s Vladimir Volkov today signed an international deal in which United Turkestan will lease old formerly Soviet space exploration-related factories and sites, most noticeably satellite launching locations in the UT’s northern “nation” of Kazakhstan, in order for Russia’s space agency to continue projects upended by the breakup of the USSR. Ablayazov believes leasing the launch sites will be an “exemplary” source of income for the budding young nation, which is low in population but geographically vast and “full of natural resources and opportunities,” Ablyazov said at the signing ceremony in Minsk, Belarus, earlier today…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 13/1/1989

Despite spending less than 25 months in office during the late 1980s, Kemp played an instrumental role at a most pivotal time in American history. The Cold War had come to a close two years earlier, but America risked losing the title of “World’s last superpower” as the Great Potomac Scandals damaged both Americans’ faith in their government and the world’s romanticizing view of America. Kemp righted the ship by running an open, honest, and pragmatic administration, with its worst scandal being the one concerning his Secretary of Defense. A scandal that, in retrospect, is considered so petty and superfluous that not only does it highlight the difference between the Denton and Kemp administrations, but our current Secretary of Defense once remarked “If today’s political climate was around back then, Dunagan could have run for President on it.” Kemp greatly improved US relations abroad, becoming the most-traveled President since the Colonel Sanders administration. His “gentle hand” approach to Russia kept it economically afloat, and his firm, if not delayed, approach to China influenced future events.

Domestically, Kemp’s signature ZEDs and tenant ownership policies were instrumental to several urban cities. Reportedly, more Americans felt a greater sense of pride is owning their homes. Areas once plagued by petty crime and eyesores such as broken windows, graffiti and unkempt building facades saw impressive turnarounds as residents began investing more into their homes, neighborhoods, and local communities, which in turn helped bring in more businesses and residents. The quality of life improved on average nationwide between 1986 and 1988, with the two policies often being cited for it.

Politically, Kemp’s broad multi-lane ideology has been retrospectively seen as a “watershed event” in the history of the Republican Party. Kemp’s presidency came to a close at a time when (in wake of Maureen Reagan’s election loss) the GOP’s moderate wing was shrinking, while its three “conservative” branches – rational (moderate-to-conservative), populist, and libertarian – were growing in terms of prominence, support, and influence.

In his 1989 farewell address, Kemp praised the American people for making his two years as their President “the most wonderful and most productive years of [my] life,” and called for “sensible governance” and “vigilance from the people” in the years ahead, warning, either in a jab at the President-elect’s pro-choice policies that he opposed, or in a reference to President Denton, “Democracy without morality is impossible.” [12]

– Morton Kondracke and Fred Barnes’s Jack Kemp: The Bleeding-Heart Conservative Who Changed America, Sentinel Books, 2015

“Tremendous change can be intimidating; the fear of the unknown always is. But change for the better is an American tradition. …This administration will seek to end a situation that violates the innocent – the use of child labor. …My fellow Americans have demonstrated time and again that their financial resources, leadership and expertise can bring about real and lasting benefits for the world. …This administration will build alliances, advance health efforts, expand employment opportunities and access to education, ensure basic services for and improve the incomes of the poor and provide their children with decent education. This administration will improve equality, equity, and protection for all... We are Americans; we are ready, we are willing, and we are capable of addressing, overcoming and defeating challenges that stand before us as we create a bright new future for us all.” [13]

– Carol Bellamy, 1/20/1989

[pic: ]
Carol Bellamy, the 40th President of the United States


Secretary of State: former Mayor of Pittsburgh, former Assistant Attorney General, and US Representative Peter Francis Flaherty (D-PA)
Secretary of the Treasury: incumbent President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minnesota Gerald E. Corrigan (D-MN)
Secretary of Defense: US Representative and House Foreign Affairs Committee Chair Robert J. Lagomarsino (R-CA)
Attorney General: African-American female Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Amalya Lyle Kearse (I-NY)
Postmaster General: FedEx Corporation founder and CEO Frederick Wallace Smith (R-TN)
Secretary of the Interior: former Governor Tony Anaya (D-NM)
Secretary of Agriculture: former state Agricultural Commissioner John Coyle White (D-TX)
Secretary of Commerce: US Representative Andrew Young (D-GA)
Deputy Secretary of Commerce: Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve Manuel Holman “Manley” Johnson (R-AL)
Secretary of Labor: former Administrator of the National Roadways Safety Administration, former US Secretary of Transportation, and incumbent EPA Administrator Ralph Nader (I-CT)
Deputy Secretary of Labor: African-American teachers’ union leader Mary Hatwood Futrell (I-DC)
Secretary of Education: President of the Children’s Defense Fund Marian Wright Edelman (D-DC)
Secretary of Health and Welfare: US Under Secretary of Education Ann Dunham (I-HI)
Secretary of Transportation: state secretary of Transportation Frederick P. Salvucci (I-MA)
Secretary of Veterans’ Affairs: US Representative, former state secretary of Human Services, and former state representative Philip W. Johnston (D-MA)
Secretary of Energy and Technology (position established in February 1989): US Senator Peter N. Kyros (D-ME)

Cabinet-Level Positions:
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency: African American attorney, form Chief National Security Advisor and former assistant to the US Secretary of Defense Togo D. West Jr. (I-NC)
Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation: lawyer, former US Undersecretary of State, former Special Counsel for the US House, and former US Secretary of Labor Robert F. Kennedy (D-VA)
US Trade Representative: Harvard professor of economics Myer Rashish (R-CT)

The President’s Executive Office:
White House Chief of Staff: global systems research scholar and analyst Joan E. Spero (D-NY)
White House Counsel: state chief of staff Bill Kjeldahl (D-MN)
Counselors to the President: education policy analyst Diane Silvers Ravitch (D-NY) and economist James McGill Buchanan Jr. (I-VA)
Chief Domestic Policy Advisor: author and First Amendment defender John Seigenthaler (D-TN)
Chief Economic Policy Advisor: African-American attorney and antitrust law specialist Charles Albert James (I-AZ)
Chief Foreign Policy Advisor: former Director of A.C.T.I.O.N. and former Director of the Peace Corps Sam W. Brown Jr. (G-IA)
Chief National Security Advisor: former district court judge and outgoing US Deputy Attorney General Elmo Hunter (I-MO)
Director of the Office of Management and Budget: Director of the US Congressional Budget Office Georgianna Alice Mitchell (D-PA)
White House Communications Director: former campaign organizer John Sasso (D-MA)
Administrator of the Small Business Administration: former US Representative Carey Peck (D-CA)

Other Notable Members:
Solicitor General (the Federal Government’s representative in Supreme Court cases): constitution law professor and scholar Ronald Myles Dworkin (I-RI)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: former US Secretary of the Army and outgoing US Undersecretary of Defense Col. John W. Shannon (I-KY)
Federal Reserve Chairman: Stanford University law professor and former Harvard University law professor John Hart Ely (I-FL)
NASA Director: NASA scientist and incumbent Director Farouk El-Baz (I-TX) retained

Notable US Ambassadors (in alphabetical order):
To Argentina: former Governor and former US Secretary of the Interior Jay Hammond (R-AK)
To Canada: US Representative Don Edwards (D-CA)
To China: retiring US Representative Itimous Thaddeus Valentine Jr. (D-NC)
To Colombia: outgoing US Ambassador to Mexico Benjamin Fernandez (R-CA)
To Russia: former US Representative and former Special Liaison to Russia for the US State Department Claude Gilbert “Mike” McCormack (D-WA)
To the U.K.: outgoing US Representative, former state Comptroller and former US Deputy Secretary of Education Michael Bakalis (D-IL)
To the U.N.: outgoing US Secretary of Defense Larry Miles Dinger (R-IA)


Dunham’s time at the Department of Education under Presidents Denton and Kemp saw her oversee successful projects concerning rural development in the Midwest, women’s rights, microcredit programs for low-income families with grade-level children and the poor, human rights, and improving the quality of life for Native American nations. Dunham also worked with the World Food Bank, and had been an early supporter of Bellamy’s grassroots campaign... [snip] …Dunham got along well with Robert F. Kennedy, whose own nomination process had been even more contentious than Dunham’s. Either a concession or a peace offering to Senator Kennedy-Shriver, Robert F. Kennedy was the US undersecretary of State from 1961 to 1965, the US Secretary of Labor from 1973 to 1981, and had served as a special counsel during the early stages of the Lukens Hush Money. Nevertheless several Democrats and Republicans on the Hill alleged he was “unqualified” for the position of FBI director. However, Kennedy demonstrated an encyclopedic understanding of the bureau’s inner workings, and he was confirmed by a narrow margin.

– Dana Lawson’s Madame President: The Extraordinary Journey of Carol Bellamy, Sunrise Publishing, 2017

[1] OTL quote!
[2] As seen here, in this Taco Bell commercial from 1988:
[3] Italicized passage is an OTL quote!
[4] Italicized parts are OTL quotes!
[5] Italicized passages are taken from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Wikipedia page.
[6] The site… claims Daniels “reached out to those down on their luck, those who abused slochol and drugs, and those who suffered from mental and physical disabilities. He provided scholarships,” etc, and the site has the following quote from Bill Daniels: “I think God told me as a young man to share my good fortune with others…Believe me, it is a real joy to me to be able to help people.”
[7] Italicized parts are from an OTL Mondale’84 brochure:
[8] ITTL, he’s been slowly trying to overcome depression and his drug addiction since almost dying from the latter via overdose in 1981. My apologies for forgetting to mention this back in the 1981 chapter(s); I’ll cover it more in the next chapter if anyone’s interested in it.
[9] OTL Bob Ross quote!
[10] Based on the OTL “R – red – Reagan” coloring bit from 1980:
[11] One year earlier than in OTL.
[12] OTL Jack Kemp quote.
[13] Italicized parts are OTL Carol Bellamy quotes.

OK, so, the Internet is gonna be called the ''TechNet'' eventually ITTL? Seems like a catchier name, (even though I have seen at least one instance of it being called the Internet on this page.) Makes one wonder if the term ''The Information Mine'' could end up conquering the name ''World Wide Web.'' (Please correct me if I'm wrong or forgetting something.)
Whoops, that's a typo; it should be technet. Fixed it; thanks!

The next chapter's E.T.A.: no later than March 19
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Great to see a Kennedy in charge of the FBI. One thing I love about the Bellamy Admin, aside from how racially diverse it is, is the number of independents that have been promoted the higher seats of her presidency. This'll really help to bring more people into the party. The fact that there are some Republicans in there too is also a big advantage for her. What she should do now is reach out to the Progressive Society and CP-USA to try and bring them on board and broaden the left wind of the democrats. With the commies on their last legs, It'd make sense for them to find a new home.

Wow! President Carol Bellamy. I wonder what she'll do as President.
Tons of progressive policies, no doubt. Her run as President is going to change lives and help millions. Hell, people are already trying the assassinate her before her inauguration. If that isn't definitive proof of the danger she presents to the corporate status quo, I don't know what is. Needless to say, she'll have plenty of enemies. She may even suffer something akin to the kind of persecution Obama did during his first term IOTL, but ultimately, I think it's inevitable that number 40 will be seen as one of the top 10 greats.

Speaking of which, I am hoping, very much so, that ether Zantigo or Chi-Chi's end up fully replacing Taco Bell's presence, now that Glenn Bell's shitty practises have been put on display, regardless of him selling the company or not. Personally, I hope it's both. Zantigo for the practicality, better treatment of workers and overall better food and Chi-Chi's for the fun, entertaining theme and family aspect, as well as the more Mexican aesthetic.

And now, just for fun, here are a couple more offhand predictions that'll probably never come true, but are still fun to think about and suggest.

In the early 90s, Video games will see a renaissance and return to the prominence of the mid-70s to mid-80s with companies like Phillips and Sega (the latter's Master System being seen as the primary and last Great console of the mid to late 80s. during the decline in home gaming round about the Denton Scandal,) Supplanting former greats like Atari and Coleco with the both now dedicated to making games rather than consoles. Phillips, of course, with the help of Japanese company Sony, being a front runner with their new mascot Hurry the Rabbit and nemesis, Dr. Needlemouse. Direct rivals to Sega's legendary Alex Kidd and his nemesis, Janken.

Also, upon the full release of the internet, with, no doubt, the endorsement of President Bellamy, IBM, Packard Bell, Nintendo, NeXT and Amstrad will become the leaders of the home computer market due to their affordability and overall design. NeXT in particular due to its own commitment towards innovation and this business model set by its founder, Steve Jobs.
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Hurray for the far superior Zantigo brand winning out over Taco Bell! The current day exterior of Taco Bell restaurants look like Zantigos from the 1980s.
Here's another fun fact about the first ''Madame President.'' Carol Bellemy now joins James Buchanan on the incredibly short list of presidents that never married, effectively making her the 2nd unmarried and 1st Bachelorette President along with being the first female leader of the US.
So, it's President Carol Bellamy; at least TTL had a female president, unlike OTL's...

Like that Bernie Sanders (aka Bern Sanders ITTL) and Colonel Sanders debate a lot (on a side note, I once had an ASB idea where WI Colonel Sanders wakes up in Bernie Sanders' body after he dies, but didn't know where it would go...

Congrats on the update, @gap80, and waiting for more...
Chapter 59: August 1988 – January 1989

President Kemp seems to be getting stuff done now he knows he's going. Kinda refreshing.
China might revert to 'Stalinism' if the capitalist experiment fails, which has major impacts for all its neighbours...
President Bell? I could see that as a gift to headline writers everywhere- good job he does not stand a chance
Those heat waves would be great for solar power generation...
Hopefully Lebanon stays on a stable path
"Hi. I’m Bob Ross. And I’m running for Governor." I bet that made one heck of an impact. Go Bob!
Sanders and Sanders sounds like a good name for a TV talk show.
War on Drugs for the new President regardless of whom it is?
10 years of the Atlanta Peace Treaty? Well here's to 100 more!
That is one good portrait of President Sanders there!
That Alaskan debate sounds like a fun watch, esp if Bob went dress in open shirt like that pic!
And it's President Bellamy by a huge margin!
Heh.. glad Bell picked up nothing but a huge bill.
Democrats hold Capitol Hill as well? Well that's a liberal program going through...
And Governor Bob Ross! Excellent work there!
Seems the Republicans are not going to fall further to the right here, which has got to be a good thing.
Good that George Pierre Hennard was caught and actually was the catalyst for something useful.
I wonder if President Kemp would make a good UN Ambassador for Bellamy?
Nagorno-Karabakh - time for a UN mission to keep the sides apart?
I wonder how Pres Bellamy will deal with the rise of the Technet?
Good work there Russia and Turkestan - those launch sites should return a decent income.
Seems Kemp is leaving a good legacy.
Did Bellamy make any change to NASA Director?

Great chapter @gap80!
OK, so, the Internet is gonna be called the ''TechNet'' eventually ITTL? Seems like a catchier name, (even though I have seen at least one instance of it being called the Internet on this page.) Makes one wonder if the term ''The Information Mine'' could end up conquering the name ''World Wide Web.'' (Please correct me if I'm wrong or forgetting something.)
Chapter 60: February 1989 – December 1989
Chapter 60: February 1989 – December 1989

“Learning is not attained by chance…It must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence.”

– Abigail Adams [1]

…Bellamy laid out her ambitious left-wing agenda in her first State of the Union address, which occurred on February 9, 1989. Her call for implementing guaranteed employment, a National Initiative and Referendum Amendment, and, most importantly in her eyes, the passing of Universal Health Care. She pointed to the stability of the economy as being a sign that the US could afford to make “our next giant leap.” While conservative and libertarian economists, most vocally Murray Rothbard, feared the UHC’s passing would lead to a rise in inflation, Bellamy privately believed that should this occur, a slight tax hike on “wealthier” Americans would offset the situation. Bellamy also called for raising the minimum wage, leading to like-minding politicians proposing such legislation weeks later at the federal level and the state levels...

– Dana Lawson’s Madame President: The Extraordinary Journey of Carol Bellamy, Sunrise Publishing, 2017

Ross had the nickname “Bust ’em up Bobby” in the military for a reason. …After leaving behind a public access show watched by over 80 million people [2], Ross met with state legislatures to win over as many allies as possible. Alaska was suffering from high domestic violence/rape rates due to remote locations and poor transportation capabilities that limited delayed the enforcement of laws. A National Geographic Article from 1983 describe conditions under Governor Bill Clinton that had not changed since: “Self-Dignity suffers daily along the strip of seamy honky-tonks on Anchorage’s Fourth Avenue… Alcohol abuse here makes no distinction between city and village, native or nonnative. One of every nine Alaskan adults has an alcohol problem, one of the worst rates in the country. Now a dry movement sweeps native communities in revulsion against days-long group binges. More than 50 villages have adopted prohibition laws amid drug and alcohol abuse studies supported by the Denton administration. Says Dr. Red Mala, an Eskimo physician… ‘We thought we’d get resistance, but people are so concerned that most communities support it. And we’re going to succeed because we have our roots here, and we have to live with the results.’” [3]

Ross strongly supported the dry movement, and sought to address these concerns by opening up at least two health clinics in every state county, and urged afflicted people to address their recreadrug and alcohol addictions. To this end, Ross also worked with state lawmakers – pressing the more reluctant of them with examples from their respective districts – workers suffering from alcohol, women suffering from violence – that demonstrated how they and their constituents would benefit from reforming the state’s mental health care system – to overhaul the state’s handling of the situation before the end of February 1989. Additionally, Ross donated 50% of his salary to homeless shelters and mental wellness centers across Alaska.

Ross faced difficulty convincing doctors to work in remote clinic locations, and so offered a tax breaks program for out-of-state medical students and physicians willing to relocate to these clinics. Ross also began looking into how to improve police response times in domestic disturbance calls…

– R. Lynn Rivenbark’s With the Stroke of a Brush or Pen: The Life of Bob Ross, Brookings Institution Press, 2012

…The U.S. President finally address the “Food For All” movement when Carol Bellamy reversed Jeremiah Denton’s food program policies, returning the flow of funds to food stamps and the federal W.I.C. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program. I joined Jeff Bridges, Willie Nelson, Cheech Marin and others in rejoicing the turnaround…

– Jim McGovern, 2009 interview

The battle over passing UHC raged across Washington D.C. Its endorsers took to citing historic precedence of recent years. For instance, the United Kingdom launched its universal National Health Service all the way back in 1948. Universal health care was next introduced in the Nordic countries of Sweden (1955), Iceland (1956), Norway (1956), Denmark (1961), and Finland (1964). Universal health insurance was then introduced in Japan (1961), and in Canada through stages, starting with the province of Saskatchewan in 1962, followed by the rest of Canada from 1968 to 1972. Even the Soviet Union extended universal health care to its rural residents in 1969, with Italy following suit in 1978. [4] Universal Healthcare coverage was introduced in South Korea in 1989, and was in the process of being introduced in Taiwan, Israel, Palestine, and Thailand at the time as well. “Most of the former Soviet nations have adopted some form or another, and even developing countries in the Caribbean, Latin America, and Africa are working on bringing their respective populations under universal health care systems. America used to lead the world in innovative ideas; now it’s going to have to play catch-up if it wants to lead the world into the 21st century,” proclaimed US Senator Katie Beatrice Hall (D-IN).

Opponents were often quick to note the differences between the US and other nations, arguing that the US was somehow too unique or complex to properly manage the perceived weighty cost of the UHC. Supporters, however, often countered such notions by pointing to the 18 states that now made up the multistate “Health Pact,” a collection of states with matching universal healthcare coverage. Studies showed that most of these states were better off financially that the states without any form of UHC. Senator Phil Hoff, who brought the Health Pact about by passing UHC in Vermont when he was said state’s governor, received high praise for inadvertently creating a “platform” of sorts on which the positive and negative aspects of UHC could be studied at the state and multistate levels before potential implementation at the federal level…

– T. R. Reid’s Healing America: Medicine and Healthcare in the United States, Penguin Books, 2010

…Per the request of President-Elect Carol Bellamy, Democratic lawmakers established the US Department of Energy and Technology via the aptly-named Department of Energy and Technology Act of 1989. The Senate approved the act 56-39 in early February, allowing for the nomination process of US Senator Peter Kyros to occur swiftly; he entered office on February 28. As the inaugural holder of the newest US Cabinet position, Kyros oversaw the implementation of federal tax breaks for charging power grids with wind-powered or solar-powered electricity instead of nuclear power. An ambitious project, it nevertheless was a transformative milestone in America that was met with fierce opposition from lobbyist from the oil/natural gas, coal, and nuclear power industries…

– Dana Lawson’s Madame President: The Extraordinary Journey of Carol Bellamy, Sunrise Publishing, 2017


Charlottesville, VA – This weekend, the chief executives of 48 states and 3 territories gathered with President Bellamy at the University of Virginia in a muddle of bipartisan fellowship. Determined to bring about consensus on education goals in the U.S. over the next four years, in an effort co-led by Governors Edith Kirkpatrick (D-LA) and John Bayard Anderson (R-IL), the summit aims to establish exact goals for federal and state-wide education programs, and how they could be reached. And, most importantly for D.C., who should foot the bill for the education of the next generation of American citizens?

The Washington Post, 3/5/1989

Dedicated to the job above all else, Carol was a 24-7 President. Burning the midnight oil was common, and calling people as late as 4:00 AM was not unheard of. She would often pretermit pleasantries and instead jump right into the meat of whatever matter she wanted to address …Carol spend hours every day sitting down with congresspersons and cabinet members as Republicans began to mount opposition to key parts of her education reform omnibus package…

– Mary Hatwood Futrell and Diane Silvers Ratich’s Within The Fray: Our Time Inside The Bellamy White House, Cornell University Press, 2014

[pic: ]
– President Bellamy in the Oval Office, 3/11/1989


…the sketch saw Hooks play President Bellamy, presented like an impatient schoolteacher who treats congress and their leaders Bob Byrd (played by regular cast member Dana Carvey) and Bob Dole (played by guest star Norm McDonald) like a classroom of uncooperative students. Trying not to give up hope, Bellamy/Hooks repeatedly tempts to down a swig from a flask on her desk. Finally, the “teacher’s pet,” Senate Education Committee Chair Bronson LaFollette (played by regular cast member Phil Hartman) convinces the class to work on the class project (that being “how to keep Mr. Snuggles from dying without losing our lunch money”) in a purposely-convoluted metaphor for the complexities of converting the nation to universal healthcare without raising taxes...

Variety magazine, 3/12/1989 issue

…Ross reversed Governor Fink’s policy of selling out state land which increased oil production but also timber deforestation. The new Governor reformed oil regulations, expanded restrictions on activities in nature preserves, and established Ecological Protection Zones, or “no tanker” zones, along 75% of the state’s coastline. In Juneau, he worked with moderates in the Republican-majority state legislature to pass an omnibus rural development package in March 1989 that incentivized schools to host smaller classroom sizes and establish one-on-one after-school tutoring programs, and aimed to establish safer-functioning roadways between Fairbanks and Anchorage, and between Juneau and Ketchikan. Concerned for the state’s animals, Ross also became an avid promoter of large wildlife crossings [5] in order to create major public works projects that would lower employment without disturbing local habitats and land migration patterns...

– R. Lynn Rivenbark’s With the Stroke of a Brush or Pen: The Life of Bob Ross, Brookings Institution Press, 2012

America’s President Bellamy responded to most foreign affairs with aid and relief packages. Their Peace Corps returned to the forefront of political news as Bellamy began humanitarian efforts in several countries in Africa and Asia affected by drought and other disasters. However, many Russians did not appreciate her offer to send medical supplies to the cities surrounding Yaroslavl during the flu epidemic that swept the region in 1989. The idea of a former world superpower receiving basic necessities from a former adversary was insults to enough Russians for a few pro-communist demonstrations to occur that year in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other urban areas. Their leaders alleged that the implementation of capitalist democracy was not working as the economic system was “in out-of-control disarray,” referring the Russian recession of 1989. “We [Russians] have lost our sense of identity. No longer are we a great power; we are a shell of our former selves,” said Alexander Rutskoy. One of many vocalizing support for a more socialist welfare system, Rutskoy, a Brigadier General [6], a veteran of the Soviet-Turkestani War, and a founding member of the communistic Patriotic Force political party, famously complained on Gorbachev’s talk radio show “Everyone had everything under communist rule, so everyone got something. We didn’t have the best apartment, but at least everyone had one. Now, privatization has transformed our town, including this very town, for the worse. Homeless people seen are everywhere! I think more people live outside than inside nowadays!” Volkov persevered, believing that the economy would recover once the long-term effects of public works projects and investments came about.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

[pic: ]
– President Bellamy (far left) speaks with her four predecessors (left-to-right: Kemp, Denton, Mondale, and (seated) Sanders) ahead of a White House photo-op, 3/21/1989


Ann Arbor, MI – Dr. Robert E. Anderson [8], the former director of the Health Services department of the University of Michigan, has been denied appeal and will soon begin the 30-year prison sentence he was given at his trial late last year. Anderson was “arked” out of his position at Michigan U in the summer of 1987, after several former athletes, encouraged by news reports concerning similar revelations concerning Dr. Richard Strauss of Ohio State University, came forward with claims that Anderson sexually abused them during medical exams. Police immediately investigated the reports, soon leading to Anderson being arrested in October of said year…

– The Detroit Free Press, 3/26/1989

…Labor Secretary Ralph Nader was incredibly active right off the bat, working closely with the President to combat worker abuse. Nader centralized the department, wanting to be aware of anything and everything that went on under his watch. Both cheap and humble, Bellamy and Nader preferred libraries to spotlights, though the latter was even more camera-shy. Still, the two soon became known for establishing a friendly rapport with one another. The fact that the two unmarried workaholics were often photographed sitting near or next to each other in cabinet meetings, though, led to some reporters, most infamously from the Hollywood Reporter, claim that a budding romance was unfolding. Such rumors went unsubstantiated, with Nader later revealing that he found such postulations to be “frustrating distractions” from “the issues at hand.” Speaking of which, as Labor Secretary, Nader came out against several popular activities over fear of worker safety – Monster truck rallies can damage hearing, sunbathing can give you cancer, and employment at retail stores, in a controversial 1989 study, was linked to depression and alcohol rates. Nader was most relentless, though, when it came to violations of the Occupational Unsafe Conditions and Hazards Act, or OUCHA, of 1966. Updated and expanded twice, Nader believed higher penalties were necessary to incentivize employers of guest visa employees to follow safety regulations, and began work on this front in March 1989…

– Dana Lawson’s Madame President: The Extraordinary Journey of Carol Bellamy, Sunrise Publishing, 2017


The Washington Post, 4/10/1989

…New reports reveal that support for ending Beijing’s actions in Xinjiang is growing considerably among Chinese merchants major and minor, and among politicians large and small, as the People’s Republic of China continues to reel from recession brought on by the international trade embargo…

– BBC World News, 4/11/1989

[pic: ]
– US Senator Harley Sanders walking with his father at the latter’s ranch home in Corbin, Kentucky, 4/12/1989


…concerns over the federal government’s in the debate over abortion – a complicated issue, with details ranging from healthcare coverage to when in the gestation period can or should a pregnancy be terminated to inter-state concerns – are dominating political discussions…

The Washington Post, 4/15/1989

…FBI Director Robert F. Kennedy, with support from Attorney General Amalya Kearse, reformed counter-terrorism procedures, looking to conduct more collaborative missions with state and local law enforcement departments that addressed suspected activities without harming or endangering innocent local civilians. Criminal Justice reforms were much bolder, consistent with the new Director’s long-held attitudes toward corruption of labor workplaces, dating back to as early as his interrogation of James R. Hoffa (1913-1989), a labor leader later imprisoned for twelve years for various crimes, while working as counsel on a US Senate committee in 1957. In April 1989, a month after Hoffa's death from colorectal cancer, Kennedy began to increase taking aim at multiple suspected mafia members across the Eastern Seaboard…

…Agriculture reform under Secretary White to address food insecurity, farm debt, and other concerns culminated in the Agriculture Trade and Conservation Act of 1989, a broad market-oriented bill that temporarily froze target prices and allowed for more planting flexibility among other things. A lingering concern that received greater attention under White was wasted produce – crops lost in shipping and storage, and produce discarded for being too aesthetically unappealing for consumer purchase often being thrown away. White sought to address the former by calling for local sourcing to cut down on transportation measures; the latter issue led to the department launching a media campaign to promote consumer consumption of fruits and vegetables that are “ugly but still delicious”…

– Dana Lawson’s Madame President: The Extraordinary Journey of Carol Bellamy, Sunrise Publishing, 2017

“Education extents to the parents of the children. The phrase ‘it takes a village’ is not an exemption or an exclusion of city dwellers. There are many vital aspects of good child-rearing that cannot be taught in public school or private school. Parents must raise their children with good values, they must appreciate them for who they are and encourage them to enjoy learning. Parents must makes children feel safe, important and loved, and must give their children to ability to attend events important to them in some way or another. A parents must be there when their child is sick; they must spend time talking to them, with them, not merely at them. And parents must be involved in their children’s lives; not just in their school life, but in their personal lives as well. These methods prove time and again to create attentive students and, very importantly, well-adjusted children who can grow to be well-adjust adults.”

– US Secretary of Education Marian Wright Edelman speaking before the US Senate, 4/23/1989

…After just over three years of scandals and controversies – from attempted suppression of freedoms for “security purposes,” to anti-foreigners/anti-immigration executive orders, to wiretapping political opponents, to fighting with teachers unions over books on the Holocaust, to unsuccessful efforts to leave the European Economic Community – President Le Pen faced a High Court impeachment trial with the odds stacked heavily against him. The two charges of the President willingly and willfully violating the constitution were reviewed by the members of the National Assembly, who with the nation’s Senate, acknowledged the impeachment and (in accordance with the 68th Article of the French Constitution) united to form the High Court, which then decided to declare him impeached. The trial began immediately…

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999


…the scandal-ridden incumbent Rajiv Gandhi has lost his bid for re-election in the face of Singh’s unifying anti-Gandhi “Third Front” alliance…

The New York Times, 5/2/1989, 1989 [9]


Washington, DC – The United States Agency for International Development, an independent federal agency responsible for the administering of civilian foreign aid and assistance, today announced that it has successfully sent humanitarian aid to Venezuela to help thousands of refugees there, nearly all of whom stem from Colombia, Venezuela’s western neighbor entrenched in a long-ongoing Civil War. The agency announced that the relief landed in Caracas under the direct supervision of the USAID’s Administrator, former Governor of Puerto Rico Roberto Clemente. “These people need food, medicine, and the opportunity to get their lives together and to keep their families safe until peace returns to their homeland,” Clemente said to reporters in Caracas; he is expected to return to D.C. within the week. The US State Department also reported to have coordinated this shipment of aid with the assistance of military cargo planes in order to assure the fair distribution of supplies such as non-perishable food, medical kits, and hygiene supplies.

Associated Press, 5/11/1989

LE PEN CONVICTED OF DERELICTION OF DUTY; 21st President of France Removed From Office, Making Poher Acting President

…in accordance with the French constitution, the new interim “acting” President is the incumbent President of the senate, Alain Poher. Poher, who turned 80 years old last month, previously served as Acting President in 1965, after President de Gaulle resigned from office over his support for the US-Cuban War… The removal of Le Pen shifts the nation’s voting schedule. Instead of holding the next Presidential election in February 1993 as initially planned, it will be held later this year, “in either June or July,” according to an anonymous member of new Poher government. It is currently unknown whether or not Poher will run for a full seven-year term...

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 17/5/1989

Although I have lived a far from perfect life, my heart and soul belonged wholeheartedly to God, country, and family long before the Navy got hold of me, and long before politics got hold of me, and way long before the Presidency got hold of me.” [10]

– Jeremiah Denton, in his first interview since leaving the White House, KNN, 5/20/1989

…in political news, controversial tech businessman Michael Bloomberg has bowed out of a long-shot bid for Mayor of New York City in the wake of renewed criticism connected to several discrimination and sexual pestering lawsuits from last year. A related class action lawsuit by over a dozen women, all claiming they experienced pregnancy discrimination from Bloomberg, is set to be settled in court later this year…

– NBC News, 5/22/1989 broadcast

NARRATOR: “After graduating from the Polytechnical University of Kabul in 1976, he was conscripted into the military and sent to the Soviet Union to become a pilot; by 1983, he was a chief navigator. During the Soviet-Turkestani War, Mohmand saw active duty but failed to rise in rank above Colonel as Soviet forces ultimately lost the war. After the collapse of the USSR, Mohmand returned to Afghanistan a hero to his home town, and with that status began calling for Afghanistan to invest in technological pursuits. During the late 1980s, as the Soviet Union began to re-invest in space travel, Mohmand became a candidate for cosmonaut training.”

MOHMAND: “I saw an opportunity and I took it. …My mother was distraught over my safety, terrified of me burning up or blowing up, but I told her, ‘I survived warfare. Outer space is a lot more peaceful than warfare, so by that logic I should be fine.’”

Abdul Ahad Mohmand: The First (But Not Last) Afghan In Space, 2010 Saudi Arabian mini-documentary


…intense fighting between ethnic groups in the disputed mountainous region of Jammu & Kashmir has seen logistical problems and high civilian casualties for all factions (Pakistan-backed Kashmiri nationals; Indian military; Muslim, Hindu and even Buddhist militants)… Singh hopes that Pakistan’s Zia-ul-Haq can be convinced to enter talks over how to best resolve the decades-long conflict – if he even agrees on a temporary truce…

– The Chicago Tribune, 5/29/1989


...the “Grand Old Man of Florida” known for his defense of Social Security and Medicare, as well as his strong support for President Bellamy’s UHC Bill plan and for his role in the passing of the Elderly Rights Act of 1971, passed away from cancer earlier today…

The Orlando Sentinel, 5/30/1989

SHIRLEY’S BACK! Rematch Returns de la Hunty to 5 Adelaide Avenue

…former PM and opposition leader Shirley de la Hunty led the Liberal Party to victory tonight over incumbent PM Manfred Cross of the Labor Party. …Labor may have been hurt by the presence of Charles Blunt of the National Party. Blunt received controversial support from far-right individuals such as former Army Minister Bob Katter Sr., MP Bob Katter Jr., and, most notably, media magnate Rupert Murdoch. Murdoch, who owns several newspapers and TV programs in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the UK, supported Blunt “to the point of nausea,” says one Cross supporter “I think a lot of folks turned away from Blunt because of the kind of people he was winning over.” The loss of over half of their seats tonight in a poor showing – winning only 7.1% of the total number of votes cast – may be the final nail in the coffin of the National Party…

The Canberra Times, Australian newspaper, 6/6/1989


The Washington Post, 6/11/1989

…The international “don’t buy from China” campaign that began in 1988 led to some energy companies turning to domestic suppliers to meet demands, if only for the short term. In the US, this shift in economic positioning benefited states such as Wyoming, Texas and Alaska that were rich in natural resources. Wyoming and the plains, especially Kansas, were also quick to capitalize on President Bellamy’s federal subsidies for solar and wind power investments… However, its effect on the economy was a delayed reaction of sorts, possibly being at least partially responsible for the accumulative gradual buildup of socio-economic waffling at the close of the 1980s…

– Welcome to the Big River Flat: The History of Wyoming, Victory Publications, 2019

The Education Reform Bill of 1989 finally made it to the Senate committees, where its basics were reviewed. The bill called for increasing homework loads, and for encouraging parent involvement in the learning process. The most ambitious aspect was its imposing of a “cap” on the number of students per teacher in a single classroom to 25, lower than the national average at the time. The bill also raised the number of required standardized tests per year from typical one to at least two, but also limited the number of tests to no more than four.

As a compromise to conservative Democrats who supported deregulating education entirely – which would potentially lead to a re-opening of the old dispute of teaching evolution in schools – Democrats agreed to impose trade school courses as alternative classes during high school for students focused more on employment than academia. This part was praised and endorsed by “big name” politicians such as Governors Bob Ross (I-AK) and Edith Kirkpatrick (D-LA), and even led to many Republicans finally signing onto the omnibus package.

The bill passed the Senate on June 18, then went to the joint conference committees for fine-tuning in October…

– Dana Lawson’s Madame President: The Extraordinary Journey of Carol Bellamy, Sunrise Publishing, 2017

[pic: ]
– Governor Bob Ross (I-AK) at his office desk, circa June 1989


…last year, Taco Bell came under fire for its contracts with tomato farmers that used illegal workers in their Florida fields. Now those workers face new problems. Tomato production industry took a hit this spring after hundreds of workers were deported in November and December 1988, with only some opting to re-enter the country through legal means due to how long the process still takes... Most of the farm workers have instead returned to their native Cuba, and are now suffering under worse conditions. …“I left Cuba because the American sweatshops there had no air, no room… I cannot go back there.” Gael now lives in Albuquerque, New Mexico with his brother Vicente, who finally became an American citizen last year. Gael has found work as a roof shingles installer. “It’s another hot, sweat-making job, but it still beats the shops.”…

The Santa Fe New Mexican, exposé article, 6/25/1989

is a 1989 American superhero film directed by Tim Burton based on the DC Comics character of the same name, the first of Warner Bros.’ fist Batman film franchise.


Casting for the film was long and complex. Script writer Tom Mankiewicz had wanted an unknown actor for Batman, William Holden for James Gordon, David Niven as Alfred Pennyworth, and Peter O’Toole as the Penguin, whom Mankiewicz wanted to portray as a mobster [11]. Willem Dafoe was cast as the Joker after Jack Nicholson bowed out, after the latter failed to win a higher salary during contract negotiations. African-American actor Demond Wilson was cast as Harvey Dent, a supportive role, while Sean Young as cast as the feminist reporter Silver St. Cloud. Tom Hulce was cast as Alexander Knox, while O’Toole’s Penguin character devolved into a camo appearance.

The most controversial casting choice, however, was the selection of Nicolas Cage for the role of Batman. After Kevin Costner, Christopher Jones, Randy Quaid and Harrison Ford were considered, Cage’s performances in several recent successful films such as Racing With The Moon (1984), Peggy Sue Got Married (1986), Raising Arizona (187) and Moonstruck (1987) convinced Burton to give Cage his first prominent “serious” role. With Cage being 25 at the time of production, the film depicted Bruce Wayne as “being in the earlier years, at the beginning of his years as Batman and at the real start of his adversaries’ origin stories,” described co-writer Warren Skaaren. As a result, many elements were borrowed from the popular “Batman: Year One” comic of 1987. The casting was highly controversial at the time, as many comic book fans believed Cage would not do the role justice. While enthusiastic to play a superhero role, Cage later admitted that as a comic book fan he privately preferred Superman to Batman.

[pic: ] [12]

The film was released in US theaters on June 29, 1989 and was a critical and financial success, earning $444million in box office totals against a budget of $39million [13]. A summer blockbuster and a hit with critics and audiences, much praise was given to Burton for his directing work, while many others were surprised at actors Nicholas Cage and Demond Wilson being able to successfully carry serious, dramatic roles. Cage depicting Bruce Wayne as a quirky eccentric billionaire in order to “reconceive the character” as a caring hero out of touch with normal human behavior was praised by critics for adding depth to Wayne/Batman, while some audiences considered it “disrespectful” to suggest Wayne/Batman is a “flawed” character. Nevertheless, the film boosted the careers of several actors involved and led to several sequels as public interest in the Batman character increased. In 1990, a prequel, “Batman: Year One,” set five years before the first film and again starring Nicolas Cage, was greenlit…



– The Guardian, UK newspaper, 30/6/1989

…Albania’s movement to join Yugoslavia is being met by two other movements – one that calls for a restoring of the monarchy, and another calling for the southeastern European nation to become a part of the United States [14]. The monarchist movement is gaining traction as the newly-capitalist country contemplates taking a step back, or returning to what has worked for them in the past… In the United States, support for Albania becoming their 51st state is being met with lighthearted support as more Americans are becoming aware of the European nation’s existence, with it becoming a focus of interest to some who are perplexed and/or humorously entertained by the country’s seemingly serious notion…

– BBC World News, 1/7/1989 report


…the breakdown of negotiations over possible changes to the 1982 constitution comes in the midst of disapproval of Chretien’s latest tax proposals. Already suffering from poor approval ratings for his labelling his tax hikes as “tax shifts” and other issues, Chretien is facing rising pressure from fellow members of the Liberal party to either change course or step down, according to a source close to parliament…

– The Calgary Sun, Canadian newspaper, 7/5/1989


– The Washington Post, 7/8/1989

Music during America's "Bellamy Years" definitely saw some major shakeups. More victorious-sounding music from feminist rockers. Cyndi Lauper I think wrote an album on women empowerment, and some of the beat were actually pretty catchy. Riot Grrrl became a thing, so, yeah I think Bellamy really did a number on gender stereotypes, only this time the feminists were, like, they didn’t want to become complacent, you know? It was like they thought they took their eyes off of sexism after the first Ark Wave, and that had necessitated a second one, I guess. Anyway, I mean, I was more into the punk rock groups popping out of the former Warsaw Pact nations. The Hungarian band group Locomotiv GT, and the “pleasing” style of that Klari Katona, she and Locomotiv GT had this nice mix of Tommy Chong’s reeflex rock and newer jazz styles. They really took off internationally.

– Hungarian singer-songwriter Linda Kiraly, 2018 interview


The Washington Post, 8/12/1989


– The New York Times, 8/15/1989

Pundits were mostly correct in assuming that the 1989 election would see a return to more traditional contests of the past, with the exception of the unexpected rise of the French Green party. Heading into the first round, the parties watched the most closely were the UDF and the Socialist Alliance. The Union for French Democracy (UDF), a big-tent party that was right-of-center for domestic, social, and economic policies (essentially supporting classical liberalism), but was also heavily pro-NATO and pro-European, was founded in 1978 soon after the election of President Mouroy. National Assembly member Jean-Claude Gaudin, a 50-year-old centrist with liberal and conservative appeal, became their standard bearer. The Socialist Alliance, meanwhile, saw a heated debate over who to nominate: former foreign policy advisor Jean-Christophe Mitterrand (b. 1946); progressive National Assembly member Michel Rocard (b. 1930), noted for often sparring with Le Pen; and Henri Emmanuelli (b. 1945), former Secretary of State for Budget and former Secretary of State for Consumption were the top three contenders. Ultimately, the socialists rallied behind former member of European Parliament, former member of National Assembly and French Senator since 1986 Claude Estier (b. 1925). The candidate of the far-right was National Front nominee and Le Pen advisor Maurice Papon, while the progressive National Assembly member Brice Lalonde (b. 1946) ran as the Green party’s nominee. Two centrist candidates – Rene Monory (Center) and Raymond Barre (Independent) – were on the ballot as well.

On 9 July 1989, Estier came in first, while Gaudin underperformed and came in third behind Lalonde. Many pundits pointed to center-right candidate Raymond Barre, the former PM of France who ran as an Independent, possibly siphoning votes away from Gaudin, while others noted Gaudin’s campaign as being too milquetoast and uninspiring in his effort to present himself as a calm and lucid politician. Others still believed Lalonde winning endorsements from several French and international celebrities, from Jean-Marc Barr and Charlotte Gainsbourg to John Lennon, brought greater attention to his campaign, possibly explaining his rise from 5% in early June to 20% in early July.

Ahead of the 23 July 1989 runoff, Estier and Lalonde ran positive campaigns that uplifted the nation’s spirits. While Estier won the second and final round of voting by a 15% margin, Lalonde advancing to the runoff in the first place was a boon to the country’s newly-established Green party. Estier assumed office a week later, on 30 July.

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999

CHRETIEN CALLS IT QUITS!: Will Step Down In Three Months!

…In the face of declining popularity and indications that the Liberals will lose the next federal elections if he remains said party’s leader, Prime Minister Chretien has succumbed to the private urgings of his political allies, says one anonymous source. Chretien has announced that he will retire from the office of Prime Minister on September 29, giving his party roughly three months to find a successor…

The Daily Courier, Canadian newspaper, 7/31/1986

Suspicious that the politburo would turn against him if the economy worsened any further, potentially leading to another bloody war like the one that almost devastated the nation’s economic centers in 1975, Li finally buckled under the pressure. In early August, he called for the Party Chairman (me), his chief diplomat Zhao Ziyang, his propaganda leader Li Na, and his Vice Chairman Lee Teng-hui to meet with him in Beijing for a pivotal meeting.

“We will reverse course.” Li instructed us. “The attempts to re-educate the Uyghurs is a failure.”

“Surely we are in the right,” Ziyang was bold enough to say.

“Of course we are right!” Li bellowed. “It’s just that the rest of the world won’t acknowledge it. And unfortunately, when we opened our doors to the world, that meant accepting the benefits and detriments of the world, ignorance and opportunity.” He sighed “Had we never opened up, we wouldn’t have this problem.” Fearful of saying something that would lead to our being fired, we sat there nodding slightly. Li continued, “but this has benefitted us. With the Soviet Union gone, we lead the communist world. However, we cannot be a beacon of hope to our impoverished brothers abroad if our economy is so easily ruined by outside influencers.”

“So…we are severing ties with the west?” Lee said in a way that indicated that he was requesting clarification.

“Of course not – we are ending the wasting of resources! Try to teach the Uyghurs...ha! How foolish Deng was! If they refuse to live like us, fine! Let them have their deserts and mountains.”

“So long as we can still access the resources within, yes?” Li Na postulated.

“Yes. We’ll use their land, but allow them to partake in their pitiful little traditions. It is more important for all of us to return focus to redeveloping the north, to open more natural resource projects in those mountains. Heavy industry. Energy production. Rare Earth minerals. Nuclear power. Manchuria is our nation’s true future!”

Through liaisons, Li Xiannian’s allies met with surrogates of America’s President Bellamy, UK PM Alastair Goodlad, Russia’s Vlad Volkov, and several other political and business world figures leading the charge against his nation’s economy in order to discuss trade deal possibilities. Back-channel negotiations included discussing the possibility of allowing Tibet and Xinjiang to have greater autonomy in exchange for better trade deals with Europe and America. The UK’s Goodlad and France’s Astier agreed. The US did so as well, but only after Bellamy applied pressure to get Li to agree to also allow for foreign companies to invest in state-run operations in Manchuria.

– Bo Yibo’s The Dragon and The Eagle: Chinese and American Dances, Daggers and Dinners, English translation, 1998


Claims “Our Movement [To] Enlighten” Ethnic Groups In Western China “A Success”

…in the official internationally-televised announcement, Li repeatedly noted that the “excellent policy” was the brainchild of his predecessor, Deng Xiaoping… …one source states anonymously that Li is “still pursuing strong anti-reform measures to impose greater state control over China’s markets at all levels…” [snip] …it is believed that the PRC’s politburo hopes that is reversal of their internationally-condemned treatment of ethnic minorities in their westernmost provinces will lead to companies resuming trade and business with the nation, alleviating China’s economy enough for it to be lifted out of recession. Leading politicians in China may also be anticipating a drop in Uyghur terror attacks and the end of calls for the independence of Xinjiang and Tibet, which, allegedly, some in the politburo feared could spark a war of secession in Central Asia similar to the bloody one that occurred between the USSR and United Turkestan just a few years ago…

– The Associated Press, 8/8/1989

After forty minutes and what seemed like the millionth painful bump in what was a road in name only, Colonel Sanders told his translator the clichéd line “I think I’m starting to get too old for this.” At the age of almost 99 years, the food proprietor-turned-humanitarian diplomat needed to rely on both his cane and a travel guide’s helping hand to carefully climb out of the vehicle.

Base Commander Pervaiz Mehdi Qureshi, a.k.a. P.Q. Mehdi of the Pakistan Air Force, had already arrived from the strategic military base of Rawalpindi, near Pakistan’s capital of Islamabad. Sanders had begrudgingly agreed to meet with Mehdi outside of Baramulla, Jammu & Kashmir, where they were to work as unofficial “go-betweens” for Pakistan’s Zia and India’s Ramaswamy Venkataraman “V.P.” Singh, respectively, during peace talks [15]. Mehdi supported the Colonel’s “intervention,” believing he could “do for us what he did for Jerusalem” before the situation escalated into a nuclear confrontation, as both nations in question still in possessed atomic warheads at this time (despite years-long denuclearization movements pressuring both governments to reverse course).

“I’m mainly doin’ this not as a favor to the Veep,” his nickname for Singh, “but because I wouldn’t be a good Christian or a good man if I turned down a chance to help end a war this out of hand,” the Colonel said as the group entered the meeting place. The surrounding landscape was typical of the region in the summer, its mountainous-but-humid terrain reminding the Colonel of southern Colorado.

Sanders’ calls to end companies doing business with both countries until a ceasefire was declared had been much less successful than the international effort to economically pressure China into ending their “camps” policy. As such, Zia wondered why his “Indian counterparts” had worked to get the Colonel to try and broke a peace deal. According to his aide, Zia believed India only want peace because Pakistani forces were close to having to retreat from the region. Despite Zia-ul-Haq’s best efforts to make his country a military powerhouse in the region, Pakistan’s losses were heavier and their firepower was inferior. Additionally, America’s newest President, Carol Bellamy, had reversed the course set out by Presidents Denton and Kemp by ending the US’s quiet support of the strongly pro-US Zia [16] and becoming a neutral party. “I spoke with Bellamy,” Mehdi told the Colonel, “I and Zia do not believe she understands the situation; you, though, Colonel. You are more experienced. I trust your assessment more. And Zia trusts me.”


The Colonel suggested, “Religion is a central and vitally important part of life. Whether you’re Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, or Christian like me, we all want the same thing, to do what’s right, to make our maker proud. To keep our loved ones safe. This war’s doin’ none of that. We are not priests, or rabbis, or imams, or bhikkhus – ”

“ – But the region is very religious,” Mehdi interjected.

“And it’s intertwined with military and politics, I know!”

“So the two of us, two religious politicians with military backgrounds,” the Colonel decided not to correct Mehdi’s use of the common misconception, “We have to do what makes sense from a governing viewpoint, from a military standpoint, and from a religious viewpoint, with respect to religious groups,” Mehdi replied.

“With respect to religion and to everyone involved,” the Colonel added.

The two men looked over the maps again, a collection showing the overlapping land claims, local support, and religious diversity of the area. “Sunnis make up a majority of the region, the heaviest numbers here and along here,” Mehdi dragged his finger across Jammu and the valley. “They prefer joining Pakistan, while Shias prefer in independence, but will take joining Pakistan over joining India.”

The Colonel circled the area with his pen and said “I’ve talked with the Veep, he says he’s willing to give y’all this if y’all relinquish this area over here…


While the Colonel was privately disgusted by Zia-ul-Haq’s oppressive record, he admitted that the ends – like ending warfare between two nuclear powers – sometimes justified the means – like tolerating a dictatorial leader. As the Colonel put it, “You can’t stay clean when you mud wrestle.”

– David Tal’s US Strategic Arms Policy After the Cold War: Globalization & Technological Modernization, Routledge, 2020

The results of the August 20 “Status Referendum” were the following: 51.1% voted in favor of Albania joining Yugoslavia, 32.3% voted for their country joining the United States, and 10.2% voted in favor of Albania remaining independent, while only 6.4% voted for Albania returning to a monarchist state. International organizations observed that the referendum received merely 39% voter turnout. Nevertheless, “pro-Yugo” Albanian leaders considered the results a mandate clearly showing what future Albanians wanted for themselves. However, Albanian President Sali Berisha, though, opposed acting on the referendum due to said “low” voter turnout, instead declaring the referendum to be “inconclusive.” This action led to riots sprouting up once again in Tirana…


In response to the high amount of votes cast for joining the US, America’s President Bellamy offered signing trade deals to increase Albania’s economic conditions, opening Albanian markets to American products; more substantial educational programs such as a stronger student exchange program were also established by the end of 1990…

– Tajar Zavalani’s The Albanian People: A Fiery History, London Books, 2015

[pic: ]
– Governor Bob Ross (I-AK), while overseeing oil pollution cleanup efforts, inspects the quality of a river uphill from Prince William Sound, 8/19/1989


…the millionaire businessman has been ordered by a New York City court to pay over $17.5million, excluding additional legal fees, to 18 women who experienced a host of sexist pestering incidents from Bloomberg…

The New York Post, 8/23/1989

…The results have been finalized, and they have again confirmed without ambiguity that Steve Biko of the BCM/Inkatha Freedom (People’s) Party will succeed the retiring Nelson Mandela into the office of President of South Africa. Biko won over Mandela’s preferred successor, Deputy President Walter Sisulu of the ANC, along with notable third-place finisher Keorapetse Kgositsile, an Independent supportive of Mandela. These election results are worrisome for many both here and in South Africa due to Biko’s past militant activities and for his past anti-white rhetoric. If he indeed aims to stay true to his campaign promises, Biko will have to tread carefully if he wishes his administration to be a success “without significant input” from the white South Africans, and Biko explains it…

– BBC World News, 25/8/1989 broadcast


The Houston Chronicle, 8/27/1989

…The TV movie, “The Colonel Governor,” focuses on an often-overlooked part of Colonel Sanders’ long and colorful career, his four years as the Governor of Kentucky. Despite numerous variables working in their favor – mainly, a solid cast that included Jack Lemmon as the Colonel and Polly Bergen as Claudia Sanders, and covering interesting real-life events ranging from the Sturgis Standoff to the Cumberland River Flood to Sanders’ fights with state legislatures – the filmmakers dropped the ball on this one. Despite best efforts, the film fails to deliver a truly gripping depiction of the living legend… A spiritual successor of sorts to the 1983 film “The Colonel President,” most moviegoers may want to seek out any one of the many other films about the Colonel that are more worthy of their time...

– author and film critic Richard Schickel, article for Time Magazine, early September 1989 issue

…The India-Pakistan Peace Treaty of 1989 was a landmark “reorganization” treaty. It yielded Azad Kashmir, Baltistan and Gilgit to Pakistan on the proviso that Pakistan keep the region demilitarized for ten years. India would retain all remaining regions but were also bound to keep their spoils demilitarized for ten years as well. This was not satisfying to the Pakistani-majority regions found outside of the Kashmir valley farther to the south and to the east of the region’s center, as they still fell under Indian jurisdiction. To counter this, Colonel managed to convince Singh, and (through Mehdi) Zia, to allow travel between India and Pakistan to be freer, lowering visa limitations while also increasing the use of local-based non-military security personnel…

– David Tal’s US Strategic Arms Policy After the Cold War: Globalization & Technological Modernization, Routledge, 2020


…the President has ended her “freezing” of relations with both nations just hours after the signing of the binational accord… tensions seem to be cooling as military officers return home from a four-years-long confrontation that ended between 3,000 and 4,000 lives in total…

The Washington Post, 9/10/1989


…Copps was victorious in the third round of voting, defeating Paul Martin Jr., Garth Turner, Herb Gray, and Hazel McCallion, the last of whom was drafted into running at the last moment and withdrew after the first round. A prominent member of the Liberal Party’s left-wing faction since joining Parliament via a by-election in 1982, Copps supports women’s rights, minority rights, the legalization of “safe” recreadrugs such as marijuana used for medicinal purposes, and greater conservation and anti-pollution efforts to protect the environment without crippling energy production vital to the economies of the dominion’s western provinces…

The Globe And Mail, Canadian newspaper, 9/21/1989

Yeah, I originally was into swimming like my sister is, but then Hurricane Hugo happened. That storm swept through my town [in the U.S. Virgin Islands], back in, uh, September ’89, and it messed up the only Olympic-sized swimming pool on the island. I tried swimming in the ocean, but, you know, sharks. So, uh, then I got into my head – I was kind of inspired by President Kemp – he was a decent-enough guy who got the shaft despite helping out a lot of people with tenant ownership, you know – and so I thought, since he was a former NFL player, the idea of trying out for football sounded pretty good. I mean, I’m 6-foot-11, about 250 pounds, I figured I’d be good at it. Guess I was right.

– MVP-winning NFL player Tim Duncan of the Dallas Cowboys, 2001 ESPN interview [17]

Copps officially began her tenure as Prime Minister on September 29, just under two months before her 37th birthday. This made Copps Canada’s youngest-ever Prime Minister, as the previously youngest-ever PM, Arthur Meighen, took office shortly after turning 46. …The media declared her sky-high approval ratings “Anniemania.” Seen as a younger, bolder and to some an even more controversial version of her predecessor, Copps was practically idolized by younger and more urban voters. Riding on a decent economy and a popularity surrounding her youthful energy and personality, along with her combative style, Copps and the Liberal party were expected to win the next general election…


…The Dixie Chicks bluegrass country band was formed in 1989. Their upbeat, yet conservative personas, combined with their feminist ideals, led to them obtaining widespread appeal, making them very popular at the start of the 1990s...

– Feminist writer Eleanor Clift’s The Way We Never Were, Simon & Shuster, 2002

U-2, Syngman Rhee, L.B.J. and Alan Freed
Chubby Checker, “Psycho,” Belgians in the Congo

We didn’t start the fire
It was always burning since the world’s been turning
We didn’t start the fire
No we didn’t light it, but we tried to fight it

Hemingway, Eichmann, Tommy Chong and his band
Fast-food Cold War, Stranger in a Strange Land
Lawrence of Arabia, Beatnik-Shoutnik mania
Che and Cam, John Glenn, Liston beats Patterson
Pope Paul, Malcolm X, British politician sex
Salad Oil Stock Collapse, who knew what would happen next?

We didn’t start the fire
It was always burning since the world’s been turning
We didn’t start the fire
No we didn’t light it, but we tried to fight it

To the Moon, Manson loon, Vienna, Ms. Arkansas
Soweto, Jerrie Cobb, Healthy Elvis, Painter Bob
K.F.C. Peace Talks, S.N.L. and Alois Mock
Hardcore metal, gay sex, Athens get Olympics

Trojan Tower, Guitar Gordon, Trailblazers get Michael Jordan
Dingle Foot, Gaddafi oust, Perverts in the White House
Second Arkwave Movement born, Chinese politburo’s torn
Rock-and-roller Burger Wars, I can’t take it anymore

We didn’t start the fire
It was always burning since the world’s been turning
We didn’t start the fire

But when we are gone, will it still burn on, and on, and on, and on

We didn’t start the fire
It was always burning since the world’s been turning
We didn’t start the fire
No we didn’t light it, but we tried to fight it

We didn’t start the fire
It was always burning since the world’s been turning
We didn’t start the fire
No we didn’t light it, but we tried to fight it

– Billy Joel’s hit single “We Didn’t Start The Fire,” released 9/27/1989


The Washington Post, 10/1/1989

“VIRGINIA IS FOR LOVING”: Plaintiffs Of Landmark Supreme Court Case Endorse Terry In Governor’s Race

…Mildred and Richard Loving, a Carolina County couple famous for their role in the 1967 US Supreme Court ruling that struck down the banning of interracial marriage, today jointly appeared at a rally for the Democratic nominee for Governor of Virginia, state Attorney General Mary Sue Terry…

The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 10/2/1989


Washington, DC – Workers rejoice. The minimum wage is set to increase in 48 jurisdictions in 1990. The increases will be in 21 states, 17 cities, and 10 counties, according to the advocacy group Decent Employment Project DC. Most of these change are set to begin on New Year’s Day, while others are set to begin much later on in the year. “These raises will put much-needed money into the hands of the lowest-paid workers, many of whom struggle with high and ever-increasing costs of living,” says a representative of DEPDC. The move comes after years of attempts to raise the wage in all fifty states failed, including when the 1986 Wage Raise Bill failed to pass the Senate, and similar bills met similar fates in 1981 and 1984. The move also comes after the Farm Aid Concerts held annually since 1985 increased national awareness of poor farming wages, and after several small-scale wage-related worker strikes hit several states last year…

The Washington Post, 10/5/1989


…“if employers have to pay their workers more, then they’ll just hire less workers”…

The Wall Street Journal, 10/6/1989


…the bill for overhauling of America’s health insurance and hospitals system in the biggest expansion of coverage since Medicare and Medicaid in 1962 is being held up by lawmakers concerned over one’s “freedom of choice,” i.e. the ability to option out of UHC and choose a private healthcare system….

The San Francisco Chronicle, 10/8/1989

The argument on whether or not to return to the moon, over a decade since cosmonauts landed, renewed focus on the Soyuz 42 and Soyuz 7K-T tragedies of 1980 and 1971, respectively. “At this point, technology for travel to Mars, landing on Mars, and returning to Earth and landing on Earth is very unreliable. This administration must not send any of our brave men or women to Mars without knowing they can return home alive. The process must be tested with robots, probes, satellites, and rovers until we can lower the failure rate. That will take a lot time, and it will be very costly for a good long while,” argued Vladimir Chub, a conservative politician and a leading member of a group of Moscow politicians opposed to space travel investments in general, on a TV talk show on October 10, 1989. Chub explain, “In the meantime, we can focus on more immediate concerns. Opening more hospitals and medical programs in our schools and universities, ending hunger, assuring heat for our most northern and most isolated communities. By the time that’s all done, Mars will still be out there, still waiting for us to explore, and eventually, travel there will be less expensive and much less dangerous.”

President Volkov’s counterargument the next day was “I agree with him [Vladimir Chub]; we do need to open more medical schools and improve the quality of life for all Russians. But Chub is wrong in assuming that we can’t do that and return to space at the same time. We are not aiming for Mars yet, but that does not mean that we should give up on space travel at all. The construction of space-related massive public works projects – constructing rockets, launching sites in and out of Russia – that all will require jobs – jobs that will provide financial security and wellness to all the Russian workers involved. These projects will let the Russian people out of poverty today and let us into the stars tomorrow.”

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995

On October 17, said next test of her abilities came in the form of a 6.9 earthquake hitting the San Francisco Bay Area. Dubbed the Loma Prieta Earthquake, the disaster left 93 people dead and over 5,000 injured [18]. The counties of Monterey and Santa Cruz were heavily damaged from ground failures and landslides. Most of those deaths were on toppled freeways; striking at 5:04 PM local time, when the rush-hour traffic was heavier than usual, hundreds of drivers were affected. The Bay Area’s transportation structure failures were catastrophic and embarrassing for the state government. Collapse of the Nimitz Freeway was particularly deadly, killing dozens.

Bellamy worked with ODERCA and California’s Governor, Donald Kennedy, to ensure swift and immediate action. While Vice President Litton met with congressional leaders in D.C. to work on procuring federal funds for emergency relief, local Californian officers and volunteers began restoring power and searching the rubble for survivors. Police directing traffic and maintaining order at hospitals and stores led to looting and riots being at a level that was much lower than was expected for a quake so severe.

…Among the notable deaths was MLB center fielder Brett Butler of the San Francisco Giants… MLB Commissioner Lee Iacocca offered his condolences upon the news being confirmed, and a moment of silence was held before the final game of the 1989 World Series between the Toronto Blue Jays and the Chicago Cubs being held in Illinois that same day (despite home-turf advantage, Cubs lost 5-2)…

…With extensive studies of how to best reinforce existing transportation lines and with freeway/highway repair underway immediately, Governor Kennedy made it a pledged priority to “restore the bay” within the next five years...

– Doris Helen Kearns Goodwin’s Leadership In Turbulent Times, Simon & Schuster, 2018

[vid: youtube: /watch?v=31bsZhbTQOg ]
– KFC commercial featuring Colonel Sanders, first aired 10/20/1989 (note: the Colonel is seated throughout the ad due to his declining health)

TYPHOON GAY DISSIPATES AFTER DAYS OF CARNAGE: Powerful Storm Leaves Thailand’s Chumphon Province Devastated

– The Honolulu Star-Advertiser, 11/4/1989


…in the biggest Republican victory of the night, Congressman Parris was elected Virginia’s next Governor over state Attorney General Mary Sue Terry… the election may be a form of social backlash to last year's election of our first female President - exit polls reveal that male turnout was higher than usual tonight. However, conservative counties saw high turnout as well, suggesting tonight's results were a rejection of Bellamy's progressivism...

The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/7/1989


…Incumbent Acting Mayor Andrew Stein, as the President of the New York City Council, became Acting Mayor upon Bellamy’s resignation last December; Stein lost the Democratic nomination for a full term to Congressman Koch... Democrat Edward Irving Koch, 65, has represented the Empire state’s 17th, then 18th, district in the US House for over twenty years. Allard K. Lowenstein, 60, represented the state’s fifth district in the US House from 1969 to 1971 as a Democrat, then switched to the short-lived Progressive Party before successfully running for the Liberal party nomination for Mayor earlier this year. …Koch won a plurality, with Lowenstein coming in second place, but 9 points behind Koch; Republican nominee Ronald S. Lauder came in third, while Conservative nominee Henry F. Hewes came in fourth place with only roughly 4% of the vote…

The Daily Record, New Jersey newspaper, 11/7/1989

…Alright, this morning’s top news story is last night’s election results. It was a real nail-biter for those of us who cared about it, but the state elections board just announced it’s all over, the recount in two counties, everything. Incumbent Governor Gloria A. Decker, a moderate Democrat, has been re-elected, albeit by a razor-thin margin, over state Attorney General W. Cary Edwards, a centrist Republican…

– New Jersey’s WIBG 1020 AM, 11/8/1989 radio broadcast


…the bill, which was approved by a joint conference committee last month, “adjusts” state requirements in order to raise grade school graduation levels and collage enrollment levels by regulating smaller classrooms and placing greater emphasis on homework and one-on-one tutoring programs, though the bill also allows school districts to create vocational school programs as well. The new law will come into effect in January, but grade schools will not have to comply with the bill regulations until next July, in order to not disrupt curricula mid-way through classes…

The Washington Post, 11/18/1989

The anger is still in me, but it’s mellowed. It started doing so in 1989, shortly after I turned 50. I was tired of running. Tired of hiding. I wanted to return home. In November, I dropped in on my brother Bobby. When he answered the door he was so shocked he turned as white as a klansman. “Didn’t you die?” he joked once he caught his second wind. I hadn’t seen him since shortly before Mom’s death two years prior, and even then, I didn’t stay for long. Just a quick hi-and-bye. But this time, it was good to be back, even if just for a while longer.

Needing work, an old friend from my pro-Castro days grabbed a spot for me at an alternate newspaper in San Francisco; after a week, I said goodbye to Bobby once more. San Francisco started out fun, until a gay guy spitted in my face when I called him a freak for wearing white after Labor Day, but then again, he may not have heard said follow-up explanation for the one-word comment. Well aware of what you can get from them, I had myself tested at a nearby walk-in clinic. I didn’t get any Sexually-Acquired System Immunity Failure Virus, or “SASIF” Virus, but that close call scared me into moving again, after only three months at the paper, to someplace where I was more comfortable. To a place where my anti-government, anti-establishment, pro-gun and anti-abortion sentiments would be respected – Montana.

…All my life, I wanted a comfortable job, and to accomplish this, I had earned a CPA while living in Mexico. I reinvented myself in Missoula. I changed my name, my look, my backstory. I got an apprenticeship at a local bank before landing a cushy desk job at an accounting firm. And I remarried.

The thoughts of Marina having raised our children with another man instead of with me pained me, so I pushed them out of my mind. I found a young local woman who believed in traditional family values, and who didn’t care much for who I once was or where I came from. We had two children together – Robert Karl, born in 1991, and Irina Catherine, born in 1993.

…By the end of the 1990s, I found myself being much less temperamental than I once was, and I think I know why. Every day, I’d pack up my stuff and come home to greet my son and daughter at the door without having to wash up. No car oil or grease, no dirt from fields, no newspaper ink. Accounting can be boring, but it doesn't leave you filthy.

I had found serenity not in hating the evils of America but in loving my family more. They were what mattered to me more than anything else. And I was happy with that.

– Lee Harvey Oswald’s autobiography Call Me By My Real Name: Confessions From a Fallen Hero, published posthumously

The rising intensity of the drug lord epidemic led to Mexico’s President Alvarez being wounded in an attempt on his life. On November 19, a cam bomb detonated near the back entrance of the President’s official residence of Los Pinos, Mexico City, just as Alvarez was exiting the building. Alvarez received minor burns to his back and a multiple cuts and wounds on his upper back and right arm. While the assassination attempt created sympathy for Alvarez and further support for his policies, the fact that recreadrug pusher came so close with detection from the President’s security forces made some fear and question how powerful these criminal organizations were becoming.

Back in the states, Bellamy believed that an increase in decent work and fair pay employment programs for Mexican labors and for visa workers in the US would lead to a drop in crime. Based loosely on the model she had used as Mayor of New York City to lower crime rates, Bellamy also launched further proposals such as a US-Mexico Crime Task Force to ensure collaboration between Mexican and US law enforcement officials to reign in the chaos unfolding in northern Mexican states. Her National Security Advisor Elmo Hunter became an unofficial drug control consultant to both Presidents as both sought to handle the situation before it became even more out of hand…

– Dana Lawson’s Madame President: The Extraordinary Journey of Carol Bellamy, Sunrise Publishing, 2017


…loyalist forces swiftly overwhelmed the rebel soldiers led by renegade Colonel Gregorio Honasan, leading to his capture earlier today, after almost three full days of warfare across the nation’s capital and military bases...

The Honolulu Star-Advertiser, 12/3/1989


…Credit for Aquino’s forces being able to immediately outmaneuver Honasan’s troops, weapons and airpower could belong to the CIA, not to President Aquino. “Under President Bellamy, US military intelligence is becoming a prominent part of America protecting itself and its allies from would-be agitators,” says an anonymous source close to CIA Director Togo West. “US military intelligence learned of Honasan’s plans days or possibly even weeks ahead of this coup attempt, giving Aquino and her allies time to figure out a counterattack,” the source claims. If true, the revelation explains her successful repulsion of the coup, but could tarnish the former President’s popularity in the island nation…

The New York Post, 5/13/1997


NIXON: Colonel? It’s Nixon.

COLONEL: Ah hey, Nixy, long time no speak! [yawn] How’ve you been? And why are you callin’ me at…almost 11 o’clock at night? I told you, I’m not that much of a night owl anymore.

NIXON: My apologies, Colonel, but I thought you’d like to know before the press began houndin’ you.

SANDERS: Know what?

NIXON: Remember back when Oslo snubbed you?


NIXON: Back in ’78. Secretary Carter got to share a Nobel Prize with Sadat and Begin instead of you.

SANDERS: Oh, that. Dick, we’ve been through this, I was okay with being let off of it. No more than three people could share a prize, and I was alright with it. I was just happy to help.

NIXON: It was an injustice, Colonel. You got the ball rolling on it, Carter just pushed it past the finish line.

SANDERS: Seriously, Nix, I’m fine. I don’t need a Nobel.

NIXON: Well you’re getting one anyway.


NIXON: I just got off the phone with the Nobel Foundation to confirm what I heard through my European grapevines. You are absolutely winning the Nobel Peace Prize. You should be getting a call real soon from Stockholm to tell you, too, and the official announcement is going to be live 5:00 am where you are, but I’ll probably be asleep during it, right?

SANDERS: What’re ya talkin’ about, Nixo? A Nobel Prize, for what?

NIXON: For bringing India and Pakistan to the negotiation table, remember?

SANDERS: But that just happened. We don’t even know how long it’ll keep the peace over there. What good is it if in, like, just two years or so, they’re at each other’s throats again like two roosters fighting over a hen?

NIXON: Doesn’t matter. It was a big thing for India and Pakistan. And for the Nobel Foundation. It may have taken you another decade, but you’re finally getting that award, Colonel.

SANDERS: [silence]

NIXON: Colonel? Colonel, you still there?

SANDERS: Uh? Oh, uh, yeah I’m still here, I’m just thinking… a Nobel Peace Prize. Well, by gum, if that don’t beat all.

– Colonel Sanders and Richard Nixon, phone conversation recorded in Nixon’s Senate office, 12/9/1989 (recorded on Nixon’s personal tapes; transcript released in 1995)


The New York Times, 12/11/1989


The Washington Post, 12/14/1989


…aiming to “kill two birds with one stone” – to lower unemployment and poverty and to pursue space exploration – the new projects include the Russian production of two more sections of the I.S.S., expected to begin being fully operational within a few months… The announcement seems to be the conclusion of months of debate over Russia’s place on the stage of international space travel – despite the USSR’s shortfalls, mishaps, and failures, we are picking up where the old government system left off, and will be a major player in mapping humanity’s quests among the stars after all...

The Moscow Times, Russian newspaper, 12/16/1989


The Louisville Times, 12/20/1989

[pic: ]
– The Colonel waving to supporters from his wheelchair upon leaving Norton Audubon Hospital, Louisville, KY, 12/23/1989

DOW DROPS 500 POINTS IN RESPONSE TO INFLATION WOES: After 11 Years, Is U.S. Economic Expansion Ending?

The New York Times, 12/30/1989


The Financial Times, 12/31/1989

[1] OTL quote.
[2] Number from OTL article from 1990:
[3] Italicized parts are from an OTL issue: National Geographic, Vol. 163, No. 2 (February 1983 issue), page 166 (I own several old National Geographic magazines. I’m actually proud of the one I have from 1919 – there’s no picture on the front cover!).
[4] Italicized parts were pulled from here:
[5] These things:
[6] He’s only a Brigadier General instead of a Major General here because without the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Rutskoy fails to rise in rank amid overseeing Soviet forces in Turkestan. He still flies several combat missions, but not enough to earn him the Hero of the Soviet Union award title like he did in 1988. Thus, he is not that prominent here, at least not militarily.
[7] Alternative picture (though please note that in it Bellamy is much closer to the camera than to her predecessors; I’m not sure if that’s clear or not with this picture, hence ultimately deciding not to use it):
[8] This guy:
[9] This election was held in November 1989 IOTL; here, it was pushed up due to the more intense concerns over both the Kashmir conflict and Pakistan’s leader lowering Gandhi’s popularity even further and faster than in OTL.
[11] Italicized part is from here:
[12] Here’s an earlier, rejected version of Cage in a bat suit (where it’s more recognizably him due to the use of that buggy-eyes meme):
[13] An extra four million due to the money saved + money not acquired in the first place by hiring Dafoe instead of Nicholson.
[14] Similar to OTL, in which “At the time of ex-Secretary of State James Baker's visit in 1992, there was even a move to hold a referendum declaring the country as the 51st American state,” the movement stemming from Woodrow Wilson’s role in assuring Albanian independence after World War One (
[15] This guy gets chosen for this more diplomatic role because of his tendencies of OTL: “he is credited for advising against the all-out war with India to Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, eventually providing an exit to Pakistan Army [sic] to deescalate the situation through diplomacy with India,” as stated here:
[16] Pakistan’s Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, who didn’t die in a plane crash ITTL, bolstered ties with China and the US IOTL; also, according to his wikipedia article, “By the end of 1987, the Finance ministry [of Pakistan] had begun studying the process of engaging the gradual privatization and economic liberalization” of the nation’s economy, which, at least to me, sounds like someone willing to at least try and give international cooperation a chance/a shot/a try.
[17] IOTL, aid Hurricane led to Tim Duncan switching from swimming to basketball.
[18] This SoCal e-quake was more deadly because, to quote the person that pointed this out to me, , “a higher death toll on the freeways ITTL, since the death toll was so low due to a lot of people going home earlier to watch the World Series; OTOH, it will lead to increased reinforcement of existing freeways in California from earthquake damage, if this happens.”

OK, So I'm happy about Cage playing Batman since, in a weird way, it really does fit him, but this needs to be said. Superman Lives/Reborn. It NEEDS to happen here, preferably in 1996 or somewhere thereabouts. It SHOULD, by all rights, happen and be successful under the right circumstances. Preferably as a combination of The Dan Gilroy Script and the Reborn Version 2 script with Kevin Smith's casting choices. Jackie boy deserves the Luthor gig after losing the Joker role. Hell, let's have DC adapt the whole Justice League with multiple directors. We could have Morgan Freeman as Martian Manhunter. In all likelihood, you could have a Justice League movie by the summer of 1998.
Alrightythen, I'll add it to my very rough draft of the 1990s chapters and begin planning it out / working on it shortly.
Here's hoping that ITTL Warner didn't alienate Robin Williams in their attempts to get Nicholson as the Joker. Because frankly, he'd be perfect as the Riddler.
Duly noted!
I'd agree with you, only the rules have changed significantly. Carol and her bunch are in charge now. Effectively, they are the establishment and being who she is, things are going to change drastically. I can't even begin to guess what this version of the 90s is going to be like culturally. I know what the 70s were like under Mondale. Basically like OTL's 1980s only more left-wing. TTL's 80s...It's a hugely different ballpark. It's like a strange combo of the teen rebellion of Gen X mixed with the economic boom of the post-1991 US, mixed in with 2 and 1/2 of the more recognizable cultural aspects of OTL's 80s and the various scandals of the Nixon administration with Kemp, IMO, pretty much playing the role of an 80s Gerald Ford. If I had to hazard a guess, I'd say that this 90s will be an extension of the mid 90s punk, Britpop and Indy/Björk experimental scene, mixed in with the Y2K, Techno dance, teenybopper dance band crazy, frosted tips futurism of the latter part of the decade right from the get-go. Those surreal Anti-Ads from 1994 to 2000? Expect a ton more of them. With a progressive like Bellamy in charge, advertisers will have to get a lot more creative to get people to buy what they're selling. In fact, expect movies and entertainment, in general, to get a lot more futuristic and artsy from 1990 onwards because we're going to some wonderful places under Bellamy.

With all of this in mind, it'd be wonderful, for me, if the boy band ''Take That'' somehow made it big in the states with their biggest hit of 1992.

Interesting ideas to play with, here. Thanks!
Assuming Brannon and Braga; the Voyager writers, don’t take a job writing Ttl west wing. You never know when Alternate history is concerned.
Great timeline! Some really interesting choices for president (besides Sanders of course), never heard of Bellamy before this timeline, but she seems to be a great choice for the presidency. I also couldn't help but notice this:

It's not often that my hometown shows up on, so I'm happy that it shows up even if it's just a place to dump Gadaffi. Was it a random choice or did you choose it because of it's name?
It was a combination of the name and its geographical location; from what I could tell, it's not too isolated but not too close to a dense population center, either. Is this right?

EDIT: Thank you for that information!
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Is the end coming soon for our favourite Colonel?

Also Nick Cage is a really odd choice for Batman. Maybe its because I'm such a sucker for The Shadow, but Alec Baldwin seems like he'd have been a better fit. Oh well, there's always the sequels
I really do hope the Colonel is okay, high blood pressure at the ripe old age of 99 could be dangerous and I really want him to set the record for the oldest lived President of the United States of America.
Even if he passes away, he’s had one very interesting life, and left his mark on hostory.
That is an understatement. The colonel hasn't merely become a President. He has become an icon.

A successful businessman selling the most American dish imaginable.

An American President.

Finally, an international diplomat trying to end the petty squabbles of humanity over chicken dinner.

The colonel could very well be a symbol of Americana and the American dream: that even the most simple, humble, and poorest man could one day be among the powers that be.