Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Post 21
Post 21: Chapter 29

Chapter 29: July 1968 – December 1968

“I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel”

– Maya Angelou

For Running Mate, Jack picked Governor Grant Sawyer of Nevada, but Grant wasn’t Jack’s first choice. Carl Sanders and former segregationist George Smathers were vetted as possibly being able to win over southern voters, and Governor Lucey of Wisconsin or even Senator Mondale – you know, “Diet Humphrey” – could have possibly won over the rust belt, uh, mid-western states. But a deal could not be reached with Carl Sanders, Smathers declined out of the belief that his past would be too much of a detriment to Jack’s campaign, and Lucey and Mondale declined interest. Then we came across Sawyer, a dark-horse consideration at first, but he really believed he could appeal to both former Sanders and Humphrey backers. See, Nevada was often called “the Mississippi of the West” until Sawyer improved its image by finally pushing civil rights legislation through a conservative legislature and making the state economy healthier by modernizing the state’s casino regulations, fighting corporate ownership of those casinos, and renewing business responsibility for the use of the state’s land. By 1968, Sawyer, who I think was about 50, a year younger than Jack, had come a long way from his start in the conservative political machine of Senator Patrick McCarran that many powerful Nevadans considered his policies on education, the environment, and civil rights to be dangerously radical [1]. Jack figured Sawyer’s roots would win over conservatives while his more recent progressive actions would placate former backers of Humphrey, Morse and Gravel. Another plus was Sawyer’s open opposition to Republican-leaning special interest groups, which had led to him being known for feuding with the justice department of the Sanders administration. This made Sawyer be seen a fighter for his party and his ideals. The fact that he was the first governor in the country to back Jack in both 1960 and 1968 was another factor, too. But what sealed the deal was how well the two men got along.

– Ken O’Donnell, C-SPAN-I interview, 1988


The Daily Telegraph, UK newspaper, 7/7/1968


[pic: ]
– Jack Kennedy eating a jelly donut on the first day of the DNC, 7/9/1968

1968 Democratic National Convention

Date(s): July 9-12, 1968
City: Chicago, IL
Venue: International Amphitheatre
Keynote Speaker: Sen. Daniel Inouye of Hawaii

Presidential nominee: Jack Kennedy of Massachusetts
Vice Presidential nominee: Grant Sawyer of Nevada
Other candidates: Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota, Carl Sanders of Georgia

PRIMARY VOTING (by percentage share of popular vote):
Hubert Humphrey – 33.56%
Jack Kennedy – 31.79%
Carl Sanders – 16.28%
Mike Gravel – 7.11%
Wayne Morse – 4.47%
Mario Biaggi – 3.20%
George Wallace – 2.45%
Pat Brown (favorite son) – 0.61%
Pat Lucey (favorite son) – 0.37%
Lester Maddox – 0.07%
Bert Combs – 0.06%
Sam Yorty – 0.02%
Others – 0.01%

CONVENTION VOTING (by percentage share of delegates on final ballot):
For President:
Jack Kennedy – 53.4%
Hubert Humphrey – 28.9%
Wayne Morse – 16.4%
Mike Gravel – 15.9%
Carl Sanders – 7.6%
Mario Biaggi – 7.1%

For Vice-President:
Grant Sawyer – acclamation


SCHUMACHER: Tonight was the fourth and final day of the DNC, and with it came riots – riots possibly bigger than the ones seen at the DNC in 1964. The tumultuous commotion began after Kennedy formally accepted the nomination and may have been instigated by backers of Carl Sanders

HART: That’s right, David, Chicago did see some upheaval. Other sources claim the din was instigated by passive beatniks whom saw Kennedy as part of the “military-industrial complex” that President Eisenhower mentioned in his 1961 farewell address.

SCHUMACHER: Signs reading “We Want Sanders v Sanders in 1968” and “We Will Not Back Jack” were seen on the convention floor today and yesterday, though.

HART: Yes, and more active polniks, also derisively called shoutniks, began bellowing out their messages and phrases through bullhorns and group chants while standing on the top of vehicles in the area immediately outside the convention building. These vehicles included police cars.

SCHUMACHER: Indeed. According to a convention delegate we interviewed earlier, former Secretary of State Kennedy demanded that Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley not respond to the turbulent disruption with violence as it could, quote, lead to a repeat of 1964, unquote.

HART: And it seems Daley remembered the trouble of four years ago, and likely bitterly held his tongue, as after several hours of heated disruption, the truculent rioters departed. It seems all but the most diehard of the protestors grew tired and left.

SCHUMECHER: Nevertheless, the incident demonstrates the amount of Democrats left unsatisfied by this year’s nominee and compromise platform calling for a vague, quote, change in direction, unquote, in regards to foreign policy...

– Correspondents David Schumacher & John Hart, CBS News report, 7/12/1968

Kennedy hoped to win over the youth vote with more endorsements from liberal celebrities. However, polls repeatedly suggested younger voters actually favored Colonel Sanders due to his lowering of the age limit to 18, his ending of the war in Vietnam, and the “movie star”-like quality that came from his old film cameos, old TV commercials, and his face still in use on KFC products making him much more recognizable to young Americans than Kennedy. …A post-election demographic poll showed that Sanders had also won over the vote of married women over 40, demonstrating the Colonel’s appeal across generations...

– David Pietrusza’s The Epic Campaigns of the 1960s, 2008

POLL: KENNEDY LEADS SANDERS BY 5 POINTS: Jack’s Pa Says Election Will Be “A Formality For The Inevitable”

The Los Angeles Times, 7/17/1968


The Boston Globe, 7/20/1968

“Jack was now princeps de familia. That’s Latin for ‘head of the family.’ However, it was immediately assumed that that responsibility would fall to Bobby once Jack became President, and he began to be more involved in more family goings-on from the get-go… Father died convinced without a scintilla of a doubt that Jack was on his way to the White House come election night ’68.”

– Eunice Kennedy-Shriver, Boston Globe interview, 1989

In July 1968, the Red Sox, then the Phillies, and finally the Yankees [2] scouted a young graduate of Penn U’s Wharton Business School named Donald Trump. A New Yorker native aspiring to put a new economics degree to good use at his father’s construction company, Trump had been a student who had shown impressive skill in football, squash and tennis, but had always been a “huge” fan of the Yankees. Thus, Trump declined the Red Sox and Phillies offers, but was enthusiastic over the Yankee’s interests. “I have great feet – I can run to the bases really fast” Trump would often boast. After seeing him play, the Yankees determined he had potential and would be an asset to their roster. Putting “my business dreams for NYC…on hold for a while,” Trump began playing Major League Baseball in early 1969.

Pictured below: Donald Trump in 1968

[pic: ]
– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994

“Under the Colonel’s supervision, the past three years have seen the most common image in American television shift from the horrific atrocities of War in Indochina and Cuba to the satisfying crispy tenderness of Kentucky Fried Chicken, and all that it represents – fulfillment, freedom, and proof that any goal can be achieved in the United States of America. Anyone with a dream and the will to work hard can form a business for the betterment of themselves and the betterment of society. And for that, ladies and gentlemen, it is with great honor and pride that the Republican Party will officially re-nominate Colonel Harland Sanders for President of the United States next week.”

– RNC chairman Ray C. Bliss’s at a private fundraiser, 7/29/1968 (leaked in December, but received little attention)

“There’s nothing us young people like more than freedom – freedom from oppression, freedom from regulations, freedom from fear. …The Colonel has proven in the past four years to be a man of his word. He’s brought our boys home from Vietnam, he’s lowering the voting age from 21 to 18, and he’s fixed the economy, and now, he wants to assure the American people can work, and that those who can’t will be covered with a monthly dividend. The Colonel deserves a second term and the youth of this nation will deliver it to him!”

– Bob Dylan addressing the RNC convention, urging young people to vote for Sanders, 8/5/1968 [3]


[pic: ]
– President Harland Sanders travelling from the Miami International Airport to the RNC via carriage, 8/6/1968

“Folks, at arrived at this here convention on a horse-and-buggy not as a publicity stunt, but as a callback to an era of progress and possibilities, and to reflect on how far we’ve come in the decades since untamed days of the Wild West. When I was ten years old and getting my first job on a farm, man could still only fly in dreams. But now, we’re less than a year away from stepping foot on the moon. When I joined the army in 1906, Americans workers in the cities and the countryside toiled in terrible conditions. But now, living conditions have improved phenomenally, and our economy is greater than it has ever been. Only in America can people come to together to get themselves so far in so few years. So now let’s continue that legacy into the next four years, and then into the 1970s and beyond!”

– Colonel Sanders at the RNC, 8/6/1968

1960 Republican National Convention

Date(s): August 5-8, 1968
City: Miami Beach, FL
Venue: Miami Beach Convention Center
Keynote Speaker: Sen. Bud Wilkinson of Oklahoma

Presidential nominee: Colonel Sanders of Kentucky
Vice Presidential nominee: William Scranton of Pennsylvania

Total delegates: 1,333
Votes needed: 667 (majority)

Results (President):
Harland Sanders (KY): 1,232 (92.5%)
Harold Stassen (MN): 55 (4.1%)
Jim Rhodes (Favorite Son) (OH): 36 (2.7%)
Others: 8 (0.6%)
Not Voting: 2 (0.1%)

Results (Vice-President): 1333
William Scranton (PA): 1,089 (81.7%)
Joseph O. Rogers Jr. (SC): 152 (11.4%)
Bo Callaway (GA): 48 (3.6%)
Frank Farrar (SD): 32 (2.4%)
Others: 9 (0.7%)
Not Voting: 3 (0.2%)


Vote for the Heritage and Independence Party!
Defeat the Yankee Socialists in November!

On August 10, the H.I.P. National Convention listened to the real voices of the American people and formed the following ticket:

For President:
Decorated Rear Admiral and Democratic nominee for US Senate in 1962 John G. Crommelin Jr. of Alabama

For Vice President:
Former Republican US Congressman from 1955 to 1967 and H.I.P. nominee for US Senate in 1966 Bruce Alger of Texas

Join the party that favors:

– limiting the power and influence of the federal government

– local laws for local needs

– An America free from the chains of the UN and other foreign and un-American influence

– lower taxes for higher freedom

– preserving Americans’ history of being the greatest people on Earth

– law and order on all city streets

– …and a President and Vice President who uphold the principles of the constitution and YOUR individual rights

With your support, we will take America back from the special interests and weak big-government bureaucrats that seek to tell YOU how and where to work, where to live, where to send your children to school, and how to live your life!

Protect your Heritage and Independence! Join the Party Now and VOTE H.I.P. IN NOVEMBER!

– Pamphlet for the “Hippy” 1968 Presidential ticket, first distributed c. mid-August 1968

“I’ve always liked trains,” the Colonel explained. “After comin’ back from servin’ in Cuba,” all the way back in 1907, “I got a job on the railroad in Alabama. I had to doodle the ashes,” meaning he had to empty the ashes from the trains’ fireboxes at the end of the train’s voyage. “It was probably the dream of ninety percent of all young fellows my age in those days [4].” He asked, “May I?” gesturing to the air horn cord overhead keeping closed the valve of compressed air.

What would you say but “By all means, Mr. President!”? And with a mighty whoo-whoo!, he enthusiastically began the railcar campaign on Rail Force One. The museum was both surprised and elated when Sanders requested the Ferdinand Magellan be taken out of retirement. Last used in 1954, the train’s Pullman Car used as the Presidential Rail Car was now owned by the Gold Coast Railroad Museum. It was an old train constructed in 1929, when Sanders was 39 and had moved on from working the rails, but still loved it. Now President, he found the private cars “accommodating.” At the end of the first train car is the kitchen, and as you enter from there the storage lockers are to your right and the food prep area is to the left. The car’s hall then meanders to the right row of windows, and when you follow it, you pass the pantry and worker’s quarters. Then you enter the Dining Room – spacious enough for roughly ten people – before moving past the chairs to the rest of the worker’s quarters. Finally, the last car is the President’s own personal car, complete with a bed and bathroom. In 1968, the Sanders Whistle-stop Tour took the Ol’ F.M. across the nation upon leaving the 1968 RNC, with no need for the Secret Service to worry due to WWII-Era safety features [5].

– Cully Waggoner, Gold Coast Railway Museum, edutainment segment, PBS Kids, 2008


[pic: ]
– First Lady Claudia helps the President depart Rail Force One at a campaign stop in Omaha, Nebraska, 8/14/1968


Jackson, MS – Several polls conducted by the American Institute of Public Opinion have noticed an average 5-point increase in approval of President Sanders in several northern states, including Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania, over the past month or so:

General Survey Question: “If the election for President was held today, who would you vote for?”
Statewide average in Missouri on July 20:
Colonel Sanders: 46%
Jack Kennedy: 43%
Undecided: 9%

Statewide average in Missouri on August 10:
Colonel Sanders: 51%
Jack Kennedy: 38%
Undecided: 11%
Statewide average in Oregon on July 20:
Jack Kennedy: 49%
Colonel Sanders: 39%
Undecided: 12%

Statewide average in Oregon on August 10:
Jack Kennedy: 46%
Colonel Sanders: 44%
Undecided: 10%
However, the Kennedy campaign has consistently been optimistic, noting these very polls as evidence that their message of “strength and order abroad, and liberty and prosperity at home” is resonating well with voters in the north. Meanwhile, Republicans viewed the boost in areas won by Johnson in 1960 and 1964 and indications that “more people are coming to realize the successes of this administration because election season is a time for reflection on how the past four years have been,” according to a source close to the Sanders/Scranton campaign in Ohio…

The Clarion-Ledger, Mississippi newspaper, 8/15/1968

Then in August, Apollo 7 was executed without a hitch, contributing to NASA’s optimism concerning the moon landing. Later that month, a date for the launch of the planned first manned mission to the moon was narrowed to March 1969.

We could have had the launch in December 1968, though. The Colonel liked the idea of landing on the moon on Christmas, but Farouk [El-Baz] opposed that launch date for precisely that reason. “Mr. President, this event must be a celebration of all of humanity and an event that unites all. Landing on that holiday will only unite Christians. It will be viewed by too many as biased. That will lead to division and anger among families, friends, communities that are more than just that one religion.” He insisted, “The date must be of no major significance if it is truly to be a day for humanity.”

“Plus,” Director Webb added, “What if something does go wrong after all?”

The Colonel considered another possible launch date in October, but he concluded it would become too political due to that year’s Presidential election, while we concluded it was too close of a date for us to prepare for it. And so, the March date was chosen as giving NASA enough time to finish preparing all involved for the monumental endeavor.

– mathematician Dorothy Vaughn’s Human Computers: Me and The Other Women at NASA, Langley Publishers, 1997

CRONKITE: Earlier today, President Sanders established another federal program meant to create jobs, this one specifically for troops returning from the Indochina Theatre. The program is meant to keep unemployment down. It seems that, in the vein of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President Sanders is favoring massive construction projects and services positions for these unemployed heroes.

SANDERS (in footage): Our country is growing. That means more people means more mouths to feed, more bodies to clothe, more minds to teach, more products to make, more services to provide.

– CBS Evening news, 8/20/1968

President Wants to Debate Kennedy: “He Gave The Other Sanders The Courtesy.”

– The Boston Globe, 8/21/1968


Associated Press, 8/24/1968

“I think both parties bring something to the table. Democrat politicians are good at startin’ wars, Republican politicians are good at endin’ wars. See? They balance each other out! But in all seriousness, I think the best way for the people to see the leadership skills of their choices for President is to see how well the candidates can defend their ideas from one another. Jack’s a good fella for agreein’ to this. I look forward to the debate.”

– Colonel Sanders to a reporter at a campaign stop, 8/24/1968

…but the Colonel has an awkward amalgamation of voters on his side – an assembly of disheveled communard shoutniks and small-farm rednecks, both groups found in movements and groups favoring locally based communities and an end to the war-industry machine…

– Freelance Journalist Hunter S. Thompson, 8/26/1968 article


The Question: “If the election for President was held today, whom would you vote for?”
Sanders: 43%
Kennedy: 40%
Crommelin: 8%
Other/Undecided: 9%

– Gallop poll, published 8/27/1968

Beginning in late February 1968, however, the Nigerian Navy successfully blockaded Biafra’s coastline, cutting off aid and food to the masses and causing starving to set in once supplies ran out. Under international pressure stirred up by Medgar Evers and his brother, fellow activist Charles Evers, Ojukwu and Gowon returned to the negotiating table in May 1968, ultimately culminating in a ceasefire in late August [6]. In exchange for returning to Nigeria, Biafra would become an autonomous territory within Nigeria.

The agreement was controversial as both sides viewed it as insufficient, and a revised agreement pertaining to the extent of Biafra’s autonomy was agreed to in September, which included relocating the nation’s capital.

…Between 300,000-to-500,000 Biafran civilians had died of starvation over a conflict stemming from regionalism and oil production...

– Introduction/Overview section of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s The Blood Spilled In Nigeria: A Civil War And Its Aftermath, 2014

After a long summer, Shelepin blamed Gomulka for the inability to suppress the protests which were only rising in energy in to the point that an overthrowing of the government in Poland was beginning to be seen as feasible by some Soviet higher-ups and inevitable by other Soviet higher-ups. Gomulka quickly passed the buck to General Moczar, his propaganda chief, and others. In early September, he announced the firing of half of his government officials and an end to the hostilities, but it was not enough. The protests saw Moczar and Gomulka as the perpetrators.

In a demonstration of the old phrase “enough a broken clock is right twice a day,” Shelepin did overthrow Gomulka after all, ironic describing him as being “too unstable and bloodthirsty to run a country.” Gomulka was replaced by Stanislaw Kania (b. 1927); he was a rubber stamp of sorts, loyal to Shelepin for giving him to job, but at least he was lucid and responsive; his relative youth, at just 41, gave the image of a generational shift in power that would favor the young activists. By the end of September, intellectual Leszek Kolakowski’s exile sentence was revoked, censorship laws were considerably reformed, the Jews of Poland were given a formal apology, and Gomulka, Moczar and company were on their way to a kangaroo court to take the blame for the atrocities of the past year.

But despite further reform efforts, the “Summer of the Shoutniks” damaged Poland’s relations with academics, the Catholic Church, Israel and Jewish people for many years to come.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

I remember when I was 7 years old, and in the first week of the new school year, I came home almost crying and with a busted lip, which I managed to hide from Mom for about 25 seconds. She quickly learned how I had started a fight with a group of bullies who had seen her and Dad drop me off. They had been teasing me over having white parents and calling me an assortment of names. Mom was working as an educator then, teaching English to minorities she met with my teacher, and instructed me to conduct a campaign of peaceful, nonviolent resistance. When Dad learned of the incident, though, he brought me to the base’s gym to teach me how to win a fight. I remember being confused over which parent to listen to, and how the two of them fought when I received detention for punching out both bullies the next week.

Being a military brat, our family never stayed in one place for too long. However, I did not see it as a lack of stability – despite Dad always being away serving his country in Vietnam, then Laos and Cambodia – as my Mother was my best friend in those days. And we were not alone, of course. Mother and I would visit relatives on all three sides of the family – the Dunhams, the Obamas, and the McCains – whenever we could. Our family was scattered across the globe, with my biological father raising his own family in Kenya, Mom’s parents living in Hawaii, and Dad’s family sprinkled across Virginia, Mississippi, and other parts of the south (where some ancestors had fought for the Confederacy, starting the McCain tradition of military service).

But while we had many places to call home, we had none to call our own yet.

– Barack McCain’s Lessons From my Fathers, Sunrise Publishers, 1993

“As if his carriage and train rides were indicative enough I feel like I should point out that the president is too euphoric. Time is catching up to America, and we need a president who will focused more on the future than on the past.”


“What the Colonel overlooks in his quest to cut red tape is how much that red tape holds up – unemployment insurance; old age annuities; safety regulations for food, airlines, railroads, and roads; vaccination programs; health insurance; business and residential zoning laws; construction standards; trade and monopoly restrictions; licensing doctors, lawyers, CPAs and other professions; and nation park and wilderness conservation. Cut all that red tape and all of that will fall apart to the detriment of millions of Americans nationwide.”

– Jack Kennedy at political luncheon, Baltimore, MD, 9/4/1968

“I have worked with this man for over a decade and I have seen his effectiveness. He is a man of strong moral conviction and of strong work ethics. A hard-boiled humanitarian who follows the practice of smiling while carrying a big stick – or in his case, a big walking stick. He is a man who truly views others through the course of their actions, not the color of their skin. And for that, he has my endorsement and full support in the November election.”

– Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., in his official endorsement of Colonel Sanders, 9/5/1968

“I love pitching things. The communicating that goes on with people from all walks of life, the people I get to meet when I try to make a sale – they’re more valuable and informative than any liberal arts college degree. It’s through real people that you learn the ways of the world. I love learning people’s viewpoints, their wants and needs, and getting them to see things differently. To see why they need what I’m selling, why it’ll be to their benefit. It was like that on the drives of ’51, and on the campaign trails of ’55, ’64 & ’68.”

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


The Washington Post, 9/6/1968


[pic: ]
– President Sanders riding in a motorcade past an unenthusiastic crowd in Boston, MA, as part of a tour of pro-Kennedy areas, 9/7/1968

“There is a theory that people on farms eat better than people in towns. That is true. And people who live on farms just naturally eat more. We worked harder so we demanded more food. We ate family style. We all helped ourselves from the same bowls. I even got so I liked cottage cheese with sour molasses.” [7]

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


[pic: ]
NIXON: “Wait, the Colonel would eat what now? Molasses?! How peculiar.”

CURTIS: “Is that – did you put cottage cheese on your cake slice, Dick?”

NIXON: “Don’t you judge me Carl!”

CURTIS: “Where’d you even get - ? Oh, never mind!”

– Richard Nixon and Carl Curtis at President Sanders’ birthday celebration in the Oval Office, 9/9/1968; transcript released by the FBI in 2012 (but nature of recording device classified until 2029), photograph published 9/10/1968


…From 1959 to 1961, William H. Meyer (1914-1983) was one of the most left-wing members of the US House of Representatives (D-VT), but lost re-election due to the Green Mountain state being heavily pro-Republican at the time. Meyer’s subsequent bids for higher office on an anti-Cuban War platform failed in 1962 and 1964, but in 1968, the loss of his preferred candidates – Morse and Gravel – prompted him to try to win an election one more time.

In early September 1968, Meyer assembled a small circle of friends and members of Timothy Leary’s Natural Mind party in his West Rupert, Vermont home to announce his intention to try to run as the Natural Mind nominee for President in November. The NMP held a small (roughly 200 people) convention in Syracuse, New York to make the nomination official.

On September 14, Meyer won the nomination in landslide, winning over two party organizers with no public office experience, .

Due to his prior work with Natural Mind regional candidates in 1966 and 1967, the party asked leftist political activist Carl Oglesby (1935-2011) of Michigan to serve as running mate, after former Congressman George McGovern and other higher-profile names declined. Oglesby reluctantly accepted the offer despite the fact that he would be only 33 years old on inauguration day 1969 – he would not become eligible for the Presidency or Vice Presidency until July 30, 1970.

Meyer and Oglesby mounted an almost exclusively grassroots campaign centered on visiting liberal college campuses. The ticket was heavily anti-corporatist and anti-big business, yet Oglesby famously dismissed socialism as “a way to bury social problems under a federal bureaucracy” [8]. Oglesby also seemed to split with Meyers on taxes, with the former favoring a more libertarian stance and the latter favoring a progressive one.



The Daily Telegraph, 14/9/1968

“There is no substance to these claims whatsoever. I’m disappointed in our law enforcement agency’s failure to know fake documents when they see them.”

– Prime Minister Stonehouse, 15/9/1968

“I’m very satisfied with this administration’s handling of foreign policy issues, and I’m running for re-election because I think I have the knowledge, experience, and very importantly the energy that the President and the people of Kentucky need to have in the Senate.”

– US Senator Thruston B. Morton (R-KY), Meet the Press interview, 9/22/1968


…The H.I.P. nominee is polling at a national average of 4%. However, in polls conducted in southern states such as Alabama and South Carolina, the former Navy Rear Admiral has reached as much as 28%, at teams beating Democratic nominee Jack Kennedy for second place…

Birmingham News, 9/26/1968

KENNEDY: [snip] I believe we can do more for our schools. President Sanders’ words promoting higher education are admirable, but the fact remains that his administration has discouraged the education programs of the Johnson administration, causing college rates to actually drop. I also think that teachers should have better salaries, because if children are our future then we have to ensure their minds are equipped for the future.

MODERATOR: President Sanders, your rebuttal?

SANDERS: Jack, I have nothing against colleges, or any types of schoolin’. But I am not going to let the federal government have absolute control over education because what teachers want to teach and what students need to learn in states like Arkansas and the Carolinas differ greatly from the wants and needs of states like Massachusetts and New York. With all due respect, Jack, the federal government cannot force cultural change to an extent as severe as what Johnson attempted and what you are suggesting. Now, I will concede that the drop in college rates over the past year – I think it went down 2% or so – is disappointing as education is essential to the future of our nation, and like you have said, federal assistance should be available. But government influence and control over the individual freedoms of the states should never be allowed outside of assuring that people are treated equally and indiscriminately. The teachers in New York City don’t teach farmin’ essentials; and the teachers in Nebraska don’t teach subway ridin’.

KENNEDY: If I may rebut that rebuttal –

SANDERS: Sure, go ahead.

MODERATOR: Um, alright, you have one minute to reply.

KENNEDY: Colonel, this is not about influence, but assistance. The federal government should provide more funding to the states, and then the states can determine what is taught.

SENATOR: Okay, that’s fairer – I can get behind that, Jack.


KENNEDY: …Despite the Colonel’s claims the government can only reduce income taxes responsibly when the economy is prosperous. [snip] …I don’t believe that anyone is going to be able reduce the federal debt very much. [9] But I do believe that if the debt buildup under this administration is not reigned it in will bring fourth another recession like the one felt in 1958, after six years of Republican leadership.

MODERATOR: Thank, Mr. Secretary. Mr. President, your response?

SANDERS: Jack, we can’t burden the middle and lower classes with even more taxes.


KENNEDY: I agree, Colonel, I agree – I – I think people should be able to do a pay-as-you-go form of it, in the same way as the Tennessee Valley Authority, but, like you, I believe in a balanced budget, and the only conditions under which I would unbalance the budget would be if there was a grave national emergency, or a serious recession. [10]

SENATOR: Jack, an unbalanced budget leads to inflation – that’s Economics 101 right there. I understand that, and I never even went to college!


KENNEDY: …We need stability after these last hectic four years. America deserves an experienced leader… [snip]

MODERATOR: And President Sanders, your closing remarks.

SANDERS: …the economy will only be prosperous if people are encouraged to make consumer purchases, and the best way to do that is to lower taxes. …What we have here, on this stage tonight, is two ideas for how the federal government should work – centralized or decentralized – power to the fat cats on the nation’s capitol hill or power to the fat cats on the capitol hills of our 50 states. I promote the latter, as those cats aren’t so fat. I promote the concept that real change and progress starts at the bottom, at the local level, with small businesses and smart, hard-working people joining up with each other to improve their communities. That improves the local economy. And that improves the statewide economy. I have faith in the ability of the American people, when they are not burdened by bureaucracy, to make the right decisions. Because, you see, the free market only works when its users share a sense of morality, of doing the right thing due to standards ingrained into their hearts, not inked onto legislation telling them to do the right thing. That’s why the US economy is the strongest on earth! And it’s why we need education, to teach the next generation the same lessons that have made this nation so great – to teach children to care for not just themselves and their loved ones, but for their fellow Americans everywhere and from all walks of life, whether they come from the shores of Cape Cod or from fields of blue grass. That’s the beauty of America – we are the example to the world of just how much can be accomplished when men have freedom – freedom to speak their mind, freedom from federal overreach, and freedom to pursue their dreams! Thank you.

– First General President Election Debate, NBC transcript, 9/28/1968

Despite his one-liners and well-received closing statement, Sanders did not believe that he had performed well in the first debate, having stumbled a few times in stumbles in both the foreign and domestic policy sections, forgetting specifics and stuttering at times. Sanders had felt especially hurt when Kennedy had brought up his “ignoring” of the rising issue of busing students, as Sanders had openly questioned its effectiveness for years but had done little to “fix” what Sanders seemed to think was a “broken” policy. Political analysts, meanwhile, were divided practically 50-50 on who actually won the debate, while polling suggested a majority of viewers of the debate believed the Colonel had won.

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1968, Centurion Publishers, 2015


The Daily Telegraph, 29/9/1968

It soon became apparent that Stonehouse had been a spy for the Czechoslovak Secret Service (a counter-intelligence police force) since 1962 and had provided secrets about government plans as well as technical information about aircraft in exchange for 5,000 pounds.

– Edward Wright’s History’s Greatest Scandals: Shocking Stories of Powerful People, Guardian Books, 2006


Associated Press, 9/29/1968

Khanh’s wrath is simply pushing more and more communist sympathizers and former V.C. fighters out of his country and into ours. When will the Americans learn that Asians are stronger-willed than Cubans? That they cannot change our minds about a superior form of government by shooting us? Let’s hope never – in my eyes, the more dead Americans, the better!

The rain season is coming to a close in a few weeks. We will launch the attack soon enough – our victory is inevitable!

– Phoumi Vongvichit, high-ranking member of the Pathet Lao, 9/30/1968 log entry


Washington DC – After several meetings with members of congress concerned over the practicality of forcing children to travel great distances for their education, President Sanders has called for a special task force headed by VP Scranton to look into the effectiveness of busing and “any and all” alternatives to the policy…

The Washington Post, 9/30/1968


…per the official rules, in the vacancy of the title of Prime Minister, the title, salary and functions of that role shall be conferred to the person bearing the designation of Deputy Prime Minister [11]. The current holder of that title is Michael Foot, who was a candidate for Prime Minister in this year’s May leadership election. …Queen Elizabeth II can dissolve Parliament and appoint a Prime Minister of her liking if she deems it necessary...

The London Gazette, 1/10/1968


London – a cross-party collection of MPs have tabled a motion in the House of Commons to impeach Prime Minister Stonehouse for “high crimes and misdemeanours.” The motion will likely be debated very soon, as the MPs in question plan to meet with the drafting team for the motion’s case and specific articles of impeachment later today…

The Guardian, 3/10/1968

…In light of the House of Commons’ steps to impeach Stonehouse grinding parliamentary legislation a halt, her majesty, Queen Elizabeth II, has announced her decision to dismiss the Prime Minister, effectively removing him from office...

– BBC, 5/10/1968 broadcast


– The Guardian, 10/5/1968

Upon the Queen’s announcement, officers arrested Stonehouse at his home as he attempted to leave the premises with a suitcase, which contained a change of clothes, a prosthetic beard, and a false passport and ID. He was remanded in Brixton Prison without bail. Charged with espionage, possession of false documents, and conspiracy to defraud. Stonehouse experienced a relatively quick trial that captured the interests of the United Kingdom for all of its 34 days, during which the court revealed Stonehouse had an IQ of 140 and had met with members of the Czechoslovakian government at least twice during his five months as Prime Minister. On 28 November, Stonehouse was sentenced to 10 years of house arrest and fined 10,000 pounds. While the House of Lords refused his appeal against the charges, many Britons were outraged at what they considered to be too light a sentence. Most citizens, though, were simply glad the drama had concluded, and wished for the country to “move on,” as the new year, and, soon enough, a new decade, approached.

– Edward Wright’s History’s Greatest Scandals: Shocking Stories of Powerful People, Guardian Books, 2006


[pic: ]

– Former US Secretary of State Jack Kennedy (D-MA) shaking hands with enthusiastic supporters while on the campaign trail in Philadelphia, PA, 10/10/1968

NASA’s October 11 launch of Apollo 8, meant to test the lunar module docking maneuver and re-entry procedure, launch yielded a number of protestors higher than unusual in part due to the presence of far-left presidential candidate William Meyer on the picket line. TV reports covered the protestors’ complaints that the government should be spending more money on anti-poverty programs than on “big rocket toys.” Both Kennedy and Sanders avoided directly addressing their concerns as both men supported the Apollo program, as did conservative third-party candidate John Crommelin. However, this development took American media’s attention away from a situation developing in Panama that same day. This distraction allowed the Colonel to address the Arias-Torrijos conflict…

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1968, Centurion Publishers, 2015

Manuel Noriega had long been a sternly loyal apprentice to Omar Torrijos, allowing the former to get away with raping underage girls during his younger military years and with allowing the raping of prisoners. After an educational program in 1966 helped the recalcitrant Noriega “shape up,” his past crimes went unaddressed, especially due to the Johnson administration considering Noriega and Torrijos to be “assets” for their information-sharing activities. Due to this, both men assumed in 1968 that their plans to overthrow Panama’s President Arnulfo Arias would have America’s support.

Dr. Arias had a mixed record – he was an admirer of Mussolini’s fascism, but in his first term as President had built a social security program, granted women the right to vote, and strengthened labor laws. The US had already overthrown him once before in 1941, and, upon returning to the Presidency a few years later, was overthrown again by an alliance of the National Guard and wealthy families. [12] Torrijos, meanwhile, wanted to create schools and jobs for the members of Panama’s majority – the poor and mixed-race, not just the lighter-skinned social elite, the rabiblancos (white-tails) dominating Panamanian politics and commerce. When Arias came to power a third time, Torrijos began to plot a coup.

The only problem for Torrijos and company was the fact that US President Colonel Sanders supported the somewhat-populist Arias. While understanding the doctor was controversial, the Colonel also understood that his election had been fair and democratic, and did not believe a regime could be replaced without the people’s consent. Thus, upon the launch of the coup on October 11, orchestrated by Torrijos, Noriega, Major Boris Martinez, and the upstart Demetrio Lakas, the Colonel threatened to send in the US military to “restore the Panamanian people’s choice.”

A standoff of sorts ensued, with Arias holed up in the surrounded Presidential Palace thanks to what few military members still supported him. Lakas’ suggestion of Vice President Raul Arango serving as compromise successor was immediately rejected. Noriega, seeing the situation as a hostage crisis of sorts, demanded the United States “return the Canal” before any further actions occurred. The Colonel replied with “the Senate and I will never approve of handing over the Canal to a nation without liberty. Let Arias be and then we’ll talk.” The US President then wired Arias and demanded he “make concessions so you don’t lose it all.” On October 13, Arias announced a more liberal agenda for his presidency, and offered Torrijos the position of Vice President “with unprecedented influence on domestic policy” in exchange for Torrijos “calling off his dogs.” Torrijos agreed, and the military regrouped on the 14th.

Noriega expected to find himself in a highly influential position now. Instead, Torrijos pinned the coup on him, causing Noriega to be imprisoned for treason. The upper class rabiblancos were satisfied that the “ringleader” had been brought to justice and that “their man” was still at least barely clinging onto power, the nation’s poor were optimistic that Torrijos would ensure they would be helped, and Torrijos was happy to play semi-puppetmaster. Noriega, however, swore from his prison cell he would avenge himself.

In early 1969, talks controversially began over the administration of the canal, with “the Arias-Torrijos administration” arguing their country should take in revenue from the pivotal causeway. The Sanders administration, and conservative politicians in the US, countered the standard talking points – “we built it, we own it, we should keep it.” Arias suggested a gradual shift in control to the Panamanians, starting with more administrative responsibilities such as maintenance. These talks would continue into the 1970s.

– Ashley Carse’s Beyond the Big Ditch: Politics, Ecology, and Infrastructure at the Panama Canal, MIT Press, 2014


...the people will vote for a new parliament in December as planned…

– The Southern Daily Echo, UK tabloid, 10/15/1968

BROOKS: The candidates will now answer questions put by correspondents of the networks. Ladies and gentlemen, Sander Vanocur of NBC News, Stuart Novins of CBS and Bob Fleming of ABC.


SANDERS: …And so I would say that all of these proposals that Jack has made will result in one of two things: either he’ll have to raise taxes or unbalance the budget. Unbalancing the budget means inflation and raising taxes hurts consumer spending. The government can’t bits off more than it can chew.


KENNEDY: On this, I think a compromise can be reached. We can raise federal funding for teacher salaries so they can financial afford the materials that they need and want without the federal government directly directing them what those lessons and materials will be.


SANDERS: Your question brings out a point that I am very glad to make. Too often in appraising whether we are moving ahead or not we think only of what the federal government is doing. Now that isn’t the test of whether America moves. The test of whether America moves is whether the federal government, plus the state government, plus the local government, plus the biggest segment of all – individual enterprise – moves. [13] America has done so well since 1963 because this administration backs that last segment, the spirit of the individual dreamer, the mom-and-pop stores of the land.


SANDERS: …I think these proposed economic incentives would create and expand jobs and business opportunities across the U.S. and in turn educate the next and future generations so they are capable of performing useful skills, which will be a better focus of the government’s time and money than prolonging people’s dependency on handouts.

BROOKS: But Mr. President, doesn’t that contradict your pledge to help the poor?

SANDERS: That is the help they’ll be getting and much more – this’ll incentivize those who can help themselves to go and help themselves so more time is spent helping those who can’t help themselves. The lazy people in this country must understand that, in America, you do not ask what your country can do for you – you ask what you can do for you country.

KENNEDY: I disagree with that statement, Mr. President. It suggests blind loyalty; that people should give their all and receive nothing in return.

SANDERS: Haven’t you been listenin’, Jack? I already explained what they’re gettin’ in return – pride in their hard work. With hard work, not even the sky’s the limit, thanks to NASA.

BROOKS: Mr. Secretary, your rebuttal?

KENNEDY: I support the calls for effective tax reform to encourage productive enterprise and to discourage the nonproductive pursuit of tax loopholes; it means tax reform to end the erosion of the tax system, and prevent a progressive shift of the tax burden on to those least able to pay. It means using the massive fiscal and monetary powers of the Federal Government to combat recession and to stimulate growth.” [14]


KENNEDY: “The coal industry is an example of the problems raised by new technology and by automation. It is too late now to take the steps we should have taken two decades ago to prepare for this problem. But automation will continue to loom large in our future, in the economy generally as well as in coal. The national government has a responsibility, I believe, to help to plan and program progress to avoid further dislocations and lost jobs. Through government-union-industry cooperation, we can provide against dislocation and job loss, retrain workers, and schedule change to avoid upheavals.” [14]

SANDERS: Well, Jack, here’s where we agree. Because there’s something inside of me that makes me want to help people, especially people who are having difficulty of some kind [15]. I can see it’s inside you, too, Jack.


SANDERS: Folks, the world, the present, and the future are all what you make of them. If you – if anyone – has a vision for how to make the world a better place, don’t let people put it down. They shouldn’t. They should work together to make sure it’ll work – determine the strings attached and cutting them away the best you can – and make that vision a reality. Government should help with such positive endeavors, not against them. At least that’s what I think.

– Sanders, Kennedy, and moderator Ned Brooks, 10/15/1968 debate

“While the Colonel looked forward to the rematch, Jack believed he’d perform even better than he felt he had the first time around. We didn’t expect the second debate to backfire on us but it did. Sanders demonstrated his showmanship skills when describing foreign policy and economic plans and achievements, and it made him, at almost 78, seem not old, but wise but also energetic and physically and mentally sharp despite his years. It was around this time Goldwater called the Colonel ‘a man of conservative mind and liberal heart.’ Jack, though, was recovering from a flu at the time, and was trying to hide what must have been incredible back pain. He didn’t have the time for one of his natural remedies on the night of the debate, so instead he took some pills and downed a medical cocktail or two before going onto that stage. And that combination of elements led to Jack coming off as stiff, wooden, and at times even tired. Many viewers ended up complaining that he seemed disconnected and bored, when actually, he was trying to discuss complex issues at a time when he really needed to be resting. The image of Jack on that night was not at all that of a young and energetic politician, which was what Kennedy sought to present himself as to the nation, but instead the image of a 51-year-old apathetic member of the Democratic establishment class. For once, the cameras had actually not been good to Jack.”

– Harris Wofford Jr.’s autobiography Don’t Speak American With Just English Words: My Life In Washington, Simon & Schuster, 1999

Sanders: 48%
Kennedy: 43%
Crommelin: 3%
Other(s): 1%
Uncertain: 5%

– Gallup Poll, 10/16/1968


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders sits down with firefighters during a campaign trip across Missouri 10/17/1968

“You know who really creates jobs, Mr. Sanders? The customers, not the employers! Employers are just job-fillers, not job-makers!”

– X-Men leader Elbert X at a rally in Akron, OH, 10/18/1968


Associated Press, 10/19/1968 report

…now, back to today’s top political story: former Secretary of State and Democratic nominee for President Jack Kennedy was hospitalized in Baltimore earlier today. While an official reason is unannounced, we have received word from a member of the Kennedy campaign that Secretary Kennedy has suffered a hernia while campaigning in Maryland…

– ABC World News Tonight, 10/20/1968 broadcast

A few nights ago, both Kennedy and Sanders exited separate-but-close-by hospitals after being treated for a hernia and pneumonia, respectively. Nevertheless, the double-hitter health scare had now made health care a major issue for voters on bipartisan lines. Subsequently several politicians are calling for more funding for Medicare and Medicaid, while others call for more transparency to come from Presidential candidates. Going even further with this are Heritage and Independence Party co-founders Farris Bryant and Congressman John Rarick, who are calling for both Jack Kennedy and Colonel Sanders to submit to medical health examinations…

– CBS Evening News, 10/24/1968 broadcast

“The idea of harassing Presidential nominees into releasing their medical information is a preposterous invasion of personal privacy meant to turn two common incidents experienced my many Americans into a ridiculous tool for fearmongering and brewing up suspicion in the American democratic system. It’s immature at the least and unpatriotic at the most.”

– U.S. Senator George A. Smathers (D-FL), 10/25/1968

By July, the Pathet Lao had been split into two branches – one in the north, along the nation’s border with the former North Vietnam, and one in the South, mainly along the nation’s southern border with Cambodia. The town of Xam Nua in northern Laos, not very far from the Vietnam border, became the headquarters of the northern branch Pathet.


Louangphrabang, a city resting on the Mekong River, was located to the left of the center of the “pan” that is northern Laos. In the nation’s south, its “pan handle,” insurgents were being repelled from Pakxe, a city on the Mekong River, and the town of Salavan, which was once a Pathet Lao stronghold.


Communist insurgents in Laos had been helped by the fact that Laos had had a large Vietnamese population since long before the Fall of Hanoi. Understanding this, General Abrams countered by increasing US collaboration with other ethnic groups. The US Army worked closely with local Hmong tribesmen along with the Mien and the Khmu. A pivotal coordinator was Vang Pao (1929-2011), a King loyalist, a Major General in the Royal Lao Army, and member of the Hmong ethnic group.

The tide of victory had tossed between the two sides since 1965 as the status of the war in Lao’s north throughout the year generally depended on the weather. The dry season started in November and December, which was when the Lao and Vietnamese communists tended to launch military operations as fresh troops and supplies flowed down newly passable mountain trails. The US began assaults on their territory when the rainy season began in June and July.

The Laotian and American air forces worked to train more Laotian Nationalist troops, pilots and tank drivers. As 1968 continued, we slowly encroached upon Communist territory in the northern and southern fronts. When the Royal Lao Army and US Army launched a joint counter-attack in September, the weather was on America’s side – had it been a sunny day, and the sun was in the enemy’s eyes that morning.

Long Tieng, a small majority-Hmong military base hastily built in 1962, was nestled in a valley made by three formations of limestone mountains. It had runways for planes, storage for supplies and tools for equipment repair, making it a pit stop of sorts for the war effort. From Long Tieng, the offense against the Pathet Lao stronghold of Xam Nua was launched on October 1, roughly a month before the Pathet Lao planned to renew offensive maneuvers on Louangphrabang. Infantry regiments reclaimed the area as artillery/tank battalions concentrated troops on trails out of Xam Nua in a tactical operation meant to surround the enemy. Hmong commandos and US Air Force phantom jets then struck specific targets with cluster bombs. At the end of the month, the city finally fell to our forces, and most of its inhabitants were either KIA or became POWs.

– US Air Force veteran Jim Duffey’s Air America: An Aerial View of Laos 1959-1968, 1997

PATHET LAO H.Q. XAM NUA FALLS! Communists in Disarray!

…additional reports confirm that Phoumi Vongvichit, a high-ranking member of the Pathet Lao, is among the hundreds of casualties lining the streets of Xam Nua. General Creighton Abrams claims the communist guerillas are “leaderless and desperate, and now that they’ve lost this battle, they are disheartened.”

– Stars and Stripes, 10/27/1968

The Pathet Lao were unable to match the US assaults thanks to US-Royalist-Hmong alliance and coordination promoted by the sides’ respective leaders. A lack of coordination among the decentralized communists produced a splintering affect as small pockets of guerillas rallied around minor military leaders.


In the far north, Pathet Lao guerillas fled from Louang Namtha north into China and west into Burma. In total, roughly 500,000 supporters of Communism fled to other countries (over half to Cambodia), while the rest were captured or surrendered.

– US Air Force veteran Jim Duffey’s Air America: An Aerial View of Laos 1959-1968, 1997


– The New York Times, 10/29/1968


– President Sanders re-election banner, c. late October 1968

Support for the President has swelled in light of the defeat of the Pathet Lao in Indochina …With two days left to go, Kennedy and the Colonel are traversing the country to win over remaining undecided voters. …The race for the White House still heavily favors Sanders, with polls depicting the President defeating Jack Kennedy by roughly a ten-percent margin, reflecting a margin widening of over five percent from polls conducted two weeks ago…

– NBC News, 11/1/1968 broadcast

RATHER: Yes, Walter, and as you can see, here behind me, we have set up a large map of the states to track the results. So far, the Colonel has won South Carolina and Indiana, and New Hampshire, Maine, and Connecticut are still too close to call. ….For the people at home watching this transmission on Black and White television sets, the lighter shade of grey, here, representing a Colonel victory, is Red, and the darker shade of grey, the one filling in Massachusetts, is Navy Blue, in honor of Kennedy’s service in the Navy.

CRONKITE: Why was red chosen, Dan?

RATHER: Well, Walter, that’s one of the first colors you think of when you hear “the Colonel” – you think of red and white, the colors of KFC.

– CBS News, 11/5/1968 broadcast


[pic: ]
Sanders/Scranton (Republican): 39,647,535 (55.1%)
Kennedy/Sawyer (Democratic): 29,213,973 (40.6%)
Crommelin/Alger (Heritage & Independence): 2,086,712 (2.9%)
Meyer/Oglesby (Natural Mind): 791,511 (1.1%)
All other votes: 215,867 (0.3%)
Total votes: 71,955,598


The seven narrowest states were all won by Sanders. The election saw an expectedly low turnout, especially for Kennedy in the South, where he only won the state of Georgia, the home state of former Governor Carl Sanders, whom campaigned for Kennedy/Sawyer in the fall despite his primary feud with Kennedy. This collapse in Democratic support in nearly all of the South has led to the election being considered the start of the Sixth party system, as, “while retained for some years afterward on state and local levels, The New Deal Coalition fell apart on the national level in 1968.” The coalition seemingly collapsed in the wake of Colonel Sanders’ strategy of campaigning on positions shared by both Black voters, and poor and rural white voters.

…But arguably the most prevalent contribution to Sanders’ victory was the end of military hostilities in Vietnam (early 1967) and Laos (October 1968), on which the Sanders campaigned heavily.

…Resentful segregationists and hard-right conservative disapproving of The Colonel’s more libertarian policies could vote for the Crommelin/Alger ticket in 25 states. Crommelin won 2.89%, with most of those votes coming from Mississippi and Louisiana. Other than these voters, most segregationists sat this election out, or voted for Sanders out of sheer protest of Kennedy’s connection to the Johnson administration…

…Kennedy managed to win Illinois by winning the city of Chicago, debatably thanks to the political machine of Mayor Richard J. Daley. Despite losing the Democratic primary in the states in 1960 and 1968, Kennedy’s constant visits to Appalachia led to win finally winning West Virginia. The presence of Meyer/Oglesby on Oregon’s ballot cost Kennedy that state by a .5% margin…


United States Senate election results, 1968
Date: November 5, 1968
Seats: 34 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Mike Mansfield (D-MT)
Senate minority leader: Everett Dirksen (R-IL)
Seats before election: 57 (D), 43 (R)
Seats after election: 51 (D), 49 (R)
Seat change: D v 6, R ^ 6

Full List:
Alabama: incumbent James D. Martin (R) over Armistead I. Selden Jr. (D), John M. Patterson (HIP) and Robert Schwenn (I)
Alaska: incumbent Ernest Gruening (D) over Elmer E. Rasmuson (R)
Arizona: Paul Fannin (R) over Roy Elson (D)
Arkansas: incumbent J. William Fulbright (D) over Charles T. Bernard (R)
California: incumbent Thomas H. Kuchel (R) over Anthony C. Beilsenson (D) and Paul Jacobs (Natural Mind)
Colorado: incumbent Peter H. Dominick (R) over Stephen L. R. McNichols (D) and Gordon G. Barnwall (HIP)
Connecticut: incumbent Abraham A. Ribicoff (D) over Edwin H. May Jr. (R)
Florida: William Cato “Bill” Cramer Sr. (R) over incumbent George A. Smathers (D) and C. Farris Bryant (HIP) [16]
Georgia: incumbent John William Davis (D) over E. Earl Patton (R)
Hawaii: incumbent Daniel K. Inouye (D) over Wayne C. Thiessen (R) and Oliver M. Lee (Natural Mind)
Idaho: incumbent Frank Church (D) over George V. Hansen (R)
Illinois: incumbent Everett Dirksen (R) over William G. Clark (D)
Indiana: incumbent Birch Bayh (D) over William Ruckelshaus (R)
Iowa: incumbent Harold Hughes (D) over David M. Stanley (R)
Kansas: Bob Dole (R) over William I. Robinson (D)
Kentucky: incumbent Thruston B. Morton (R) over John Y. Brown Jr. (D)
Louisiana: incumbent Russell B. Long (D) unopposed
Maryland: Charles Mathias Jr. (R) over incumbent Daniel J. Brewster (D) and George P. Mahoney (HIP)
Missouri: incumbent Edward V. Long (D) over Thomas B. Curtis (R)
Nevada: incumbent Alan Bible (D) over Edward Fike (R)
New Hampshire: incumbent Norris Cotton (R) over John W. King (D)
New York: incumbent Jacob K. Javits (R) over Joseph Y. Resnick (D)
North Carolina: incumbent Sam Ervin (D) over Robert V. Somers (R)
North Dakota: incumbent Milton R. Young (R) over Herschel Lashkowitz (D)
Ohio: William B. Saxbe (R) over John Gilligan (D), incumbent Frank L. Lausche (I) and John M. Briley (HIP)
Oklahoma: Henry Bellmon (R) over incumbent Mike Monroney (D)
Oregon: incumbent Wayne Morse (D) over Wendell Wyatt (R)
Pennsylvania: Herman T. Schneebeli (R) incumbent Joseph S. Clark (D) and Frank W. Gaydosh (HIP)
South Carolina: incumbent Ernest Hollings (D) over Marshall Parker (R)
South Dakota: incumbent Joseph H. Bottum (R) over Wayne Peterson (D)
Utah: incumbent Wallace F. Bennett (R) over Milton N. Wellenmann (D)
Vermont: incumbent George D. Aiken (R) unopposed
Washington: incumbent Warren G. Magnuson (D) over Jack Metcalf (R)
Wisconsin: incumbent appointee Philleo Nash (D) over Jack B. Olson (R)


United States House of Representatives results, 1968
Date: November 5, 1968
Seats: All 437
Seats needed for majority: 218
House minority leader: John McCormack (D-MA)
House majority leader: Charles Halleck (R-IN)
Last election: 225 (R), 212 (D)
Seats won: 236 (R), 201 (D)
Seat change: R ^ 11, D v 11


United States Governor election results, 1968
Date: November 5, 1968
State governorship elections held: 35
Seats before: 23 (R), 27 (D)
Seats after: 26 (R), 24 (D)
Seat change: R ^ 3, D v 3

Full List:
Arizona: incumbent Jack Williams (R) over Samuel Goddard Jr. (D)
Arkansas: incumbent Winthrop Rockefeller (R) over Marion Crank (D)
Delaware: Russell W. Peterson (R) over incumbent Charles L. Terry Jr. (D)
Illinois: incumbent Charles Percy (R) over Samuel H. Shapiro (D)
Indiana: J. Irwin Miller (R) over Robert L. Rock (D) and Melvin E. Hawk (Prohibition)
Iowa: incumbent Robert D. Ray (R) over Paul Franzenburg (D)
Kansas: incumbent Robert Docking (D) over Rick Harman (R)
Missouri: incumbent Ethan A. H. Shepley (R) over Thomas F. Eagleton (D), Lawrence K. Roos (Missourian) and Bill Beeny (HIP)
Montana: incumbent Tim M. Babcock (R) over Forrest H. Anderson (D) and Wayne Montgomery (New Reform)
New Hampshire: incumbent Harrison Reed Thyng (R) over Emile R. Bussiere (D)
New Mexico: incumbent David F. Cargo (R) over Mack Easley (D)
North Carolina: James Carson Gardner (R) over Robert W. Scott (D)
North Dakota: incumbent William L. Guy (D-NPL) over Robert P. McCarney (R)
Rhode Island: incumbent John Chafee (R) over Frank Licht (D)
South Dakota: incumbent Frank Farrar (R) over Leath Carroll Fullerton (D)
Texas: incumbent John Connally (D) over Paul Eggers (R) and John Trice (HIP)
Utah: incumbent Mitchell Melich (R) over Nicholas L. Strike (D)
Vermont: incumbent Philip H. Hoff (D) over Deane C. Davis (R)
Washington: incumbent Daniel J. Evans (R) over John J. O’Connell (D) and Ken Chriswell (HIP)
West Virginia: Arch A. Moore Jr. (R) over James Marshall Sprouse (D)
Wisconsin: incumbent Pat Lucey (D) over William Kaiser Van Pelt (R)



[pic: ]
– Jack Kennedy conceding the election to Sanders, 11/6/1968

Once again, I thank you all for supporting me through this valiant endeavor to better our country. All of you, and all the people of the United States who went out and campaigned and voted, have shown your faith and loyalty to this great nation by participating in our vital electoral process. Through such process the future of this nation had been determined, and I will not stand in its way… I congratulated the Colonel with a phone call earlier tonight …While I may not be the President in the next year, I will not be a silent private citizen. I will continue to be a voice for the needs of the working man, the worried housewife, the wounded soldier, the small businessman, and all the men, women and children that make this country strong and proud. For while I may not serve as their voice as their president, I will still serve as their voice as a fellow American patriot as nobly as I can… Thank you.

– Jack Kennedy’s concession speech, 11/6/1968


…Drawing 6,000 letter a week, Star Trek was one of the more cerebral shows on the air, watched by a plethora of high-brow citizens, including actual scientists, doctors, college professors, and members of NASA...
In the winter of 1968, former President Lyndon Johnson, back in the Senate and taking a break from political hubbub to unwind after that year’s elections, paid more attention to the show. Johnson had been directed to the show in early 1967 by aides who enjoyed its promotion of space travel. Lyndon himself became one of the many high-profile politicians (along with Nelson Rockefeller and others) who sent letters to NBC demanding Star Trek not be cancelled after just two seasons. The show’s renewal for a third season in March 1968 emboldened Johnson’s spirits. However, during a visit to the studio in mid-November, the former President was shocked to learn that the show’s budget cuts and inferior time slot (Fridays at 10:00 PM) were network decisions. Johnson soon met with NBC executives and, failing to convince them to “give Gene all of his five-year mission,” offered to use “a sliver” of his own hefty salary to cover and pay for extra production costs. In a follow-up meeting in December, Johnson again urged NBC to greenlight “the final two seasons” not just to support the Apollo Program but because “the future of America was connected to the stars, and do you want to be able to say your studio was a part of that legacy, or that your studio worked against destiny?”

In January 1969, NBC executives agreed to greenlight two more seasons, and in February would shift its time slot to a more preferable time and day, but the budget was kept at 10% lower than it had been for season 2, forcing Johnson to stick to his pledge of covering additional finances via quarterly donations to the Star Trek production company. For all his trouble, Roddenbery convinced the former President to guest appear in the Season 4 episode “The Truculent Sieve.” There, Johnson spends his entire five minutes of screen time portraying retired a starship captain named Logan Barzilai Jasper who supports Kirk and Spock’s attempts to defuse a hostage crisis:

[pic: ]

– “Star Trek: The Ultimate Trip Through the Galaxies,” Entertainment Weekly Special Edition, 2003

As a result of the exodus of “undesirables” (as Nguyen Khanh called them) from Vietnam, and the defeat of the Pathet Lao in Laos, the rate of communist guerillas invading Cambodia through its northern border doubled between September and December 1968, where the rebel forces regrouped with each other and native Cambodian comrades-in-arms.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

Pops always preferred a large hen turkey, the bigger the better. He’d cover the bird generously with butter, sprinkle its outside and its hollowed-out inside with salt and pepper, and put it in a roasting pan, breast up, keeping the heat low all the way through to make the meat more moist and minimize shrinkage [17]. Pops would then leave us in charge of basting while he went off the prep for the gravy and work on the other dishes. Thanksgiving was often like this when we were younger, and there was no reason to break with tradition now, even if this time we were celebrating the holiday in the White House.


As the meal came to a close, Uncle Clarence declared with a belch, “that’s nothin’ better than your birds, brother!”

Claudia simply rolled her eyes with a smirk, and said, “Just pass the gravy boat over to me, will ya?”

“Oh, sure thing, Josephine.” Clarence said.

Both Father and Claudia flashed him a look of contempt with a bit of disappointment – Father had been married to Claudia for twenty year, yet Uncle Clarence still forgot at times.

“Oops, sorry,” he then offered to pour a helping from the boat for her.


Upon seeing the number of empty plates, Aunt Violet went to clear the table. Millie interposed, explaining “we have help for that now,” and offered to call up the White House staff celebrating Turkey Day in their own ways in their dining room a quick walk away.

Aunt Violet insisted, “I’m perfectly capable of doin’ this myself. Been clearin’ tables for 63 years and I ain’t quittin’ now.”

Millie warned her to be careful, “that’s very expensive china.”

“A dish is still a dish no matter what you call it,” Aunt Violet retorted.


Pops and Clarence went to the Lincoln room to watch some football on a television set while Aunt Violet and I went into the kitchen to make some Turkey Brunswick Stew out of all the scraps. I didn’t need to visit a soup kitchen to understand the importance of never throwing away food. Into a pot we placed the turkey scraps, tomatoes, salt and pepper, onions, broad beans, corn, butter and other bits, tasting as we went to check on the seasoning [Auto150].


“You really should visit more often,” I told Uncle Clarence.

“Ah, I don’t like to bother your father when he’s working. And he’s the President – he’s always working! You never know where he’s going to be next.”

“Tell me about it,” Harley added, “You wouldn’t believe the amount of running around he’s done this year alone. It’s kind of amazing, really.”

I was just glad Pops was relaxing. He seemed more tired than usual, and for once seemed actually happy to just kick back and rest for a day with his family.

Uncle Clarence, though, seemed even more tired. Before dinner, he seemed under the weather, in fact.

As he left he coughed several times, each expulsion of air from his lungs sounding a bit more painful than the last.

“Say, you alright, Uncle?” I had asked him.

“Aw, it’s just a bug or something. Don’t worry, now, none. I’ll be fine,” he had assured me.

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997 [18]

After almost six years in office, the politburo had grown tired of Shelepin. On 10 December 1968, party leaders met with the Premier in Moscow, and informed him that he was being “let go,” to use an American phrase. Shelepin did not take easily the news that he was being effectively deposed, especially when the move was backed by former allies such as Aleksi Inauri and Nikolai Podgorny and Vyacheslav Molotov, whom disagreed with his switch to supporting détente. He refused to go quietly.

“Inauri, I made you! You’d still be heading the Georgian GB if it weren’t for me!” Those were reportedly his last words.

What happened next remains unclear. Their conservation turned violent, and words shouted turned into fists flown. Shelepin sought to physically defend himself and at some point pulled out a pistol. Then, either one of two things happened: He fired the gun into the air as a warning only for the bullet to ricochet and hit him. Or he fired the gun at someone in the room and one of the men of the room fired back in self-defense. Various sources have claimed different specifics to each version, and a highly-improbably third story claims he committed suicide.

But at the time, the events themselves did not matter as much as their end-result, that the ruler of Russia had been instantly killed by a bullet to the head.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

SHELEPIN HAS DIED!: Beloved Leader Passes Away At 50 From Sudden Heart Attack

Pravda, Soviet newspaper, 12/6/1968

Nikita smirked with a huff. Of course he was still out of favor but even he knew Shelepin’s death did not simply coincide with the unofficial political discontent of late. “I’m not surprised,” Nikita said, “Shelepin was too unruly to be a good ruler, ignoring internal issues and doing a terrible job handling crisis after crisis.”

– Anastas Mikoyan’s The Path of Struggle: The Memoirs of Anastas Mikoyan (English translation), Sphinx Press, 1988 (written in 1978)


…Sovietologists are perusing the situation unfolding in the USSR. The political ramifications of Shelepin’s sudden and unexpected demise will depend on his successor – or successors. At the moment, the politburo seems to be supporting the formation of a troika, a triumvirate of leaders meant to govern without a single individual dominating alone. Such alliances were formed after Stalin and Khrushchev left office and lasted for a few months each time. The leading contenders to be part of this trinity of politicians are the following (in alphabetical order):

Leonid Brezhnev, age 62 – Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the effective leader of the moderate communists, Brezhnev is supported by Konstantin Chernenko; should he become part of a troika, Brezhnev’s support of the Leninist policy of focusing primarily on improving agricultural conditions could produce a shift from Shelepin’s city-based economic policies.

Aleksi Inauri, age 60 – a Colonel General in the Soviet Army and the former leader of the Georgian KGB, Inauri has effectively been Shelepin’s loyal right-hand man since 1965.

Alexei Kosygin, age 64 – the current Chairman of the Council of Ministers is a leading voice in the liberal wing of the party, and supported Shelepin’s push for improving industrial output in order to compete against the US economy.

Vyacheslav Molotov, age 79 – a close Shelepin ally, Molotov is a former member of the 1953 troika and fierce defender of Stalinism whom has some support among older members of the politburo.

Nikolai Podgorny, age 65 – a Ukrainian “old Bolshevik” hardliner critical of Shelepin’s shifts of late, Podgorny was a protégé of Khrushchev and is more moderate (and at times even liberal) than other members of the USSR’s communist party’s conservative wing; last year, for example, Podgorny engaged in talks with Pope Paul VI as part of the pontiff’s ostpolitik, culminating in greater openness for the Roman Catholic Church in Eastern Europe.

Mikhail Suslov, age 66 – a Stalinist and the unofficial ideologue chief for the party, Suslov is an open supporter of inner-party “democracy” and heavily prefers collective leadership over individual leadership.

The combination of communists will work to determine the Soviet Union’s geopolitical and economic policies, and their view of the Shelepin-Sanders summit could either improve or deter the Sanders administration’s attempts at détente…

– The New York Times, special issue, 12/8/1968

After re-entering the race for his House seat at the last minute, narrowly winning re-nomination, and barely scraping by in the general election, Gravel found himself already looking at another political opportunity. On December 11, 1968, US Senator Robert Bartlett (D-AS) suddenly died in office. Alaska’s Governor at the time, a Republican, Mike Stepovich, eventually appointed state congressman and fellow Republican Ted Stevens to the fill the vacant seat. Days later, Stepovich announced that the special election to fill in the remaining four years of Bartlett’s term would be held in November 1969 (with party primaries to be held in September) [19]. Gravel announced his bid for the seat on March 3.



…In light of the Stonehouse scandal, the election results are not too surprising. Conservatives won 401 of the 630 total seats in the House of Commons, depleting Labour’s numbers to just 205. The Liberal party obtained 24 seats after party members successfully distanced themselves from the Labour party.

…with the UK’s GDP unsteady for the past three consecutive quarters, unemployment rising, and housing prices only recently beginning to recover, Enoch Powell will succeed Prime Minister Michael Foot with a clear mandate for his policies…

– The Guardian, 15/12/1968

…This is an all-points bulletin: be on the lookout for suspect in attempted murder. Suspect is a tall white male, reportedly dark sunken eyes and white glasses. Patrol car overheard shouting and officers spotted suspect holding two teenagers at gunpoint at the lover’s lane on Lake Herman Road. Suspect told to lower weapons and shots were fired when suspect attempt to enter a car, likely his own. Suspect fled scene on foot clutching hand and limping, most likely was shot. Suspect is still armed and is considered highly dangerous…

– A.P.B. broadcast from Benicia, San Francisco Bay, CA police to all of its personnel, 12/20/1968


– The San Francisco Chronicle, 12/22/1968

Apollo 9 lasted from December 21 to December 27, 1968. It was the closest human beings had ever gotten to the moon at that time… The next few weeks and months would be a very critical time for NASA – the next mission was the big one – the one where mankind would finally step foot on the moon.

– mathematician Dorothy Vaughn’s Human Computers: Me and The Other Women at NASA, Langley Publishers, 1997


Secretary of State: US Senator Carl Curtis of Nebraska
Secretary of the Treasury: former US Congressman Eugene Siler of Kentucky
Secretary of Defense: US Army General Charles H. Bonesteel III of Virginia
Attorney General: civil rights attorney Wayne M. Collins of California (incumbent Walsh retired in January 1969)
Postmaster General: former State Supreme Court Justice Leif Erickson of Minnesota
Secretary of the Interior: outgoing Governor George Dewey Clyde of Utah
Secretary of Agriculture: US Senator Bourke Hickenlooper of Iowa
Secretary of Commerce: economist and University of Chicago professor Milton Friedman of Illinois
Secretary of Labor: former Undersecretary of State Herbert Hoover Jr. of California (incumbent Larson retired in January 1969)
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare: Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York
Secretary of Transportation: businessman and railroad executive John C. Coolidge III of Massachusetts

Cabinet-Level Positions:
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency: incumbent Director Allen W. Dulles of New York
Director of the Federal Bureau of Information: incumbent Director J. Edgar Hoover of Washington, D.C.
US Trade Representative: US Congresswoman Florence Dwyer of New Jersey

The President’s Executive Office:
White House Chief of Staff: businessman Frederick B. Dent of New Jersey (incumbent McElroy retired in December 1968)
White House Deputy Chief of Staff: physician Dr. William Kemp Clark of Texas (incumbent Crisp retired in November 1968)
White House Counsel: political strategist and campaign co-manager F. Clifton “Cliff” White of New York
Counselor to the President: congressional staff member and advisor Bryce Harlow of Oklahoma
Chief Domestic Policy Advisor: civil rights activist and employment reform advocate Whitney Young of Kentucky
Chief Economic Policy Advisor: economist and financial advisor Sylvia Porter of New York
Chief Foreign Policy Advisor: publisher on the political economics of national security and atomic energy economist professor J. R. Schlesinger of New York
Chief National Security Advisor: former W.A.C. Lieutenant Colonel Ruth Briggs of Rhode Island
Special Assistant to the President: businessman Harland David Sanders Jr. of Kentucky
Assistant Special Assistant to the President (position created in 1969): banker Joseph Robert Wright Jr. of Oklahoma
Director of the Office of Management and Budget: economist Arthur F. Burns of New Jersey (incumbent Mayo reassigned in January 1969)
Other Counselors and Advisors: African-American speechwriter Andrew Hatcher of New Jersey, assistant speechwriter Jennifer Salt of California, others
White House Communications Director: campaign information director Lee Edwards of Illinois
White House Appointments Secretary: outgoing Deputy Assistant to the President Liddy Hanford of Washington, D.C.
White House Press Secretary: campaign press secretary Ronald Ziegler of California
Administrator of the Small Business Administration: State Senator and small business owner Marshall Parker of South Carolina
President Sanders’ personal secretary: incumbent personal secretary Wanda Boner of Kentucky

Other Notable Members:
Surgeon General: incumbent Luther Leonidas Terry of Alabama
Solicitor General (representative of the Federal Government before the Supreme Court): columnist and former US Senator Joseph H. Ball of Minnesota
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: Vice Chairman Benjamin O. Davis Jr. of Washington, D.C. (incumbent Franke retired in January 1969)
Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: US Navy Admiral Thomas H. Moorer of Alabama (incumbent Davis promoted in January 1969)
Secretary of the Army: West Virginia University President Elvis Jacob Stahr Jr. of West Virginia
Secretary of the Navy: Admiral Arleigh Albert Burke of Maryland
Federal Reserve Chairman: incumbent William McChesney Martin of Missouri
NASA Director: incumbent James Edwin Webb of North Carolina

Notable US Ambassadors (in alphabetical order):
To Argentina: Chief of Protocol of the US (July 1968-Jan 1969) Shirley Temple Black of California (incumbent Kaiser retired in January 1969)
To Austria: businessman Malcolm Forbes of New Jersey
To Brazil: US Congressperson Catherine Dean May of Washington
To Cambodia: US Army General William Westmoreland of South Carolina (Kane resigned in 1966, Acting Ambassador served between appointments)
To Canada: former Governor and former US Senator Lawrence Wetherby of Kentucky
To Cuba: former Ambassador to Spain John Davis Lodge of Connecticut
To France: former White House Assistant Staff Secretary John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower of Maryland
To India: incumbent diplomat Dalip Singh Saund of California
To Italy: oil tycoon, art collector, and social programs promoter Algur H. Meadows of Georgia
To Japan: incumbent diplomat G. Mennen “Soapy” Williams of Michigan
To Laos: businesswoman, aviation pioneer, WAAC co-founder, and WASP co-founder Lieutenant Colonel Jacqueline Cochran of California
To Mexico: lawyer and Assistant to the Secretary of the Navy Edward Hidalgo of New York
To Saudi Arabia: former S.A.G. President Ronald Reagan of California (incumbent Crichton reassigned in February 1967)
To South Africa: mining engineer Allan H. Hoover of Iowa
To South Vietnam: diplomat and former US Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. of Massachusetts
To the U.K.: former Continental Illinois Bank Vice President Robert Mayo of Illinois (incumbent Hoover reassigned in December 1968)
To the U.N.: former Ambassador to Japan, former Ambassador to Indonesia, and former Ambassador to Czechoslovakia John Moore Allison of Nebraska
To the U.S.S.R.: Ambassador to Saudi Arabia Jack Crichton (incumbent Herter died December 1966)
To West Germany: journalist for the National Review John Rensselaer Chamberlain of Connecticut


[1] Italicized part pulled from his Wikipedia article (the passage seems to have valid sources)
[2] IOTL, he was scouted by just the Red Sox and the Phillies, and he turned them down because he was a Yankees fan: You can blame the additional scout on butterflies.
[3] IOTL, Dylan was a Republican who supported Barry Goldwater in 1964!:
[4] Italicized bits are from this article:
[5] Youtube: /watch?v=C2NNujJKJL4
[6] Roughly 1½ years sooner than OTL.
[7] Passage is from his OTL 1966 autobiography, page 15
[8] Quote found here:
[9] OTL quote from OTL 1960 debate:
[10] OTL quote from OTL 1960 debate, 31:53 mark: youtube: /watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw
[11] As noted here:
[12] Info found here:
[13] Nixon said this in the 1960 debate of OTL:
[14] Italicized segments are from OTL:
[15] From his 1966 Autobiography.
[16] US Senator George Smathers (D-FL) doesn’t retire here due to the political situation being more prospective than it was IOTL (he loses re-election by a 2% margin, though): youtube video /watch?v=mG8QC_oTyFA (22:14 to 22:58 mark)
[17] Page 144 of his 1966 autobiography gives the recipe for this.
[18] Oh yeah, the Colonel had two younger siblings: Clarence Edward Sanders (b. 9/18/1892) and Violet Catherine Sanders Cummings (b. 9/24/1895)
[19] One year earlier than OTL because a different person is serving as governor here. Also, this website: suggests the election should have happened in 1969 IOTL anyway, but for some reason did not.

Ogrebear said:
Interesting chapter.

You might want to check the second debate, I think you have Wallace called when it’s Sanders speaking.

Fixed it. Good eye, thanks!

Ogrebear said:
PM Stonehouse? Interested in this- also how is Britain’s industrial development going? Is the country still falling behind here? How’s the UK/Commonwealth space program going?

Rhodesia will be a mess for the UK. Not sure how involved we would get there?

Industry is suffering more than OTL due to Brown's Labour government failing to properly respond to the Salad Oil scandal. Furthermore, OTL factors such as the loss of the Suez and the closure of many operations in mining and manufacturing is hurting high-paid working-class labor. So yeah, they're not in a good place right now.

The British space program still focuses on unmanned launches like in OTL, the Blue Streak rocket are still being launched as the first stage of the European Europa carrier rocket, but funding for it is on the verge of being cut in light of the country's socio-economic/political situation unfolding.

Stonehouse has a score to even, so he'll want to get the job done. Plus, with the next general election coming soon, a rally-around-the-flag event wouldn't hurt.

Ogrebear said:
About ‘66-68 syndication numbers started showing Star Trek’s popularity and it was mooted about bringing it back as the sets and stuff still (just) existed. Will we see the Enterprise fly again ITTL?

Upon looking up Star Trek's history, I see I should have mentioned them in March. So instead, I've gone and thought up something else, and it is in this chapter! :)

Unknown said:
Who's Malcolm Forbes supposed to be the ambassador for? Good update, BTW...

Austria (good eye catching that typo!)

Thanks for all the comments, everyone! I really appreciate them!
Post 22
Post 22: Chapter 30

Chapter 30: January 1969 – July 1969

“If you doom the world, the survivors will make sure you’re not among them.”

– Hunter S. Thompson (TTL)

INTERVIEWER: So let’s move on now to some political questions. First up, since KFC’s been in the news recently, you were 5 years old when Colonel Sanders was first elected President. What it was like growing up under his presidency? Was weird seeing the President’s face on fast-food paraphernalia?

ALEXANDER: No, actually. I thought it was normal because I had no reason not to. Presidents have their faces on coins, so having his on a bucket seemed like impressive, to be honest! But yeah, I figured out before any of my friends did that the guy on the bucket was the same guy who’s picture was hung in the post office and the principal’s office and the like. Heh, I remember, my family loved Kentucky Fried Chicken a lot, and we at it all the time. As the son of two working parents, there were plenty of dinnertimes when a bucket of chicken and all the fixins saved the day. [1] I think I saw the local KFC counter more times than the inside of our family’s fridge! But eventually I did think it was weird that I never saw any other presidents on food except for the Quaker Oats guy, who I thought was Ben Franklin at the time.

INTERVIEWER: Did the franchise ever seem partisan, or conservative to you?

ALEXANDER: Well it was a family restaurant, so they were all about wholesomeness and keeping a happy and welcoming environment. On the other hand, from time to time, you would see a car waving the Confederate flag parked in a KFC parking lot. You still can today, in fact – but only from time to time.

– Oscar-winning actor Jay Scott Greenspan in an interview for Variety magazine, 2019

TOMMY CHONG: Hendrix was a wild one, man. We first met at the start of ’69 …He was a nasty drunk, though – violent and hateful, full of rage and wanting to hurt anyone who even looked at him even sorta in the wrong way. But he was full of love, and he was everyone’s pal, when he was high.

–, 2014

In early 1961, Hendrix was arrested twice for driving stolen cars, and was given a choice: go to jail, or join the US military. With news reports broadcasting American forces entering Cuba in April of that year, and after meeting with local injured WWII veterans, Hendrix decided that “an American prison was comparatively safer than a tropical war zone.” He began his sentence on May 31, 1961. Hendrix reported disliking the prison’s conditions, and was twice reprimanded for starting a fight. He described two racially prejudiced guardsmen as “nothing new” to him. In November, though, his attitude became less recalcitrant upon joining the prison’s music band. Hendrix was soon granted a few hours a day to play guitar, and after a month of good behavior, was allowed to ask his father to send him his red Silverton Danelectro guitar. In March 1963, Hendrix was released early on parole for good behavior. Hendrix had established a rapport with his fellow prisoners, and had had his troublesome attitude placated by the music he played in jail.

Needing a change in scenery, Hendrix moved to Nashville, Tennessee and formed a band called the King Kons. After two years of performing rhythm and blues music at venues in the South, the band broke up over creative differences, and Hendrix moved to Harlem for another change of scenery. In the Summer of 1965, he won first prize in an amateur contest at the famous Apollo Theater, boosting his music career enough for him to sign on to Little Richard’s band The Upsetters. It was around this period that Hendrix began using recreational drugs such as cocained, though some claim he did not try LSD until 1967. Friends noted his use of drugs produced the opposite effect that alcohol had on him.


…57% of customers who took the survey identified as “conservative,” 52% as “Republican,” 56% as “male” and 45% as “white.” The numbers for each of these groups are increases from the 1967 survey results – in the respective order – by 5%, 4%, 7% and 2%. …While the number of customers has increased overall, non-white customers have slowly decreased at an average rate of 4% since 1965. In the past fiscal year (1968), however, these numbers have improved (going up 7% from the 1967 fiscal year’s rate), possibly in the face of easing racial tensions in the US overall since 1965…

This report concludes more focus should be made to win over more non-white, liberal, and female customers…

– KFC customer demographics report, 1/5/1969


…citing same reasons for their first nuptial break-up, with Marilyn accusing Joe of being “too controlling” and Joe accusing Marilyn of being unfaithful, an accusation Marilyn claim’s is “Joe’s green eye…showing.” Monroe and DiMaggio were first married from 1954 to 1955, but were then remarried in 1963. The announcement of their divorce comes weeks before the release of Monroe’s latest movie, “Rain,” a film adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham’s short story. It is Marilyn’s first movie since the 1964 black comedy “What a Way to Go!,” after which Monroe and DiMaggio “took a two-year vacation.” In development is another film, a biopic on Jean Harlow entitled “Platinum,” scheduled for release in 1970. However, in light of Monroe’s past incidents of emotional drama, it will not be surprising if this celebrity break-up stalls production.

The Hollywood Reporter, 1/8/1969

Democratic House leadership election 1969:
Date: January 10, 1969
Seats: All 201 Democratic-held seats
Seats needed to win: 101


John William McCormack (MA), a protégé of Speaker Sam Rayburn, had been Speaker from 1962 to 1967, and had the support of the party hierarchy. Mo Udall (AZ), a Congressman since 1961, opposed McCormack due to the results of the November 1968 elections, which saw another Massachusetts native, former Secretary Jack Kennedy, lose the Presidential election by a surprisingly wide margin. Udall campaigned on the need for a reform of party procedures and a generational “changing of the guard” for the next generation of Democratic voters and leaders. He led a coordinated effort with fellow reformers, but he needed to form a coalition of Congressmen beyond the reformists to win; he won over doves, progressives, and pro-union congressmen in that endeavor by blaming the loss of the House in 1966 and 1968 on McCormack.

Udall – 102
McCormack – 99


Carl Bert Albert (OK), a Congressman since 1947, had been Minority Whip since 1967 and was Majority Leader from 1962 to 1967. Albert’s expected re-election was derailed when he was arrested on January 3 for drunk driving and crashing into a car (and the other driver receiving non-serious injuries while Albert was not injured) in the Cleveland Park neighborhood of Washington. Albert removed his name from consideration to address his alcoholism and the pending legal repercussions (which culminated in an out-of-court settlement) but did not resign. Congressman Hale Boggs (LA), a more conservative politician with a moderate streak, announced his candidacy on the fifth. Boggs’ challengers were reformists James O’Hara (MI) (whom allied with Udall in a coordinated effort to win over the party’s top leadership spots) and Tip O’Neill (MA), plus the liberal B. F. Sisk (CA) and the moderate Harding Noblitt (MN).

Boggs – 108
O’Hara – 72
O’Neill – 11
Sisk – 6
Noblitt – 4

– [2]

“Chief Justice, Vice President, Speaker, former Presidents and First Ladies, and each and every one of my fellow citizens: it is with great pride and humility that, on this day, I begin to lead this country of ours into a new decade of innovation, freedom, prosperity and peace. …During these last four years we took one step out of the jungle and will soon reach out and touch a satellite of the heavens. But we still have many more obstacles to overcome down here on Earth before we encounter the new obstacles that may lay in store for us in space. There is still poverty, there is still corruption, there is still hunger, there is still pollution, there is still disease and warfare and death. But we’ve overcome wait ails us time and again before, and will again, because we are Americans. And Americans always rise up from the deep and dark wells of despair and together achieve the highest beacons of humanity’s greatness.”

– Colonel Sanders’ second inaugural address, 1/20/1969

“…I believe another certain Kentucky-born Republican by the name of Abraham Lincoln would be proud that his party still contains the energy and moral compass it possessed over one hundred years ago. …Colonel Sanders achieved bipartisan support in order to maintain the safety, sanity and security of this nation, and this will continue during the next four years.”

– Vice President William Scranton, 1/20/1969

Just days after attending the 1969 inauguration, Father received a phone call from Aunt Bessie. Uncle Clarence, Father’s kid brother, had died.

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991


Chicago – The brother of President Sanders, Clarence Edward Sanders, 76, passed away in his home in Cook County on the 26th. Secret Servicemen surrounded the grieving party to ensure the funeral service was held in a small and private venue earlier today. Reverend Billy Graham reportedly said a few words at the funeral. Clarence will be interred in Elmwood Cemetery in Lake County.

The Colonel’s brother was born on September 18, 1892 to Wilbert Sanders and Margaret Dunlevy, and was married to Bertha Northcutt before his second marriage to Bessie Chartier DeLor. His is survived by Bertha, Bessie, children James and Charles, brother Harland, sister Violet Sanders-Cummings, and many other relatives. Clarence was a boisterous presence in the White House, much like the Colonel. “They were cut from the same cloth, to believe in the high value to honest work and respect for one’s fellow man,” says his niece, Margaret Sanders. The Sanders family requests that donations be given to humanitarian organizations in lieu of flowers or cards.

Chicago Tribune, 1/29/1969

Many say it was solely Pastor Waymon that cured me. But I think another ingredient to it was my grandchildren and great-grandchildren. They loved to visit the White House. They really brought life to that old building. And I didn’t want to expose them to the sin of swearing. Even still, I would cuss up a storm even if I wasn’t absolutely sure that any one of them wasn’t within earshot, behind a door or running down the hall.

After my brother Clarence passed away in January 1969, something compelled me to speak to Rev. Graham. I asked him to speak at Clarence’s funeral. He obliged, and I was captivated by the confidence of his words. After the ceremony, I asked him if I would be damned for all eternity for cursing. He told me to listen to God through the words of the bible. So I started reading a bit of the bible each night, keeping its thoughts and ideas stored in the back of my mind as the weeks went on.

About a month later, in February…

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974

1969 was a year more focused more on domestic policies getting passed. I mean, foreign events occurred, of course, but the President wanted to focus on the concerns of the voters after so much time in his first term spent on concerns overseas. He called for decentralizing the education system for the US, but still urged vocational education and job training to cut down on already-low unemployment rate. He also strongly supported programs to help the poor, um, like building homeless shelters and food pantries, and federal assistance programs that fund statewide assistance programs, just in case the Federal Aid Dividend proposal fell through again like how it had in 1965.

– Former Press Secretary Ron Ziegler, 60 Minutes Interview, 1991

The troika between Inauri, Molotov and Kosygin was shaky at best from the very beginning. Immediately, Inauri sought to consolidate power, and was aided in that effort by the aging Molotov. Upon dismissing Kosygin without an official explanation, the troika dissolved and Inauri became the effective ruler of the USSR.

Below: Aleksi Inauri

[pic: ]

Inauri, who was 60 years old in early 1969, was a Soviet Colonel General and the commander of the Georgian KGB from 1954 until 1963, after which he rose through the ranks under the Shelepin era. As head of the Georgian KGB, Inauri, who was of Georgian descent (“just like Stalin,” as he often pointed out), responded vigorously to anti-Soviet dissident groups in Georgia with strict discipline and a large web of espionage of KGB undercover agents infiltrating dissident groups, which included the Georgian Orthodox Church at one point. His political support for Shelepin formed early; in 1963, he was the one who personally escorted Khrushchev out of Moscow. Co-workers in the politburo considered Inauri to be “clever” and “very cunning” when it came to getting things done…

– Victor Cherkashin’s Adamant: The Rulers of the USSR and the KGB, Basic Books, 2005


Washington, DC – Senator John Sherman Cooper (R-KT), a political ally of The Colonel, introduced on Capitol Hill today a new bill for “urban restoration.” …The bill’s goal is to “find and fund forms for fixing” sources of urban violence, Cooper explain on the Senate floor…

The Washington Times, 2/15/1969

As a United States Senator, Mondale worked hard to build up the center of the party on economic and social issues. Unlike like his own father, a fervent liberal, he was not a crusader for the New Deal. Instead, he realized the Democratic base (especially ethnic blue-collar workers) was gradually moving to the right and he worked to keep their support. Mondale showed little or no interest in foreign policy until about 1969, when he realized that some knowledge was necessary if he had loftier aspirations than the Senate. …He developed a centrist position on foreign policy, avoiding alignment with either the party’s hawks…or its doves. [3]


CRONKITE: In political news, President Sanders has offered amnesty to Indochina draft-evaders in an official announcmenet at the White House earlier today.

SANDERS (in clip): A conditional amnesty program for deserters and draft-evaders of the Indochina Theater will waive such folks of any charges – provided they agree to work for a year in public service, and other requirements, pending the severity of each case.

CRONKITE: Ten months ago, Sanders created the Presidential Clemency Board to oversee the execution of the program. Today’s announcement comes at the conclusion of months of the board reviewing hundreds of related cases from all branches of the US military...

– CBS Evening News, 2/16/1969 broadcast

On February 17, 1969, a US B-52 Stratofortress on a routine exercise experienced an engine breakdown and crashed into the rocky highlands of northern Newfoundland, Canada [4]. While four of the six crewmen onboard successfully bailed out, the remaining two, plus two Canadian surveyors on the ground, perished in the resulting fireball. The plane’s nuclear payload was onboard, and while did not detonate in a nuclear explosion due to being disengaged at the time, the crash did cause a conventional explosion and the dispersion of hazardous radiation into the areas surrounding the mountains east of Daniels Harbour. While basically ignored by American media, due to being buried in the second page of most papers as a minor Air Force incident, Canada’s Prime Minister Hellyer accused Sanders of recklessness.

In the White House briefing room, Sanders pounded the desk with his cane in aggravation [5]. “Hellyer, don’t give me that bulls#*t!” he spouted into the receiver. “We signed off on sharing air space for military exercises back in ’66!”

On the other end of the line, Hellyer refused to back down on his assertion that the blame for the incident lies entirely at the Colonel’s feet, and hung up before the Colonel was finished ranting. Realizing his anger was not helping, he let out one last groan of frustration before composing himself. “Sorry y’all had to see that.”

“It’s alright, sir, we’re used to it,” Curtis assured him.

“Really?” The Colonel seemed a bit surprised. “Well, let’s get the head of the Air Force in here. We’ve got to get our stuff out of there. And figure out how to clean up the mess we’ve spilled.”

Bonesteel suggested “Shouldn’t we agreed to the specs for a joint US-Canadian cleanup plan with Hellyer’s men first, sir?”

“We wait for him to get off his high-horse and who knows how many people will die from this radiation cr*p? No, no, we’re sending in cleanup crews ASAP!”

American officials subsequently launched Project Zhivago (a reference to the 1965 film Dr. Zhivago, which contains famous scenes set in icy Siberia), an extensive operation to remove debris from ice and waterways in northern Newfoundland, where in February the temperature was often below -30 degrees Fahrenheit, and winds often blew at over 30 miles per hour. As such, equipment failure from freezing conditions slowed American efforts. These conditions were complicated by concerns that the spring thaw expected to arrive in several weeks would melt contaminated ice and spread the radiation. Nervous over the time crunch, local Canadians sought to help in any way they could.

In Ottawa, though, Hellyer called for tariffs on American imports as a way to financially compensate for the environmental damage caused by the stratofortress crash. Further talks between Hellyer and Sanders led to Hellyer finally agreeing to send in Canadian officials to assist with the cleanup, but talks of compensation persisted.

The incident’s renewal of tensions between the Hellyer and Sanders governments made citizens in both countries with families and friends across the border nervous of the possible economic ramifications. However, after weeks of uneasiness, Sanders offered an olive branch in the form of agreeing to cover financial costs for the cleanup in exchange for Hellyer ending his tariff proposal. Hellyer agreed to the offer after both leaders agreed to blame “the Cold War,” not each other, for the incident.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

“In 1969, I had a date with Tricia Nixon. It was a date arranged by my dad, as he had just started working as the national RNC chairman at the time, and Nixon was back in the Senate, and they thought, well, why not? It was interesting. I showed up to pick her up in a purple gremlin. I took her to a dinner held for Frank Borman, the astronaut from Houston who was a friend of my Dad. It wasn’t exactly a romantic dinner, but afterwards we did manage to have some time alone, and we got to know each other better. Our likes, our aspirations, our fears. Things like that. Dating the former VP’s daughter had its hurdles, though. It included things like sneaking away from the Secret Service, which really pissed off Senator Nixon from time to time. But, uh, he didn’t think little of me, we got along well enough, I’d say.” [6]

– George W. Bush, 2011 interview

While Dave Thomas’ Wendy’s was the shop primarily used for the introduction of new items, sometimes we would experiment in expanding KFC’s menu, too. In February 1969, Pop decided to visit me and the kids after an apparently stressful meeting with the Air Force over some issue or other, and he decided to see the new menu items he’d heard so much about.

“Don’t worry, Pop, they’re all based on your old recipes,” I assured him.


Pop took a bite out of the new potato salad [7] made with fresh potatoes, fresh herbs, and creamy butter. After a few suspenseful seconds, Pop declared with delight “I like it! Great job, Mildred!”

– Mildred Sanders Ruggles’ My Father, The Colonel: A Life of Love, Politics, and KFC, StarGroup International, 2000

…About a month later, in February, I quietly visited KFC headquarters Florence. Afterwards, I met with Governor Robsion in Frankfort. I was about to head to the airport when something compelled me to visit Louisville, maybe to check on some relatives or the city’s Republican mayor, I wasn’t sure. I convinced the secret service to take over there. It was Sunday morning, and as we passed the Assemblies of God church, I remembered why the Louisville had been on my mind – this was one of the many churches that had invited me to sit in on their services since becoming President. I thought back to Reverend Graham telling me to listen to the good word, and so I figured, “I’m already here, why not check in?” The Secret Servicemen were very wary of this, but I believed no harm could come from entering a church.

The Evangel Tabernacle Assembly of God’s pastor was an energetic middle-aged man named Waymon Rodgers. Finishing up his sermon, I was impressed by his raw emotional urge for his flock to follow the faith do good deeds, so I went and got to talk to him in private. He wasn’t expecting to talk to the President that Sunday, but sometimes unexpected things happen – how you respond to them, though, is what really matters in the end.

When I asked the pastor what he thought about my soul. I opened up to him about my swearing problem, but I went even further and told him about my insecurity over my actions as Commander-in-Chief. All the young men killed in Vietnam and Laos, and the innocents gone forever on both sides. And more recently, the men killed in the Newfoundland Incident. The more I thought about it, the more eager for I became to hear his answer. He told me I was preaching to the young man; he told me to kneel and pray to God directly. I did so, and I prayed for my very soul. I prayed for Jesus to save me, and to forgive me for the sins of my past actions. Pastor Waymon then knelt down next to me and asked if I’d like to be born again.

I told him, “I really would. Do you think that Jesus could save me to the point where he would take away my cussing?” I said at the verge of tears-shedding.

And Pastor Waymon said to me “Colonel, God is going to save you tonight and you’ll never cuss again.”

In that moment, I went from believing in Jesus to accepting him into my heart.

We left to return to Washington. A few weeks later, I managed to get a hold of him on the phone and tell him the most wonderful of news. It was like a curse had lifted. I told him, “Since I prayed the sinner’s prayer, things have completely changed in my life. I have not cussed even one time since then. It has really made a difference with me.” [8]


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Above: National Secretary of Radio Lee Shultz (left), me (center), and Revivaltime host C. M. Ward (right) sharing in a moment of prayer, circa 1969

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974

I have already said all of this before in my book, but I think I can say it all again.

Basically, after the Invasion of Poland, when we killed all of those innocent people, young, old, anyone we spotted, anyone who couldn’t get out of the away or run fast enough, after all that, I was… broken. Not a single person back home even knew about it. What we did in Poland was the final straw; it was the catalyst for me. I was already so resentful of being forced into the Soviet Army in early 1968, but what they made us do in the army… in the invasion… it disgusted me, and it, um, distressed me, to my breaking point…

In late February, I was still in the army unit when I heard about Inauri honoring our latest cosmonauts with a motorcade parade in Moscow. It was for the docking of two crafts, or something, together up in space. They were called the Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5, I believe, and it happened a few weeks before. They may have been trying to downplay the upcoming moon landing. Anyway, the announcement gave me an opportunity that I did not want to lose. That night, I stole two handguns, both small enough to easily hide in my coat, and I fled from my army unit. I made it back, all the way back, to my home in Leningrad, my family’s home. There, I stole my brother’s police uniform and then I set out for Moscow.

It was very cold out on March 1, but all the people outside did not mind. It was always cold; there was no heat, no stores where you could go out and buy a coat or a scarf or even a pair of dry underwear to keep you warm, not like how it is now. No, back then you froze for the good of the country! Heh. But, no, no, back to what I was saying. The people, assembled on the street to wave at the celebrated cosmonauts, some of them were hoping to get waved at and others were hoping to catch a glimpse at their blindly-beloved leader. So none of them noticed me.

As I waited for my chance, my mind drifted to the Johnson and Sanders assassination attempts – the ones in 1963 and 1964, I believe, the ones spread all over the Soviet media in order to show how America was such a weaker nation as it could not even protect their leaders from harm. Those assassins had failed because they had never got a clean shot, as far as I knew; that’s what the soviet papers told us, at least Kommunist if not Pravda. And because of this, I waited until I actually saw Inauri exit the limo. I was glad I did this, or I would have fired into the wrong car, and who knows what would have happened after that! Heh. But when I saw him, Inauri, the latest symbol of the people’s oppression, I got up on this ledge for a better view of him, one that was clear, clean, and unobstructed. And I had to act very quickly. I took out both handguns and I fired right at him. I saw the bullets hit him. Then I was knocked to the ground.

– Viktor Ivanovich Ilyin, Russian-1 TV interview, 3/1/2009

Ilyin managed to fire all twelve bullets – that is six in each pistol – before being subdued by a frightened but angry crowd headed by security men. Five bullets hit parts of the limo. Three in total hit and injured others around Inauri, none severely. Of the four bullets that hit Inauri, one hit him in the arm, one grazed the side of his head, one hit the left-side lung, and one hit the side of the abdomen, slowed by a roll of fat the kept it from reaching anything vital. The one that cracked a bone in his ribcage was not so severe, though, so we did not focus on that one as much as we focused on other one. The one in his left lung. The leader immediately had trouble breathing, and he bled profusely. He was stabilized just as we were getting him into the operating room. It required hours of careful surgery to remove the bullet as it was in a position too delicate to risk removal, and we determined he could survive with it still in him. The KGB interrogated us to ensure we had done all we could. This however, just led to the KGB placing the blame for the incident, as they called it, on two members of Inauri’s personal guard, whom were executed for negligence. It was terrible, but understandable. The regime couldn’t suppress something witnessed by so many people, and once the news spread, the Russian people wanted blood. And if we couldn’t blame the Americans, then we would have to blame some of our own.

– Anonymous Doctor, Russian-1 TV interview, 3/1/2009

EXTRA: SOVIET LEADER SHOT AT PUBLIC CELEBRATION EVENT! Aleksi Inauri Expected to Recover, According to Reliable Sources

The Daily Sketch, 3/2/1969

ANDROPOV: Why did you decide that you are a judge and can decide with a gun in your hands?

ILYIN: Because a person should live, not exist.

ANDROPOV: What does that mean?

ILYIN: Now people try to survive by any means possible… something is very wrong in our society.

– Audio recording of KGB Chairman Yuri Andropov interrogating Viktor Ilyin, 3/1/1969 [9]

I went through a court case where I had no defender and was not permitted to do any talking! They then sent me to a lunatic asylum. I was tortured within an inch of my life. Inauri then decided I would be kept alive, as executing me would end my suffering. But I discuss that part of my life in my book.

– Viktor Ivanovich Ilyin, Russian-1 TV interview, 3/1/2009

With three years left to go in his seven-year term, early speculation that he would win re-election in March 1972 was perfectly understandable. President Mitterrand’s collective bargaining agreements and tax-and-spend economic policies were implemented despite several scandalous accusations. Conservatives, moderates, and even some liberals accused him of being a Soviet Spy, of using the Treasury for personal profit, and of weakening NATO. However, probes into these accusations produced nothing. Not even investigations into alleged mismanagement of funds for Mitterrand’s “Grand Projects,” a social agenda similar in some ways to American President Johnson’s “Great Society” agenda, proved nothing. Mitterrand’s approval ratings never significantly dropped to begin with, leading to his finance minister controversially stating “people care more about results than origins,” sparking another investigation that found nothing. Politically, Mitterrand was at times isolated even within liberal/socialist circles, leading to him making and breaking alliances whenever doing so favored his administration’s agenda. By doing this, France saw the abolition of the death penalty, the establishing a 39-hour-work week, and (despite what many thought a socialist President would never support) the end of a government monopoly on radio and TV broadcasting between 1965 and 1969. Mitterrand also formally apologized to the Huguenots on 2 February 1966. Such effectiveness made him popular among the people, but not among party leaders. The most unsettling aspect of his Presidency for conservatives was his closeness to China, even before The Colonel famously broke bread with Chairman Mao. In 1961, during the Great Chinese Famine, Mitterrand had visited China and denied the existence of such mass starvation [10]; however, this would not become a major stain on his legacy for decades. Mitterrand’s opening of trade relations with the PRC in 1969, though, was popular among 52% of the French people, according to contemporary polling. Overall, Mitterrand’s political future seemed very secure.

– Jonathan Fenby’s The History of Modern France, Scholastic, 2015

…Also in the news, President Sanders today signed into law the Rural Development Act, a broad act aimed at increasing the quality of life in rural areas across the country…

– NBCB News, 3/2/1969 broadcast


…the three Astronauts on board the historic flight are some of NASA’s finest. The Mission Commander is Air Force Colonel Gus Grissom, 42; the Lunar Module Pilot is Major Charles Bassett, 37; the Command Module Pilot is Capt. Ted Freeman, 39. If all goes as planned, Freeman will remain in orbit while Grissom and Bassett land the Lunar Module “Eagle” on the moon. Grissom will exit the vehicle first, making him the first man on the moon…

– The Orlando Sentinel, 3/3/1969


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– Lyndon Johnson proudly looks on as Apollo 10 lifts off, 3/3/1969

For a long while we saw nothing out the window as the moon was cloaked in darkness, and it wouldn’t be until the sun rose onto it when we could finally see our destination. Back at home, 500 million people were following our voyage on television and radio sets across the globe. The largest audience in history was watching, and listening to our every move.

Gene Kranz, the flight director, helped us land in that wobbly strip of alien ground. One more task done, still more left to go, I remember thinking. The landing site had needed to be smooth, relatively free of problematic craters, cliffs, and hills, and give us with good visibility – The Sea of Tranquility (or Mare Tranquilitatis) beat out Central Bay (Sinus Medii) and the Ocean of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum) for the spot.

We had to make sure we had landed safely, and that all of our equipment was still working. Charles lightened the mood by joking “hey, I think I see Flash Gordon flying by!”

We opened up the hatch to the spectacularly flat region of the moon, and I remember gazing at the majestic mountain ranges way off in the background. As commander, I received the honor of becoming the first man to walk on the moon on March 7, 11:52, EST. We were 238,900 miles away from Earth, but the live broadcast being viewed worldwide brought millions of eyeballs to Earth’s satellite, and for a long moment all of them were watching just the two of us.

I had rehearsed saying the famous words over and over, and I think I did said them just fine: “This is just one small step …for… just one man, but it’s… also one giant leap… for all of… mankind.” It was a little wordy, I will admit, but I’m not a writer, and I was too concerned with the mission at hand at the time.

When I felt my boot finally make contact with the ground, I felt a huge surge of relief rush over me. We still had our work cut out for us, but we took a brief moment to let it sink in what we had already accomplished that day. The mission had made its mark in the annals of history; after thousands of years of dreaming, after 21.2 billion dollars and nearly a decade of hard work from thousands of people. After the losses suffered and so much sacrifice made, mankind had finally made it to the moon.

When we raised the American flag, it noticeably wobbled and waved a bit from the vibrations of sticking it into the lunar surface. We checked the cameras and equipment, and immediately went to work. The two of us spent roughly 3 hours outside the spacecraft collecting lunar material to bring back to Earth while Ted piloted the command module “Columbia” in lunar orbit.


Right before we left, I commented to the millions still watching us at home, “we came here out of curiosity, and for the pursuit of knowledge, and in doing so, we also hope to bring the message of peace and love to every part of the Universe, starting with this natural satellite that we call The Moon.” We all felt a sense of true accomplishment, that because of this astounding feat, this worldwide celebration of the human spirit, the world’s future could only get brighter.


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– Gus Grissom’s autobiography Into that Glorious Vacuum: My Trip to the Moon and Our Trip Beyond It, St. Martin’s Press, 1987

Despite introducing its own TV sets 1960, Motorola was a 40-years-old company that was not shy about going for big and bold endeavors. When Gus Grissom spoke the first words from the Moon, he said them through a Motorola transceiver. …Motorola was all about the sales pitch that personal computer consuls were going to be the next big thing. One studio head described the concept as a “glorified robot accountant,” but they were certain it would change world of business. Turns out they undersold it!

– Former Motorola CEO Evan Williams, PBS edutainment special, 2009

“The moon landing was the only thing my fellow students were talking about in class that whole week, the day of the actual landing was on a Wednesday… [snip] …On Thursday, one kid in home room complained that his parents thought it was a waste of money, but everyone else disagreed – even the kid in question thought that it was still cool. Another kid in class claimed it would more than pay for itself once we start mining in space. The teacher backed him up on this and I think that made the poor kid feel better about it all. I felt even better when I learned on Friday that President Sanders had revealed that the Apollo 12 mission would include the only Black Astronaut qualified for the mission – Air Force Major Robert H. Lawrence Junior. At the time, it seemed that Lawrence would merely fly the Command Module, meaning that while he would not land on the moon, he would still be the first Black man to go to space.”

– Dr. Ben Carson, 2019 memoir


…The fifth crewed mission of the Apollo Program and splashed down in the Pacific, on March 11, eight days after blasting off from Florida. The mission fulfilled President Johnson’s 1961 promise of sending mankind to the moon “within the next ten years.” …the astronauts spent the next days in quarantine in case they brought back anything contagious… ...Since that celebratory photo-op at the White House, the Apollo 10 astronauts Gus Grissom, Charles Bassett, and Ted Freeman, have ridden in massive parades in New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles this past week. …Millions of cheering fans fill the streets with their adoration and admiration for these sudden celebrities… Yesterday, during their time in Los Angeles, they attended an official state dinner held to celebrate the flight. A glamourous celebration of going to the moon and back was attended by a plethora of politicians, dignitaries, scientists and foreign ambassadors. Even some major Hollywood celebrities were spotted at the event, including Marilyn Monroe, Frank Sinatra, Barbra Streisand, and Steve McQueen. …The three lunar men will start a worldwide tour that will take them several countries across the world, according to a reliable source…

The Hollywood Reporter, 3/23/1969

“What was the mood in the Soviet space program when American astronauts landed on the moon?”

“It was very similar to feeling among Americans when Gagarin went into orbit. Some of them tried to ignore it, some of them were insulted. …the Soviet propaganda did not play it up or give too much information… The Russian people had many problems in day-to-day life, they were not too concerned about the first man on the moon.”

– Interview with Nikita Khrushchev’s son,

People may say many things about Inauri, but to me, he was a comrade. A companion. I had never gotten along too well with Shelepin, especially towards the end of his life. This was mainly because he was hinting at shutting down the Star City projects and completely throwing away the Soviet Union’s plans for a lunar landing. Not only had the Americans beaten us to it, but our tests in N1 rocket program kept ending in disastrous failure. To him, the era of the Cosmonauts was reaching its end.

That changed under Inauri. Aleksi, new to the office and its administrative responsibilities and undeterred by the attack on his life, was a man of military background, like myself. He believed that space exploration was an expansion of the military; “outer space needs protection from capitalism, like any place does,” was how he put it. When I first went to speak with him about the lunar exploration programs, he listened to me. He respected my experience, and agreed with my assertion that a lunar landing of our own would revitalize Soviet morale and intimidate the Americans. As a result of our many conversations over the course of his reign, funding for Star City’s programs – from Zond to Soyuz – increased to unprecedented levels.

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995

THE FEDERAL AID DIVIDEND – IT’S NOT JUST A FAD!: Everyone’s Talking About It, But Who’s Actually Working On it?!

…Senate Leader Dirksen expects the F.A.D. bill to be voted on by the end of the congress currently in session…

– Tumbleweed magazine, March 1969 issue

“Folks, the task force led Vice President Scranton has brought me some very revealing stats with this her report. Y’all have a copy? Yeah? Good. Because it seems forcing whites to go to black-majority school districts and forcing blacks to go to white-majority school districts may be worsening racial relations. In practice, the policies are wrong, but in theory, they are for the best of intentions. Still, the report paints the picture that voluntary integration of communities should be encouraged, and it can’t be rushed or forced under most circumstances. We live together in this country and we should live together in our towns and cities, and we should encourage whites and blacks with being okay with having each other as neighbors. That’s what it comes down to. Stereotypes and blind prejudices aren’t things you can simply legislate away. So I don’t think I’m going to support busing anymore.”

“Folks, folks, settle down, please. Folks, busing is already creating racial hostilities where there were none before. And since its implementation under President Johnson, it is hurting children and families on both sides of the issue. Children wake up early to spend what can end up being hours riding a bus to a school so far away from home that the parents themselves can’t afford to travel there for parent-teacher meetings or any school events at all. I think that if the federal government is going to interfere in this manner, it’s better to build up the disadvantaged than build down the advantaged. To that effect, I’m going to promote towns themselves becoming integrated naturally. I’ve spoken to some Governors and Mayors and I think many with racial problems should make penalties for biased realty maneuvers. Because that’s what determines these school districts in the first place!”

“Well because the fact is, folks, that housing segregation is still going on despite court rulings against it, as my domestic policy chief has pointed out and demonstrated with the Scranton report. Instead of forcing black students to travel far away from families for an integrated school experience, blacks should not be discouraged from moving into better school districts, and that starts with fair and color-blind housing and real-estate practices. Now I’m aware that getting rid of deep-rooted prejudice is not something that can get done in just four years, as it needs to be slow and it takes time and effort, but justice and social harmony are worth the time and effort.”

– Colonel Sanders at a press briefing, 3/27/1969

“I’m surprised. I think the Colonel is finally catching on to what his conservative friends on the hill are up to. Busing suggests that all white people schools are better than all black-people schools. It’s a sneaky, less open way to putting us down, by suggesting to our children that we can’t run a school without them and without their children in it.”

– Malcolm X to a reporter, 3/27/1969

“I’ve spoken to the President, and I’ve told him that increasing school funding overall, in a manner that is blind to racial demographics, would be a process much easier to handle than busing and it would be much more effective as well. I’ve told him that we need early teaching programs, and smaller classroom for the more problematic youths…”

– Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., 3/28/1969

BYE BURGERS, HI HOOPS: McDonald’s Ray Kroc To Run San Diego Padres; A Woman To Take Over As CEO!

…Ray Kroc, the man who turned a Floridian small burger shack into a worldwide brand through streamlining mass production techniques, has stepped down as CEO of McDonald’s to take on a new role – manager of a California-based baseball team. “Baseball has always been my lifelong favorite sport,” explained Kroc at a press conference earlier today, where Kroc also announced who is replacement would be at McDonald’s.

Kroc’s designated successor is Board of Directors member June Martino, who he described as having the gusto and experience necessary to lead the company into the next decade. “Martino has the integrity and restless ability to deal with problems big and small.”

Martino, 51, began her career working for Kroc in 1948, when he hired her to do bookkeeping for his Multimixer milkshake enterprise. She previously served as McDonald’s Corporate Secretary and as the head of its Treasury. In the multimillion-dollar corporation, Martino also has often played the pivotal of peacemaker, mediating between opposing managers and directors, because she is the “only universally liked executive in McDonald’s,” according to one anonymous McDonald’s manager. Martino will join Mildred Sanders in being the female CEO of a major fast-food company, making her one of the most financially and economically powerful and influential women in the country.

– The Financial Times, late March issue


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The New York Times, 3/29/1969

The 1969 Turkish military memorandum was the second military intervention to take place in the Republic of Turkey, coming nine years after its 1960 predecessor. It is known as the “coup by memorandum,” which the military delivered in lieu of sending out tanks, as it had done previously. The event came amid worsening domestic strife, but ultimately did little to halt this phenomenon.

Years of economic recession (brought on mostly by internal mistakes, but also by the economic ripple effects of the 1963 Salad Oil scandal) had led to a steadily-rising wave of social unrest in Turkey, marked by street demonstrations, labor strikes, and even criminal activities such as Cam Bomb campaigns, petty robbery and vandalism, and even political assassinations. Both left-wing and right-wing factions opposed the government rule of centrist PM Suleyman Demirel, whose failure to keep together factions within the ruling Justice Party caused legislation to come to a halt, which only worsened the situation. In March 1968, the death of a 21-year-old college student named Deniz Gezmis at the hands of police during a riot created a martyr and escalated hostilities. By the start of 1969, universities were unable to function properly as more and more students took to the streets, and pro-government factions violently assaulted liberal professors. Industry suffered due to striking workers.

On April 2, 1969, through the Chief of the General Staff, the armed forces handed the PM a memorandum amounting to an ultimatum. It called for a new government that “inspired by Ataturk’s views, will implement the reformist laws” needed to “neutralize the current anarchical situation.” Seeing the situation as a way of walking away from the problem without being seen as doing so cowardly, Demirel took the opportunity and resigned, putting opposition leader Ismet Inonu in charge

Inonu, wanting to remain in power through any means necessary, quickly became a puppet for the military, whose leader declared on April 3 “We are the liberators of the good Turkish people; we will reign in the chaos immediately.” The right-wing de facto military junta imposed martial law, established a curfew, banned youth organizations, prohibited union publications, and illegalized strikes. Hundreds were rounded up and tortured, other sent to state-run kangaroo court trials. The situation continued to worsen…

– Stephen Kinzer’s Crescent and Star: Turkey Between Two Worlds, Farrar and Giroux Publications Ltd, 2001


Washington, DC – Church bells rang out today in celebration of the Holy Union of Congressman Kenneth “Ken” Hechler and Congresswoman Cornelia Genevive “Coya” Knutson (nee Gjesdahl). “Today I did something I never thought I’d ever do – get married!” the groom proclaimed at today’s reception, “But of course, that was before I met Coya.” The two politicians, known for their down-to-Earth styles and humble attitudes, first met in Washington, DC in early 1961, as Hechler was beginning his second term in the United States House of Representatives and Knutson was beginning her third (and first consecutive) term. Hechler, age 55, represents West Virginia’s 4th district, and Coya Knutson, age 57, represents Minnesota’s 7th district. When asked about her surname, Ms. Knutson remarked “I will probably keep my name as is; the people of my district, not to mention all of my friends and family, are already used to ‘Ms. Coya Knutson,’ as am I. I’m just happy Ken approves this.” Mr. Hechler concurred: “I don’t mind, as long as she’s happy.” Hechler and Knutson are planning to continue to reside in Washington, DC.

– Celebrations section of The Washington Post, Sunday, 4/13/1969

[In April 1969, T]he Ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China opened in Beijing, the first in almost 14 years. Defense Minister Lin Biao delivered the opening address warning of American encroachment: “Their Colonel peddles his capitalist wares in the Philippines and Japan, perched right off of our shores. We cannot let them in.” Zedong soon confronted Lin over the rhetoric, and demanded an explanation.

The rift between Lin and Mao had already started in 1967, when Lin insulted Mao’s wife, Jiang Qing, which made it difficult for Lin and Qing to support each other over their shared view that Mao’s warming of relations with the US was a mistake. In 1969, Lin attempted to avoid being purged for suggesting the US was “a nation of liars that could not be trusted” by claiming his misspoke due to illness. Lin and Mao had disagreed in the past over the Korean War and the results of the Great Leap Forward, but this time, Mao would not tolerate his close ally’s opinion differing from his own even if it was unintentional. In fact, Mao may have possibly gone ahead with talks with US officials simply to spite Lin. Furthermore, Mao was critical of Lin’s recurring health issues – “Do not emulate the Ming emperor Shizong, who devoted so much of his time to searching for longevity medicines that he neglected his governing responsibilities” – despite Zedong’s own health beginning to decline at around this time.

As a result of this exchange, Zedong decided not to purge Lin, believing his actions were the result of health ailments, not a differing of opinion. Instead, Mao stripped Biao of his responsibilities and demanded he visit a hospital to revive his health. With the delegates of the Ninth National Congress approving unanimously, the moderate Zhou Enlai was promoted to the position of Vice-Chairman over the quietly more liberal (and ultimately purged) Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. This made Zhou Enlai officially Mao’s designated successor.

– Yu Changgen’s Zhou Enlai: A Political Life, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006

[On Thursday, April 18, 1969, T]he Colonel turned off the television set in anger, outrage at the continuation of youth protests. Youngsters that voted for him in 1968 were either disappointed at the lack of progressive legislation scheduled for the rest of 1969, believing their concerns should take precedent, or outraged at the Colonel coming out against busing. “Did you read about how one of the KFC outlets in Minnesota got hit by a Molotov cocktail the other day? It was just some light damage and no one was hurt, but the media treated it like it was nothing! That wasn’t nothing, that’s the action of violent hoodlums! Who ever heard of political activists acting like criminal vandals?”

Claudia was about to comment when the Colonel’s National Security Advisor, Ruth Briggs of, arrived at the Oval Office unannounced.

The Colonel remarked, “What is it, Ruth? I’m trying to figure out how to handle these picket-punks before they hurt someone.”

“Sir, we have a bigger crisis on our hands.”

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

The President, Secretary of State Curtis, Secretary of Defense Bonesteel, Chief Foreign Policy Advisor Schlesinger, Chief National Security Advisor Ruth Briggs, Special Assistant to the President Harley Sanders, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Benjamin O. Davis Jr., Secretary of the Army Elvis Stahr Jr., and Secretary of the Navy Burke all convened together to review the situation. In their respective offices, the US Ambassador to the U.N. John Allison and the US Ambassador to the Soviet Union Jack Crichton were on secure lines.

“What calamity do we need to clean up before it spills everywhere now?”

“Sir!” Bonesteel shot up to exposit the collected information. “The Russian Navy is mobilizing warships. They were detecting leaving Rostov and passing through the Sea of Azov a few hours ago. They’re now in the Black Sea and heading south. We’re concerned the move may be against our PGM-19 Jupiter intermediate-range ballistic missiles set up in Turkey during the Johnson administration.”

“Sir,” a man at a desk jumped up, “Ships are now 200 miles north of Sinop.”

“What’s that, another abbreviation?” the Colonel inquired.

“No, sir, it’s a town on the northern tip of Turkey.”

“Y’all think they’re heading there?”

“It’s a possibility, sir.”

“Alright, alright, I know the drill – get me the Kremlin,” Sanders contacted Inauri through the hotline established for communication between Johnson and Khrushchev. Soon the Colonel’s counterpart was asked “Is this some kind of exercise or practice your men are doing over there? Because you’re getting very far from your coastline.”

The Premier’s reply was played so the whole room could hear it. “No, Sanders,” Inauri was blunt, “Turkey’s revolution has complicated travel of our ships through the Bosporus. It has thrown a wrench into Russian trade with the rest of the Mediterranean and Middle East. Also, Turkey is the host of many Russian exchange students whose lives are now in danger. The Soviet Union must protect its own. We will restore law and order to Turkey to do so. Goodbye.”

“Sir, he’s bulls#!tin’ us!” Ambassador Crichton exclaimed, “I was just talking to an education delegate of theirs at the UN last month. They’ve had no foreign exchange student pograms since Shelepin took over.”

“You sure that’s right?” The Colonel asked.

“Scout’s honor!”

Bonesteel remarked “He must be aiming at the Jupiter missiles in Turkey, sir. If he invades, he could try to obtain them.”

“And if we call him out on it, we’ll be confessing to their existence, embarrassing us on the world stage in front of our allies,” Ambassador Allison trailed on.

“Our only nuclear missile sites in the area are in Italy and Turkey [11], and Inauri could see our support of Turkey, despite the military now being in charge, as a threat to Russia,” reviewed Curtis.

After a moment of mulling, the Colonel asked “So. What are our options here? We can’t do nothing.”

“We can use diplomatic pressure to get the Soviets to leave,” offered Allison.

“Inauri doesn’t care about international pressure – we need to do some ‘intervening’ ourselves in Turkey,” Secretary Burke suggested.

“But invasion will escalate into another proxy war that could very easily spill into a nuclear one given there’s actual nukes in the hypothetical battle zone!” warned Harley.

“No, no, no, we need some leverage against Inauri to get him to abort the invasion. How long until their ships are in Turkey’s waters?”

“Just twelve hours, sir.”

“Make it ten hours – ten hours to find some type of leverage.” As the men and women in the room scurried about, the Colonel began to think aloud. “Now, why would Inauri be so interested in Turkey? It’s a democratic state, sure, an ally of NATO,” he suddenly shouted “hey by the way, will somebody see how our NATO allies British are responding to all of this?!” Causing several men at the phones to swivel around in their chairs and begin calling people. “Maybe they have some idea or something. We’re not the only country fighting communism after all.” He tapped his finger on the edge of his cane, “Something just seems off here.”

“Sir?” The Brooklyn-accented voice came from behind him. The Colonel turned around to see a young man, roughly 24 years young. An intern for Secretary Stahr, by the look of things.

“Yeah?” The President said.

“Sir, this may be nothing, but, um – ”

“Sonny, if you think you can help in any way, then let’s hear it, come on, come on!”

“Well, I play poker quite often and Inauri’s voice – it sounded like he was holding something back, like how when you hope nobody calls your bluff because your hand isn’t as strong as you want the other players to think it is.”

“Are you sure?”

“It could be there’s something more valuable in Turkey than he’s letting on.”

“Hmm… Charlie,” the Colonel called over Secretary Bonesteel, “Get the U2 planes over Turkey. Scour the area for anything suspicious.” As people began moving around once more, the Colonel thanked the young man for the suggestion, and resumed pondering aloud. “If we don’t reply to Inauri, Turkey could fall, and with it, our nuke sites and possibly the rest of the eastern Mediterranean. And if we do reply, to try to get out our nukes before the Turks arrive, we could end up going to war.” He leaned forward into the main table and tightly clasped his hands together. “Lord, please guise us through this challenge.”

Three hours later, Turkey’s military junta leaders responded to the invasion that they correctly deduced would soon be coming to their northern shores with an invasion of their own. In order to boost morale for the junta and to “scare away” the Soviets from invading, the Turkish military flexed its muscles with an invasion of Cyprus.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

Both Greece and Turkey had joined NATO in 1952. In 1953, a signed agreement between Greece and the US provided for the establishment and operation of US military installations in Greece, including Crete Naval Base, a major military facility at the Greek island’s Souda Bay, on the northwestern coast of Crete.


Greece was also an important ally of the US since the Truman administration’s policy of containment, meant to prevent the further spread of Communism in Europe, and American military assistance to the country had continued since 1947, despite Greece’s Civil War ending in 1949. Both Greece and Turkey important to the containment policy, which theorized that keeping Turkey and Greece communist-free would stop the rest of the Mediterranean and middle-eastern areas from falling to it as well. Turkey and Greece received special economic and military assistance in the post-WWII years. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Turkey was the bulwark of NATO’s southeastern flank, and was the host of Incirlik Air Base, a vitally important operations base of the US Air Force located at the bottom-center of the country, fairly close to the Syrian border.


…reports are coming in that the nation of Turkey has sent troops into the island nation of Cyprus

– ABC News bulletin, 4/18/report


[pic: ]

– Iconic photo of the Colonel learning about the Invasion of Cyprus amid the Turkish Missile Crisis, 4/4/1969

Soon the Colonel was back in the situation room.

“Sir, relations between the Greek and Turkish communities on the island were worsening recently, and now they will only worsen. The British, due to their bases there, tried to keep the peace in the past, but their new PM – that Powell guy – he’s actively seeking to hand over the responsibility to NATO or the UN.” Bonesteel was very much in an exposition-saying role on this day.

Curtis continued, “Meanwhile, the President of Cyprus, the "hard-liner" Archbishop Makarios, is worsening the situation even further by being difficult to work with, and there’s the chance that insulting him in any way would lead to him supporting the Russians over us in his attempt to repel the Turks.”

“Like what happened to Fidel Castro in Cuba,” Sanders observed.

“Exactly. Holding the island is strategically vital in the region, as it lies in front of Israel and Egypt,” Bonesteel added.

“So the Archbishop would support the Russians against the Turks if we don’t get into another war,” said the Colonel.

“Right, sir,” both Curtis and Bonesteel this time.

“Alright, get on the phone lines the Inonu fella and the Greek king and P.M.,” referring to Greece’s Prime Minister Grigoris Lambrakis and King Constantine II.

In a four-person telephone conversation, Sanders threatened to cut financial aid to, or even impose an arms embargo on, both Greece and Turkey if either engaged in military activities against the other.

“Even if the other side is the only side to blame?” bellowed the dovish Lambrakis in outrage.

“You’re both looking for a fight, you’ll both get it if either of you starts it,” The Colonel would not tolerate two of their allies started a fight while a more pressuring issue lingered around in the Black Sea.

Before American military support began, Turkey had a large but weak and highly antiquated army that would not at all have been able to repel a Soviet invasion. Amid pressure from the Turkish military, which obviously enjoyed America’s support, Inonu agreed to pull back Turkish troops from Cyprus – but only because he believed he had made his point to the Russians (despite their ships not stopping), and even if he hadn’t, he saw the “military exercise” as “good practice” ahead of the Russian invasion.

Once off the phone, Harley expressed his dislike of Turkish leaders of the past. “I hope the junta leaders man up and confess what their predecessor refused to.”

“What do you mean, son,” asked the Colonel.

“They refuse to recognize the Armenian Genocide, and their prison policies are full of human rights violations. I saw the effects of the Holocaust when I was in Germany. If I was in your shoes, dad, I wouldn’t let them off so easily.”

The Colonel sighed as he nodded and patted his son on the back. “One crisis at a time, son. One crisis at a time.”


The ship would be at the coast of Kastamonu province in just two hours and fourteen minutes when the “dirt on Inauri” the US was looking for finally surfaced.

“A U-2 spy plane has produced clear photographic evidence of Soviet ballistic missile facilities were being installed in Turkey’s Kirsehir Province just before the revolution,” explained Bonesteel as the photos were brought in, “we believe nuclear material is there.”

“Then…their so-called intervention isn’t – or least not entirely – to remove our missiles after all! It’s to protect their own from the new Turkish regime! Turkey is unstable, but it’s still our ally.”

After a moment of contemplation, the Colonel returned to the Soviet hotline, and after several minutes, Inauri finally answered.

“You have sixty second starting now, Colonel”

“Inauri, listen to me! We can settle this without bloodshed.”

“What do you mean?”

“We can both get something out of this, we can reach an agreement of some kind, and I’m good at that sort of thing, you know, and – ”

“If you are trying to stall for time, you have failed. Goodbye, Colonel.”

“We know about the missiles in Kirsehir?”


“Inauri, you don’t have to invade Turkey to get your nukes back. If you invade, you and I both know that it can end with a lot of glow-in-the-dark suffering on both sides. Don’t be the man that dooms your own nation to spite someone else’s. We can stop the warfare now, but I need your help to do that.”



“…What exactly are you asking for, Mr. President?”

The ships came to a stop; the Turks were on the edge of their metaphorical seats. After several hours of tense negotiations, the Colonel and the Premier established an accord. The Soviet vessels would return to Russia, the Russians would remove their Kirsehir silos, and the Turkish conservative regime’s loaned Ilyushin II-28 light bombers would be returned to the USSR. In exchange for this, the US would dismantle their Jupiter MRBMs in Turkey and acknowledge the existence of their US missiles being in Italy.


The crisis averted, the Colonel was sure to commend the young intern whose suggestion had prompted the canvassing of Turkey that had led to Russia’s Turkish Missiles being discovered. The Presidential citation was a boon for the career of the young man, who had already served his country in Cuba from 1963 to 1965, had begun interning for Advisor J. R. Schlesinger in 1966 (after failing to start a career as a baseball player), and had now done his part in another military conflict. That intern was future US Senator Gabriel Kaplan.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

In subsequent talks with Greek and Turkish leaders, the Colonel agreed to travel to the region on official state visits later in the year. The visit to Greece in February 1970 would mark the first time a US President visited the region since President Eisenhower met with Greek PM Konstantinos Karamanlis at Maximos Mansion in Athens in December 1959. Similarly, no President had visited Turkey since Eisenhower met with Turkish President Celâl Bayar in the latter's capital city of Ankara a few days earlier in December 1959 (although there were talks of LBJ meeting with Turkey’s PM in 1965 if Johnson had on re-election).

The visit to Athens established a trade deal with Greece, allowing for the easing of Greece exporting to the US petroleum products, cement, marble, steel products, pipes and refractory products. A similar deal was signed with Turkey the next month.

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991

Inauri was violent whenever he hit the bottle, and in the aftermath of the Turkish Missile Crisis, Inauri hit his alcohol collection like a speeding train. The military had failed to simply remove the missiles from Turkey before the Americans or their potential new Turkish friends (the junta leaders) could notice. Due to the U2 spy planes, the Americans learned of the ploy. Inauri conceded to repossessing supplies they had already given the junta. While America admitted to having silos of their own in Turkey, too, Inauri had truly wanted to invade Turkey to prove Russia’s military might. But the threat of American intervention in Turkey, and the off-chance of Americans obtaining their weapons, was too great. The risk was too great. The excessive downing of vodka and the works was too great as well, and the leader was clearly despondent over the failure of the confrontation to lead to his preferred outcome. Inauri soon started complaining of severe headaches on the left side of his head, the side that had felt the deep graze of an assassin’s bullet just months before.

In the early hours of April 29, the Premier was found unresponsive on a sofa in his home in Moscow. He was pronounced dead at the hospital. He was 60 years old. The official report reads he suffered from phlebitis, that an unattended blood clot, produced from stress, had burst in his skull while he was resting. Those close to Inauri, however, believed the General had died from a drunken stupor, possibly drowning in his own vomit during the night, or suffering liver failure.

Regardless, KGB leader Yuri Andropov was quick to voice the possibility that Inauri’s death was the work of an assassin, possibly a capitalist from the US. Without any evidence, Andropov tried to eject the US Ambassador from Moscow, but ultimately stood down due to pressures from the Politburo.

Speaking of which, with the Russian ruler gone, the issue of his successor stirred across the Soviet politicians. Inauri had made many enemies during his brief premiership, and it was decided that his remaining allies would not be considered. Ultimately, in light of Inauri’s hawkish conservatism, a dovish moderate establishment politician was chosen. Alex Kosygin promised thee politburo “these past six years of failure were the results of conservative inaction. I promise that the Soviet Union will achieve glory in the ’70s under my supervision!”

– Tom Smith’s Twelve Hours in April: The Turkish Missile Crisis, Simon & Schuster, 1999

…after roughly two years of appeals, disgraced former Teamsters Union President Jimmy Hoffa begins his 12-year prison sentence today. Hoffa was found guilty of bribery, fraud, and jury tampering...

The Overmyer Network, 4/24/1969 broadcast


– The Sacramento Union (Ted Kennedy’s newspaper), 4/25/1969

WHEN CAN CHURCH INFLUENCE STATE?: The Constitution vs. Colonel Sanders And His Budding Friendship with Falwell and Graham

The Atlantic magazine, opinion article, late April issue

“So the Colonel has met with some religious leaders. How is that a big deal exactly, I wonder? He’s praised Jerry Falwell and Billy Graham. So is the President not allowed to praise anyone who’s a religious figure? What else is he not allowed to do – he’s in his fifth Presidential year and I can’t even remember one incident of him even praising his own KFC chicken! Furthermore, I feel like I must point out how congress has an official religious figure – the Chaplain of the US Senate – and yet, none of the these complainers are making any mention of him. Why is this different, I wonder?”

– William F. Buckley Jr. (host), Firing Line, WOR-TV, Saturday 5/3/1969 broadcast

Due to a lack in government oversight at the federal level, California’s shoutniks, progressive politicians, and various environmentalists convinced Governor Pat Brown to impose higher safety regulations in regards to offshore oil drilling in late 1967. On May 8, 1969, the Golden State’s Santa Barbara Channel would experience a disaster that tested the strength of these regulations and the resolve of the people of California. Furthermore, it brought the dark side of industry to the sunny beaches of America.

– Robert Easton’s Black Tide: The Santa Barbara Oil Spill and Its Consequences, Delacorte Press, 1972

A blow-out off the California coastline, during drilling on Union Oil’s Platform A in the Dos Cuadras Offshore Oil Field propelled oil into the water. Over the course of the next five days, between 40,000 to 60,000 barrels of crude oil spilled into the channel and onto numerous beaches in Southern California, tarnishing the coastline from Goleta to Ventura as well as the shores of some of the Channel Islands. Drilling had been occurring in the area since 1896, but no spillage incidents had ever come even close to this extent. The well was immediately plugged, but oil and gas continued to emerge through additional rips on the ocean floor. Upon Union Oil’s contact with the US Coast Guard, Governor Brown was contacted and he immediately sent in local assistance despite Union Oil claiming “no significant level of oil is leaking” and that the situation was under control. This immediate action taken by Governor Brown is considered a pivotal moment in containing the amount of oil spilled.

However, state officials falsely believed the oil would be swept away from the coast, not towards it. On the second and third day, heavy winds pushed heavy amounts of oil onto shorelines, blackening hundreds of boats and beaches. Residents were even evacuated in some areas due to the risk of explosions from the sudden abundancy of hydrocarbon vapors.

On the third day of the disaster, President Sanders flew to Santa Barbara to personally survey the spill and cleanup efforts. The President spoke with horrified residents and visited a beach littered with sick and dying oil-covered seagulls, lamenting “no birds should get that oily.” After talks with Governor Brown, the Colonel “decided to not oppose” the governor’s decision to impose a halt on all offshore drilling in his state “until a greater understanding of what went wrong and how it can be prevented in the future has been obtained.”

This moratorium was amended to six months due to economic concerns. However, Brown also doubled the size of the channel’s ecological preserves and other environmental “buffer zones”. Stricter oversights were imposed, commercial fishing was suspended, and tourism took a heavy toll. Governor Brown blamed the incident on companies, saying “they need to be forced to care about things other than maximizing profits,” but he still received criticism for the catastrophe occurring under his care to begin with. Brown had been in office for over ten years, and so many political opponents blamed him for “not doing enough when he clearly could have.”

The main spill continued for days until finally tapering off on or around May 15, but the effects were felt for much longer. The spill left a significant impact on the area’s marine life, killing sea birds, dolphins, seals and sea lions. The incident was the worst oil spill in American history at the time, and its affects remained in the consciousness of Americans – especially California – for years afterwards. The public outrage to the disaster was so strong that it catapulted further environmental legislation at the California state and the US federal levels, most of which remain in effect today.

– K. C. Clarke and Jeffrey Hemphill’s The Santa Barbara Oil Spill: A Retrospective, University of Hawaii Press, 2002

The Santa Barbara spill made the pro-environment activism of the 1960s more accepted and valid to a much larger segment of the US population. The spill fueled interest in the Natural Mind party, which had opposed drilling in the 1966 gubernatorial election. Subsequently, the party received a stronger amount of support as the months continued on, and this support matched a rise in registered N.M. members as its co-founder Tim Leary began an early campaign for the 1970 gubernatorial election.

– Robert Wilder’s Listening to the Land and Sea: The Politics of Environmental Protection in California, University of Sacramento Press, 1999

…The President still has much to smile about: unemployment is down to its lowest point in eight years. …Soldiers returning from Vietnam and Laos are filling low-pay jobs created by the Sanders administration’s federally-funded/state-regulated urban renewal projects…

– The Wall Street Journal, 5/11/1969


…the 42-year-old starlet’s third husband (and fourth marriage overall) is Roy Hamilton, a 40-year-old African-American singer best known for soul singles such as 1954’s “You’ll Never Walk Alone” and 1955’s “Unchained Melody.” The surprise announcement of their marriage, in a private ceremony over the weekend, comes just months after Monroe’s divorce from Joe DiMaggio. The interracial union may cause an uproar among Americans opposed to mixed-race couples, despite them being legal in all 50 states since the Loving v. Virginia Supreme Court Case of 1967…

– The Hollywood Reporter, 5/12/1969

MARCH TO MEXICO BUILDS: 100-Mile March In 110-Degree Heat

CALEXICO – Over 4,000 farm workers and their allies came together in this border town tonight in a showing of international solidarity and unity forged between farm workers of the United States and Mexico. The rally, attended by three US Congressmen, US Senators Walter Mondale (D-MN) and Ralph Yarborough (D-TX), a collection of movie and television stars from Hollywood, labor leaders from both nations, and thousands of farm workers from the Coachella and Imperial Valleys and Mexicali, was held at the conclusion of a 100-mile march from Indio to the Mexican border. The march was organized by the United Farm Workers Organization Committee, AFL-CIO, with the intention of demonstrating its commitment to improving wages and working conditions for all farm workers, regardless of race or nationality. UFWOC Director Cesar Chavez celebrated the marchers’ “boycott spirit” in the face of opposition… [12]


[pic: ]

...Senator Mondale, who is also working with Civil Rights Activists Martin Luther King and Ralph Abernathy on anti-poverty legislation, has praised that anti-illegal immigration worker rights champion Cesar Chavez for bringing the plight of “the men and women who toil to provide the most basic of human necessities – food, pure and simple food.” Mondale and Yarborough are also calling for better workplace treatment policies, and an increase in the influence of state unions. As Senator, Mondale has secured finances for his home state to build new roads, hospitals, and colleges, and for it, he obtained the endorsements and campaign contributions of many building and road contractors for his 1966 re-election bid, and is becoming a most popular politician among US labor unions.

El Malcriado, 5/18/1969

– video clip on the earlier works of Cesar Chavez (former Assistant Secretary of State Robert F. Kennedy can be seen at the start), 1966

Apollo 11
was the second manned Apollo mission to land on the moon. It began with a launch from Cape Canaveral on May 18, 1969 and concluded with an Atlantic splashdown on May 26, 1969. The mission consisted of three crew members: Commander Jim Irwin (1930-91), Command Module Pilot Ed White (b. 1930), and Lunar Module Pilot Gordo Cooper (1927-2004)… Cooper would retire from NASA in 1970, shortly after a second trip to the moon…

–, c. 2019

The 30th Annual Horatio Alger Awards Induction Ceremony in Washington, D.C. is pleased to announce the selection of President Harland Sanders for the nomination of this year’s Horatio Alger Award. Sanders has been selected for starting out as a humble farmhand and ending up as President of the United States. The selection is also in light of the Colonel’s hand in ending warfare overseas through military intervention in Vietnam and Laos, preventing further warfare from unfolding in Turkey, in Vietnam, signing major legislation early this year, and his landmark discussions with the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. The award ceremony will be held in one week, on the 25th [13].

– Horatio Alger Society, official statement, released 5/18/1969

BRADLEY BESTS YORTY!: Former Cop Will Become L.A.’s First Black Mayor!

…The April 1, 1969 primary saw Democratic city councilman Tom Bradley come in first place with 42% of the vote, followed by conservative Democratic incumbent Mayor Sam Yorty at 26%, Democratic KABC-Channel 7 TV news anchor Baxter Ward Baxter Ward at 17%, and Republican U.S. Congressman since 1961 Alphonzo E. Bell Jr. at 14%...

…In tonight’s May 27, 1969 runoff, Bradley won roughly 51.3% of the vote, while Yorty won roughly 48.7% of the vote...

…After 23 years of serving as a city police officer, culminating in a promotion to lieutenant, Bradley was elected to City Council’s 10th district seat in 1963. Since then, he has worked to “bring groups together” and improve the quality of life in the city. …Bradley successfully formed a coalition with former Ward voters, campaigned on the topic of improving the city’s low-income residential areas, and criticized incumbent Mayor Sam Yorty’s 1968 Presidential run: “It’s clear his focus is on a seat of power higher than the one he was elected to.” Touting his “prior life” in law enforcement, Bradley at times compared himself to the comparatively more conservative Mario Biaggi, the cop-turned-politician Governor of New York in order to reach out to conservative voters.

– The Los Angeles Times, 5/27/1969

Sanders had had enough of Khanh’s stubbornness.

On May 30, the CIA launched a bloodless coup in Saigon aiming at replacing Khanh with a more moderate leader who could earn the respect of the people while still maintaining loyalty to the United States.

In a phone call, Khanh demanded to know the meaning of the troops storming his home at 2:30 in the morning.

The Colonel explained, “Khanh, you stabilized your country very admirably. You reigned in the post-war confusion and chaos. But now you’ve taken things too far. By chasing away your fellow Vietnamese brethren, you are throwing salt and lemon on a wound. You are unravelling everything you worked to preserve.”

Khanh was curious as to whom his replacement would be.

“Nguyen Xuan Oanh,” Sanders pronounced the name as best he could. A banker trained at Harvard by trade, Oanh was the economist charged with managing country’s economy and finances. His military experience was minimal, but that matched the Colonel’s goal – he figured appointing one of the rare anti-Khanh generals to the Presidency would promote the continuation of hostilities. The Colonel believed the people of Vietnam had to move on from the fighting toward a brighter, more peaceful future.

“The people will never stand for this,” Khanh angrily warned over the phone.

“That’ll be for the people to decide – unlike you, Oanh actually intends on holding elections. The Presidential one will be next year. If you want, you can run in it. Convince the people to give you another shot. But that’ll be then, not now. Right now, you’re going to wallow in luxury while under house arrest. In many ways, you are a good man. But the ways in which you are a bad man can’t be ignored any more. Your reign of terror is over. Now, if you’ll excuse me, I have to accept a rags-to-riches award.”

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

“I was surprised and honored…when I was given the Horatio Alger Award. I didn’t even know who Horatio Alger was. Having to quit school in the seventh grade, I wasn’t familiar with Alger’s books. …When somebody hit it lucky, I’d hear someone say, ‘He’s a regular Horatio Alger,’ but it didn’t mean a thing to me. I figured someday I’d find out what it meant. All I knew was that it meant ‘from rags to riches.’ So when I got the nomination, I was surprised. I received a letter telling me I’d be nominated and asking if I could come to New York to the Waldorf-Astoria on a particular day in May… I told them I could. I looked into it and I found the association fosters the American way of life. It tries to convince young people that there are still opportunities for everybody who really looks for them. Those opportunities aren’t all gone yet. You don’t have to belong to a big corporation to make it. Take me. I came from nothing. The nominations committee picked 15 or 20 people they thought should receive the award. Then they sent those nominations to 500 colleges and they were distributed to 3,000 campus workers who read the stories and biographies. They were the ones who determined which 10 people were to receive the awards each year. President Eisenhower, President Hoover, Conrad Hilton and J. C. Penney have been among the winners. Some mighty fine folks have gotten it. Some of the smartest men I’ve ever known never finished high school or college but they have a native intelligence. There’s a lot of difference between a little book learning and being educated. It all depends on how you define education. The world seems to feel that they only educated men are those who’ve enjoyed a formal education. I know many successful men who never even got out of grammar school.” [14]

Pictured: Me receiving the Horatio Alger Award from Dr. Norman Vincent Peale


[pic: ]

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


Dickey’s is a family-owned casual restaurant chain first established by Travis Dickey in Dallas, Texas in 1941. Inspired by the success of other fast-food restaurants franchising during the 1950s and 1960s, Dickey’s began franchising in June 1969. Dickey’s serving of a delicious plethora of meats and side dishes, using the same recipes first used in 1941, has made it the largest barbecue franchise in the United States.

Dickey’s: We Speak Barbecue!



Variety, June 1969 issue

Walter Jenkins had lived a good life. At age 51 in 1969, he was a top aide to Senator and former President Johnson. He had a wife of 24 years, Helen, and six kids at home, four boys and two girls. Yes, he and Helen had separated in 1965, they but never divorced and remained close. Jenkins had worked for Johnson since 1939, and had become an understanding and temperamental navigator of “the shark-infested waters of the Potomac,” as journalist Bill Moyers put it in 1975. He was a pivotal member of Johnson’s staff, and kept himself away from public eye, working behind-the-scenes to help his boss. It was never his intention to attract media attention, and inadvertently start a national movement, when he entered that YMCA.

On June 9, 1969, Jenkins was arrested in a Washington, D.C. YMCA restroom, was booked with another man on a charge of disorderly conduct, and fined. While some newspapers such as the Chicago Tribune and the Cincinnati Enquirer refused to run the story of a former President’s aide being arrested, most went ahead and did. On June 11, similar charges stemming from incidents at the in same restroom, having occurred on January 1959 and February 1965 [15], were uncovered, ruining Jenkins’ initial “fatigue” excuse.

It must be understood that homosexual behavior was widely condemned in the United States at this time…

– Brandon Teena’s The Rise of BLUTAG Rights: The Story of the Bi-Lesbian-Undefined-Trans-Asexual-Gay Movement, Scholastic, 2019

Lyndon is disappointed. His earlier suspicion that Walter was framed seems to have dissipated in light of the prior incidents coming to light. So many are telling Lyndon to fire Water to save face, but I disagree. I think Walter can whether the storm. …Earlier today, Lyndon told some reporters, and I quote, “I couldn’t have been more shocked if Lady Bird had tried to kill the Pope.” [16] …Lyndon is still thinking of his Presidential aspirations. The urge to return to the White House is still burning within him; the thought of 1972 is clearly on his mind. …Understanding Walter’s importance to Lyndon’s Senate staff, Rev. Billy Graham has suggested that Lyndon “forgive the sinner, but not the sin.”

– Ladybird Johnson’s private diary, 6/12/1969 entry

“I knew Jenkins from serving as commanding officer of his Air Force Reserve unit roughly 20 years ago, so I know what kind of character he has. So, you know what? So what if he’s what you could call a curious fellow? It’s not like he’s been replaced by a body snatcher – it’s the same good and hardworking Christian man that I’ve known for years, and the same hardworking Christian man that D.C.’s known for years.”

– Senator Barry Goldwater (guest), Firing Line, WOR-TV, Saturday 6/14/1969 broadcast

It was a sad time for Jenkins’ wife and children, and I was not about to add to their private sorrow. There are some things, like loyalty to friends or lasting principle, that take priority over the game of politics.” [17]

– Barry Goldwater, Meet the Press Interview, 6/15/1969

Lyndon is surprised by how much mail isn’t hate mail. Some of the letters could even be described as ‘understanding,’ I want to say. …I visited Marjorie the other day. She’s moving back to Texas. She’s taking the kids with her…

– Ladybird Johnson’s private diary, 6/16/1969 entry

In support for his friend, Johnson encouraged the Dean of Washington National Cathedral Francis B. Sayre Jr. to defend Jenkins as “a good, religious man” who upheld the values of the church. With the former President’s encouragement, The American Mental Health Foundation published a letter on June 17, which read “The private life and inclinations of a citizen, Government employee or not, does not necessarily have any bearing on his capabilities, usefulness, and sense of responsibility in his occupation. The fact that an individual is homosexual, as has been strongly implied in the case of Mr. Jenkins, does not per se make him more unstable and more a security risk than any heterosexual person.” [18]

– Brandon Teena’s The Rise of BLUTAG Rights: The Story of the Bi-Lesbian-Undefined-Trans-Asexual-Gay Movement, Scholastic, 2019

The bipartisan problem of homosexuality is nothing new to Washington D.C. President Eisenhower faced the issue with would-be appointee Arthur H. Vandenberg Jr., the son of a US Senator. Vandenberg Jr. had homosexuality problems and could not pass a security test to join that administration as the President’s appointments secretary. This was all the way back in 1953. [19]

– journalist Drew Pearson, Washington Merry-go-round column, 6/18/1969

…The Democratic Party has been the host of homosexuality for decades...

…In 1919, when he was Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt himself investigated “conditions of vice and depravity” occurring within the US Navy Training Station in Newport, Rhode Island, after the Democrat Woodrow Wilson’s Justice Department declined to investigate [20].

…In 1942, Democrat David I. Walsh found himself caught up in a complex scandal involving Nazi spies and Walsh being a patron of a Brooklyn brothel for homosexuals. Walsh had been a Senator from 1919 to 1925 and again from 1926 to 1947, and Governor of Massachusetts from 1914 to 1916, yet his private activities went undiscovered until after decades of public service…

– The Arizona Republic, 6/20/1969


– The New York Post, 6/21/1969

“I’m surprised Joe just sold out his own kind. But then again, the man is a scrupulously closeted homosexual.” [21]

– Deputy CIA Director Richard Helms, Meet the Press interview, 6/22/1969

The truth was coming out, like a beautiful butterfly leaving its cocoon (though the phrase “coming out of the cocoon” would not catch on until much later). After Johnson tried to minimize the scandal by coming to his vital aide’s defense, Republicans tried to inflate the scandal by accusing the Democratic party of having harbored Blutags for decades. These accusations were countered by Democrats making accusations of their own. These exchanges came at the expense of the people they were outing, but the very fact that so many people were being outed brought to light a hidden truth – that Blutags had always existed. The political fighting led to non-straight people realizing that there were more people like themselves out there than they had thought, and led to straight people realizing that Blutags existed, period (though the term Blutag would not be coined until many years later as well). Same-gender Attraction was entering the sphere of public awareness, and soon enough, the bravest of the BLUTAG community were deciding to follow the advice of the ancient Romans: carpe diem...

– Brandon Teena’s The Rise of BLUTAG Rights: The Story of the Bi-Lesbian-Undefined-Trans-Asexual-Gay Movement, Scholastic, 2019


– The Washington Post, 6/24/1969

…This year’s robust economic growth is believed to be the result of closing budget deficits in 1967 and 1968 after the end of the Vietnam Conflict…

– The Financial Times, 6/29/1969

…In recognition of the President’s support for higher education, including donating his salary of the last financial quarter to school fitness programs, a new major league baseball team has officially been founded – the Louisville Colonels. The public unveiling comes after licensing and advertising specifics were agreed to between MLB and KFC officials, after weeks of negotiations and legal research… There was a short-lived Louisville Colonels team in the 1880s; this new team is unrelated to that one... …This new baseball team should not be confused with the basketball team formed in 1967 called the Kentucky Colonels and named after Kentucky’s historically famous colonels, not after President Harland “The Colonel” Sanders…

Sports Illustrated, 7/2/1969


[pic: ]
– The Colonel on Independence Day, 7/4/1969

[1] Based on this:
[2] Info from here:
[3] Mondale summary in italics taken from his Wikipedia article.
[4] 13 months later than a similar incident that happened in Greenland IOTL:
[5] According to this:, Sanders “‘made a lifelong habit of swearing at employees, his own and those of lucky restaurant owners, and knocking any surface with the end of his cane to indicate his displeasure at imperfectly cooked scrambled eggs.’ But for the most part, he was as well-behaved a corporate icon as the Jolly Green Giant.”
[6] 3:30 mark in this Jimmy Kimmel interview from 2017 youtube: /watch?v=5ir1hhpkwbo
[7] Based on this vintage KFC menu!:
[8] All quotes (italicized parts) pulled from here:
[9] Exchange between Ilyin and Andropov is verbatim OTL: youtube, starting at the 2:50 mark: /watch?v=3jeHGVt8ucw
[10] OTL!:
[11] IOTL, the US had nukes in Greece from 1963 to 1984, but not here due to the lack of a certain missile crisis occurring in 1962; this also means that the US never had to remove their missiles from Italy or Turkey like how they agreed to in OTL.
[12] Paraphrase of first article found in the PDF of El Malcriado, Volume III, Number 5, found online via googling “Cesar Chavez 1969 march” (I still can’t figure out how to insert a link to a PDF, sorry, but hey, at least I’m citing my work! :))
[13] The date of the ceremony is based on OTL’s 2019 ceremony date (April 4-6) (found via ) and from the first page of Chapter 16 of the Colonel’s OTL 1966 autobiography, which describes his OTL award being giving during a ceremony that was held “on a particular day in May”
[14] OTL quote, found on Chapter 16 of his OTL 1966 autobiography
[15] The 1959 date is OTL, the 1965 date is ATL
[16] OTL quote, found via Source 18 on Walter Jenkin’s wiki article
[17] Italicized portions are OTL and found somewhere in his autobiography, according to Walter Jenkins’s wiki article. However, no link is given and I couldn’t find Goldwater’s autobio online (though I may have not looked hard enough or even overlooked it), so take the quote with a large grain of salt just in case.
[18] OTL quote according to Source 35 on Walter Jenkin’s wiki article
[19] OTL Drew Pearson quote.
[20] FDR quote and other info found here:
[21] OTL Richard Helms quote.
Post 23
Post 23: Chapter 31

Chapter 31: July 1969 – December 1969

“The ideal man bears the accidents of life with dignity and grace, making the best of circumstances.”

– Aristotle

After Sanders quit swearing for good, he just wasn’t as fun as he used to be. One time, for instance, he got outraged at this lobbyist for borderline harassing the department of the interior over possible limited mining rights in a national park straddling the US-Canadian border. The old Sanders would have threatened the snot with his beatin’ stick, but in ’69, it was kind of sad seeing him holding back, getting’ all tense – his tiny eyes bulging out so far you could actually see the whites of ’em, veins bulging out, face all red, muttering and stuttering and finally telling him off – but the insults and swears were of the disappointedly kid-friendly kind now.

– Lawrence Wetherby (US Ambassador to Canada 1965-1973), 1991 interview


After the conservative successes of Shelepin and Inauri, the new and more liberal USSR leader will implement our union’s Eighth Five-Year Plan, which will last from 1969 to 1974. Kosygin’s plan is to boost the economy via consumer production. Our glorious new leader swears his plan will increase the Soviet standard of living by increasing the supply of food, clothing and other household appliances up to 50 percent, and increasing the union’s population’s cash income by 40 percent.

– Kommunist, Soviet magazine, July 1969 issue

Kosygin believed that too much focus on defense expenditures would be the USSR’s “complete ruin,” and sought to amend the ship’s course… In July 1969, Kosygin, with an entourage of close advisors, met with President Sanders, and his own advisors, at Camp David, marking the first time a Soviet leader had visited American soil since the infamous “kitchen debate” nearly a decade earlier.

Below: the Colonel walking around the Camp David grounds with Kosygin

[pic: ]

The talks re-affirmed Kosygin’s commitment to denuclearization. The Colonel would later describe Kosygin as “a skillful negotiator, keen on details and alert when it came to complexities. He was very much passionate about policy, and would cut right to the meat of things. A real businessman-type personality, at bit impersonal or even unfriendly at times, but he was nevertheless effective and sincere when it came to work and working hard.”

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

US LABOR SECRETARY DEAD: Herbert Hoover Jr. Passes Away Three Days After Stroke, Age 65

The Washington Post, 7/9/1969


– The Wall Street Journal, 7/10/1969

THE COLONEL CALLS FOR STATES TO IMPLEMENT “FREE ENTERPRISE ZONES”: Claims FEZs Will Support Black-Owned Businesses Forming In “Troubled Areas”

– The Philadelphia Inquirer, 7/17/1969


…the celebrity died suddenly from a massive cerebral hemorrhage while staying at his summer home with Marilyn Monroe, to whom he had been married for just two months… “Monroe’s marriage to the African-American singer was not without controversy, but it was one of love,” according to the singer’s stepson, Ron Eckstine…

The Atlanta Journal, Georgia newspaper, 7/20/1969

July 21, 1969, the day that Apollo 12 landed on the moon, was also historic, as it saw the first-ever African-American astronaut step foot on the lunar surface. The sixth man to step on the moon overall, the then-34-year-old Robert H. Lawrence Jr. followed the NASA veteran Alan Shepard in the lunar module while Neil Armstrong from Apollo 11’s backup crew served as the module pilot due to being the second-most senior member of the crew. …A civilian astronaut, Armstrong had served as command pilot for two Gemini missions and as backup commander for Apollo 10. …The Lunar module pilot (Lawrence) had to step out second due to the positioning of the seats and the hatch door. …The historic precedence and cultural "weight" of Lawrence’s trip was lost on television sets, where audiences simply saw two astronaut suits, the color and gender of their wearers undetectable by external eyes. Nor could most ears pick out which of the astronauts was which when they heard their voices, as Lawrence spoke in a non-stereotypical way. Audiences did not hear one white man and one Black man; they heard two men. Two Americans speaking to Houston from the surface of the moon.

To most watching, it was the actions of the astronauts that seemed to be more the more important aspect of Apollo 12…


Below: Astronaut Robert H. Lawrence Jr., the sixth man on the moon


[pic: ]

– NASA scientist Farouk El-Baz’s Up and Away: How The Cold War Competition Pushed Us into The Stars, MacFarland & Company, 1994

ANNOUNCER: The Cuyahoga River. A fixture of Northeastern Ohio, this Lake Erie-bound body of water was the sight of something one would find impossible were it not caught on tape last month – water on fire.


ANNOUNCER (OVER FOOTAGE): On June 25, an oil slick polluting a riverbank caught fire, damaging a nearby bridge and causing thousands of dollars’ worth of damage before firefighter put out the blaze. While the fire’s source is not currently known, this did not stop the incident from making headlines nationwide. The fire was a boon for Cleveland Mayor Carl Stokes’ efforts to revive local ecosystems due to the increasingly severe presence of oil and other pollutants in the river worsening over the past several years. President Colonel Sanders has called on Congress to work on a Water Safety & Regulation Act, saying that the issue is not one of private business rights but one of public health.

SANDERS (IN FOOTAGE): “I don’t expect people to stand for their rivers being on fire on a non-rapture day any more than I expect Claudia to stand for her and me eating a romantic dinner over one of the White House toilets. You’ve got to keep your country clean, like what Ladybird Johnson strived for, and that means companies big and small being aware and responsible for what they’re doing to the nation’s nature.”

ANNOUNCER: The US Attorney General is looking into legal activities regarding allegations of local companies and the river’s water pollution, while congressmen are concurring with the President’s call for pollution control litigation or legislation...

– NBC News report, 7/22/1969


Sarah Ragle and Ron Weddington announce the birth of their second child. Ron Weddington Junior arrived on June 19, weighing 7 pounds 10 ounces. The newborn arrived just weeks after the mother had graduated from the University of Texas Law School, where she met the father (to whom she wed in 1968) and where she gave birth to first child, also in 1968, while working on her J.D. …

– The Houston Chronicle, Celebrations section, 7/24/1969

He was about to turn 19, in desperate need of real companionship, and was completely directionless. Arthur Bremer had left his abusive family home in Milwaukee, Wisconsin as soon as he graduated from high school that June. He considered attending Milwaukee Area Technical College, but the life story of the President – who found his destiny by travelling around the country – inspired Bremer to go for a change of scenery. Deciding to put as much space between himself and “his old life” in the Midwest, Bremer quit his job as a busboy and hitchhiked to California. And on one hot July day, he found a new family. Manson renamed him “Leo,” after Bremer’s zodiac sign. …Soon Bremer/Leo, still determined to prove himself valuable to both the family and himself, was brought further into the fold. Manson revealed to him the plan meant to “finish what was started and then stalled in the Black Sea.”

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982

CAN MCDERMOTT DO IT?: A Politician’s Crusade to “Eliminate Poverty”

…branding it a “negative income rebate,” McDermott’s wide-reaching version of a negative income tax is the cornerstone of the GOP nominee’s campaign for Governor of New Jersey. …State Senator Frank X. McDermott, who turns 45 in October, is a rising star in New Jersey state politics, having served as the Garden State's senate leader for a year and as Acting Governor few a few hours earlier this year. …Just before unveiling of his rebate proposal, a month before the Republican primary in early June, the liberal McDermott was trailing in the polls at third place, behind US Congressman William Cahill, a moderate, and US Congressman Charles Sandman, a conservative. Within a month, McDermott shot to first place and defeated Cahill and Sandman, along with two fellow state senators, for the Republican nomination for Governor…

Time Magazine, late July 1969 issue

FRIEDMAN: The free market economy would benefit from a Negative Income Tax Rebate, which would avoid the welfare trap by subsidizing income instead of replacing it.

BUCKLEY: So you disagree with your boss’s support for the Federal Assistance Dividend?

It’s a good idea, but I think it would be fairly unfeasible to implement, and if it was or is, it would only contribute to the complexity of our already-massive welfare system. Not only would the rebate streamline the anti-poverty endeavor, it would even be farther-reaching than a limited dividend.

THURMOND: But that’s the opposite of what we need – the responsibility of the downtrodden should rest in the hands of state-level institutions and leaders.

KENNEDY-SHRIVER: Many things are permissible at the state level, but poverty affects all 50 states. Thus, income assurance should be a federally regulated endeavor. Furthermore, I agree with the Colonel’s recent calls for management accountability – fair prices for farmers and fairer wages for families – The F.A.D., though has the potential to reduce poverty and even provide assistance as automation continues. Mr. Secretary, back in 1952, economic Wassily Leontief agreed with Keynes that labor will become less and less important as the twentieth century continues, isn’t that correct?

FRIEDMAN: Um, yes it is.

KENNEDY-SHRIVER: And Keynes himself worried in 1930 that “technological unemployment” would become only a more prevalent issue as the decades wore on, and that long-term worry could be addressed with the NITR.

BUCKLEY: But in the short term, it would only add to the cavalcade of welfare programs, as Secretary Friedman has pointed out.

FRIEDMAN: Yes, and my alternative proposal would be more effective –

THURMOND: Don’t you mean more liberal?

FRIEDMAN: – more effective than an F.A.D.: the NITR would extend the progressive tax system into the negative territory – meaning the IRS would give money to those below the poverty line just as the rich pay higher tax rates to the IRS.

BUCKLEY: So, by extension, the rich would be giving to the poor?

FRIEDMAN: That’s…one way of looking at it, I suppose.

KENNEDY-SHRIVER: But F.A.D. checks going through the mail to those who need it would promote equal opportunities –

BUCKLEY: – But where’s the cut-off, Senator?

THURMOND: That’s right, I could see at least some members of society working just little less enough to qualify for it, inflating the numbers. And regulating laziness would not exactly be easy.

KENNEDY-SHRIVER: An F.A.D. program would taper off with a rise in one’s income. The more money you make on your own, the less money the government has to provide you with to keep you from destitution, until ultimately you are earning above the poverty line and thus no longer need the FAD. The end-goal is to stop people from starving to death when their inability to hold down a job is not their fault. Money doesn’t equal happiness, but it does ease financial woes. The F.A.D. provides a social safety net of wages below which no worker will fall. It targets those who need it, not those who want it.

FRIEDMAN: Well the NITR would do the same without adding to the nation’s mounting programs of its social welfare bureaucracy. It would instead simplify things without financially ruining the economically vulnerable, such as the ill, the elderly, and the infirm. It would guarantee financial security for the elderly and the disabled without the dividend’s possible lowering of labor supply, which would harm the economy!

BUCKLEY: Unless the economy truly is self-correcting as Adam Smith writes –

THURMOND: Well the real issue then, Milton, is the need to re-write parts of the US tax law!

FRIEDMAN: Which is what the Colonel has been working on for months now!

– US Commerce Secretary Milton Friedman, host William F. Buckley Jr., US Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC), and US Senator Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D-MA) on Firing Line, Saturday 8/2/1969 transcript

In the month of August, the U.S. Congress returned from summer break, and Congressman Tip O’Neill (D-MA) wasted no time introducing a tax reform bill onto the house floor. The bill, dubbed the Tax Reform Bill of 1969, would simplify the tax bracket system, merge certain departments of the IRS, and create a Federal Earned Income Credit, a refundable tax credit for low- to moderate-income working families and couples, and, to a slightly lesser extent, individuals, especially such citizens with underage dependents (i.e., children). The law was the culmination of months of Colonel Sanders reaching across to Senators and Congressmen in all factions of both parties to win over enough support to pass what he saw to be a "very helpful" bill for "so many folks."

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

The Colonel disapproved of Indonesian leader Suharto’s moves to take over West Irian via a rigged council vote held on August 2; “The voters had been selected by the Indonesian military. The corruption’s more noticeable than a drunk dog joyriding on a horse!” Sanders openly condemned Suharto for his treatment of his people, and privately held him responsible for causing guerilla activity backed by the USSR to form on the island of Papua. The Colonel and Suharto has a cold relationship from then onward. Nevertheless, the event was recognized by the UN General Assembly, albeit without clarifying if the absorption of the western half of the island was indeed “an act of self-determination.”


August 1969 also saw Cambodia’s King Norodom Sihanouk criticize the US military. Communist guerillas were still present in northern regions despite US intervention in the form of advisors and assistance, and the King became increasingly vocal of his “disappointment” as the summer continued on. Ambassador Westmoreland privately countered on August 8th “this guy’s ignoring how his own policies that have brought his country to the brink of destruction.” Secretary Curtis and Senator Nixon, as the latter’s memoirs revealed, privately considered the King to be “a pain in our side.”

The Colonel agreed with Senator Nixon that the King’s forces would fail to defeat the northern insurgency, but was hesitant to lead the US into “what would be our fourth war of the past eight years.” Harley Sanders then convinced The Colonel that the American people approving of troop-based intervention would be "very necessary." Not wanting to continually "handle" the actions and policies of “other leaders” such as King Norodom Sihanouk at the cost of ignoring “the actual warfront,” The Colonel decided to use television to his administration’s advantage, pointing out on the 19th the “the television set has always been my friend; now it’ll be our friend, Bill [Westmoreland].”

During mid-to-late August and early September, the Colonel loosened restrictions for media outlets to allow journalists to dangerously venture into the north if they chose to do so. Subsequently, the atrocities committed in the region – by the communist insurgents in general and communist leader Pol Pot in particular – slowly found their way onto newspapers nationwide. The exposés raised US approval of increasing intervention in Cambodia.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

I first served time from ’52 to ’54 for mugging a taxi driver, then from ’55 to ’59 for using stolen money orders to take a trip from Missouri to Florida. The ’59 bust was the big one, though. 20 years for holding up a store in St. Louis. The MO State Penn wasn’t good to me, but thankfully the prison bakery’s security was kinds sloppy in ’67. I got out by hiding in a bread truck!

A first moved to Chicago, then Toronto, then Montreal, then Alabama. Birmingham was a nice town, except for all the Blacks acting all smug. I missed the best years, when Bryant was serving as a voice for real Americans. But I stayed. I still can’t believe I was able to get a driver’s license during my time there. Then again, I didn’t stay long enough to see if the pigs figured out I was there. Got a Ford Mustang a drove to Mexico later soon after, and soon found myself in Veracruz, Mexico. No longer was a James Earl Ray – I was now Eric Starvo Galt.

I loved America – I still do. It’s that too many of the people living there are a**holes. The President at the time, a clown in a white suit named Colonel Sanders favored pinko social views, and was always quick and gung-ho to be putting down grade school dropouts, which is ironic because I didn’t make it to the 12th grade, but neither did the Colonel. His successor wasn’t exactly better, so I stayed in Mexico. I even managed to get facial reconstruction in Mexico City in ’68. Did a bang-up job, too!

First I thought of moving to Rhodesia, where whites still controlled blacks. But Veracruz was such a great place. A sunny spot near the bottom of the gulf; Cuban and Americans love to take tours, party and take vacations there, including really hot American women.

By 1969, I was working as a tour guide. Every time a cop was part of the tour, I’d laugh inside myself, and the laughter grew bigger each year I stayed there, enjoying the beaches, chasing tail, and wallowing in the finer things in life (whatever things the richer tourists “lost” during the trip!).

– James Earl Ray’s memoir, How I (Almost) Got Away With It: The True Story of The Man Known As Eric Starvo Galt, Borders Books, 1999


…Hellyer’s promotion of “universal health care” policies are catching the attention of both the people and politicians in the northern U.S. states such as Vermont and Maine, both of which contain many Canadian immigrants; Vermont’s Governor Hoff has described Hellyer administration’s left-wing social stances as “inspired and inspiring”….

– The Toronto Star, Canadian newspaper, 8/17/1969


– The Sacramento Union, 8/19/1969


[pic: ]

– The coastal town of Pass Christian, Mississippi, before and after Hurricane Camille, 8/14-22/1969

With winds of over 150 mph, Hurricane Camille was the second-most intense tropical cyclone on record to strike the United States. When it made landfall on August 18, it was at a peak intensity of 175 mph and first struck the aptly-named region of Waveland, Mississippi. Mudslides and flashfloods overwhelmed communities. Nearly everything along Mississippi’s coastline was flattened; over 240 people were killed and over $1.40 billion (roughly $9.5 billion in 2019) in damages.


Federal, local, state and volunteer agencies responded to the disaster immediately, rescuing survivors from wreckage and tending to the injured and the displaced. Congress soon passed a bill providing $70million in disaster relief necessities for Mississippi and Louisiana.

President Sanders ordered 1500 regular military troops, plus 900 US Army Engineers and 300 US Navy Seabees, to bring food, clothing, vehicles for transportation, and other elements to the affected areas. The Governors of Mississippi and Louisiana declared martial law for two weeks to minimize vandalism.

President Sanders then applied what he learned in the wake of the 1956 floods in Kentucky while he was Governor to the situation. Sanders understood how to properly get people warm, fed, and relaxed. On August 24, President Sanders would visit the Biloxi-Gulfport Regional Airport to promote the rebuilding of the state, telling a crowd at one point “one of the few things stronger than a hurricane is the strength of the American people when faced with a challenge. …Are we going to let Camille have the last word? No!”

The storm was so destructive that the name Camille was retired.


After meeting with department heads and the governors and other politicians present, I helped hand out canned goods and blankets. I wanted to sit down with many of them, like how I had handled the Kentucky floods of 1956, but I was the President now, and I couldn’t find the time to listen to all of them. Instead I listened to local leaders and volunteers, and commended them for their service. I called Mildred and convinced her to send free KFC to the affected areas. Like what happened 13 years prior, my chicken raised spirits and brought hope for recovery to the displaced people.

– Colonel Sanders’ autobiography, Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974

Leo, Tex and Arthouse held their position outside the Senator’s California house. The time to strike would soon be at hand.

Kuchel served on the Senate Armed Services Committee, and Manson convinced us that this made him privy to highly sensitive information regarding the nation’s defense and security. This meant that Kuchel had to die in order to stop him from helping the Beatles prevent Helter Skelter. We were the chosen followers – if anybody could pin his assassination on the Russians (thus starting the crisis that would lead to the submarines launching their missiles and ushering in a new era for America), it was us. Manson had his ways, and he made us certain of this.

But Leo was too egotistical. He loved Manson like the rest of us, but he wanted Manson – and maybe the world – to know that HE was the one to fire the fatal bullet. As soon as he saw Kuchel step out of his home emerged, Leo shouted “Penny for your thoughts!” before firing, which gave Kuchel just enough time to duck out of harm’s way.

Then an unplanned element reared its head in the form of a police cruiser passing by. Soon enough, two police officers had us pinned. Arthouse was clipped. Leo decided to play the hero – or martyr, the jury’s still out on it – and made a run for Kuchel’s position to “finish the job.”

He failed. Almost immediately, the cops turned him into a red and drippy imitation of Swiss cheese, after which he plopped down flat and motionless on the pavement.

There was, however, a silver lining to Leo’s action – it drew the fire away from Tex and Arthouse, allowing them to flee with their lives and return to Manson.

Both were punished for their failure.

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982


– The Los Angeles Times, 9/1/1969

If the CIA was not catching up to him, his many health problems were. Diabetes and poor blood circulation tired him so, and his hair had not been combed in months. He didn’t care to. His sole focus now was trying to support Pol Pot in Cambodia, hoping to spark a resurgence in popularity for Communism in Vietnam. He was still passionate, but he had effectively become a shadow of his former self.

On the day of his death, Ho and I carefully traveled to the remnants Banteay Srei, the capital of the ancient Khmer Empire to meet with a contact to discuss the latest developments.

Ho, perusing the area, observed, “Look at all that remains of what was once a great empire. A man who had a vision here. A man who once commanded that all these structures be built. What power, what influence they had. And look at it now. His mighty power, and his mighty people…all gone.”

Ho then became more despondent than usual when he noticed a small empty used bucket on the ground. Carefully bending down to pick it up, he turned the container around and came face-to-face with a man an ocean away. It was an empty bucket of KFC, lazily discarded, likely by an American, on the floor. Rolling along this site of former glory by the occasional wind gust until it had reached this spot. Ho held the bucket, and after staring at it for quite a while, thought aloud, “The man on this bucket had a vision, too. One that should not have come to pass.” Ho turned to me and lifted up the bucket to show it to me. With his lips almost trembling as emotions ran through him, but also with fury rising in his voice, he exclaimed “this was our downfall!”


[pic: ] (above photograph taken by an assistant to Le Duane and released to the public in 1981)

Ho crushed the bucket in his hand, then leaned over as his recent chest pain issue suddenly grew in severity. He soon began to have trouble breathing. By the time we returned to base, my dear friend had already succumbed to heart failure.

– Le Duan’s Divided We Fall: The Real History of Vietnam in the Twentieth Century, Freedom Province Books, 2002

…Reports Confirm: Ho Chi Minh, Commie Leader During Vietnam War, Died Last Week While Hiding In Northern Cambodia...Spotted At Historic Site and Followed to Hiding Place…Collaborators Captured Alive…

– NYT news ticker, 9/9/1969

JOE: Well it’s more than obvious that Ho Chi Minh and Colonel Sanders were secretly the same person! The Colonel was part of the military-industrial complex and as such he faked the death of the persona to tie up loose ends!

ART: But what about the body of Ho Chi Minh?

JOE: Don't you remember from our talk last time, Art? It was cremated – cremated in a war zone where a body can be found practically anywhere!

– Host Art Bell and frequent anonymous contributor “Conspiracy Joe,” Coast to Coast AM, 4/16/1994 radio broadcast


By E. W. Kentworthy

He was the very archetype of the politician, with all the politician’s shortcomings and virtues. Inconstant, often too apt in expedient, he was found, in the course of his career, on both sides of almost every question. But he also had the talent for compromise, adjustment and conciliation that is the secret of effective government under the American system… In a Senate increasingly composed of drab, machine-tooled men, Mr. Dirksen remained an original, a throwback to the more colorful, less inhibited politics of the Midwest at the turn of the century… Mr. Dirksen’s last years were burdened with illness and injury – duodenal ulcers, chronic emphysema, a cracked vertebra from a violent fit of coughing…But the juices of life and humanity flowed strong in him to the end... chest x-rays in August led to surgery to remove a mass of lung cancer, and while the it was successfully removed, complications led to a fatal case of bronchopneumonia for Mr. Dirksen… …he will lay in state at the U.S. Capitol rotunda, for all who wish to pay their respects…

The New York Times, 9/8/1969 [1]

We were disheartened, but not defeated. Kuchel was still alive, but all of us – even quite possibly Manson, too – couldn’t help but be glad we didn’t have to deal with Leo any longer.

Manson immediately returned to studying the music, and soon came to his latest conclusion. Jumping up from his spot, he frantically called us all to assemble before him.

“Our little hideaway beneath the waves,” he recited the lyric from the Beatles’ song Octopus’s Garden. “This refers to the Soviet submarines - little hideaways - hiding beneath the waves, destined to nuke the continental United States!” We all believed him. Manson then told us how we needed to develop a plan to use this knowledge to our advantage, and to keep others from learning the truth, lest the new age be stalled once more. “We must cut off our opponents at the source. We must silence the leakers of the future – the Beatles must not disrupt our destiny.”

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982

Octopus’s Garden was written and sung by Ringo Starr and appeared on their 1969 album “Abbey Road.” Released September 26, 1969 after being recorded for the album from April to July 1969, Starr was inspired to write the song in 1968, when he was on a boat belonging to comedian Peter Sellers in Sardinia. The boat captain told Starr about how octopi collect stones and shiny objects from the sea bed to build “gardens.” Starr was inspired further by his desire to escape the sociopolitical fallout of the Stonehouse Scandal and the other events of that later; he would later admit that he had “just wanted to be under the sea, too, that’s all.”


…Elvis never liked the Beatles, disagreeing with the idea of using recreadrugs, and refused to meet with them during his tour’s visit to London. He would, however, establish a “friendly acquaintanceship” with the Rolling Stones in 1969, according to Bill Wyman…

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

Needing a smile after the near-death of US Senator Kuchel, the real-death of Senator Dirksen and the many deaths of Hurricane Camille, and wanting to unwind from handling a particularly somber and hectic week overall, I convinced him to meet “an unconventional acquaintance” of mine. Dad and I soon stopped in on an unorthodox performer staying at an Arlington, Virginia, hotel for a rock concert to be held the next day.


[pic: ]

Above: Dad and Alice meet in the hotel’s main conference room, which was best for security. A waiter brought Alice more beer, while Dad had some coffee. I had first met Alice Cooper in 1967, right before he had really made his mark on the political scene. He was 19 years old, almost 60 years younger than Dad at the time, and we met through a friend of a mutual acquaintance of a friend of his.

The two men got along surprisingly well, just not immediately. At first, they have trouble finding anything in common. Alice was adamantly apolitical, once saying “When my parents would start talking politics, I would go in my room and put on the Rolling Stones or the Who as long as I [had to so I] could avoid politics.” [2] Dad, meanwhile, disliked the increasingly cacophonous music of the era’s youth, preferring the “understandable” tunes of Elvis and the Beach Boys out of all music of the “modern youth” genre, as he put. Finally, though, they find a common interest – sports [3]. Soon Alice was really enjoying himself, though much more so than Dad. In fact, Pops became antsy to leave as the night wore on, especially after Alice tried to guess what the “secret” to what made Kentucky Fried Chicken so delicious. We left at around midnight, with Alice clearly honored to have been in the President’s presence.

Dad later told me, “What do see in that, um, that rocker fella?”

I told him “He’s loud, outspoken, and searching for some kind of greatness. He kind of reminds me of you, Pop.”

The September 14th “Midnight Meeting” would eventually become public knowledge, sparking numerous rumors and theories ranging from Cooper being a government spy seeking to destroy shoutnik culture from the inside-out to being handpicked by the KFC corporation to hold onto the closely coveted “Secret Formula.” The “Kentucky Fried Chicken Incident” was none of those things. It was simply a semi-successful attempt to liven my father’s spirits after a sadder-than-usual week of being President.

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

…The party establishment sought to promote Dirksen’s son-in-law, Senator Howard Baker of Tennessee, to the now-vacant position of Senate Majority Leader. Goldwater challenged the selection of ideological grounds, while Senate Whip Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania challenged Baker over concerns of nepotism. The Colonel came to back Goldwater, and with the waning non-conservative factions of the party being split between Baker and Scott, Goldwater was narrowly promoted to Senate leader. This put him third in line for the Presidency after Vice President Bill Scranton, and House Speaker Charles Halleck...

– Liz Shermer’s Barry Goldwater and the Changing American Political Landscape, net-book publication, 2010

…a rift soon began to form between Sanders and fiscal conservatives on the hill wishing to repeal parts of numerous programs if FAD was implemented, including LBJ’s Great Society programs. During one of these discussions with Senator Cotton, Sanders defended his predecessor’s policies: “too many people rely on them”

“But they’re too constricting to businesses. The economy will hemorrhage under such immense pressure to maintain a government so big!” explained Cotton

“So we can remove some of these programs, but not all, and not the key ones, just the supplemental ones and the like” The Colonel gave an arbitrary response to placate D.C. conservatives for the time being.

– Coya Knutson’s Coya’s Story: A Life in Legislation, Simon & Schuster Incorporated, 1991


– The Chicago Tribune, 9/25/1969


The Washington Post, 9/27/1969


…Governor Robsion’s new economic development plan is almost identical to that used by Colonel Sanders when he served as the state’s leader from 1955 to 1959. During that period, the state saw a rise in employment and population numbers as transportation projects attracted major businesses and corporations to the Bluegrass state. The Colonel’s 1955 strategy, however, may not work 14 years later, as the socioeconomic situation has shifted greatly since then, state economists warn... Nevertheless, the State Secretary of Commerce has “no doubt” that “returning to what worked” will grow the state’s presence on the US economic map. …Robsion, however, has announced even greater ambitions for the state: “Within the next 20 years, Louisville will be bigger than Indianapolis or even Nashville.” The Robsion administration has also projected the state’s largest city to reach a population of 2 million by 1989. [4]

The Advocate-Messenger, KY newspaper, 9/29/1969

...At the time [October 1969], Mr. Hoover was under mounting attack because of revelations that the bureau had conducted extensive surveillance of…war protesters… “We may have on our hands here a man who will pull down the temple with him,” [Senator Richard] Nixon said. [3]

– Ronald Kessler’s Clyde Tolson and the Cult of J. Edgar Hoover, Resistance E-Publishing, 2016

“Hoover, I’m madder than a wet hen at you!”

“I take it this is about the Posts’ alleged journalism as of late, yes?”

“I’ve checked you out this time, Hoovie – you’re still continuing on surveilling people despite me telling you to stop it months ago. Listen, Hoovie, I’m all about limits. Limited government and all that. But there should never be limits on two things: the number of times you can eat KFC for dinner, and the freedoms of the American people! What you’re doing, Hoover, is just plain wrong and you know it! Even worse, you don’t even seem to mind!”

“Colonel, you don’t seem to realize the value of all this. Just look at the information we gathered, just this month in fact. Here, I brought this over here. Just look at the kind of people Rock Hudson’s been shacking up with!”

“Unless their makin’ babies in the middle of a public square it’s nobody’s concern but their own who loves who. A man and woman have a right to privacy.”

“That’s not what he – ”

“I don’t want to hear your excuses, Hoover. Now shut this whole thing down immediately.”

“Mr. President – ”

“That’s right, I am the President. And as your President, as your boss, I order you to shut down this whole operation!”

“[Sigh] I’m afraid that is impossible, sir. This goes beyond just me. This is an all-encompassing network of informants and agents. All with families to feed, too. And they all understand the importance of this work. I shut it down, one of them will slip through the cracks and continue on where I’ve left off, making the shutdown pointless. This, sir, is all for the good of the country.”

“You don’t get to make that decision!”

“Every President since FDR has thought otherwise.”

“Then apparently, no President since FDR ever had the balls to tell you off!”

“Oh, what are you going to do, are you going to call me a whippersnapper or something?”

“Don’t you take that tone with me!”

“Going to cry for your son to defend you or will you spin some yarn about how much of hick you are until I pass out from boredom?”

“How dare you – ”

“You know something, Colonel, you may wear white, but you’ll always just be a dirty bum, a fish out of water, in-over-your-head naïve little sh-”

“Why you – !”

[striking sound]



“Ooh, f@#k, you hit me in the face!”

“Oh, sh- Shoot! You did it, Hoovie, you done made me lose my temper.”

“Oh, I think you loosened a tooth!”

“Yeah, a silver cane can do that, I figure. Sorry – ”

“Damn it, that f@#king hurt!”

“I’m sorry, Hoovie. Here – ”

“Don’t touch me, I don’t need your help!”

“[Sigh], Alright. Bu before you leave, Hoover, I want to be clear – this is your final warning. Shut this down, or you’re out of a job in D.C.! I mean it. And I don’t think the folks on the Hill will miss you all too much, either! [pause] You’ve got until the end of the month, otherwise you’re out.”

“Yeah. I’ll see myself out!”

[long pause of silence]

“[Sigh], Lord, please give me the strength to tolerate the bullsh- uh, the troublestarters.”

– Transcript of a discussion between President Sanders and Director Hoover in the Oval Office, nature of recording device classified until 2029; disclosed by the FBI in 2012 alongside numerous other files from the 1960s, 10/2/1969

On the morning of October 5, Director Hoover complained of having a headache and a lack of sleep in recent days, but declined to go to the hospital. Furthermore, he demanded that he not be disturbed for the duration of the day, not even for lunch. At approximately 11:45, Hoover’s private secretary discovered him unconscious on the floor of his office, having apparently vomited and then collapsed, likely from exhaustion. He was pronounced dead at the scene. The autopsy report revealed that the director had suffered a ruptured blood vessel near his right temple, a sensitive part of the body containing many blood vessels. Also detected was localized hematoma, meaning blood was seeping out from broken capillaries; this condition is known to cause headache and vomiting. What killed Hoover, however, was asphyxiation, as he had collapsed face-down into the puddle of his own vomit.

Upon Hoover’s death, his fiercely-loyal stern-faced private secretary of almost exactly 50 years, Helen W. Gandy, always known as “Miss Gandy,” began a process of destroying all of Hoover’s “personal files.”

The FBI’s Associate Director, Clyde Tolson, a close friend of Hoover, was visibly upset throughout Hoover’s funeral, while Miss Gandy retained her typical demeanor with an additional hint of ambiguous anger. Tolson then served as acting Director for several weeks. Despite, or rather because of, Tolson being Hoover’s right-hand man, he was not considered for the position due being in poor health ever since his 1964 stroke; instead, President Sanders appointed William C. Sullivan to the bureau’s top job, ushering in a new era of management for the FBI.

– Ronald Kessler’s Clyde Tolson and the Cult of J. Edgar Hoover, Resistance E-Publishing, 2016


– The New York Times, 10/5/1969

“Well ain’t that the darndest thing. I was just talking to him last week! He seemed healthy enough. How’d he die?”

“They’ve yet to perform an autopsy, sir, but we believe he had a stroke or heart attack since he was found unresponsive on the floor of his office.”

“Aw, that’s a shame – I was hoping’ the two of us could make amends when all was said and done.”

– Transcript of a discussion between President Sanders and Press Secretary Ziegler in the Oval Office, nature of recording device classified until 2029; disclosed by the FBI in 2012 alongside numerous other files from the 1960s, 10/5/1969


The recent declassification of a 1969 recording (hear full recording here) is an explosive revelation and an unprecedented view into the American government’s love affair with illegal surveillance…
Comment 1: if you listen to the Oct8 recording the Colonel sounds sincere and surprised so I think if he did do it, he didn’t mean to
Reply 1 to Comment 1: I don’t think the old fool even made the connection!

Comment 2: Why the [CENSORED: MUST BE 18 OR OLDER TO VIEW WORD(S)] is the DOJ not looking into this?!
Reply 1 to Comment 2: I dunno, too circumstantial?
Reply 2 to Comment 2: In the Colonel’s defense, Hoover was egging him on


On the TV, Cronkite prattled on about the Colonel possibly increasing American “advisory forces” remaining in Cambodia, Hoover kicking the bucket, and the F.A.D., but Manson finally turned around to the set when the man mentioned the Beatles. “…the popular rock band has agreed to travel to the United States for a tour that will include performances in New York, Dallas, and Los Angeles…”

“Perfect,” Manson smiled, “the time for Helter Skelter will soon begin at last!”

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982

Powell defends the UK’s nuclear weapons numbers as being a modern necessity, explaining just last month that “Under God’s good providence and in partnership with the United States, we keep the peace of the world and rush hither and thither containing Communism, putting out brush fires and coping with subversion.” [4] Doves hate Enoch for such rhetoric, fearing it will lead to the Troubles returning the 1966-levels of intensity and deadliness, or even be used to justify military intervention there or in any former colony. This may come off as contradictory in the face of Powell’s attempts at ending all foreign aid endeavors, which has put wind in the sails of Steve Biko and his followers in South Africa as South Africa enters week 7 of its recession crisis.
Enoch is not on good graces with many traditionalists in Parliament for decrying customs maintained in both houses as “nonsensical mummery.” ...Market regulators are incensed by Powell’s promoting of free-market policies despite them leading to major UK-American trade deals being signed in Washington, D.C. in August.
Powell is popular among some lower-income and middle-income Britons for lowering the size of the Capital Gains Tax and Selective Employment Tax (albeit after failing to abolish them outright). Among other lower-income and middle-income Britons, though, Powell is losing support for his attempts to end all assistance to development areas and all housing subsidies (save for those who could not afford their own housing). Enoch has defended his actions repeatedly, stressing his “facts-based belief” that tax cuts would allow the public to spend those funds on projects like hospitals, roads, and “the firm and humane treatment of criminals” [5].
Finally, we must cover the accusations made against Enoch Powell that his immigration policies are racist. Powell famously stated during last year’s campaign “As an intellectual, I care more for what works than for what feels non-racist.” [6] Still, upon learning of accusations of his immigration policies being racially-biased, Powell restated verbatim from a speech he had made in 1964: “I have and always will set my face like flint against making any difference between one citizen of this country and another on grounds of his origins.” [7]. Powell also sought to prove the claims of racism false by “flexing [his] multiculturalism,” as he put it, by speaking Urdu whenever he dined at Indian restaurants or met with Urdu-speaking officials. Unfortunately for him, Powell seemed to shoot himself in the foot last week by telling a reporter “Nations are, upon the whole, united by identity with one another, the self-identification of our citizens, and that’s normally due to similarities which are regarded as racial differences.” [8]
Enoch seems to be uniting the country, as all factions of the British people – liberal and conservative; IRA and Constabulary; poor and middle-class; urban and rural; white and brown; immigrant and native – are all united in disliking him. If national unity, even of this sort, is the most important role of a great leader, then Powell is one of the greatest leaders we’ve ever had!

– The Sunday Telegraph, centre-right UK newspaper, May/10/1969

Flood v Kuhn was a June 1971 United States Supreme Court decision ruling on the legality of the antitrust exemption granted to Major League Baseball. The decision stemmed from an October 1969 challenge by St. Louis Cardinals’ outfielder Curt Flood when he refused to be traded after the 1969 season. [snip] In October 1969, the Cardinals’ Curt Flood, 31, sued the MLB over the reserve clause and his inability to become a free agent, comparing the organization’s practices to slavery. Precedence came in the form of San Francisco Warriors’ Rick Barry’s challenge of the reserve clause in court earlier in the year, which, albeit successful, worked as a reference when blueprinting the Flood side of Flood v Kuhn. The case quickly advanced to the Supreme Court after going through both New York’s Southern District and the Second Circuit.

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994


…Presidents Sanders supports visas for professionals immigrating to the US, which is part of an addition to the 1964 Hart-Celler Act that passed under President Johnson, which replaced the US’s previous quota system with an updated acceptance model...

The Washington Post, 10/28/1969


…in a private ceremony, Academy Award-winning actor Dean Jagger, 65, tied the knot with Marilyn Monroe… This is Jagger’s third marriage and Monroe’s sixth. Jagger as previously married to Antoinette Lawrence (1935-1943) and then to Gloria Ling (1947-1967), while Monroe was previously married to James Dougherty (1942-1946), Joe DiMaggio (1954-1955 and 1963-1969), Arthur Miller (1956-1961), and the late Roy Hamilton (1969). Monroe is now the stepmother of Jagger’s daughter from his second marriage…

– The Hollywood Reporter, 11/3/1969

PERICONI PUMMELS PROCACCINO: Mayor Wins Second Term, 65%-28%-10%

…Procaccino’s campaign was a watered-down rip-off of Governor Biaggi’s law-and-order 1966 campaign… the conservative Comptroller shot himself in the foot with a barrage of gaffes and generally failed to explain why he was the better man for the job.

– The New York Post, 11/4/1969


[pic: ]
McDermott won 1,453,096 votes (61.4%) to Alexander Trowbridge’s 870,931 (36.8%) votes. …After McDermott adopted a central proposal for his campaign, the initial frontrunner for the Governor's seat, Alexander Trowbridge, grew to be seen as running a generic and uninspiring “theme-less” campaign, and his inability to respond to this "image" issue led to the race slowly narrowing until September, when McDermott began to outperform Trowbridge in polls. From there, McDermott's standing in the polls continued to rise sharply, possibly influenced by the rising approval of the Sanders administration. …The election also worked as a referendum on the debate over implementing federally assured income supplementation. New Jersey voters approved of McDermott’s proposed income supplementation dividend, or “Negative Income Rebate,” and demonstrated that support with a large voter turnout in McDermott's favor. Upon entering the governor's seat in January 1970, McDermott immediately began the "NJ-NIR" implementation process, which was eventually followed by the viewing of its immediate (and, later, long-term) results concerning the financial and social changes NIR brought about in New Jersey…



Richmond, VA – the results seem to repudiate the claim that the 1965 election of Republican Linwood Holton to the governorship was a “fluke,” as this is the second gubernatorial election in a row in which the GOP nominee won. Republican Lieutenant Governor Vince Callahan defeated the Democratic nominee, state senator Henry E. Howell Jr., by a 5% margin. Howell may have been hurt by school superintendent and John Birch Society member William J. Story Jr. of the Heritage and Independence Party, as Story may have split the Democratic vote by winning a respectable 10% of the vote.

After serving as a lieutenant in the Coast Guard from 1961 to 1965, during which time he helped oversee security operations in Florida related to the Cuba War that led to several citations, Vincent Francis “Vince” Callahan Jr. ran for Lieutenant Governor in November 1965, and won by a narrow margin.

…With the Callahan and McDermott victories in Virginia and New Jersey, respectively, signs point to things looking up for the Republicans on the Hill as the 1970 midterms and the ’70s decade approach...

– The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/4/1969


…Congressman Gravel was better known among Alaskan voters than the incumbent appointee Stevens due to Gravel’s campaign for the Presidency early last year…

Anchorage Daily News, 11/4/1969

…After weeks of debate, the House of Representatives has scheduled the vote on the F.A.D. bill to be among the first activities that congress will perform upon reconvening after the winter recess…

The Overmyer Network, news broadcast, 11/5/1969

MLK ACCUSED OF SEXUAL IMPROPRIETY: Atlanta Journal Claims to Have Anonymously-Given Evidence [9]

The Chicago Tribune, 11/7/1969

“I must confess, Colonel – the temptation of relations of a nature that lies outside of marriage is my greatest weakness.”

“Is – that’s a problem, Martin. You’ve got to turn that ‘is’ into a ‘was’.”

“I’m going to need to address this, or it’ll eat away not just at me, but at our goals to end poverty as well. I’ll make a statement soon.”

“Ya think that’s wise? Adding attention toit could jeopardize the FAD talks. Maybe you should just keep a low profile until this whole thing blows over.”

“Colonel, the truth shall set you free.”

– Transcript of a discussion between President Sanders and Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., nature of recording device classified until 2029; disclosed by the FBI in 2012 alongside numerous other files from the 1960s, 11/8/1969

MLK TO TAKE LEAVE OF ABSENCE FROM S.C.L.C.; In Announcement King Apologizes For “Past Improprieties”: “I Am But A Man, Vulnerable To Sin, As Are Us All.”

– The Chicago Tribune, 11/12/1969

My first thought when I heard those revelations was “How ironic.” Once upon a time, King was seen as a morality leader, calling for peace among the races, and I was vilified for my calls for the Black people to defend themselves. Fast-forward to November 1969, and suddenly King is being called a pervert and a hypocrite in the same week that [my wife] Betty and I were highlighting our family values and marital bliss, celebrating the birth of our seven child, our first son…

– Malcolm X’s The Autobiography of Malcolm X, New York Grove Press, 1990

Apollo 13
Launched: 11/14/1969
Splashdown: 11/24/1969

…prospecting in the North Sea started 1966... Phillips Petroleum Company discovered oil in Ekofisk field, almost exactly in the middle of the North Sea, as part of the North Sea Oil Fields spread across the body of water, in 1969 via reflection seismology. Quickly proving to be one of the largest oil fields in world, Phillips began production roughly two years later to the benefit of the Norwegian economy, allowing the nation and its economic allies to prosper…

– E. Van den Bark’s Ekofisk: the Energy and Potential of the Giant Oil Fields of Western Europe, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1980


…Hellyer barely surviving the March 4, 1969 leadership election, though, is just one of many factors contributing to Liberals fearing that they will lose power next week. Liberals are struggling to shore up support among Quebecois voters due to Hellyer’s intolerance towards pro-independence Quebecois (themselves unpopular nationally due to the violence caused by separatist extremists as of late, which will very likely push back the movement years if not decades) …Another factor in Hellyer’s unpopularity may be his perceived inability to respond to the nation’s almost-stagnant economy…

– The Calgary Herald, 11/23/1969


[pic: ]
– Prime Minister Paul Hellyer watching early results (which had him in the lead) pour in on TV, 11/30/1969


…Stanfield, age 55, is scheduled to succeed Hellyer on the 17th…

Le Journal de Montréal, 12/1/1969

Canadian Federal Election, 12/1/1969:
[see: outgoing members]
264 seats in the House of Commons
133 seats needed for a majority
Turnout: 80.1% ( ^ 0.9 pp)
Progressive Conservative (PC) leader: Robert Stanfield (of Halifax)
Liberal (L) leader: Paul Hellyer (of Davenport)
Progressive (P) leader: Tommy Douglas (of Burnaby-Coquitlam) [10]
Ralliement Créditiste (RC) leader: Réal Caouette (of Témiscamingue)
Seats won in the last election: 99 (PC), 135 (L), 22 (P), 8 (RC)
Seats won in this election: 133 (PC), 95 (L), 25 (P), 11 (RC)
Seat change: ^ 34 (PC), v 40 (L), ^ 3 (P), ^ 3 (RC)


With the lawmakers on Capitol Hill beginning their winter break recess, here is a look back on what has been successful and productive bipartisan year…

…The law to receive the most attention was the Tax Reform Act, meant to simplify the bureaucratic processes of the IRS… The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act was seen as an olive branch to Jack Kennedy, who discussed coal jobs during the campaign trail last year… The Coastline Protection Act was The Colonel’s response to the Santa Barbara Oil Spill… The Airport and Airway Development Act, Rail Passenger Service Act, and Urban Mass Transportation Act were all, more or less, pet projects of sorts for the Colonel. This trio of the laws promote public works projects being constructed and then maintained in order to promote economic development… Shoutniks and liberals criticized the Bank Secrecy Act and Controlled Substances Act supported by conservatives, and some moderates, and signed into law by the Colonel... The bill to which the Colonel was personally attached to Early Education Priority Act that the Colonel signed into law in May to streamline the bureaucratic process regarding federal funding for schools – funding that Sanders managed to increase alongside the bill…

…“With so many things of his agenda being checked off this year, I think the Colonel can really afford to risk the rest to get the F.A.D. passed. It’s not a likely scenario, but I wouldn’t put it past some of my colleagues,” notes Senator Wayne Morse (D-OR)…

– The Washington Times, 12/15/1969

The late 1960s saw the slow rise of the McDouble, more famously called “The McDub,” “The DubMac,” and/or “The MacDub.” …While created in 1968, the double-pattied burger became a best-seller before the decade was out…

– John F. Love’s McDonald’s: Behind the Arches, Bantam Books, 1986

THE HIGHLIGHTS OF THE ’60S: An End-Of-The-Decade Review

…The Top 5 biggest news stories of the 1960s… No. 1: The Moon Landing… No. 2: The Wars in Cuba and Indochina… No. 3: The Civil Rights Movement… No. 4: The rise of the Colonel: the surprise nomination of the fast-food icon captivated the nation… No. 5: The rise of the Shoutniks…

Time Magazine, late December issue

As the accuser in question wishes to remain anonymous at the current time out of fear for her safety, she shall be henceforth referred to as Ms. Arkansas. On November 20, 1969, Ms. Arkansas contacted her U.S. congressman, John Paul Hammerschmidt (R-AR) with accusations that President Harland Sanders had “consistently harassed” her when she was working in the Little Rock Chamber of Commerce during the early-to-mid 1920s [11]. After a month of Congressman Hammerschmidt failing to return her calls and failing to set up a second meeting for her with the Congressman, Ms. Arkansas approached former Congresswoman Catherine Dorris Norrell (D-AR) for advice. She requested her accusation be kept confidential. Following the story being leaked to the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette on December 26, Congressman Hammerschmidt confirmed that a “complaint of a possibly serious nature” had been made against the President on December 28. On December 29, Ms. Arkansas’ story went public in the New York Times.

The Ms. Arkansas Effect: A Timeline Of Her Pursuit For Justice, Tumbleweed Magazine, 1970 article

[1] Italicized parts of obituary are OTL:
[2] Quote from here:
[3] The Colonel appeared in numerous football-game-based parades, from which I’ve received many images for this TL. Alice Cooper, meanwhile, is a fan of hockey, baseball, basketball, and (later in life) golf.
[4] @BrianD gets the credit for this segment existing; thanks so much for the information/contribution!
[3] Un-bracketed parts of this entry are from here:
[4] This is OTL statement that Powell said on May 26, 1967
[5] These policies were found under the “Morecambe Budget” section of his wiki article, and other parts of his wiki article as well
[6] This is an original quote!
[7] This quote was found on his Wikipedia article.
[8] This, too, is an OTL quote
[9] According to David Garrow’s 1986 book Bearing the Cross, King’s affairs were “a form of anxiety reduction [that caused him] painful and at times overwhelming guilt.” However, according to Sources 336 and 337 on MLK’s wikipage, CIA files emerged in May 2019 that suggest King may have “looked on, laughed and offered advice” during a rape, but the FBI tapes from 1963-1968 “that could confirm or refute the allegation” were placed “in the National Archives and sealed from public access” in 1977, and won’t be declassified until the year 2027.
[10] Oh yeah, I forgot to mention this (which means I really should go back and add it to a previous chapter at some point), but the ND and SC parties merged a little while back into the Progressive Party, with smaller parties opposing the merger failing to gain traction.
[11] According to Act Three (“How To Do The Funky Chicken”) by mark schone, starting at the 35:40 mark, at this website: She's apparently repeatedly tell him, "Harland get your hands off me, I get all I need at home.”

EDIT: fixed "60 years older/younger" blooper.
Post 24
Post 24: Chapter 32

Chapter 32: January 1970 – June 1970

“Remember the ladies and be more generous to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power in the hands of the husbands. Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. [sic]”

– Abigail Adams, in a letter to her husband

“The President wishes that I express for him his regret in being unable to attend this briefing, but as congress is convening again, he is very busy going over legislation for this new year… The incident in question happened over 50 years ago, and an amount of time that, uh, large, is um, considerate. ...Many elements and aspects must be looked into, of course, before a better understanding of the situation can be found. …the President has no official statement at this time, thank you, and good day.”

– Press Secretary Ron Ziegler at a White House press briefing, 1/3/1970

The group of people hurt the most by the Ms. Arkansas Scandal was the children. Their innocence was hurt. Especially little girls who loved KFC. Harland’s own great-granddaughter, my daughter Tiffany, ended up in the situation where one day she come home from school and asked me what “sexual pestering” meant. And I remember being shocked, and asking, “Where’d you hear that term, honey?” And she said she heard another girl in school tell her that her great-grandfather liked to “commit” that to women. I dug deeper and learned that this other girl learned it from her mother. The point I’m getting at is that you can’t stop your children from hearing about the more awful parts of reality some way or another. Because keeping them locked up in a remote tower somewhere is illegal. Rapunzel’s mother didn’t get away with it; you won’t either. Instead, the best way to protect your children from harm is to work to make it so there is no harm out there to begin with. And if that doesn’t work, well, hold a funeral for the death of their childhoods. Then start teaching them how to survive and thrive in reality. That had to happen with my daughter when she learned about Ms. Arkansas. And I hated it. I hated seeing my little girl learning about sexual pestering that young, and seeing the world force on her the truth of men being forceful with women.

– Donna Adams, wife of Harland Morrison Adams (the son of the Colonel’s daughter Margaret), 2000 interview

It was an awkward situation, the incident resurrecting the whispers about how Harland and I got together and all that. People thought it was hypocritical that Harland, an increasingly Christian man at the start of the ’70s, had broken apart a family – despite his children being fully grown when we married. Everyone ignored Josephine’s inability to contribute to their marriage!

But thankfully, not all the judging eyes sought me out. Josephine had been married to Harland during the time of the alleged incident. And I was certain that she would spill whatever she had – maybe even lie – to spite Harland, to ruin him and his reputation. So, I remember, I quietly traveled down to Alabama to meet with her, to try to convince her to not say anything for the good of the country.

“These people are acting like men have never done this sort of thing before,” I remember her saying “And everyone knows Harland has an assertive personality – he got elected President on it, for crying out loud! But you don’t have to worry about my yammer – Harland’s perfectly capable of digging his own grave.”

It was not social call, of course, so I immediately cut to the chase. I asked her, “Is it true?”

And she said “Why are you asking me? You should already know. If you don’t, then ask your husband already.”

“I’m asking you,” I told her back.

Oh, and she got all stoic and ambiguous on me, and said something along the lines of “There’s a truth in every lie and a lie in every truth.” She loved seeing me angry, and so I left so I wouldn’t give her the satisfaction.

– Claudia Price Sanders, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1979

I remember what it was like, the fighting and the shouting. Mother refused to accept that she alone could not satisfy Father’s physical needs, which from the very beginning of their marriage had seemed excessive to her. Father was not perfect, same as everyone, but he was not a pervert. Neither promiscuous nor a whoremonger, Father nevertheless had a libido which required a healthy, willing partner. He found one in young Claudia. [1]


But by 1970, things had changed… Father’s libido had waned considerably from where I stood in the midst of all things. I’m guessing touring the country doing what you love would distract anyone from performing improper practices. With Father, though, I really think Claudia’s love for him was enough for him, because after meeting her in the 1940s and marrying her in 1949, he never fooled around with anyone else.

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

My Attorney General, Lawrence Walsh, said “Don’t you worry none there, Mr. President. We’ll expose this woman for the liar she is. We can get the FBI to give her a polygraph test!”

“Larry – ”

“But the Reverend,” Whitney Young, my Chief Domestic Policy Advisor, interrupted. “I think the evidence against King came from the FBI. Who else could have recorded those things?!”

“Larry – ”

“Yes, sir,” Walsh resumed, “if Ms. Arkansas thinks she can get attention by spreading about this vexatious – ”



“It’s true.”

“Beg pardon, sir.”

“It’s all true, everything she’s saying happened. I was a horny-toad of sorts when I was a younger man. Sometimes I would go further than I really should’ve. [2] Never meant to offend or to hurt, though. I was just looking for, well, you don’t need an abacus to figure it out, but I never meant to for it to be something for her to be bothered by, not for years, not even for a moment. It was just a bit of fun to me. I thought she didn’t mind it too bad.”

“Then that’s the angle we go with!” Walsh proclaimed, “We’ll say she’s exaggerating.”

At that thought I glanced over to the copy of the Good Book resting nearby. I picked it up and flipped through the pages, almost randomly, if I recall correctly, and ended up on Ephesians 4:25 – Therefore each of you must put off falsehood and speak truthfully to your neighbor, for we are all members of one body. It means it is always best to take the high road and be honest, especially when it comes to your fellow countrypersons.

“I won’t lie to the American people, Larry,” I told Walsh, “I won’t drag her name through the mud.”

“But why would she come forward now after almost 50 years?” pondered Young. “Why didn’t she come forward sooner, like back in 1964, when the Colonel was just a presidential candidate and not president?”

“Word is she was ‘inspired’,” Walsh derisively emphasized the last word as if to say it was an exaggeration, “by Martin Luther King stepping down from running the S.C.L.C. for a while.”

“So now people think they can take down the nation’s top dogs like the good Reverend,” observed Young. “Nah, I still think she was put up to it. She’s old, maybe someone’s manipulating her.”

“It doesn’t matter,” I said, “What’s done is done and we’ve still got a government to run. Now is she pressing charges against me or something?”

Walsh answered, “Not at the moment, sir, but – ”

“Are we going to have to set up hearings or something?”

“Maybe, but most likely not at all – ”

“Then I think we should just continue our work.”

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


– The Los Angeles Times, 1/5/1970

…Two Democratic Congresswomen, Martha Griffiths of Michigan and Julia Hansen of Washington state, have joined the list of politicians whom openly support Ms. Arkansas’ claims…

– ABC News, 1/6/1970


Everywhere he goes, he attracts crowds of housewives who are grateful for all the nights in the kitchen that K.F.C. has spared them. Even six years into his Presidency, The Colonel will stand by the hour with these women, signing autographs and posing for photographs. He knocks them dead with his flattery, but if you get close enough to him in a crowd you can hear him muttering a running commentary to himself: ‘Umm, that gal’s let herself go. . . . Look at the size of that one. . . . I don’t know when I’ve seen so many fat ones. . . . Lord, look at ’em waddle.’ [3]

– The New York Post expose, 1/8/1970

“The very women responsible for KFC becoming such a huge success are the target of the Colonel’s insults!”

– activist Betty Friedan, author of the 1963 best-seller The Feminine Mystique and the first President (1966-1970) of the National Organization for Women (NOW), at a 1/9/1970 rally


…the new organization promoting “feminism,” or “equality between the sexes,” urges women to “be more involved in the democratic process,” including canvasing for candidate “or even run[ning] for public office themselves,” according to activist Trudy Cooper of South Dakota…

– The Star Tribune, 1/10/1970

On January 11, another woman stepped forward to claim that President Sanders verbally attacked her with sexist and violent language in 1952, at a time when the Colonel was living out of his car as he attempted to sell his chicken to franchisees. She claimed Sanders “uttered a plethora of unprintable words” after inspecting her husband’s diner and finding it to not “match his tastes”…

The Arkansas Effect: A Timeline Of Her Pursuit For Justice, Tumbleweed Magazine, 1970 article


…While beginning his second term with over 60% approval ratings, the recent series of “sexual pestering” scandals and related events have cut away at that number, inhibiting legislation, diplomatic relations, and threatening Republican politicians as the midterm elections near...

– Newsday, 1/12/1970

ACCUSATIONS AGAINST SANDERS, OTHERS, STIRRING TENSIONS AMONG CONGRESSMEN, SENATORS; “Crisis” May Leave Legislation For The Colonel’s Second Term In “Limbo” Indefinitely

– The New York Post, 1/12/1970

…After two weeks, pressure was only mounting for me to finally address the non-GOP elephant in the room head-on. I remember Nixon told me with a tone of total seriousness, “Mr. President, we need you to lead, and we need you to do so now!”

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


[pic: ]
– In an iconic photographic, The Colonel overlooks the White House lawn, 1/12/1970


[pic: ]
The Register-Herald, 1/14/1970

“I did not mean to offend or harm... I admit that in my younger years I said and did many things that I came to regret, but also, I will and I must say the following to Ms. Arkansas: Ma’am, I meant no personal offense, truly I didn’t, and I am truly very sorry for it all. I now know better, and I hope you can find it in your heart to forgive the indecent behavior of my younger self.”

– Snippet from President Harland “The Colonel” Sanders’s 1/14/1970 prepared statement


[pic: ]
– The Colonel making a prepared statement at a press briefing, 1/14/1970

“I will not be pressing charges against Harland Sanders. I just wanted to let my President know that he should treat women better than I see his friend Dr. King seems to – um, allegedly. I also wanted him to acknowledge what kind of man he used to be, because if he truly is a Christ-loving man, then I knew he would have no qualm speaking the truth. And so I must commend him for opening up to the American people.”

– Ms. Arkansas in a 1/15/1970 public statement


…An annual tradition since the first pageant was held on February 12, 1963, the multinational corporation has in recent days kept a low profile in the midst of accusations made against its founder. Today, however, three days after the scandal’s apparent conclusion, KFC CEO Mildred Sanders announced that plans for the pageant will proceed unchanged…

The Paducah Sun, 1/18/1970

…the moderate-to-conservative Republican Representative Charlotte Reid of Illinois was nominated today for the position of Secretary of Labor. …The office, vacated by the death of Herbert Hoover Jr. last year, has been held by an Acting Secretary since then... The nomination of Congresswoman Reid is already causing controversy as it comes amid recent claims that the President performed acts of misconduct in a professional settings during the 1920s, long before he entered politics or began his career selling fried chicken… If the Senate approves, Representative Reid will become the second woman to serve as Labor Secretary since Frances Perkins served from 1933 to 1945…

– Anchor Frank Blair, NBC News Today, 1/19/1970 broadcast

Public knowledge of King’s affairs tarnished the work of the Reverend, and sullied the legacy of the Colonel. But more importantly on a social level, The Ms. Arkansas Scandal convinced other women to tell their stories. The “openly hidden” subculture of misogyny proved to not be endemic to the leaders of the SCLC and the Oval Office just weeks after Rev. King’s scandal broke...

– Anne Meagher Northup’s Chicken and Politickin’: the Rise of Colonel Sanders and Rational Conservatism in the Republican Party, 2015


– The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 1/21/1970


The Salt Lake Tribune, Utah newspaper, 1/23/1970


…Frank Horton (R-NY), “the least partisan man on Capitol Hill,” is caught in the midst of a colorful sex scandal…

– The New York Post, 1/24/1970

…Despite accusations also being heralded toward Justice William O. Douglas and former President Lyndon Johnson, none stuck. Jack Kennedy survived several claims of having slept with multiple women while Secretary of State (before growing closer to his wife after leaving said office, according to friends and relatives of the couple), possibly due to many of the accusations being underplayed by Kennedy’s friends in the media (including his brother Ted)...

– Feminist writer Eleanor Clift’s The Way We Never Were, Simon & Shuster, 2002

“We have decided to probe the accusations concerning the President’s activities in 1952.”

– Senate Select Committee on Standards and Conduct Chairman John C. Stennis (D-MS), 1/28/1970

The merger was expected to go through unhitched until the lawsuit was filed in 1970: Robertson vs. NBA, antitrust lawsuit, would intend to settle the matter of fee agency rules and allow for the merging of the ABA and NBA without the loss of the basketball teams such as the Kentucky Colonels and the St. Louis spirits. Even still, it seemed that the San Diego Sails and Baltimore Claws would be lost anyway due to their own internal financial problems...

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994

…with Prime Minister Powell sending these additional soldiers into Northern Ireland, he is only continuing and escalating the cycle of violence terrorizing the region...

– Sir Dingle M. Foot, Member of Parliament for Ipswich since 1957, BBC Interview, 2/1/1970

Former Rep. Lera THOMAS: “Maybe these waddling women are the Colonel’s fault after all. KFC did start out as a greasy spoon – in a gas station, no less. I wouldn’t be surprised if KFC turned out to not be the healthiest thing for one to eat every Sunday.”

Host William BUCKLEY: “You’re really trying to stick the chef with how you eat?”

THOMAS: “Well, no, I mean – ”

Sen. Richard RUSSELL: “Have none of these women ever heard of walking? The cook gives you food, but you decide to eat it and how much of it you eat. Nobody forced these women to be fat. If they want to eat so much and still be pretty, they should do something about it – exercise and diet and stuff like that!”

THOMAS: “When you’re a homemaker, you’re busy with laundry, housecleaning and keeping several kids from accidently killing themselves as they run around the house. You don’t have time to exercise.”

RUSSELL: “But you’re chasing kids around the house – that IS exercise!”

BUCKLEY: “Well regardless of who’s to blame the fact remains that the waddling comment is worsening the President’s approval ratings…”

– Transcript, Firing Line, WOR-TV, Saturday 2/1/1970 broadcast

NEW POLL: Support For Intervention In Cambodia Increasing, Shoutnik Protests Decreasing

– Gallup, 2/1/1970

…roughly 500 female members of the New York Radical Women organization, led by author Robin Morgan, arrived in Washington, DC today to picket outside the White House ...This is the one of the largest demonstrations ever held outside the Sanders White House…

– NBC News, 2/2/1970

…demanding that American citizens, quote, “exercise their rights to all the truths,” unquote, Senator Richard Nixon and Bud Wilkinson will lead a US Senate Committee investigation into FBI activities in regards to domestic surveillance policies… In related news, Helen Gandy, J. Edgar Hoover’s personal secretary, has agreed to testify in Washington D.C. later this month over allegedly misfiled or missing FBI documents…

– CBS News, 2/4/1970


– The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, 2/6/1970


– The Washington Post, 2/11/1970

Capitol Hill breathed a sigh of relief after passing another Equal Pay law, believing it would placate “the radicalized wives” as former Congressman Bruce Alger (R-TX) called them. As such, The Colonel increased his campaign to pass the F.A.D., and even was willing to agree supporting congressional leaders and committee members on legislation of their own in exchange for them gathering up the needed votes. Colonel would personally meet with other Congressmen to convince them “your constituents will thank you in November.”

Unfortunately, the political world was still feeling the effects of Ms. Arkansas, with another Congressman feeling the heat just a week after signing for the 1970 Equal Pay Act. Many politicians blamed their headaches on the Colonel, but even more pointed their fingers at Reverend King.

On February 8, the Colonel struck a deal – in exchange for withdrawing the King-backed F.A.D. proposal, Congress would pass the Milton Friedman-backed Negative Income Tax Rebate introduced late last year.

– Coya Knutson’s Coya’s Story: A Life in Legislation, Simon & Schuster Incorporated, 1991

Bob final started working for Bill Alexander in 1970. An admirer of the man who supported “capturing dreams and putting them on canvas,” Ross was paid to promote Alexander’s classes in Alaska. The classes, where Bob amazed onlookers with his ability to turn a blank canvas into a beautiful nature seen in an impressively short lapse of time, sold out, and soon caught the attention of others talented artists in the lower 48.

[pic: ]
Above: Bob in the late 1960s/early 1970s

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014

By the start of the ’70s, Cesar Chavez had become a big name among the Mexican-American community... At the start of the decade, I finally got to understand the phrase “out of sight, out of mind.” I was still with Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention, you know, before the band split up, and we went to play this gig in El Paso – we flew in, and were driven directly to the hotel. We didn’t see the poor side of town until after the gig. When we went out late that night, I saw a completely different city. The place looked like s#!t, and the people even worse. I had split from the group to follow a local man to what he said was the best bar in the Mexican part of town. But I’ve been to better bars, places where everyone was not there to try and hide their misery. People where not everyone’s in a depressing situation – starving kids, poor health, high rent, low pay. It was almost overwhelming, and when one patron chided me having it good, he kinda made me feel guilty that I wasn’t going more to help out my fellow Mexican-Americans. So, yeah, that trip really had an effect on me, learning about how f@#ked-up things were for the local farmers and s#!t – it’s actually what got me started in the Mexican Rights movement!

– Richard “Cheech” Marin, KNN interview, 2012

…Ian Paisley, the Anti-Catholic firebrand dousing the flames of rebellion since the middle of the 1960s, was killed during a police raid late last night….Paisley objected to negotiations and compromise on the British side of the Northern Ireland debate, and opposed the government of Ireland intervening in the allegedly local concern as well. Analysts fear repercussions will feature, quote, vengeance attacks, unquote, which could spell additional trouble for negotiators. Others, though, point to how support for Paisley has waned considerably in recent years, and the end of his objections could actually ease negotiations...

– BBC News, 2/15/1970

“All I ever disposed of was files and documentation of a personal nature – the Director’s doctor appointment, private journal entries, correspondences with friends and relatives – and nothing concerning the FBI at all.”

– Helen Gandy, in testimony on the US Senate floor, 2/22/1970

…earlier today, a nonviolent protest of American activities in Cambodia turned violent in Cleveland, Ohio. Famous draft dodger, radical pacifist, and dovenik David T. Dellinger was initially leading the protest outside an Army recruitment center before local police and more incendiary activists converged on the scene, culminating in Dellinger, two student activists, and one police officer being sent to a local hospital for injuries. Several protests have been arrested on rioting charges…

– CBS News, 2/22/1970

CAMBODIAN BUILDUP DEVELOPMENT: UK, Italy, Australia to Send Advisors As Well

– The New York Times, 2/23/1970

Equal Rights Amendment Introduced in Congress – for the 49th time

The New York Times, 2/25/1970


Ted Kennedy and Joan Kennedy celebrate the birth of their fifth child, Virginia Joan Bennett Kennedy. Virginia joins a large family, complete with four older siblings: Kara Anne (b. 1960), Edward Moore “Ted” Jr. (b. 1961), Harold Wiggin (b. 1964), and Patrick Joseph II (b. 1967).

The Sacramento Union, Celebrations section, 3/1/1970

ZIEGLER QUITS OVER FATIGUE: Press Secretary Blames Press For Being “Run Ragged”

– The Washington Post, 3/2/1970

On March 4, 1970, the Colonel called for congress to review the Scranton Committee’s review of America’s health and weight issues…

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

New Research Study Results: President Sanders Is The “Most-Traveled” Of All US Presidents

…The Colonel has travelled to all 50 states, and to 17 countries across four continents throughout his life. During his presidency so far, though, the Colonel has visited 12 countries on three continents and has traveled to 28 states...

– The Washington Post, 3/9/1970

“I understand that Colonel likes to travel a lot. But seeing as how he’s still the President, the man has to stop travelling and get back to work already!”

– Governor Bob Casey, 3/10/1970

SANDERS BACK IN D.C.: In Light Of Recent Criticisms, Sanders Meets With Senate Leaders For Multi-Topic Talks

– The Washington Post, 3/11/1970


…analysts on both sides of the aisle have deemed the selection “a misstep” and a “desperate attempt to placate accusations of sexism”...

The New York Times, 3/12/1970

14 March 1970: On this day in history, Diana Ross and The Supreme performed at the White House, playing their three biggest hits for President Colonel Sanders and First Lady Claudia Sanders.



– The Washington Post, 3/15/1970


[pic: ]

– KFC Australia advertisement, The Australian Women's Weekly, 3/19/1970 issue; the ad was part of a campaign to maintain The Colonel's approval among female customers in light of the Ms. Arkansas Scandal

ANCHOR: The “workplace pestering” scandals affecting American politics have found their way into Canada, as the nation to the north is reeling from a stunning expose on “maternity homes.” Here is our special report:


NARRATOR: Their stories seem entirely out of place in the modern world: pregnant women shuttered away, violently restrained during childbirth, banned from looking at their babies – and, finally, coerced by social workers into signing adoption papers. This is the scene found in maternity homes across Canada, where unmarried and largely non-consenting Canadian women are sent to give birth in relative secrecy. Canada’s adoption policies has led to hundreds if not thousands of unwed mothers being forced to give up their babies for adoption, a policy that has been common practice in Canada since 1945. The revelation comes on the heel of the “Scoop of the Sixties,” which revealed that the Canadian government has a program that separates thousands of indigenous children from their families and put them up for adoption by non-indigenous parents.

QUEBECOIS MAN INTERVIEWED: Quebec stands in solidarity with our Indigenous brethren whom share our resentment at the Canadian government’s oppressive policies…

NARRATOR: Canada’s fresh new Prime Minister, Robert Stanfield, has vowed to end the policies, which fall under provincial and territorial jurisdiction but are funded through federal assistance grants.

STANFIELD IN SPEECH: The situation must be reassessed; this sort of thing has no place in modern Canadian society.

NARRATOR: The Canadian people, though, seem to be more divided on the subject than is the Stanfield government:

YOUNG WOMAN INTERVIEWED: It’s atrocious to punish someone for a lapse in judgement.

ELDERLY WOMAN INTERVIEWED: If you split your legs without a wedding ring, you need to be made an example of. I don’t see the problem here – it supports young ladies upholding a sense of moral decency, and being held responsible for their actions.

NARRATOR: An estimated 95 percent of women who give birth at maternity homes are convinced into giving their children up for adoption, and statistical data record over 500,000 births in Canada since 1945 as being “illegitimate.”

MIDDLE-AGED MAN: These homes make these hussies marriageable. So what’s the problem?

MATURE WOMAN INTERVIEWED: I went to one of them in 1963. They abuse you in these places – they control your movements, make you use a fake first and last name, and you’re allowed no contact with the outside world at all. I felt like a nonentity. Shame and sadness were constant companions. After I gave birth to my child and they took him or her away from me, I was told I would eventually get married and forget my baby. How does a mother forget her baby?

NARRATOR: The expose claims doctors would forcible strap women to beds, overmedicate them, and even refuse to tell the mother whether they had given birth to a boy or a girl before the child was taken away from them. And the Canadian government, seeing the fallout of the Ms. Arkansas scandal, is responding to the revelation with considerate swiftness:

STANFIELD IN SPEECH: An apology or an excuse won’t do; I am hereby calling for several officials to be investigated, and my ministers are looking at the situation from all angles to determine the best way to rectify this situation.

MATURE WOMAN INTERVIEWED: Stanfield can start by asking women what women want to do with their babies. Husband or no husband, the bond between mother and child is sacred, and any attempt to severe that bond is unforgivable.

– CBS News Special Report “Canada In Crisis: The Maternity Homes Controversy,” 3/20/1970 [4]


– The Boston Globe, 3/22/1970


…the report found no evidence of any wrongdoing in the 1952 incident between Sanders and the wife of a would-be franchisee…

The Paducah Sun, 3/23/1970


…The ceremony marks the culmination of over a year of Treasury Secretary Milton Friedman’s plan to “keeping everyone above the poverty line”… The ceremony is bittersweet for Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., as it was the shadow of accusations still lingering over the man’s head that caused congress to reject the FAD proposal, a work of anti-poverty that King had worked on for roughly five years…

– The Wall Street Journal, 3/24/1970

The Marathon

Directed by: David Lowell Rich
Produced by: Ron Roth
Written by: Robert L. Joseph (teleplay) and Guardon Trueblood (story)

Starring: Sean Connery, Leslie Nielsen, Susan Strasberg, Barbara Anderson, David Tomlinson, Clarence Williams III, Burgess Meredith, George Maharis, Tina Louise, George Chakiris

Music by: John Cacavas
Cinematography: Joseph F. Biroc
Edited by: Pembroke J. Herring

Production company: ABC Circle Films
Distributed by: American Broadcasting Company

Release date: March 25, 1970 (TV broadcast premiere)
Running time: 89 minutes

Country: United States
Language: English

The Marathon (distributed in Greece as Marathon: The Stylianos Kyriakides Story) is a 1970 film about the 1946 Boston Marathon winner Stylianos “Stelios” Kyriakides (1910-1987), who ran to raise money to provide food and shelter to Greeks experiencing severe poverty at the time.


Plot centers on the race and the events leading up to it, and on Kyriakides’ life before, during, and after WWII.

Born prematurely to a poor farming family in a mountainous village in Paphos, Cyprus, Kyriakides (Connery) worked various odd jobs before becoming an assistant to Dr. Cheverton (Tomlinson), a British medical officer on the island. Noticing his athletic potential, Dr. Cheverton became a running coach for the young Kyriakides, leading to him running in the Pan-Cyprian Games of 1932. His success there led to him going national.

A few years later, Kyriakides competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics, placing eleventh and briefly meeting Jesse Owens (Williams). Then, he is invited to run in the Boston Marathon in 1939; there, he meets Johnny Kelley (Nielsen), who has run in the marathon before but has never won it. On the race of the marathon, Kyriakides makes the mistake of wearing new shoes to it, and he injures his feet enough for him to withdraw from the race, albeit not before swearing, “Someday, I’m going to come back and win this race.”

In a sharp cut to 1942, Kyriakides has joined the Greek Resistance during the German occupation of Greece. He is captured by Nazis but manages to escape execution by running into a wooded area. Returning from the front lines in 1944, he is shocked by the extent of food shortages and is concerned about the rising hostilities between pro-US and pro-Soviet war veterans. By the end of 1945, Greece has devolved into Civil War, and Kyriakides sells all his furniture to pay for traveling to Boston for the 1946 Boston Marathon.

Ahead of the race, he interacts with the other runners; Kyriakides is noticeably emaciated from the lack of food in war-ravaged Greece, leading to doctors considering preventing him from running over concern he would die during the race. One of the runners is Johnny Kelley, who still has not won first place. During the race, Kelley is consistently ahead of Kyriakides, but the two of them are in first and second place, respectively, near the finish line. Kyriakides is exhausted, but when it looks like he will lose, he hears an elderly Greek man he met before shout out “For Greece, for your children!” and it inspires him enough to run past Kelley just in time to win, shouting “For Greece” as he crosses the finish line. He sets a new time record, and is only the third person to not be from either the US or Canada to come in first place.

In subsequent media appearances, he consistently pleads for Americans to send help to Greece, describing the food shortage and poverty brought on by years of warfare and famine. Almost a month later, Kyriakides arrives in Athens to a cheering crowd of over a million Greeks; he returns to Greece with $250,000 in cash, on a large boat revealed to be carrying 25,000 tons of supplies (food, clothing, medicine and other essentials, all donated by caring Americans). A formal ceremony honoring him is held at the Temple of Zeus, marking the first time since the Nazi Occupation that the Acropolis has been illuminated. Kyriakides gives a stirring speech on patriotism and humanitarianism, declaring “I am proud to be Greek,” which moves the crowd.

The closing title cards mention that a year later, the US government sent $400,000 dollars to Greece via The Marshall Plan. They also mentioned that Kyriakides passed away at the age of 77 – the same number that was on his shirt when he won the Boston Marathon.


The film initially received lukewarm reviews and a modest box office success in the US. However, it was wildly popular in Greece upon in airing on Greek TV in 1971 along with being very popular among the Greco-American community; this led to ABC making roughly $35million between 1991 and 2001 after its release on home video (LD in 1991 and Micro-LD in 1997). Kyriakides himself, having sold the film rights to his life story to the studio in 1965, was partially involved in the film’s production; he did not have any final say over any aspects of film, but was allowed to participate in meetings, and provide details and offer suggestions and advice to the film’s writers. Kyriakides praised the film in a 1971 interview, saying “most of it is 90% accurate.”

The film is now considered a cult classic. More recent analyses have led to American critics praising the film’s camerawork, editing, and its message of perseverance and dedication to universal brotherhood. Other critics, on the other hand, remain critical of its more “jingoistic” celebrations of both the US and Greece.

A remake of the film was released in 2009, starring David Krumholtz as Kyriakides. It was notably more historically inaccurate (for example, Kyriakides never met Harry Truman nor ever spoke on the floor of the U.S. Senate), received negative reviews overall from critics and lukewarm responses from audiences, and financially broke even.



[pic: ]

– Marathon runner Stylianos Kyriakides in real life (left) and actor Sean Connery, who portrayed Kyriakides in a 1970 biopic film (right)

Leslie, Suze and Pat finally drove into L.A. on March 30, giving them roughly two weeks to prepare…

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982


– The Baltimore Sun, 3/30/1970

…Paul Martin Sr. has defeated opposition leader and former Prime Minister Paul Hellyer in tonight’s national Liberal Party leadership election…

– CBC TV, 4/4/1970 news broadcast

…The Apollo 14 mission of April 11-17 [1970] had some trouble on the return trip, but it was largely unnoticed because of how quickly it was resolved…

– mathematician Dorothy Vaughn’s Human Computers: Me and The Other Women at NASA, Langley Publishers, 1997

I realized at an early age that humanity’s future rested in its ability to harness space and the computer. I realized at a slightly older age how awesome drugs can be. After that, I thought of how cool it would be to smoke pot in space. This is the story of how I finally got to do that not too many years ago.


I started working as a programmer for NASA’s Institute for Space Studies in New York City in 1968 [5], then managed to get a job running numbers at Mission control center in Houston, Texas a little over a year after that. Around the office I was known as “the wild guy,” the flashy extroverted showoff. I made sure of it. I got under people’s skin like how only a man destined for greatness or an epidermal infection can, but the bosses kept me around because nobody could do the math like I could. I was instrumental in keeping Apollo 14 from blowing up. But nobody noticed. In my opinion, it got overshadowed by that terrible shit that went down in Los Angeles that same week.

– John McAfee’s autobiography Outer Space Deserves More Iguanas: My Life Being Me, numerous on-net publication sites, 2022

The Forum, the multi-purpose arena in Inglewood, next Los Angeles, has a holding capacity of 17,500 people, and on April 13, 1970, the site was packed full of American fans screaming in adoration for the Beatles perform live before their very eyes. The night marked the end of their American tour. Shortly after the four made the final curtain call, once John Lennon, George Harrison, Ringo Starr and Paul McCartney had returned to their more private accommodations, a fight broke out among the band mates. John accused Paul of being uncooperative, and of trying to “hogging up all the attention on stage.” This spat led to Ringo accusing George of looking down on him. Epstein failed to mediate, and sat back down in his seat. The four-way verbal exchanges escalated to the point that none of the men noticed the presence of three alleged groupies until a loud thud-like sound came from of Epstein’s location.

The Beatles all exclaimed when they saw Epstein face-down on the floor. Ringo rushed over, lifted Epstein’s shoulder, and exclaimed again, but with time with horror, upon seeing that their beloved manager’s neck had been sliced open, the wounded deep and almost-instantly fatal. Each of the three alleged groupies – Leslie Van Houten, Patricia Krenwinkel and Susan Atkins – promptly dew out a gun. All four of the Beatles put their hands up, save for Ringo, still squatting down on the floor next to Epstein.

“We’re here to do the Devil’s work,” Krenwinkel declared.

“This place has got to get better security. And we've got to get better bouncers,” Ringo quietly noted to himself.

The women tied up John first in a manner similar to how they had disposed of the security guards. Krenwinkel explained to the lead singer, “we’re saving you for the end.” Then Atkins tried to kick Ringo into standing up and away from the manager’s corpse. When that didn’t work, Atkins ran over to him, picked up Paul’s guitar, and smashed it over Ringo’s head. The musical instruments knocked him out cold.

Atkins then put away her gun and brandished a knife, the look of merciless bloodlust in her eyes.

At that moment, with Krenwinkel and Atkins distracted, Paul glanced over to George, whom nodded back with a very slight flinch of his head. The two man suddenly rushed the assailants; Paul lunged onto Van Houten as George grabbed a nearby lamp. One good knock on the head deserves another, and Atkins soon found herself in an unconscious state. George quickly proceeded to tackle Krenwinkel, whom struggled to pull out her gun. George finally managed to punch her out cold with his good fist.

For a moment, George breathed. And in that silence he realized Paul was still trying to subdue Van Houten. George stood and began to come closer when Van Houten’s gun finally went off.

Paul and Van Houten stopped fighting, the former having smacked her head on the table edge. George paused before inspecting a sudden tinkling feeling under his left armpit. “Whew, just a scratch,” he observed.

“No,” Paul stood up, “It wasn’t” and turned to George. The bullet fired had only hit George after passing through Paul.

With a roll of his eyes, Paul fainted, leaving George to unite John. The two proceeded to call out for help. Soon enough an employee of The Forum arrived and with assistants carried Paul out into the hallway.

And as that drama continued to unfold, the three would-be assassins recovered from their momentary involuntary naps, and fled. It is most likely that they escaped out down the back stairwell just moments before Forum Security arrived on the floor to secure the area.

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

On route to hospital, shock and severe blood loss led to McCartney slipping into a coma [71] …Papers such as The Daily Mail initially reported headlines such as “Paul is Dead!: Beatles Bandmate Slain In Attack!” [77] upon learning that McCartney had entered L.A.’s Good Samaritan Hospital “unconscious” [78] and “unresponsive” [79]… The Forum was severely criticized for its security...


My head was overrun with emotions, going mad waiting in the waiting room. So I started scribbling down some ideas on some of the napkins near the coffee. It wrote very angrily. After leaving hospital, I showed Ringo and George what I’d jotted down. It was a way to do something, anything, to address what had happened. The three of us workshopped it and recorded early drafts of what became the basis for “War Against Death.” It’s one of our most aggressive songs, full of the raw instincts that I suppose one would typically feel after witnessing a close friend getting shot it a coma.

– John Lennon, 2008 interview

It was now the 25th. After twelve days in a coma, the doctors were losing faith. But not Paul’s bandmates. If anything, John, George and Ringo were increasingly determined to rectify the situation. With nothing left to lose, George started performing a piece of Paul’s favorite song, “God Only Knows” by the Beach Boys, at his bedside. “I was hoping he would hear it,” George later explained in a 1971 interview. John soon came over with Ringo, and put on a private show for the man in the coma. Suddenly, as the song reached its peak, Paul’s eyes twitched, followed by detectable movement in the rest of his face. By the time the three mates had reached the song’s end, Paul McCartney had regained consciousness.

“What happened?” was the first thing the patient said.

“You fell asleep on us,” John joked.

“So you lot went and joined the Beach Boys, or are we into plagiarism now?” Paul responded quietly and hoarsely, and soon received some water.

“How long was I out?”

“John here wrote a song,” George answered.

“Two months?”

“Two weeks, mate,” Ringo explained.

“Did I miss anything?”

“Um…Earth Day.” Again, George answered.

“What’s that?”

John replied, “Some new holiday, I’m not sure who invented it – either shoutniks, or companies wanting to make money from shoutniks. Good cause either way, I suppose.”

“Do I really need to hear politics so soon out of a coma?” Paul replied.

“I got shot, too,” George showed Paul his scratch.

“Shot?!” Suddenly remembering how he had ended up in a coma in the first place, he threw a punch into his leg. “Oh, good, that hurt.”

“I could’ve done that for you, Paul,” stated John.

“That’s alright.”

“Well it’d have been no problem, is all, for me.”

The kidded around, but after George and Ringo left, their talk became more sincere.

“It’s my fault you’re here, Paul. If I hadn’t started the fight –”

“No, you were right, John. We are a team. It’s time we went back to being equals.”

John quickly went out the room and soon returned with a pen and a napkin. He crudely drew a hatchet, and said to Paul, “when you get out of here, we’ll bury this somewhere.”

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

On April 27, McCartney made his first public appearance since the attempt on his life, allowing vetted journalists to enter his hospital room to take photographs and film footage to ensure their fans that he was in fact recovering [83]. The appearance debunked rumors that he had died [84], but rumors swearing that “Paul is Dead” still persisted [85], and even can be found on-net today [86].


POLICE CHIEF (IN FILM CLIP): …We are aware of how many people want these heinous assailants to be found, but we must stress that attempts at vigilante justice and flooding our phone lines with false reports will only inhibit our ability to do our job. As a result, we will not be increasing the reward money for information on the assailants. Furthermore, anyone calling in with false information will be tracked down and, if proven to be the prank caller, will be arrested for inhibiting an international investigation.

ANCHOR: Police hope this will cease the barrage of fake callers...

– BBC Special Report, 4/30/1970

Kentucky State Court Rejects Lawsuit Concerning 1952 Anti-Colonel Allegations

– Chicago Tribune, 5/3/1970

IOC Session No. 69
Date: May 12, 1970
Location: Amsterdam, Netherlands

Subject 1 of 2: bidding for hosting the 7/17/1976-8/1/1976 (or XXI) Summer Olympics
Los Angeles, U.S.A. – 24 (Round 1) – 29 (Round 2) – 39 (Round 3)
Moscow, U.S.S.R. – 21 (Round 1) – 25 (Round 2) – 32 (Round 3)
Montreal, Canada – 16 (Round 1) – 17 (Round 2)
Toronto, Canada – 10 (Round 1)
End Result: Los Angeles won on the third round

Subject 2 of 2: bidding for hosting 2/4-15/1976 (or XII) Winter Olympics
Ryazan, U.S.S.R. – 17 (Round1) – 19 (Round 2) – 25 (Round 3) – 37 (Round 4)
Denver, U.S.A. – 18 (Round 1) – 20 (Round 2) – 24 (Round 3) – 34 (Round 4)
Innsbruck, Austria – 16 (Round 1) – 18 (Round 2) – 22 (Round 3)
Sion, Switzerland – 15 (Round 1) – 16 (Round 2)
Tampere, Finland – 3 (Round 1)
Vancouver-Garibaldi, Canada – 2 (Round 1)
End Result: Ryazan won on the fourth round

L.A. TO HOST OLYMPICS IN ’76: Will Be The First Olympics Held In The US Since 1932

…credit must go to California’s Governor, Pat Brown, who pursued an active campaign to bring the games to his state…

– The New York Times, 5/12/1970


…In his first bid for public office, Ted Sorensen won the Democratic nomination by a 7% margin. Sorensen, a 42-year-old practicing lawyer in his birth town of Lincoln, worked on the 1960 and 1968 Presidential campaigns of Jack Kennedy, and served as that politician’s chief aide, advisor, and speechwriter from 1953 to 1968. Sorensen, who is also the older brother of former Lieutenant Governor Philip C. Sorensen, will face off against the vulnerable and gaffe-prone incumbent Senator Roman Hruska in November…

– Nebraska City News-Press, 5/12/1970

“Cambodia will not become another Cuba”

– Colonel Sanders, 5/13/1970


[pic: ]
– President Colonel Sanders and First Lady Claudia Sanders visit an elementary school to inspect the progress made one year after the increasing of federal school funding, while a Secret Serviceman (far left) patrols the area; 5/17/1970

ANCHOR: …Tonight’s top story is the growing debate in Washington D.C. over a proposed Constitutional Amendment, the Equal Rights Amendment, that would, in theory, ensure women and men be treated as equals. President Sanders, who has recently announced his support for the E.R.A. movement, is now butting heads with conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly. Schlafly, the author of the 1965 best-selling novel A Choice, Not An Echo, is a candidate for Illinois’ 23rd Congressional district this year, and has openly accused the President of being a “L.I.D.,” or “Liberal In Disguise.”

SCHLAFLY (IN AUDIO CLIP): The Colonel does not stand for American tradition or values. The ERA would take away gender-specific privileges like the kind that help widows and mothers, and would eliminate separate restrooms for men and women. I am running as a real Republican to protect American women.

ANCHOR: …Yesterday, President Sanders finally told one of our correspondents his thoughts on the matter.

SANDERS (IN FILM CLIP): If a woman’s place was in the home, they’d be born wearing aprons. Women are not born wearing aprons because they can be anything the set out to be, and the ERA would ensue them their God-given right to try and do just that.

ANCHOR: …More of his fellow Republicans, however, remain critical of Sanders’ honesty, such as Michigan gubernatorial candidate William Millikan, who was reported to have said earlier today, quote, “I think he’s supporting the E.R.A. to make up for the sexism accusations,” end quote. Although the E.R.A. has been introduced in every congressional session since 1921, this time it seems to have a real chance of passing through committee and proceeding on to the floor of the House...

– NBC News, 5/20/1970 broadcast


For most of American history, women silently endured mistreatment in the workplace, with little protection or recourse. During the 18th and 19th centuries, sexual coercion was a fact of life for female slaves in the South, as well as a common experience among free domestic workers in the North. In the early 20th century, women employed in new manufacturing and clerical positions confronted physical and verbal assaults from male supervisors. Union leadership was successful in enacting protective legislation that shielded women from performing physically demanding labor, but not from the propositions of lecherous bosses. By the 1920s, working women were advised to simply quit their jobs if they could not handle the inevitable sexual advances. For decades, there were few significant changes in the ways women were treated at work. Those who complained discovered that sexually predatory behavior on the job was dismissed as trivial and harmless. Women rarely talked openly about the issue, although the situation only became more pressing as their participation in the workforce increased throughout the 1960s. The turning point finally came at the dawn of the 1970s, as the women’s liberation movement began to challenge a justice system – as well as a culture at large – that failed to recognize women’s consent, spurred on by a series of politicians fell from grace in the wake of a wave of scandals regarding women in the workplace. The campaign against sexual pestering was the natural extension of the grassroots anti-rape and anti-battering movements, which grew out of consciousness-raising sessions in which women shared personal stories and realized they were not alone in their experiences. Secretaries, mailroom clerks, filmmakers, factory workers and waitresses shared their stories. Women spoke of masturbatory displays, threats and pressure to trade sexual favors for promotions.
The phrase ‘sexual pestering’ was coined in January 1970… …A May 1970 survey by “Redbook” showed that almost 75% of respondents had encountered sexual pestering on the job.
“Antifeminist crusader” Phyllis Schlafly believed these women were “asking for it.” At a May 1970 Senate committee called to review federal guidelines on workplace impropriety, Schlafly testified that “virtuous women are seldom accosted.”
Catharine MacKinnon helped develop key legal theory by naming and distinguishing two types of sexual pestering – those which produce a “hostile working environment” for women, and the “quid pro quo” type wherein career opportunities are offered in exchange for sex.

Time Magazine article, 1987 issue [6]

Sunday, 31 May 1970: On this day in history, the Great Peruvian earthquake struck off the coast of the South American nation of Peru. Measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale, the tremor triggered a landslide on the north peak of Huascaran Mountain, resulting in a “Debris avalanche” burying the towns of Yungay, Ranrahirca, and ten nearby villages. The mountain range had been considered unstable since 1962, yet provincial governments downplayed the danger to minimize the number of people moving away to safer areas. As a result, between 66,000 and 69,000 people were killed in the most catastrophic natural disaster in the history of Peru.


…In tonight’s primary elections for the governorship, Jesse “Big Daddy” Unruh won the Democratic nomination with 70% of the vote, with activist Florence Douglas coming in second place, and former Los Angeles Mayor Sam Yorty coming in third. In the Republican column, US Ambassador to Saudi Arabia Ronald Reagan won the nomination over retiring state Superintendent of Public Instruction Max Rafferty by narrow margin, with our former Mayor, the moderate George Christopher, coming in third place, and moderate businessman William Penn Patrick and moderate activist Warren N. Dorn coming in fourth and fifth place, respectively…

– KFRC-FM, San Francisco-based radio station, 6/2/1970 broadcast


…the progressive 30-year-old anti-war political activist Thomas “Tom” Hayden has been declared the winner of last night’s race for the Democratic nomination for California’s Class 1 US Senate seat. Hayden’s victory of a plurality of the vote comes after a recount that resulted in his closest challenger, US Rep. John V. Tunney, losing by a margin of just 0.91%. The other candidates that were in the race for the nomination were Eileen Anderson, Arthur S. Bell Jr., Leonard Kurland, and Louis Di Salvo…

…In the fall, Hayden with face off against incumbent US Senator and former US Vice President Richard Nixon (R). The uncertainty of how well he will fare against the incumbent matches the uncertainty concerning the performances of two other candidates that will be on Californians’ November ballots. Both are the nominees of two minor parties – Charles C. Ripley of the far-right Heritage and Independence Party, and Robert Scheer of the far-left Natural Mind party…

The Sacramento Union, California newspaper, 6/3/1970

…The woman’s rights movement is catching some wind in its sails lately, and in France, the wind is reaching Hurricane levels amid city officials in Paris and Nice being called out for committing what is being called workplace pestering, the creating of a work environment that is uncomfortable to workers, particularly female workers, due to senior or superior coworker or employees performing unwanted and unsolicited acts. advances or actions of a sexual nature. President Mitterrand has yet to comment on these latest complaints, but is expect to do so very shortly…

– BBC World News, 6/6/1970 broadcast

…the anti-surveillance Nixon-Wilkinson Committee described their findings as surprising, but much of the committee’s official report will remain classified over nationwide security concerns...

– CBS News, 6/7/1970

“‘Failure’ is just a word for ‘a longer pathway to your destiny’. Never give just because the road to greatness is tougher than you thought it’d be – that’ll just make it more impressive when you make it. And it’ll make your life story all the more interesting, too.”

– Colonel Sanders, commencement speaker for Texas A&M University’s graduating class of 1970, 6/12/1970


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders listening to a guide while visiting the ruins of the Ancient Agora of Athens during a diplomatic trip to Greece, 6/19/1970


Donald Trump and Betty Lou Ray became man and wife at Marble Collegiate Church on the 20th… Trump, Queens native, is an outfielder for the New York Yankees… Ray, originally from Marshall, North Carolina, worked as a stewardess before moving to N.Y.C. in 1968 to become a weather girl for local station…

The Queens Ledger, weekly NYC newspaper, Celebrations section, 6/22-28/1970 issue

“We women are going to take our voices to the polls in November, and we are going to usher in a new era of change and progress in Washington DC and in all fifty states of the United States of America!”

– Congressional candidate Trudy Cooper, 6/27/1970

“Honest! I did not expect an entire movement of sorts to rise from it.”

– Ms. Arkansas, 1979 KNN interview

...In late June, the combined efforts of the CIA, MI6, and INTERPOL confirmed that the assailants of the Beatles were followers of Manson. On June 30, the CIA conducted a raid on the family’s desert compound, during which they apprehended the only two members present, Leslie Van Houten and Patricia Krenwinkel, both of whom were burning materials and coating the compound with gasoline when the raid commenced. Both attempted to stab the arresting officers with kitchen knives before being subdued.

Both women confessed to their roles in the attempt on the lives of the Beatles, but were adamant in protecting their leader. They claimed that the third woman seen fleeing the hotel, Susan Atkins, had died from the injuries she received when George Harrison had smashed a lamp on her head, sending sharp flakes and pieces into her scalp and face. The subsequent discovery and examination of Atkins’s body, however, proved she had ingested cyanide shortly after the failed attempt on the Beatles’ lives.

Through controversial interrogation methods, the CIA also discovered through them that Manson and the rest of his followers had fled the country, and that Van Houten and Krenwinkel had volunteered to stay behind to “handle the pigs at home” and destroy any possible evidence of Manson’s destination.

However, at the compound, agents uncovered one clue that pointed law enforcement in the right direction – a half-burned photograph of Christ the Redeemer...


[1] Italicized lines pulled directly from her OTL book and can also be found here:
[2] Act Three, “How To Do The Funky Chicken,” by Mark Schone, starting at the 35:40 mark. The woman in question apparently would say “Harland get your hands off me, I get all I need at home.” On the lighter side of things, though, the audio snippet also has interesting story on the Colonel’s non-racist acquaintanceship with a Black employee, starting at the 40:20 mark.
[3] Italicized part of the accusation is from OTL!:
[4] ALL italicized parts (so, most of this “entry”) is from here:
[5] OTL!, and ITTL, LBJ’s 1961-1965 budget increases for NASA leads to them needing more employees in Houston ahead of upcoming Apollo missions.
[6] ALL italicized parts (so, most of this “entry”) is from this Time Magazine article: “A Brief History of Sexual Harassment in America Before Anita Hill”:
Post 25
Post 25: Chapter 33

Chapter 33: July 1970 – December 1970

“Twenty years from now you will be more disappointed by the things that you didn’t do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover.”

– R. Jackson Brown Jr.

“I’m not too sure about this new defense spending bill,” the Colonel told House Speaker Halleck. Introduced earlier in the year, the bill was making its way out of committee, and Senator Goldwater, Nixon, and Cotton were openly backing the legislation, as well as Secretaries Bonesteel and Curtis. The President noticed, “We were able to defeat the Viet Cong with less money, and we’re already taking what we learned dealin’ with them and the Pathet Lao and applying it to the Pol Pot lunatics. It just seems too excessive.” For the time being, the Colonel remained on the fence.

Meanwhile, after years of research (supported by Vice President Scranton), the Senate Committee reviewing the nation’s health and eating habits finally handed the Colonel their report on American health habits. The report suggested that Americans would greatly benefit from better eating habits (eating less fatty foods, watching consumption levels of carbohydrates, etc.) and more exercise (dancing, jogging, hiking, gym, sports competitions) in their daily routines. The Colonel was certain to publish the report’s findings and send an abridged copy of it to every cabinet member, Senator, and Representative.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

Yeah, we also took a hit during the Arkansas Scandal. Eldridge X, who’d been in prison from ’58 to ’66, had become the second-in-command in Malcolm X-Men, but he got taken down by the Rape Wave when several white women accused him of raping them in the ’50s. At start I didn’t buy, but as more witnesses came forward and the pressure got it Eldridge, he fessed up to it. But instead of facing the merciless wrath of the pigs-in-blue, you know, he fled Mexico to avoid arrest. That was dumb; that killed all chances of denying it all, and it seriously hurt our organization because we were trying to expand from being supporters of Malcolm X to being supporters of our respective communities. Kind of like what The Colonel President was always talking about at the time – helping people be independent at the local level to help the state and in turn the country.

– Huey Newton, 2001 interview

I was confronted with the reaffirmation of my family’s health history when my father died from a heart attack in the summer of 1970. The immediate impact was the same as when my Mother had struggled with polio. So many locals helped us through difficult times. The church gave us food, and neighbors dropped in to help out Mom around the house. It demonstrated how important community support is, the church in particular. That’s an extended family, and to this day, those people, whether it’s some of our cousins that were there then or people in the church, you feel like that’s family. That’s always had an impact on me and has given me appreciation for the need we all need – you need that type of support that’s more than just the immediate family. [1]

– Jim Edgar’s 11/3/2009 speech on the costs of highways and healthcare

William Henry “Bill” Cosby Jr.
(July 12, 1937 – January 14, 2001) was an American actor, musician, and military physical therapist. Cosby was once a “rising star” in the world of American stand-up comedy, rising to the height of starring in his own TV series, the Bill Cosby Show, until a series of sexual
pestering charges ended his career in the entertainment industry.


Cosby began his career as a stand-up comic in San Francisco in 1961. He then landed a starring role in the NBC television show “I Spy” in 1965, which was followed by his own NBC sitcom, “The Bill Cosby Show,” which began airing in 1969. [2] After the end of Season 1 in April 1970 but before the start of Season 2, set to air in September, Cosby was accused of sexual pestering.


On July 12, 1970, Kristina Ruehli, at the time reporting the incident as a “Jane Doe,” encouraged by the “Ms. Arkansas” scandal and its watershed effects felt in the months afterward, came forward with her claim of being sexual pestered by Cosby. Later in the year, Ruehli testified that Cosby had drugged and possibly attempted to assault her after being invited to Cosby’s Beverly Hills home in December 1965, when she was the 22-year-old secretary at a Beverly Hills talent agency:

“Mr. Cosby poured me some bourbon. I can really hold my liquor. I’m Irish. And I had a couple of those – just two – and then I just don’t remember much. I have vague memories of someone walking next to me at the pool. Off the pool in one direction was a bedroom. Whether it was his bedroom or guest bedroom, I really don’t know, but I think it was not the master bedroom, because there really wasn’t much to it. And somehow, I wound up in that bed. Two bourbon-and-7s don’t knock me out cold, believe me. I can drink most men under the table. It was a standard eight-ounce glass, and they were not overly strong, or I would have noticed it. He must have drugged me. There is just one point at which I was having a drink and feeling normal and the next I was somehow passed out completely. He must have slipped something into my drink. When I woke up, it was all foggy, and I woke up in the bed. I found myself on the bed, and he had his shirt off. He had unzipped his pants. He was attempting to force me into oral sex. He had his hand on my head. I remember looking at his stomach hair. I immediately came to and was immediately very sick. I pushed myself away and ran to the bathroom and threw up. I never get sick like that from alcohol. Once I threw up and left the bathroom he wasn’t there. I don’t know where he went, but I left right away. … I don’t need money and I don’t want attention. I just want the truth to be known: Mr. Cosby is not the good guy that he’s protrayed to be.”

Ruehli additionally stated that she did not bring up the incident until early five years later because “I was embarrassed that I had put myself in that postion, because the woman always blames herself, right?” [3]

Ruehli’s detailed description of the interior of Cosby’s home gave credibility to her story, and in September 1970, another woman came forward with a similar story. Cosby denied both claim, and accused the first accuser of being a racist despite her race, and identity, not being disclosed until 1972.

Amid the accusations, The Bill Cosby Show lost its key sponsor, Proctor & Gamble, which wished to uphold a “clean” image in the wake of the Ms. Arkansas scandals, on September 29. After the October 4, 1970 airing of the show’s Season 2 Episode 4 “There Must Be a Party,” NBC cancelled The Bill Cosby Show. The remaining episodes were not released until 1992.

Post-Ms. Arkansas Years

After several more years of struggling to restore his reputation in Hollywood, especially after being accused of attempted rape in 1975, Cosby re-enlisted in the US Navy, and returned to working in physical therapy with injured Navy and Marine Corp personnel and veterans in his home state of Pennsylvania. This led to him working briefly in the United Services Organizations Inc., or U.S.O., where he attempted to resurrect his entertainment career, until a fourth sexual pestering accusation led to him being discharged from the military in 1991. At 54, Cosby and his still-faithful wife found themselves relying on the assistance of their adult children to get by financially. In 1992, Cosby sued NBC over the release of the remaining episodes of The Bill Cosby Show concerning royalties, but lost the lawsuit. By the middle of the 1990s, Cosby’s health was reported to be poor. He died in early 2001 from diabetes, age 63.



– The Washington Post, 7/17/1970

REPORT: The U.S. Fed. Gov.t Is Sending More Aid To Indochina Than Originally Thought

– The Wall Street Journal, 7/23/1970

“I think the Colonel being willing to send food to our former enemies in Vietnam is a clear example of just how soft on Communism our President really is.”

– US Senator Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson (D-WA) to reporters, 7/23/1970

“The Colonel is far too liberal for the party of Lincoln.”

– Max Rafferty, San Diego Union-Tribune Op-ed, 7/25/1970

After serving two years in the US Air Force, I finally took Tricia’s advice and tried out for the Houston Astros. …My Dad and Dad-in-law may know a thing or two about politics, but playing in the major leagues was where I outshined them.

– George W. Bush, 2011 interview


…moderate Lt. Gov. William G. Milliken defeated retiring conservative U.S. Rep. Gerald Ford by a 10% margin, with James C. Turner coming in at a distant third…

– The Detroit Free Press, 8/4/1970


– The Washington Post, 8/5/1970

…A Hollywood giant has come under scrutiny as the wave caused by the Ms. Arkansas scandal continues to spread further into the world of entertainment. Earlier today, several women came forward in a class-action lawsuit with claims that Harry Cohn, the late co-founder and President of Columbia Pictures, committed acts of sexual pestering during his time as their employer. Cohn, who lived from 1891 to 1958, had a legendary autocratic and intimidating leadership style. The women launching the lawsuit claim Cohn often pressed to exchange sexual favors for film roles…

– NBC News, 8/9/1970 broadcast

“Harry Cohn tried to have his way with me after I had signed on to a three-picture contract with Columbia, but I stopped him at the start. I told him to keep it in his pants because I was set to have lunch with his wife and children the very next day.” [4]

– Joan Crawford, “exclusive” The Hollywood Reporter interview, 8/11/1970


…After months of negotiation between Greek, Cypriot and British leaders, the island nation of Cyprus will merge with Greece. The move will be made official at a document-signing ceremony held later this year. …There remains, however, much controversy concerning the population of Turks/Muslims on the island. While the Greek government claims they will offer to pay for relocating the Turks whom voluntarily want to move to Turkey, Prime Minister Lambrakis has sworn “We have learned from the brutal mistakes of the past. We will not have another 1922 fiasco on our hands,” referring to forced population exchange programs of the early 1920s…

– The Daily Telegraph, 8/12/1970


…Rita Hayworth was a screen idol in the 1940s, a femme fatale actress best known for her roles in 1944’s Cover Girl and 1946’s Gilda. She joins Joan Crawford, 66, who won an Oscar in 1945 for her role in the MGM film Mildred Pierce and retired from acting earlier this year, in claiming to have experienced “sexual pestering” while under contract Columbia. Hayworth claims that Cohn was “outraged” when she refused to sleep with him and was only kept under contract due to her box office successes…

– The Los Angeles Times, 8/12/1970

Hollywood Has Always Been A “Dirty” Place

– George Murphy, The Sacramento Union, op-ed, 8/14/1970

On August 18, 1970, one-and-a-half years after the death of Clarence Sanders, Chaplain of the US Senate Frederick Brown Harris passed away at the age of 87. After 25 nonconsecutive years of loyal service, Sanders wanted him to a well-respected successor. As such, the Colonel offered the position to Billy Graham. Upon Graham’s declination, the office ultimately went to the then-63-year-old Rev. Edward Lee Roy Elson, a Presbyterian minister born in Ohio and educated in Kentucky’s Asbury College and the University of Southern California.

– Mark Pendergrast’s “For God, Country, and Kentucky Fried Chicken,” Perfect Formula Publishing, 2000

MARILYN MONROE SHARES HER STORIES: Confirms Hollywood Has A “Perverted Underbelly”

The Sacramento Union, 8/19/1970 extra (“exclusive interview special”)

“THE TIME FOR CHANGE IS NOW”: Griffiths Makes Her Case

…Martha Griffiths is visiting every county in the state to win over voters in her bid to become the first woman to serve as Governor of Michigan. Griffiths, who hails from western Ann Arbor, certainly has the political experience, as she has represented Michigan’s 17th U.S. Congressional District in the U.S. House of Representatives since 1955, winning election in 1954 and winning re-election in 1956, 1958, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966, and 1968. Additionally, she served as a delegate for Michigan at the 1956 and 1968 Democratic National Conventions. Before serving in the U.S. Congress, she was the first woman to serve as judge of the “Recorder’s Court” in Detroit, doing so from 1953 to 1954. …Griffiths is a moderate known for her “implacable determination,” for her encyclopedic understanding of procedural niceties and details, and for having a “tongue like a blacksmith's rasp” whenever an opponent tries and fails to attack her. …Only Zolton Ferency, the former chair of the Michigan Democratic Party and unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1966, plus two very minor candidates, challenged her in the Democratic primary held on August 4; Griffiths won that contest with almost 60% of the vote…

– The Grand Rapids Press, Michigan newspaper, 8/21/1970

IT’S HAMMOND BY A HAIR: Will Run For Governor On Oil-Based F.A.D. Proposal

Juneau, AK – With Governor Stepovich retiring, tonight’s open primary saw State Senator Jay Hammond win over Lieutenant Governor Keith Miller, businessman Wally Hickel, and former U.S. Congressman Howard Pollock for the GOP gubernatorial nomination. Concurrently, Gene Guess won over lesser-known candidates Larry Carr and James R. Russell for the Democratic nomination.

The main debate leading up to the primary was how the Last Frontier should handle the $900 million dollars in state revenue created by the state’s North Slope oil leases, after the massive oil field in Prudhoe Bay was discovered in early 1968. The windfall is seven times the state’s 1968 budget, and expected to increase in size next year. Lieutenant Governor Keith Miller was the first Republican candidate to publicly propose the millions to go into a state dividend. State Senator Hammond concurred, but expanded on it into the primary aspect of his campaign; a believer of fiscal responsibility, Hammond claims a state version of the national FAD would allow Alaskans to “make their own decisions.” Moderate businessman Wally Hickel, however, opposed the dividend, believing the government should hold onto it and use it for statewide development projects: “an individual alone can’t pay for Alaska’s badly-needed infrastructure projects such as paved roads, and built bridges and hospitals.” Pollock offered a compromise solution: 50% of the oil results going to the state’s Treasury department, and the rest into the hands of Alaskans.

Ultimately, however, Hammond ran an active and efficient campaign, and defeated Miller by a margin of 0.5%...

Anchorage Daily News, 8/25/1970


– The Washington Post, 8/27/1970


Washington, D.C. – Margaret Heckler, a two-term Republican Congresswoman from Massachusetts’s 10th district and one of a handful of females currently serving in the U.S. Representatives, welcomes in those she calls her “potential co-workers.” Over twenty women are carefully arranged among the seats for the photo-op… Several female candidates are on the ballot this November… …Among these candidates one can find passionate activists, such as Democrat Bella Abzug, who is running for New York’s 19th District. However, many more of these candidates have impressive prior experience. Democrat Katherine Peden, who is running for Kentucky’s 3rd District, worked for the Johnson White House before serving as Kentucky’s Commissioner of Commerce from 1963 to 1967. Democrat Ella T. Grasso, who is running for Connecticut’s 6th District, has serves as her state’s Secretary of State since 1959. …Boston School Committee Chair Louise Day Hicks and state assemblywoman Millicent Fenwick seek to bring their experience and ideas to Washington at a time when the role of women in the workplace is a subject seemingly more sensitive than ever before…

– Tumbleweed Magazine, 8/30/1970 special issue

The September 4, 1970 Chilean Presidential election pitted 74-year-old independent candidate Jorge Alessandri, a controversial former President, against Salvador Allende of the Socialist Party, and Christian Democratic Party nominee, former Chile Senator and Chilean Ambassador to the US Radomiro Tomic, a progressive politician of Croatian descent.

Both the KGB and CIA poured money into Chile, making the election a bloodless proxy conflict of the Cold War. The CIA painted Allende as a man who would lead the country into an era of violence of repression. Additionally, under the Colonel’s order, the CIA directly supported Tomic’s candidacy due to his lack of controversy and his open praise of the US in recent years.

Out of 3.5 million votes cast, Tomic won by a plurality (and thus was confirmed by a Chile Congressional vote) of roughly 22,000 votes, with Allende coming in second place. Another failure for the Soviets.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014


Los Angeles (CA) – President Sanders’ birthday is not until Wednesday the 9th, but today he receives the greetings and offering of merry celebrations of reaching the milestone of his 80th birthday. The President is celebrating his birthday two days early to coincide with a political fundraiser attended by nearly 12,000 persons…

The Los Angeles Times, 9/7/1970


[pic: ]
"Sorry I couldn't find the plates and utensils, Mr. President."
"Aw, that's alright. We'll just use the napkins as flexible plates!"
"Anyone have something I can clean my hand with?"
"Use the tablecloth - we'll just use it as an oversized napkin!"

– President Sanders celebrates his 80th birthday with unidentified interns in a private party held at the White House, 9/9/1970

11 September 1970: On this day in history, Ford introduces the Pinto, a subcompact car; its three body styles will be manufactured and marketed in North America from 1971 to 1979; over 3million were produced over its nearly-8-year production run, outproducing the combined totals of its two biggest domestic rivals, the Vega (Chevrolet) and the Gremlin (AMC).


MI6 finally tracked down Manson and his cohorts to a section of land 150 km (150 miles) outside of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Religious leader Jim Jones had established a Peoples’ Temple community there at his ranch, The Oasis, in 1967 and had since then converted roughly 500 locals to live on the ranch and engage in their groups’ practices and customs. Shortly before the attempted assassination of the Beatles, Jones traveled to Brazil. Upon learning of this by visiting a Peoples’ Temple in California, Manson and company followed via plane.

At the Oasis, Jones oversaw a “rainbow family” where devotion to Jones was more important than skin color. When Manson arrived, he was reportedly “shocked” by the Oasis, racial diversity, but upon seeing how loyal they were to Jones, quickly justified “Jim’s crayon box” to his curious followers by telling them “these are the good ones. The ones who have seen the light and will join us in our fight against those who oppose the rebirth of the world.”

Manson soon convinced Jones that he and his motley crew had arrived because “the end-times [were] upon [them].” This worried Jones; on September 3, privately called his wife (still in the states due to being eight months pregnant with their latest child) to warn her to hide in their California home’s bomb shelter until she could travel down to Brazil.

Brazil’s Justice Department complied with international law and issued arrest warrants for Manson and his followers. On the morning of September 11, Brazilian and INTERPOL agents were driving to the Oasis with the intention to bring the suspects in for questioning.

At 30 feet away from the compound’s border, the motorcade of police cars received a barrage of bullets...

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

It wasn’t long before their reinforcements arrived. After one of the garbled something in Spanish through a bullhorn, they fired a series of “warning shots,” setting a portion of the south wing’s roof on fire. ...Manson was adamant that we all would be protected by God His Father, and taunted the stuffed uniforms through Jones’ compound speaker, telling then “You’ll never take us alive!” From the main watch tower, both Manson and Jones perused the scene unfolding – more police cars, then trucks, then tanks and helicopters. Jones predicted the unfolding confrontation would end in a decisive Manson-Jones victory on “this glorious site… a war worthy of scripture”; Manson concurred. …Meanwhile, the fire spread to the rest of the south wing of the compound...

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982

…Reports are coming in that some sort of incident involving police is unfolding in Brazil. Smoke can be seen rising from some sort of compound several miles outside of the city of Belo Horizonte. Local authorities have declined to yet comment…

– BBC World News, 9/11/1970 report

Rounds and rounds of bullets propelled through the windows and into the walls. As he contributed to the spectacular but woefully one-sided gunfight, Manson loudly proclaimed, “The Messiah will never surrender!”

“Indeed!” Jones agreed as he attached another magazine to his weapon.

Slowly the officers wore the two men and their tower assistants down, the exchange of gunfire going on well into the night. Jones was becoming exhausted from the climate and the vigil depriving him of lack of sleep. As the first streaks of dawn began to break, there were only a few magazines left in the tower.

As Manson used the binoculars, Jones sat down on the floor and finally looked around the room. The barrage of bullets had ripped so many of his items apart, that he slumped over and began to quietly cry.

Hearing the tar-shedding, Manson sat down next to him while one of his diehard guards continued monitoring. Manson said “Do not lose faith, brother James.”

“But Charles, look at what they’ve done to my Oasis. This was my world, my vision for a better tomorrow. My dream! And now the bastards have gone and f@#ked it all… just…torn all up an’…” Jones put his hands to his face.

“Do not worry, I will lead us to victory over these pigs. I will save your Oasis as I will save humanity!”

“Wait, what are you talking about?” Jones looked at him inquisitively, “I am the savior of humanity!”

Manson’s eyes enlarged. “Blasphemer.” He dramatically stood up, “Everyone knows I am the second coming!”

“No, I am!” ones countered as he too got to his feet.

I am!” Manson insisted.

Quickly the shouts morphed into punches and the two men began violently wrestling with each other around the floor. Recognizing our moment to leave a sinking ship, the last of the disillusioned Jones followers and Jones followers hurried out the door, telling the still-loyal guards that they were going to look for more ammunition.

The last image witnessed by the last man to leave the room alive was Manson wildly swinging an empty AK-47 as an irate Jones charged him.

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982

A small group of frightened and disillusioned followers dropped their guns, fled from the compound, and ultimately gave themselves up or were arrested in Belo Horizonte. According to the official reports and testimonies, at “around” 5:00 AM, Manson and Jones began arguing, possibly even physically roughhousing with one another; this explains the decrease in gunfire from the compound after 5:02 AM. Police took the lull in fire to charge the compound. The Charlie Team successfully broke through the second side entrance and headed for the main room, the source of the most gunfire and the last confirmed location of Manson and Jones. Several Manson followers still holding out tried and failed to repel the incoming law enforcement.

After ascending the tower staircase, the Beta Team tossed in a hand grenade before entering the room. Once in the team encountered the bewildered leaders Jones and Manson, having survived the grenade blast, attempting to compose themselves. Quickly, Manson reached for a rifle nearby. Even more quickly, a bullet sliced through his heart. Manson slumped to his knees, clutched his chest, and fell to the floor, the color quickly losing his face as the pierced artery discharged the man’s blood onto the floor. Before death took him, he uttered, “How dare you try to kill your Savior?”

“For the last time (crunch!) I am Jesus!” the delirious voice came from the other side of the room. While the drama of Manson’s death was keeping the attention of the soldiers, Jones had just enough time to find his cyanide pill, which, with the help of a mid-sentence bite, ended him before the officers could do anything.

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

…We can now confirm that Charles Manson, the ringleader of the would-be killers of the rock band The Beatles, has been killed in a firefight with law enforcement officials in Brazil. Among the dead is American religious leader Jim Jones…

– BBC World News, 9/11/1970 report


[pic: ]

[pic: ]

[pic: ]
– Top to Bottom: Smoke rises from the Oasis Ranch Compound near Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 9/11/1970; a member of the Manson family stumbles out of the building before collapsing from burns and bullet wounds, 9/11/1970; the remains of one of the buildings two days later, 9/13/1970

23 September 1970: The first women’s-only tennis tournament begins in Houston; known as the Houston Women’s Invitation, at occurring soon after the “Ms. Arkansas Scandal,” it is promoted (both at the time and for years afterward (sometimes even in recent years)) by some as a sign of positive social change and progress.


…In religious news, Pope Paul VI has named Saint Catherine of Siena as the official Doctor of the Church; she is only the second woman to receive this title…

– CBS Evening News, 9/29/1970 broadcast


Washington, DC – Debates over the health of America’s top leaders have pushed congress into action. With the President having just turned 80, Vice President Scranton recovering from a nasty stomach virus he caught over the summer, and US Senate leader Richard Russell in poor health, a step toward answering calls to “assure the continuation of government in any scenario” was achieved today. After talks about such a law began during the 1968 election campaign in the midst of health scares in both major party campaigns, the 26th Amendment was submitted to the states for approval at noon today. If approved by at least 38 states, the amendment will stipulate that a vacancy in the Vice-Presidency is to be filled with an appointee chosen by the President and approved of by a majority of the total Senators in office at the time of the vote. The amendment also clarifies that Acting Secretaries are not in the Presidential line of succession, and that all leadership vacancies in the House and Senate must be filled…

– The Washington Post, 10/1/1970


– The Miami Herald, 10/9/1970

In the general election, Reagan sought to avoid the mistakes of Max Rafferty, whose accusations that liberals “harbor immorality and corruption” had only rallied conservatives and populists while alienating liberals and moderates during the primary season. Nevertheless, Tim Leary called Reagan a “fascist” for opposing labor, shoutnik protests, and federally-regulated healthcare.

– David Pietrusza’s The Epic Campaigns of the 1970s, Scholastic, 2012

TOMMY CHONG: [tokes] “[exhales] We’re all prisoners of our own cages, man. You don’t like your job? Quit! Hate your wife? Dump her! We all have the power to make ourselves have great and happy lives if we just stopped to think of how to do so, man. But too many people are just too tired from work or too tired from family s#!t or are just lazy or whatever, and can’t find the time in the day to just sit down and use that power that um, uh, that we have in ourselves to, um, fix s#!t, um, uh, what was I talking about?”

TIM LEARY: “[exhale] Oh, hey, that was good, Chongo, hey, let me write that down, I-I want to use that in my campaign.”

TOMMY CHONG: “Sure, man, um, uh, what campaign?”

– Tape #157 of Yoko Ono’s collection of home movies, marked 10/12/1970

…Outraged at The Colonel for turning a blind eye to state and federal assaults on his civil liberties of the smoking variety, the leading Democratic and Republican candidates being far too conservative to actually do anything good for the Golden state, and the incumbent Governor’s latest anti-drug moves causing him to frequently visit Mexico to use recreadrugs with fear of being arrested, Leary touted himself as “the only candidate for peace and liberty.” The Original Kleptonian Neo-American Church (OKNeoAC) once again endorsed Leary after convincing the church’s hierarchy that he was not in fact full of “excessive horseshit” by laying out his four-year plan to boost the state’s economy by legalizing the marijuana production and distribution industries...



Sports Illustrated, 10/15/1970

Tim Leary’s platform is so overtly progressive that it makes the Democratic nominee even more conservative by comparison – which could actually help Unruh win over some Republican voters hesitant to vote for the conservative Ronald Reagan. Most polls show Leary is chipping into Unruh’s support, but only incrementally. The latest polls show Reagan at 45%, Unruh at 44%, and Leary at 2%, with a worrisome 8% still undecided.

– The San Diego Union-Tribune, 10/20/1970

Mr. President:

We are making inroads near Stung Trang, alongside the Mekong River. The natives around here are much more accommodating than in Vietnam... [snip] The journalists are naïve in the dangers here, but their reports are accurate. I have seen the carnage and I can only describe Pol Pot’s atrocities as that of a tropical holocaust of sorts. This is more obviously a war of liberation than Vietnam and Laos, and that I believe is instrumental to the moral among the men…

At your service,

Gen. Abrams

– Memo from Abrams to Sanders, 10/22/1970


The U.S. could have been first to put a woman up in space merely by deciding to do so. Way back in February 1960 a girl pilot named Jerrie Cobb successfully underwent the same grueling physical examination that the Mercury Astronauts had taken. By 1961, 12 other women had gone through the same battery of tests. All of them were experienced pilots with qualifications far more impressive than Valentina Tereshkova’s. Until Astronaut Alan Shepard made the first American flight in May of 1961, NASA steadfastly disclaimed any connection with woman-in-space training. Only then was Jerrie Cobb appointed to her job as a never-consulted consultant to NASA director James Webb. Even after her appointment, any training the ladies received was unofficial and due entirely to their own stubborn efforts. [5]

Cobb has been flying 20 years – since she was 12. She is an aircraft company executive in Oklahoma City, has won many flying awards and established four world’s records… Joining her in the fight to send women American astronauts to space is Trudy Cooper, a candidate for Congress married to retiring asronaut Gordon Cooper, as well as several women currently serving on Capitol Hill…

– Life Magazine, October 1970 issue

In the final month prior to the election, Reagan increased his campaign’s focus on distancing himself from Washington D.C., vowing to “restore honor to politics and to California,” [21] referring both to that year’s scandals involving GOP congressmen “making women uncomfortable,” as Reagan called it [22], and the incumbent Governor’s abysmal approval ratings [21]. Meanwhile, Unruh continued to run on his accomplishments while serving on the California state assembly from 1955 to 1969 [23], which included serving as State Assembly Speaker from 1961 to 1969 [24].

A pivotal moment in the Reagan campaign came in late October, when told off a heckler from the Natural Mind party [better citation needed]. The blunt reply was viewed as indicative of a strong-willed and determined man, and it appealed to anti-establishment voters:

[ youtube: ikqNvKJ9AKM ]


The Washington Times, 11/1/1970

United States Senate election results, 1970

Date: November 3, 1970
Seats: 34 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Mike Mansfield (D-MT)
Senate minority leader: Barry Goldwater (R-AZ)
Seats before election: 51 (D), 48 (R), 1 (I) [6]
Seats after election: 55 (D), 44 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 4, R v 4

Full List:
Arizona: incumbent Barry Goldwater (R) over Renz L. Jennings (D)
California: incumbent Richard Nixon (R) over Tom Hayden (D) and Robert Scheer (NM)
Connecticut: incumbent Thomas J. Dodd (D) over Antonina P. Uccello (R)
Delaware: William Victor Roth Jr. (R) over Jacob Zimmerman (D)
Florida: Lawton Chiles (D) over G. Harrold Carswell (HIP), Raymond Claiborne Osborne (R) and Claude R. Kirk Jr. (Conservative)
Hawaii: incumbent Hiram L. Fong (R) over Cecil Heftel (D)
Illinois (special): Adlai Stevenson III (D) over incumbent appointee Ralph Tyler Smith (R)
Indiana: incumbent Vance Hartke (D) over Richard L. Roudebush (R)
Maine: incumbent Edmund S. Muskie (D) over Neil S. Bishop (R)
Maryland: Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (R) over Carlton R. Sickles (D) and incumbent James Glenn Beall (Independent Republican)
Massachusetts: incumbent Eunice Kennedy Shriver (D) over John Volpe (R) and Josiah A. Spaulding (Independent)
Michigan: George W. Romney (R) over incumbent Philip A. Hart (D)
Minnesota: Hubert Humphrey (D) over Clark MacGregor (R)
Mississippi: incumbent John C. Stennis (D) over William R. Thompson (I)
Missouri: incumbent Leonor Sullivan (D) over John Danforth (R) and Gene Chapman (HIP)
Montana: incumbent Mike Mansfield (D) over Harold E. Wallace (R)
Nebraska: Ted Sorensen (D) over incumbent Roman L. Hruska (R)
Nevada: incumbent Paul Laxalt (R) over Howard Cannon (D)
New Jersey: incumbent Harrison A. Williams Jr. (D) over Nelson G. Gross (R)
New Mexico: incumbent Joseph Montoya (D) over Anderson Carter (R)
New York: Paul O’Dwyer (D) over incumbent Kenneth B. Keating (R), James L. Buckley (Conservative) and Allard K. Lowenstein (Liberal/NM)
North Dakota: Arthur Albert Link (D) over incumbent Thomas S. Kleppe (R)
Ohio: John Glenn (D) over incumbent Robert A. Taft Jr. (R)
Pennsylvania: incumbent Hugh Scott (R) over William G. Sesler (D)
Rhode Island: incumbent John O. Pastore (D) over John McLaughlin (R)
Tennessee: incumbent Albert Gore Sr. (D) over Bill Brock (R)
Texas: Lloyd Bentsen (D) over John Connally (R) and Jack Carswell (HIP)
Utah: incumbent Frank E. Moss (D) over Laurence J. Burton (R) and Clyde B. Freeman (HIP)
Vermont: incumbent Winston L. Prouty (R) over Fiore L. Bove (D) and William H. Meyer (Liberty Union/Natural Mind)
Virginia: incumbent Harry F. Byrd (I) over George Rawlings (D) and Ray Garland (R)
Washington: incumbent Henry M. Jackson (D) over John Ehrlichman (R)
West Virginia: incumbent Robert C. Byrd (D) over Elmer H. Dodson (R)
Wisconsin: incumbent William Proxmire (D) over John E. Erickson (R)
Wyoming: incumbent John S. Wold (R) over Edness Kimball Wilkins (D)


…With the exception of incumbent Senators Leonor Sullivan and Eunice Kennedy-Shriver, no women won any of the Senate contests, though two Republican nominees, former state house speaker Edness Kimball Wilkins of Wyoming and Hartford Mayor Antonina Uccello of Connecticut, both came within a 1% margin of winning in their respective states...

– Walter Cronkite, CBS News, 11/3/1970

United States House of Representatives results, 1970

Date: November 3, 1970
Seats: All 437
Seats needed for majority: 218
House majority leader: Mo Udall (D-AZ)
House minority leader: Charles Halleck (R-IN)
Last election: 212 (D), 225 (R)
Seats won: 231 (D), 206 (R)
Seat change: D ^ 19, R v 19


…We now return to the latest House results. [pause] In South Dakota, Trudy Cooper, the wife of retiring astronaut Gordo Cooper, has been elected over incumbent Congressman E. Y. Berry of the state’s 2nd congressional district. Mr. Berry, a Republican, was running for a tenth term in office. Mrs. Cooper, a Democrat, has been a longtime activist for women’s rights, and she joins several other women winning public office tonight in what may be the electoral culmination of this year’s “women’s wave” of public debate over the rights of women and their roles in the workplace… Politically, the night's election results, while still unfortunate for the Republican Party, were not at all as poor for the GOP as initially expected earlier in the year... Our analysts believe the night's results are mostly due to party fatigue, after six years of a Republican White House...

– ABC News, 11/3/1970


…The 72-year-old Hollywood starlet, who nominated five times for an Oscar for a string of applauded performances during the 1930s, Dunne has also spent many years in the world of politics. Dunne served as an alternative US delegate to the UN in 1957 due to her interest in international affairs, and campaigned for Colonel Sanders in 1964 and 1968. A Roman Catholic Republican, she has consistently maintained close involvement in GOP causes after retiring from acting, and in 1965 became the first woman elected to the board of Directors of Technicolor. Dunne claims that the “success” of the Colonel’s Presidential bids inspired her to run for a California congressional seat. …Dunne did not discuss the fallout of the Ms. Arkansas Incident on the campaign trail, instead focusing on local issues and blaming her Democratic opponent of being “too removed from the real concerns of this district.”… Her victory was one of just a few Republican gains in both California and the nation…

The Los Angeles Times, 11/4/1970

ONE LAST HURRAY FOR PEACE AND EQUALITY: Jeanette Rankin Readies Her Final Return to Congress

At 90 years old, Jeannette Rankin was not content with retirement. After serving as a Congresswoman from 1917 to 1919 and again from 1941 to 1943, the ardent pacifist and women’s rights activist was inspired to run for Congress this year in the wake of several high-profile political scandals renewed calls for an Equal Rights Amendment.

…Fate seems to enjoy testing Rankin’s resolve. Roughly a month after becoming the first-ever female U.S. Representative, she became one of just 50 Representatives to vote against entering World War One. She was singled out for her vote, and it effectively ended her electoral career. Twenty years later, Rankin saw her lobbying endeavors were not enough to curb the calls to intervene militarily in Europe, and so ran for Congress again in 1940. Less than a year back in her old job, she once again faced criticism for her anti-war policy, this time for being the only person in either branch of Congress to vote against declaring war on Japan, declaring “As I woman I can’t go to war and I refuse to send anyone else.” And once again, her career in congress was over after just one two-year term.

…Now, her decades of activism has led to her winning the hearts of the peacenik community, and to her winning a third term to congress…

The Montana Standard, 11/4/1970 [7]

United States Governor election results, 1970

Date: November 3, 1970
State governorship elections held: 35
Seats before: 27 (D), 23 (R)
Seats after: 32 (D), 18 (R)
Seat change: D ^ 5, R v 5

Full List:
Alabama: George Wallace (D) over Bull Connor (I), Asa Carter (HIP) and Bert Nettles (R)
Alaska: Jay Hammond (R) over W. Eugene Guess (D) and Ralph M. Anderson (I)
Arizona: Raul Hector Castro (D) over incumbent Jack Williams (R) and Evan Mecham (HIP)
Arkansas: incumbent Winthrop Rockefeller (R) over Virginia Johnson (D)
California: Ronald Reagan (R) over Jesse Unruh (D), Tim Leary (NM) and Max Rafferty (HIP)
Colorado: incumbent John Arthur Love (R) over Mark Hogan (D) and Albert Gurule (Labor United/La Raza Unida)
Connecticut: Fiske Holcomb Ventres (R) over Attilio R. Frassinelli (D)
Florida: Louis Bafalis (R) over incumbent Verle Allyn Pope (D)
Georgia: Lester Maddox (D) over James Bentley (R) and Udolpho Sikes Underwood (I)
Hawaii: Thomas Ponce Gill (D) over Samuel Pailthorpe King (R)
Idaho: incumbent Charles Herndon (D) over Jack M. Murphy (R)
Iowa: Armour Boot (D) over incumbent Robert D. Ray (R)
Kansas: incumbent Robert Docking (D) over Kent Frizzell (R)
Maine: Peter N. Kyros (D) over James S. Erwin (R)
Maryland: Marvin Mandel (D) incumbent Spiro T. Agnew (R) and Robert Woods Merkle Sr. (HIP)
Massachusetts: Pierre Salinger (D) over Francis W. Sargent (R)
Michigan: Martha Griffiths (D) over William Milliken (R)
Minnesota: incumbent Coya Knutson (D) over Douglas M. Head (R)
Nebraska: J. James Exon (D) over Albert C. Walsh (R)
Nevada: Rex Bell Jr. (R) over Mike O’Callaghan (D) and Charles Springer (I)
New Hampshire: incumbent Harrison Reed Thyng (R) over Meldrim Thomson Jr. (HIP) and Roger J. Crowley (D)
New Mexico: Bruce King (D) over David F. Cargo (R) and John A. Salazar (Labor United/La Raza Unida)
New York: incumbent Mario Biaggi (D/C) over Steven Boghos Derounian (R), Arthur J. Goldberg (Liberal) and Norman Mailer (Natural Mind)
Ohio: Buz Lukens (R) over Robert E. Sweeney (D), Roger Cloud (IR) and Edward T. Lawton (HIP)
Oklahoma: David Hall (D) over incumbent Dewey F. Bartlett (R) and Reel Little (HIP)
Oregon: incumbent Tom McCall (R) over Bob Straub (D)
Pennsylvania: Milton Shapp (D) over Raymond Shafer (R) and Andrew J. Watson (Constitution)
Rhode Island: J. Joseph Garrahy (D) over John Chafee (R)
South Carolina: John West (D) over Albert Watson (R)
South Dakota: George S. McGovern (D) over incumbent Frank Farrar (R)
Tennessee: Frank G. Clement (D) over Winfield Dunn (R)
Texas: Waggoner Carr (D) over Roger Martin (R)
Vermont: incumbent Phil Hoff (D) over John S. Burgess (R)
Wisconsin: incumbent Patrick Lucey (D) over Jack B. Olson (R) and Georgia Cozzini (NM)
Wyoming: incumbent Teno Roncalio (D) over William H. Harrison (R)



Juneau, AK – State Senator Jay Hammond has won the state’s gubernatorial election over Democratic state House speaker W. Eugene Guess. …Taking a page out of the playbook of New Jersey Governor Frank X. McDermott, Hammond, 48, campaigned on an oil-based “Permanent Alaskan Dividend Fund.” …Hammond’s running mate was Hazel Heath, the Mayor of Homer, Alaska, since 1968. …In the wake of the Colonel-King scandals, Heath became more active in state circles, and is poised to become the first woman to serve the number-two spot in the Alaskan state government…

Anchorage Daily News, 11/3/1970

REAGAN PULLS OFF VICTORY: Defeats Unruh By 5% Margin; Leary Demands Recount After Winning 6% Despite Polling At 12% Yesterday

The Sacramento Union, 11/3/1970

“[Tim] Leary would have won more if his core supporters weren’t always so stoned off of their asses.”

– Barry Goldwater, c. 11/3/1970, possibly anecdotal


Atlanta, GA – In a clear and obvious rejection of the Republican Governor Calloway, Georgians tonight voted for a more conservative gubernatorial candidate. Businessman Lester Maddox had run on an ultra-conservative platform in the Democratic primary against former Governor Carl Sanders, which likely has put an end to Sanders’ rumored 1972 Presidential bid… Colonel Sanders is surely unhappy with Maddox winning, and that is making many Georgia Democrats smile with glee…

[ pic: ]
Governor-elect Maddox making the "victory" symbol at his victory ceremony held earlier tonight
– The Augusta Chronicle, Georgia newspaper, 11/3/1970


The Washington Times, 11/4/1970


…Katherine Peden, Bella Abzug, Ella T Grasso, Louise Day Hicks, Millicent Fenwick, and Trudy Cooper all won… Kathleen Z. Williams lost he bid for Indiana’s 5th district, as did Phyllis Schlafly in her bid for Illinois’ 23rd district, and Natalie Kimmel for California’s 28th district, but each still gave it their all. Nevertheless, they contributed to a historic moment in American history: these past midterm elections have produced the highest number of women ever elected to Congress at once…

– Tumbleweed Magazine, 11/3-9/1970 issue

“What matters now is working with the new batch of freshmen and the new Democratic majority majority in the House. I’m going to work to find common ground and get some more legislation done around here before the end of my term. I’m not going to have a lame chicken – uh, duck, a lame duck Presidency.”

– Colonel Sanders to reporters, 11/4/1970


Out of the total 482,145 votes cast, only 121 went to an independent candidate. The rest were split almost exactly even between Democratic nominee John Carl West and Republican nominee Albert Watson. Only .11% of the vote, or roughly 529 votes, separated Watson from victory. Watson, endorsed by the South Carolina chapter of the Heritage and Independence Party, has made clear that he doubts the election results, but has not so far suggested election tampering or fraud, instead stating “a discrepancy” may have occurred.

– The Post and Courier, South Carolina newspaper, 11/6/1970


…14 Democrats elected Governor (Raul Hector Castro of Arizona, Thomas Ponce Gill of Hawaii, Armour Boot of Iowa, Peter N. Kyros of Maine, Marvin Mandel of Maryland, Martha Griffiths of Michigan, J. James Exon of Nebraska, Bruce King of New Mexico, David Hall of Oklahoma, Milton Shapp of Pennsylvania, J. Joseph Garrahy of Rhode Island, George McGovern of South Dakota, Frank Goad Clement of Tennessee, and Waggoner Carr of Texas) and three Republicans elected Governor (Fiske Ventres of Connecticut, Rex Bell Jr. of Nevada, and Buz Lukens of Ohio)…

The Washington Times, 11/11/1970


As Ronald Reagan readies for the responsibilities of the Governorship of California, he follows the pathways of four fellow Hollywood figures – Governor John Davis Lodge, Congressman Wendell Corey, and former Congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas – in his shift from the stage and screen to the seat of a major national office. With Shirley Temple Black serving as an Ambassador, and Irene Dunne being elected to Congress this month, one has to wonder about the hows and whys of this phenomenon of actors turning to politics. One could suggest this to be the start of a trend, a new wave of politics, or simply a unique part of our times as the world of entertainment has shifted from trips out to theaters to less expensive visits to drive-ins to the privacy of our own homes. …One San Francisco-based academic explains that “it is actually very easy for such a phenomenon to occur due to the similarities found in both professions. Both the actors and politicians of the modern age are constantly in the public spotlight. Surrounded by cameras, they must look aesthetically pleasing, be comfortable in large crowds and speaking in front of recording equipment, and remember long speeches to perform for an audience without major incident.” …Another historian from Sacramento, however, suggests that electing “non-politicians” is “a way of the populace to reject a perceived sense of bureaucratic control over an institution meant to work for the common voter.” This notion would be especially applicable to this November’s midterms, which were not too friendly to the incumbent party… It is my opinion that voting for potential leaders based more on their name recognition and charismatic appearance, rather than where they stand on key issues, is a misstep. As such, I urge all voters to think wisely and carefully about whom they vote for whenever the time comes to enter that booth and participate in our democratic process.

– Opinion article, Associated Press, 11/22/1970

…On November 25, Thurman Munson was named Rookie of the Year over several contenders including fellow Yankee Don Trump. Trump, in his first major public incident of controversial rabble-rousing, claimed the vote was “crooked,” when the reality of the situation was that Munson had a far more impressive record, and had improved greatly since first signing onto the team...


…Baseball’s Louisville Colonels, founded in 1969, should not be confused with the basketball team formed in 1967 called the Kentucky Colonels…

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994

In late November, Lyndon confided in Bobby Baker that he would not run for President in 1972, and instead focus on re-election to the Senate that year. Despite the vulnerability of Republicans and Lyndon’s legacy improving, the former President was tired. “I thinks he wouldn’t survive the stresses of another run,” Baker would later write to a friend, “and he knows that he is so much more powerful and influential in the Senate than he could be as a President confined to one term.”

– Robert Caro’s The Years of Lyndon: Book Six: The Post-Presidency Years, A. A. Knopf Inc., 2018

Pres. Meets With Leaders of Push to Send American Women Into Space

Washington, D.C. – by John Noble Wilford

…The Colonel sat down with Jerrie Cobb, 39-year-old aviator from Oklahoma and part of a private non-NASA program held in the early 1960s, where a group of Cobb and 12 other women selected to undergo physiological screening tests concurrent with the original Mercury 7 astronauts’ tests… Afterward, Sanders met with a caucus of Congresswomen that included Representative-elect Trudy Cooper, whom are pushing for NASA Director James Webb to allow for women to become astronauts…

– The New York Times, 12/1/1970


– The Greenville News, South Carolina newspaper, 12/3/1970

“We will begin accepting women candidates for a new program at the start of the new year.”

– James E. Webb, in an official NASA statement after discussions with President Sanders, 12/9/1970

Dad met with Elvis in the White House many times; I think Dad was the favorite of the two Colonels in Elvis’ life. After meeting with Alice Cooper, though, the meetings happened more often. Both men seemed uneasy over the changing youth scene, especially Elvis, who was much more critical of the latest bands than Dad.

During one lunch at the White House that I got to sit in on, I listened to a heated discussion over the best way to make Fool’s Gold Loaf, a three-pound favorite of Elvis consisting of an Italian bread loaf stuffed with bacon, peanut butter, and grape jelly. On another occasion, Dad personally prepared a course of Elvis’ favorite foods – peanut-butter-and-banana sandwiches, barbeque chicken bites, fried dill pickles, and finally, sour cream pound cake; naturally, Elvis found it delicious.

Of course, they also discussed the more somber elements of the politico-musical scene, such as the near-murder of the Beatles. During that discussion, Elvis noted “It was a real shame what happened to that Paul guy,” to which Dad responded with “I was thinking of inviting them here. You know, show them a better version of American hospitality and all that sort of thing.”

“Not too bad an idea, Colonel.” Was the King’s reply.


[pic: ]

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

The Vietnam War
(1957-1967), less commonly known as The War in Vietnam, was an armed conflict involving Vietnam, the US, the USSR, and France, along with China, Laos, and others. …Despite the US presence in Vietnam since 1957, the conflict did not become a “major” issue for the US until early 1963, when US President Lyndon B. Johnson sent advisory troops there after talks with his cabinet. An attack on the US embassy led to the US unofficially declaring war on North Vietnam in July 1963, leading to a steady rise in troop deployments to South Vietnam. Casualties quickly began to mount on the US’s side due to their inability to properly understand the Viet Kong’s fighting style. The situation worsened for the US as the year 1964 continued, contributing to President Johnson losing a re-election bid in November 1964. His successor, President Harland “Colonel” Sanders, re-analyzed the situation, culminating in a successful invasion of North Vietnam in early 1967, which capitulated the Communist government in Hanoi…. With the war officially over, “Vietnamization” ended when the last of America’s troops left the now-united nation in December 1970. …Defenders of Lyndon Johnson claim his attention was divided between Vietnam, Cuba, and re-election…. US President Sanders’ military success has created “a very common misunderstanding” that the Colonel was an experienced military person of that rank, when actually, Sanders was an Honorary Colonel.


The December 1970 talks with President Arias, Vice President Torrijos, US Secretary of State Curtis and the US Ambassador to Panama saw the outline of an agreement be agreed to; the agreement would stipulate that the US would hand over control of the Panama Canal to the Panamanians in 1979 in exchange for U.S. preference in Panamanian markets via trade deal.

Conservatives in the U.S., already hurt by the drop in representation that follow the 1970 midterms, openly opposed the talks, with Senator Cotton claiming “giving them our canal would be an insult to the Americans who built it.” Governor-elect of California Ronald Reagan added to the opposition by stating “We built it, we own it, it’s ours!”

– Ashley Carse’s Beyond the Big Ditch: Politics, Ecology, and Infrastructure at the Panama Canal, MIT Press, 2014

Albert Watson, Self-Described Governor-Elect, Announces Early A Bid For A Congressional Seat

– The Spartanburg Herald-Journal, South Carolina newspaper, 12/12/1970

“I’m 79 and tired. I’m retiring.”

– Chief Justice Warren, 12/13/1970


After failing to retire in late 1964 in order to allow Johnson to appoint a temporary liberal successor during the winter recess due to Republican threats of retribution, Warren begrudgingly stayed on the bench... Sanders is expected to announce a nominee for the position of Chief Justice, head judge of the country, in the following weeks, but “after celebrating New Year’s,” according to Press Secretary Charlotte Reid. Warren will remain in office until his successor has been confirmed...

National Review, special mid-December 1970 issue


[pic: ]
– After a long day of festivities, President Sanders falls asleep at the White House, 12/25/1970

1) The woman at the center of it all. The courage that Ms. [LOADING ERROR], a.k.a. "Ms. Arkansas," displayed when coming forward allowed the Ms. Arkansas Scandal to become a watershed moment.
2) Republican overreaction. While the Democratic Party of the 1960s remained so calm during their own scandals that they practically swept themselves under the rug, Senators such as Norris Cotton and Richard Nixon were too quick to deny the Colonel-King allegations, with Nixon going so far as to criticize the media for even covering them. This attitude prompted journalists to continue their focus on the scandals and investigate further, and inspired an entire generation of Americans to pursue the truth.
3) Television. The device that had made the Colonel a household name also lead to his (albeit temporary) fall from grace, as technology allowed for information to spread faster than Congress could respond to it.
4) Sanders’ own handling of the allegations. By openly admitting to his “past misdeeds,” Americans seeing the President “admit to it” had polarizing opinions - some were proud of their President for his honesty, others saw the same thing as a detriment that made America weak on the geopolitical stage - continuing national discussions on workplace impropriety in a more open manner.
5) The changing of the times. The scandal ended up eclipsing with the height of the Women’s Liberation Movement. The anti-war counterculture movement of the early 1960s led to women calling for equality and fairness during the mid-to-late 1960s, and this was the platform that elevated Ms. [LOADING ERROR] to the front page of newspapers across the country. Local politicians and congresspersons such as Mo Udall and Jean Kennedy-Smith were aware that the Colonel, ironically, had won the woman’s vote in 1964 and 1968 by wide margins, and the Colonel's reported support of serious investigations into the allegations that succeeded his (possibly in the hopes of winning over female voters ahead of the 1970 and 1972 elections), allowed him to survive the scandal at a time when patriarchal social norms were being stripped away to reveal the bare truth that is the extent of misogyny in America.

Women's Magazine, 2020 online article

[1] Italicized part is an edited version of a passage found on page 17 of this pdf:
[2] Paraphrase from Cosby’s OTL wiki page
[3] Quotes found here are edited versions of the quotes and information found in a short-but-detailed interview here:
[4] Paraphrase from snippet found on Cohn’s wiki page.
[5] Actually, these Italicized pieces are from here:
[6] The Independent Senator is Harry F. Byrd, Jr. (like IOTL)
[7] Okay, so this may not actually be that far-fetched because IOTL, she was considering another bid for public office in 1973, when she was 93 years old, at least according to this source:,-Jeannette-(R000055)/
E.T.A. of the next update: August 15.
Post 26
Post 26: Chapter 34

Chapter 34: January 1971 – August 1971

“Never underestimate the power of stupid people in large groups.”

– George Carlin

After comparing these customer survey results with those from last year, it is evident that the company’s non-white customer base has improved… The increase in customer satisfaction and foot traffic in urban locations may be connected to the continuing easing of social-economic issues under President Sanders, particularly due to the President’s active supporting of state and federal education and urban renewal projects and programs...

– KFC customer demographics report, 1/5/1971

“YOU COULD BE THE NEXT COLONEL”: The Story Of Ollie’s Trolleys

By Keith Pandolfi, photos by Helen Rosner

The harsh rain of a Floridian winter was beating down on John Y. Brown Jr. that day, much like how it is for me revisiting the same famous spot, an iconic belly-filling eatery shaped like a trolley. Having skipped breakfast, I eye the entrance to the establishment, ready the hood of my jacket, and make a run for it through the downpour. Unquestionably, the upcoming meal is worth the splashy sprint.

Making my order comes so easy to me – one Ollieburger with Olliefries and a Josta – that I have to stop and think about how it was like the first time I ever visited one of Ollie Gleichenhaus’ trolleys. The thought returns my mind’s attention to Brown, who was in the same position one rainy noon in January 1971. The ex-KFC affiliate had not had the best four years of his life since his termination from the company, to say the least. And on the day in question, the 37-year-old businessman just needed to a quick bite to eat after finding Florida to be a refreshing change of scenery, albeit one where he was struggling to find success and prosperity. He may have chosen Ollie’s as the place at which he would satisfy his appetite out of convenience, or maybe he was intrigued by the cutesy, unique façade of the building, or maybe the trolley reminded him of the trolleys that once navigated the streets of his childhood hometown of Louisville, Kentucky.

I spent my few minutes of waiting leaning over the to the side to view the five employers located in the kitchen performing their duties harmoniously, flipping burgers and oiling up fries and the like. Then I receive my order in a simple grease-strained eco-paper bag, and – given that this location’s seven stools and two booths are completely stuffed with other customers – I dash back out to my car to enjoy it there.

Eating an Ollieburger is like having a McCormick spice warehouse explode in your mouth. There’s a magic mingling of oregano and garlic, cumin, rosemary, and Old Bay – an Italian pot roast and a Maryland crab boil all in one. There are other flavors in there, too – some I recognize, like onion powder, paprika, and cayenne, and other I don’t. The same seasoning coats both the fries and the burger. And the more I eat, the more my taste buds re-acclimate themselves to those flavors, and the more convinced I am that the Ollieburger is the best burger in America.

I imagine that the range of emotions that flooded my senses – surprise, delight, intrigue, gluttony, joy, and possibly contentment (in that order) – swam through Brown’s mind as he took his first bite, as a detonation of flavors overwhelmed his taste buds. As the legend goes, Brown had not even finished his first Ollieburger when he bolted back into the location to order three more, and then demanded he speak to the inventor.

The genius inventor in question was a cigar-chomping, straw-hatted grouch named Ollie Gleichenhaus. With his cantankerousness mirroring that of Colonel Sanders, an unofficial idol to fast food vendors both then and now, Gleichenhaus and his wife had opened what they originally called “Ollie’s Sandwich Shop” in South Beach, Florida in the 1930s. Despite its small size, the place became a big hit among locals, tourists, and even visiting celebrities – Gleichenhaus would later claim Rodney Dangerfield used to write material in my place and that Don Rickles got all his material from him and his caustic demeanor. This is the location at which I now sit, and it is also the same location in which Brown found himself on that fateful day.

Brown metaphorically picked as his brain his metaphorical eating utensils, requesting how the creation – a third of a pound of lean beef seasoned with a blend of 32 spices – came to be. Gleichenhaus, approaching 60 in 1971, explained how it took him more than three decades to perfect the recipe, adding a new spice here, a different type of cheese there. He’d change up the bun, or grind up a new cut of beef. He used his customers as guinea pigs until he finally felt he’d nailed it. And once he nailed it, he was happy with himself and to simply just continue frying up burgers and basking in the Florida limelight.

Brown must have smiled widely as he thought of the gold mine he had stumbled across. He must have figured that with his experience in the fast-food industry, Ollie’s unique product, and the two giants of the fast food industry long gone – McDonald’s Ray Kroc now owning a basketball team, and KFC’s Harland Sanders now serving as President – Brown through Ollie could rise to unprecedented heights of fame and glory. Brown decided he would build Ollie’s Trolleys into the competition of KFC’s new Wendyburgers. He just needed to convince Gleichenhaus that his burgers could be the next big thing; “Ollie, you can be the next Ray Kroc. Hell, you could be the next Colonel Sanders!”

The only problem was that Ollie wasn’t interested. He was content with his business, and his first impression of Brown was that he was a “slick-talking sonofabitch,” and a such told Brown “I’m doing just fine here. If you don’t like, you can get the hell outta my store.”

Brown only saw the rambunctious personality as the same kind that sent the Colonel to the White House. Like the Colonel, Ollie “swore like a sailor and had quite a routine; if anyone came into his restaurant and asked for ketchup, he’d say ‘Get the fuck out of here!’” Brown would recall many years later.

But like how the Colonel never gave up trying to sell his chicken in the early years of KFC, Brown kept hounding Ollie, calling him several times each week with the same offer of partnering up with him to expand the humble local business into a nationwide franchise. Then one day, Ollie relinquished his resolve.

He finally got to me,” Ollie told the Post-Crescent. “With all the talk about the fun I’d have and the traveling, and how my name would be up in lights. Yeah, that fed my ego.”

Taking a page out of the Colonel’s biography, Brown toured the country for viable locations. He put together television spots featuring Ollie in an Archie Bunker kind of approach. A simple menu of hot dogs, chicken sandwiches, milkshakes and – most importantly – Ollieburgers and Olliefries was finalized. Brown also took a page out of McDonald’s playbook and sought out a way to streamline the production process.

“We’ll go nationwide within the year,” promised Brown. Whether obvious or not at the time, it is retrospectively clear that Brown had developed and put into motion a plan to make K.F.C. sorry for his dismissal.



[pic: ]
– [1]


…Humphrey claims “The current system does not provide enough representation for Democrats in all 50 states,” and that “convention delegates have more power than the would-be voters, which is unjust.” …Humphrey won the primary popular vote in 1968 but lost in delegate count to former Secretary Jack Kennedy, causing the former to lose the nomination to the latter...

– The Washington Post, 1/18/1971


– The Savannah Morning News, Georgia newspaper, 1/21/1971

The Colonel’s first order of business for the new FBI director [William C. Sullivan] was to investigate the White Citizens’ Council, a southern white supremacist group plaguing the south with occasional intimidation tactics such as vandalism and arson to businesses, burning crosses on lawns, and death threats since its formation in 1954. The FBI had largely ignored the group under Hoover despite being responsible for violence during H.I.P. political campaigns in 1964, 1966 and 1968. Though already waning in influence and member size by 1969, FBI infiltration of the group led to the arrest of key leaders in 1971 and 1972, which in turn ultimately led to the council disbanding in 1974.

– Ronald Kessler’s Clyde Tolson and the Cult of J. Edgar Hoover, Resistance E-Publishing, 2016

…Colonel Sanders’ modest expansion of Social Security arose amidst fiscal concerns from the GOP and his own personal reservations toward the program. Believing American businessmen would thank him for the move later on down the road, Sanders approved of an increase of general benefit levels to 12 percent in order to better combat the effects of inflation [2] In January 1971.

– Meg Jacobs’ Pressure at the Polls: The Transformation of American Politics in the 1970s, 2016 net-book edition

The Colonel ushered in the New Year by beginning a tradition of daily walks around the White House property to promote exercise and to increase public awareness of the 1970 Scranton Report on US health practices.

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1968, Atheneum Publishers, 1969

The communist insurgents in Cambodia initially welcomed in their Vietnamese counterparts, the lingering radical ex-members of the Viet Cong. But as the fighting continued, cultural, linguistic, and ideological differences between the native Cambodian guerillas and the immigrant Vietnam guerillas impede collaboration against western forces. By the start of 1971, the two group had become bitter nemeses, with the waterways of the Stung Treng region seeing the heaviest of the guerilla-on-guerilla fighting.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

“I want all the war hawks in the White House to know that our military’s activities in Cambodia qualify as an illegal war. I am calling for an official vote on the status of our actions in Indochina, where I urge all of my co-workers on this hill to vote against this destruction of human life.”

– Rep. Jeanette Rankin (D-MT), 1/23/1971


Powell Calls For “Peace And Order” As Workers Demand Raise Due To Low Pay And Poor Working Conditions

The Guardian, 1/27/1971

Mr. President:

Update: Get the Champaign ready.

In your service,

Gen. Abrams

– Private memo from Abrams to Sanders concerning the US Army's advancing on Cambodian despot Pol Pot’s location, 1/28/1971


…the 52-year-old Alabaman District Court Judge was pivotal in the fight against segregation in the 1950s... Other rumored candidates to replaced the retiring Earl Warren had included Harold R. Tyler Jr. and William H. Mulligan of the 2nd Circuit, Paul Roney of the 5th Circuit, and Clement Haynsworth of the 4th Circuit (likely due to his pro-business rulings). Even more outlandish potential picks such as Senator Barry Goldwater, columnist William F. Buckley, and North Carolina state Supreme Court Justice Susie Sharp were rumored candidates, although such names were never confirmed to be considered seriously by the White House...

– The Washington Post, 2/1/1971 (Monday)


…Newly into office (again), George Wallace has already stirred up controversy for allegedly imposing liberal policies onto a conservative populace. The policies in question includes his appointing of a record-breaking number of African-Americans to public offices, such as over 100 to the state governing boards, hiring a 52-year-old African-American female to be his press secretary, and appointing two African-American men to his gubernatorial cabinet. …receiving less controversy, at least, from average white Alabamans is, Wallace’s push for anti-poverty legislation to help “the most poor and the helpless members of our state”…

– The Huntsville Times, Alabama newspaper, 2/2/1971


…Vandiver strongly favor segregation while serving as Governor from 1959 to 1963…

– The Savannah Morning News, Georgia newspaper, 2/4/1971

This report finds the efforts of the Governor’s office and the state legislature to lower crime in the state’s urban areas are working but not at the expected pace. The number of murders recorded in Albany dropped 20% from January 1967 to December 1970, but the number of recorded murders in New York City only dropped from 746 [3] in 1967 to 689 in 1970. Governor Mario Biaggi and Mayor Joey Periconi’s co-operative increase in security guards, plain-clothed police officers, and uniformed Transit Police are the cause of the drop. Furthermore, the state legislature’s tax incentives for producers and sellers to decrease the price of home security systems and locks have lead to a 15% drop in burglaries statewide. Switching transit police radios and above-ground police radios to transmit on the same frequency has significantly diminished the numbers of poor communication incidents in New York City.


Reflecting advice once offered by Dwight Eisenhower to the city of New York in 1959, Mayor Periconi is calling for the taxing of drivers entering densely populated city limits. This study supports this proposal, as it could provide funds for the state’s crime-reduction programs.

– Summary of report from the office of the New York State Secretary of State, 2/5/1971


…Church bells rang out today in celebration of the Holy Union of George Walker Bush and Tricia Nixon…

– The Houston Chronicle, celebrations section, 2/5/1971

On February 7, the weeks of transcontinental conversations culminated in Sanders and Kosygin signing the landmark Seabed Treaty banning the emplacement of nuclear weapons on all ocean floors beyond a 15-miles coastal zone. The UK’s Prime Minister Enoch Powell was hesitant to sign onto the multinational/multilateral treaty, despite polls showing that most Britons supported the treaty, as Powell did not approve of the notion of “tying down” the UK, a comment that proven to be controversial until Powell yielded and finally signed the treaty the next Month.

– David Tal’s US Strategic Arms Policy in the Cold War: Negotiation & Confrontation, Routledge, 2017

EXTRA! DEADLY EARTHQUAKE ROCKS CALIFORNIA! Over 30 Dead, Over 70 Missing As Bridges, Buildings Collapse!

– The Chicago Tribune, 2/9/1971


…yesterday morning’s 6.5 earthquake was particularly damaging to communities in the northern San Fernando Valley, where a dam has partially collapsed. Governor Reagan has ordered the area downhill from the Van Norman Dams to evacuate, in case an aftershock weakens the dams any further…

The Seattle Times, 2/10/1971

While the 6.6 Sylmar Earthquake itself killed 37 people – mostly hospital patients buried under rubble and travelers crushed by damaged sections of the freeways – the wave of water that rushed out of the Lower Van Norman Dam broken by the quake’s aftershocks was the true tragedy of the moment. Back in 1964, a state inspection led to the State of California and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power agreeing to maintain the reservoir’s water level at a level 5 feet lower than usual for a dam of its size. The earthquake’s aftershocks broke off the remains of the top 27 feet of the structure, but even at the water level being 5 feet lower, it was still 2 feet too low. [4]

When the Lower Van Norman Dam partially collapsed, it unleashed a powerful and forceful wall of water out of the reservoir, damaging and taking with it 30% of the rest of the dam. Being just 2 feet below the dam’s new top, the water had enough force to spill out, but not enough to cause the rest of the dam to break. Nevertheless, the water wave more deadly than the earthquake itself.

The water hastily made its way into the valley below. When Governor Reagan called for the valley housing 80,000 people needed to be evacuated immediately on February 9, mass havoc overwhelmed the valley; the dam’s damage being clearly visible from far away didn’t help. Rumors were spread. Chaos ensued. People scrambled out of their homes and several car collisions happened. Thankfully, by the time the aftershocks weakened the dam enough for the water to breach, most of the downhill inhabitants had fled.

The breached dam’s results were much worse than the flooding that hit California in the 1963 Baldwin Hills Disaster. Roughly 1,100 people died, a number that, while not as high as the 2,000 people killed in 1963 when Italy’s Vajont Dam failed, was one the deadliest disaster to ever strike California on par with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake that killed roughly over 3,000 people, or the 1928 St. Francis failure that killed 600 people in nearby Santa Clarita. Thousands more found themselves without homes.


[ ]
Above: the Van Norman Dam after its partial collapse, prior to the earthquake’s aftershocks finishing what the initial first shake started. Concrete cracked and slumped; the Lower Van Norman Dam’s “sister” dam, the Upper Van Norman Dam, came just one foot away from being breached as well.

– Meg Jacobs’ Pressure at the Polls: The Transformation of American Politics in the 1970s, 2016 net-book edition

The media called it a “tragedy,” a “disaster,” and a “horrible loss of life”; Governor Reagan controversially referred to it as a “fiasco” and “engineering snafu,” attempting to downplay the deadly flooding of the valley. When that did not seem to work, Reagan shifted to blaming “poor oversight under Governor Brown” for the predicament; he also blamed it on inspectors instead of the dam operators. However, it was Reagan’s earlier call to “play it safe” before the dam finally partially collapsed that led to him being praised, as the decision undoubtedly saved the lives of hundreds, if not thousands, of Californians.

The tragedy did have one unforeseen benefit, though – it revealed to a shocked public the flaws of California’s concrete building designs, ushering in an era of active public demand for higher standards, better building codes, stronger materials, a statewide review of older buildings, and other protective measures.

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

“Walter, I’m here in Arleta, a California community once like any other, only now it has been ruined by the wrath of a busted dam… But through the disaster, a glimmer of hope is seen in the millions of Americans donating to various charities whatever they can, and the many people travelling to pitch in and help the displaced survivors get back on their feet…”

– CBS Evening News, 2/14/1971 broadcast

Reagan designated the valley a disaster area, declared a state of emergency, and imposed a curfew on the San Fernando Valley to “curb nighttime looting.” The curfew instead led to accusations of police brutality against Black and Latino residents, which in turn increased racial tensions in certain parts of the state. As the days of reports on the dead, the newly homeless, and “constabularily abused,” as Dan Rather once called it, President Sanders was reportedly crestfallen over the loss of life and, according to one source, “choked up and cried a little” upon hearing the estimation of how many children had perished. …At one point, the President lamented to an aide, “America needs to hear some good news again.” Soon enough, such news came to remind Americans that good things were still happening.

– Meg Jacobs’ Pressure at the Polls: The Transformation of American Politics in the 1970s, 2016 net-book edition


Pol Pot Expected To Be Moved To Capital For Trial Soon; Followers Is Disarray As Capture Makes Leadership Void

– The New York Times, 2/12/1971


[pic: ]
– Pol Pot’s “mug shot,” taken 2/12/1971

Defense experts were certain the threat had been neutralized; communism had failed to take over a nation yet again. The Colonel was relieved that congress’s threats to impede the military’s defense of Cambodia from communist insurgency were now dissolute. “Now justice can be served to Pol Pot. The Cambodian government will now put that man on trial, for all the world to see the evils of his ways. I hope he likes the gravy train of righteousness, and his just desserts, too” the Colonel punned.

Pol Pot’s trial never came. Less than twenty-four hours after being temporarily placed in a prison in Kompong Cham, a merciless mob of local royalists stormed the jail and dragged him out of his cell. The villagers, many of them survivors of his atrocities farther north, executed him in the grisly manner of being beaten to death with sledgehammers – one of many methods Pol Pot had once commonly used when having others killed.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

I don’t know how she got it, but the fact remains she got it. Maybe Harley or one of our girls gave it to her. Regardless, on one crisp February morning in 1971, I found myself arguing with Josephine, who’d somehow obtained the number for my White House bedroom telephone. She was upset that the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act I had signed into law in ’69 was not helping one of Josephine’s brothers and his new investments in some mining company in West Virginia. Her screeching on the phone frustrated me. It soon led to a headache, causing me to rub the top of my head. Up there, I could still feel the old scars, a small ridge hidden under my snowy locks. I suddenly found myself thinking once again about the time I careened into the ravine near our Camp Nelson home, taking two cars and that poor excuse of a bridge with me all the way down to the bottom of it [5]. I thought about how Josephine helped me put a large loose flap of scalp back where it belonged, doused the wounds in turpentine, and bandaged me up [6]. That thought led to me wondering just how many Americans can’t afford medical treatment for accident like that. I hung up the phone – Jo was still prattling on, and I think I absentmindedly told her “thanks a bundle, gotta go” – so I could call [H.E.W. Secretary Nelson] Rockefeller. I figured it was high time I took a firm stand for all the American men, women and children who wind up hurt in unforeseeable accidents.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


With the recent events in Cambodia boosting his popularity, it appears the Colonel has decided to work, seemingly with the Democrats back in control of the House, to pass “some real meaningful” healthcare legislation. In a short announcement made at a press briefing held earlier today, the President explained, “I have recently made it to the big 8-0 milestone, and I think not enough people make it to this age. I think we should try and do something about that.”

– The New York Times, 2/17/1971


– The Washington Post, 2/22/1971

…The Colonel’s first major disagreement with conservative Republican in 1971 arose in February, when Sanders called for the expansion of Medicare/Medicaid benefits. The move angered many politicians on the hill, even Senator Barry Goldwater (R-AZ), who had a relationship with the President that was at times shaky but more often friendly in nature. Despite clarifying his belief that “not all of it should be controlled solely by the Federal government. Statewide and local differences should be involved as well to ensure what works best for those communities is respected and used when appropriate,” the Colonel continued to face backlash. Conservative Representatives, for instance, voiced opposition to Sanders’ newest medicine proposals by claiming they would inhibit the livelihoods of doctors. Governor Ronald Reagan of California opposed the move even further by actively working to reverse the medical laws established under his predecessor...

– Mark Pendergrast’s “For God, Country, and Kentucky Fried Chicken,” Perfect Formula Publishing, 2000


…the First Lady was attending an exhibit on 19th-century European luxury living when she announced the donation to the museum… [7]

– The Baltimore Sun, 3/2/1971


The Sacramento Union, 3/3/1971

During the final two years of his Presidency, Colonel Sanders sided with Democrats over Republicans several times. For instance, in March 1971, arguments between Sanders and conservative Republicans (and some of the conservative Democrats) helped the Senate pass a bill that provided financial and medical aid for low-income aged and low-income disabled individuals. Spending on Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid all increased slightly by the end of the Sanders administration as well. This careful overseeing of America’s socioeconomic situation contributed to the US poverty rate dropping from 16.7% in 1964 to 9.9% in 1973 [8].

– Meg Jacobs’ Pressure at the Polls: The Transformation of American Politics in the 1970s, 2016 net-book edition

“The President seems to be out for revenge for the G.O.P. rejecting his Reverend friend’s Federal Assistance Dividend proposal.”

– Former HEW Secretary Oveta Culp Hobby, National Review, early March issue


– The Chicago Tribune, 3/4/1971

POSTAL STRIKE ENDS: Management, Workers Agree to 10% Pay Rise As Economy Climbs

– The Guardian, 3/8/1971

…earlier today, popular 4-star US Army General Creighton Abrams was awarded another medal for leading operation that toppled Cambodia’s dictatorial Pol Pot regime. Abrams was then promoted again, this time to Chief of Staff of the Army, the most senior uniformed officer in the Department of the Army. Abrams is celebrated for his leadership skills in military operations in the nations of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia…

– The Overmyer Network Evening News, 3/9/1971


…“We need clearer codes of conduct that are neither repressive nor ineffective,” argues Bernhard Willard Goetz Sr, a bookbinding businessman from upstate New York, “I and the men who work for me need to know what exactly the legal distinction is between honest flirtation and inhibiting a fellow employee’s workplace performance before we can feel comfortable hiring a woman.”…

– The Los Angeles Times, 3/10/1971


– The Washington Post, 3/12/1971

We have just confirmed reports that FBI agents have shot and killed a pro-socialist college professor resisting arrest in New York City. Lyndon LaRouche, a lecturer on Marxism at the city’s “Free School” establishment, was approached by FBI agents with a warrant for his arrest. While the charges have not been made formal, valid sources state he was being charged with espionage and treason. LaRouche had openly and publicly made several anti-government sentiments in recent years concerning America’s military activities overseas. Last month, for example, LaRouche called President Sanders “a tyrant who needs to be stopped.” After LaRouche began resisting arrest, a loyal cabal of LaRouche students attempted to physically stop the FBI officers from entering the building, but the students were overpowered. Details are currently sketchy, but for whatever reason, agents shot and killed LaRouche inside the building in question. This is a developing story…

– NBC News, 3/15/1971 broadcast


[pic: ]

– Colonel Sanders body doubles discuss strategy during the President’s political trip to a heavily Democrat part of Boston, Massachusetts, 3/17/1971


…Chief Justice Johnson Led the unanimous court decision just two weeks into the job… In the case of Griggs v Duke Power Co., the court determined that the public utility company Duke Power was discriminating against African-American employees via job application tests that disparately impacted ethnic groups, thus violating Title VII of the 1962 Civil Rights Act…

– The Washington Post, 3/18/1971

An unexpected side effect of the ruling was that it led to companies switching from administrating IQ tests to requiring workers to have college degrees. In his later years, as he became aware of the policy shift in more and more companies, Colonel Sanders denounced it as “discriminatory – no piece of paper or IQ test can prove if someone can’t do a job. Letting them try the job will do it!” and suggested the companies should promote or rely more often on trial periods in connection to their hiring processes.

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012



[pic: ]

…In recent months, Cesar Chavez, US Senator Joseph Montoya (D-NM), and three US Congressmen have voiced support for the idea of Puerto Rican statehood. The call stems from the crucial military role that Puerto Rico played during the Cuban War, which has in turn led to a rise in tourism and a healthier better economy in recent years. Backers also point to historical precedence – Hawaii and Alaska joined the union after playing key roles in World War II’s Pacific Theater…

The biggest hurdle for such a movement, however, would be the language barrier. While an overwhelming majority of Alaskan and Hawaiian natives spoke English at the time when our 49th and 50th states were admitted, less than 10% speak of Puerto Rican residents actually speak English fluently; over 90% of residents primarily speak Spanish as a primary language instead [9]. “A country needs its citizens to be able to understand one another – let English naturally develop more on the island before granting it statehood,” advices phonetics expert Professor... [10]

The Miami Herald, 3/19/1971

38TH STATE APPROVES 26TH AMENDEMENT: “VP Vacancy” Amendment To Become Official

The Washington Post, 3/21/1971

But the people of Corbin were more patient than the Colonel. And, despite past trends, were forgiving. They voted for my stepdad in a landslide, and continued his air-based proposal without him. And finally, after passing the feasibility study, the land approval and the hirings, and the endless piles of charts, cash flows, and construction, the Colonel Sanders Corbin Airfield opened on March 27. The product has since then proved to have been a good idea, as it did end up producing revenue for the town. And that led to it almost doubling in since from 1971 to 1979, quickly growing from a relatively famous small town to a bustling mini-metropolis of sorts...

– John F. Ruggles, WMOR 1330 AM radio, 1/8/1981 program broadcast

PM Holt Feels Heat In Australia’s Own Ms. Arkansas Scandal

…Seven female interns of five prominent national politicians, all belonging to the Liberal alliance, under which Holt governs the nation, are seeking legal action for workplace pestering. An eighth woman, a parliamentary secretary has accused her boss of attempted rape… Holt’s office has still commented on this developing story

– Mary McCarthy, reporting for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 3/28/1971

Since entering office in March 19, 1965, Romania’s head of State, General Secretary Gheorghe Apostol had only continued his predecessor’s focus on left-leaning western nations such as France, and agitation toward the U.S.S.R.’s politburo. Under these conditions, Romania’s quality of life improved, while Apostol fell out of favor with even moderate Soviet leaders such as Kosygin.

Lying in wait for the chance to take Apostol’s job was Prime Minister Ion Gheorghe Maurer, who found an apparent ally in the form of Elena Ceausescu (cow-shez-coo), whom was often referred to as simply “Elena.” After the murder of her husband, most likely under the orders of Apostol’s predecessor, in 1965, Elena charmed her way into the Communist party and immersed herself into how the organization ran. In July 1967, she was elected a member of the Central Commission on Socio-Economic Forecasting, and in July 1968 became a full member of the Romanian Communist Party Central Committee. After convincing Emil Bodnaras to nominate her, she was elected to the party’s Executive Committee in July 1969. In March 1970, she was elected to Romania’s national legislature, the Great National Assembly, holding the seat for Arges County, in Romania’s important industrial region. In January 1971, Elena rose from once being a mere secretary working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to being the Minister of Foreign Affairs, where she made up for her lack for qualifications for the job and sometimes-poor understanding of geopolitics by charming the leaders of other Warsaw Pact nations with lavish dinner parties and trips.

On March 29, 1971, Maurer orchestrated a coup d’état while Apostol was visiting Austria that resulted in Maurer declaring himself the new General Secretary and Apostol seeking political asylum in East Germany. With her close ally now in power, Elena was again promoted, this time to serving as Maurer’s second-in-command. The next several weeks saw debate over how Maurer should rule internally as he repaired relations with the Soviet Union. Such talks ceased on July 12, when Maurer was shot by a sniper during a visit to a factory near Brazov. The killer successfully fled the scene.

As his successor, Elena Ceausescu became the nation’s first female General Secretary. The pro-USSR Elena being in power was acceptable to Kosygin, who was mostly preoccupied trying to improve the Soviet economy. Furthermore, members of both the Soviet and Romanian political systems saw her as the Warsaw Pact’s answer to the Ms. Arkansas Wave seemingly destabilizing western capitalist countries at the time. The logic was that the Warsaw Pact could avoid such destabilization by promoting feminism and the communist ideal of equality, and what better way then by the Soviets having a satellite nation that had a female head of state? Additionally, Elena was (at least initially) fairly popular. Her humble origins – born into peasantry in Wallachia in 1916 and failing to finish grade school – was relatable to many Romanians, whom Elena inspired by telling them that communism was “a means by which the working poor could have a larger,” or the only, “say in how the country was run.” [11]

The truth, however, was that Elena was as cunning as she crude, devious, and vindictive behind closed doors. As she was not well-educated, she instead had blackmailed and bribed her way into several government positions. Wanting to present herself as someone whose intelligence could not be questioned, Elena had used Maurer’s connections to get a PhD in chemistry 1969 despite handing in assignments clearly written by other people.

As General Secretary, an intense personality cult formed around the alleged “Mother of the Nation.” Romanian Television was quickly given strict orders to take great care portraying her on screen. For instance, she was never supposed to be shown in profile because of her large nose. [12]

The most consequential action Elena undertook, however, was the reversing of the liberalization/westernization efforts undertaken throughout the 1960s. Immediately after becoming General Secretary, Elena used the (suspicious) circumstances of her predecessor’s death to justify declaring marshal law and leading the Great National Assembly in passing several new rules that restricted travel and increased security. Under this veil of ensuring the nation’s safety, Elena sought to rule Romania with a totally totalitarian iron fist.


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Above: Elena, surrounded by five bodyguards, during an official visit to Moscow, c. August 1971

– Vladimir Tismaneanu’s Stalinism For All Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism, University of California Press, Third Edition, 2023

HOST: What we’re talking about today was the Colonel’s apparent confusion during a meeting with, um, Juan, uh, Grullon, the president of the Dominican Republic, where the President kept referring to Bosch as the President of “Dominica.” Even worse, he seemed to forget the names of other attendees, and walked off the wrong side of the podium stage toward the end of the evening. Now, the White House has so far not commented on the incident, but I have seen the reports and believe the President’s age is catching up to him.

CO-HOST: I disagree, fella. The President just seemed to be tired. If I had to lead the free world, I wouldn’t have that many long night, you know? And in the President’s defense, there is a country named Dominica.

HOST: But the fact remains that as President he has the responsibility to be aware which is which.

CO-HOST: – and to get at least eight hours of sleep, I’ll give you that one –

HOST: – but I for one fear that it this incident could be the signal something much worse than mere drowsiness. After all, the President is eighty years old; the odds of him developing the early stages of, say, losing some of his faculties, are pretty high now.

CO-HOST: Uh! Being groggy and old doesn’t mean you’re not all there!

–Transcript of exchange between the Host and Co-Host of WHCV-AM, news/talk radio, 4/7/1971 broadcast

17 April 1971: On this day in history, MP Jeremy Thorpe stepped down from leading the Liberal party over revelations concerning his relationship with one Norman Scott, in a scandal often considered to be one of the many that came about during the “Ark Wave” of 1970


Murphy managed to kick his gambling addiction thanks to veteran rehabilitation and addiction-combating programs set up during the third term of California Governor Pat Brown, followed by Governor Ronald Reagan’s April 1971 outlawing of all slot machines in California (a favor to the Religious Right that elected him to office), which bothered Murphy, as he disliked having to travel out of state to gamble. These factors helped Murphy to instead focus on getting out of debt, staring by appearing in numerous TV shows and, to a lesser extent, films, which also increased his fame…


On April 29 [1971] another N1 rocket launch ended in failure, the third failure in a row. He engineer Vladimir Chelomey called it a “trial and error,” but I did not believe that we could afford any more such failures. Already, Americans were exploring moon, and while many appreciated Kosygin’s increase in some safety procedure requirements, the men were still being run ragged. Many were even being sleep deprived, causing them to be clumsy on the job.

“We must keep to the schedule,” Chelomey and his superiors would often say.

“An axman who does not stop to sharpen his blade will never finish his chores first,” I once told him.

“What the hell does that mean?” was his reply.

Finally, I said, “Vladimir, if we really have to keep to this schedule, let’s at least bring in some more workers.”

“How many more?”

“Five percent, maybe.”

He thought it over, thinking about the possibility that alleviating the work of each person could make them go faster “2-and-a-half percent”


In December [1971], I was ebullient to report to Kosygin that the rate of progress had increased. I told him I was certain we could send a man to the moon in just two years. The working for said manned mission program was “Chelovechestvo,” [“Humanity” in Russian], which I found to give a positive message even if it was a bit wordy.

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995

…Specifically, Father invited the Beatles in to the East Room, the main reception room and largest room in the White House. John Lennon’s wife Cynthia Powell joined Father, Maggie, Claudia and I, along with Linda McCartney, Maureen Starr, and Pattie Harrison.

During the informal shindig, John spent much of the talking politics with Father and sharing witty jokes and comebacks. George stuck out as the quietest of the four, not exactly an introvert but still the least talkative of the three. During the few moments when he did talk, it was cynical in nature. He sharply contrasted Ringo, the proverbial life of the party, who reportedly kept the group’s spirits high after the attempt on their lives. Maggie, a fan of the band, practically through herself at Paul.

The four seemed relieved to not have to talk about their music and instead just take a breather from the industry in which they worked. Toward the end of the evening, George summed up their occupation as “arduous and sometimes unrewarding.” Ringo added, “We all spend countless hours perfecting our songs, but nobody ever cares about that side of the scene, you know?” Father retorted with the notion, “Friends, family, laughter, love – those are the things that really make life rich and worth living. It’s the same stuff that is supposed to make the hard work you do in life worth doing. I work for the love of my friends, family, and country. When you work, you should work for those kind of things – that’ll make all the hard work worth it.”

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr.’s In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991

An example of unsung heroism featuring the women being trained began in April 1971, when astronaut Scott Carpenter (b. 1925) was injured in a fire during a testing of Apollo 17’s exhaust system. Carpenter was ultimately cleared for service and landed on moon with Roger Chaffee and Alan Bean in mid-May 1971, but in 1987, Carpenter revealed what was once well-known within the walls of NASA – that trainee Janet Dietrich’s quick thinking during the fire saved his life. Her bravery and action impressed NASA’s higher-ups...

Time Magazine, 1991 commemorative issue


Olympia, WA – A small explosion shook both the state capitol and its political world earlier today. A bomb detonated in the office of Lieutenant Governor Arthur Fletcher, killing Fletcher’s bodyguard and chauffer, a one Theodore Robert Bundy. Fletcher, who is an African-American Republican, was the likely intended target, according to police officials. Racist individuals and groups have been sending Fletcher death threats ever since his 1968 campaign and subsequent victory in a year favoring Republicans. None of those threats, however, were this severe. The bomb detonated at a time when Bundy was retrieving papers for Fletcher to review at the Lieutenant Governor’s home. Nobody else was injured or killed in the bombing.

The Olympian, Washington State newspaper, 4/14/1971

…In the case of Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Ed, the US Supreme Court has ruled 6-to-3 that busing students to promote integration is constitutional but cannot be enforced onto parents who refuse to partake in it. Chief Justice Johnson led the majority with Associate Justices Sarah T. Hughes, William O. Douglas, William Brennan, Hugo Black, and Tom C. Clark, while John M. Harlan led the dissident with Edward H. Levi and Potter Stewart...

– NBC News, 4/20/1971


The Guardian, 29/4/1971


…“artistic power couple” Tommy Chong and Yoko Ono has adopted an infant girl from the war-torn Kingdom of Laos…

– The Hollywood Reporter, side article, 5/1/1971


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– US President Harland “Colonel” Sanders walking on the south lawn of the White House, approaching a podium to announce the end of active US military activities in Cambodia, 5/2/1971; the subsequent gradual withdrawal of American troop would last six months


…the three restaurants are located in Belfast, Bangor and Newcastle, and are expected to help the local economy… KFC opened others restaurants earlier this year in the Republic of Ireland: one at coastal Dundalk, near the border dividing the Emerald Isle, and the other in the city of Waterford…

The Boston Globe, 5/2/1971

In February 1971, Senator Gravel sent a letter to the US Atomic Energy Commission hearings held in Anchorage. In it, Gravel proclaimed their planned testing of nuclear material to be not worth the risk of potential consequences to the environment in the earthquake prone region of Amchitka Island, which was being prepped for said tests (which were scheduled for May). The commission replied that such testing had already been scaled back significantly since 1969, but Gravel was joined in the call for the cancellation of the test by Senators Ernest Gruening (D-AK), Wayne Morse (D-OR), and Ted Sorensen (D-NE), and Representatives John E. Moss (D-CA3) and Trudy Cooper (D-SD2). Believing that “The Colonel needs to go even farther if he truly wants there to be no nuclear wars,” Gravel personally met with the Colonel, but, according to some historians, Gravel failed to explain when and where the test should occur, if not on the remote Amchitka Island.

Gravel next took the case to the US Supreme Court, which declined to issue an injunction against the testing; the test occurred three months later, as planned. Later in the year, however, Gravel sponsored a bill to impose a moratorium on all nuclear power plant construction and to make power utilities liable for any nuclear accidents. The bill came at a time when many American people and politicians considered nuclear energy to be a cleaner energy source and a better use of nuclear/atomic energy. Gravel’s activism eventually culminated in the December 1971 Atomic Liability Act, stipulating nuclear power companies would be held responsible for fatal nuclear accidents, but the act included no moratoriums. Nevertheless, Gravel proudly touted the bill as a success.


Colonel Parker sought to capitalize off the success of Elvis’ tour of Europe, for which Parker opted to stay in the states and monitor the situation through constant phone calls to Vernon and Priscilla… Inspired by President Sanders’s historic visit to China in 1968 [13], Parker began preparing for a “worldwide celebration of Elvis.” Finally the day came on May 8, 1971; the long-awaited “Aloha from Hawaii via Satellite” live Elvis performance broadcast was an even bigger success than the Elvis in Europe tour…

– Ernst Jorgensen’s Elvis and the Two Colonels: Day by Day, Ballantine Books, 1999


…Governor Wallace’s most recent attempt to alter our state, this new “Equal Tenant Treatment” law, is an attack on landlords and homeowners who wish to not lower their property values…

Birmingham News, opinion piece, 5/11/1971

…earlier today, President Sanders gave a speech calling for businesses and congress to support employee mandates that offer better private health insurance to more employees. The President also called for more funding for programs to help single mothers with minor children such as day care funding, pointing to the long-term success of federal school programs passed in his first term…

– The Overmyer Network Evening News, 5/12/1971

…And in tonight’s Republican primary for Governor, good ol’ Robison won over former nominee Louis Nunn. Robison was strongly endorsed by President Colonel Sanders, but the fact that Nunn won roughly 35% of the primary vote makes this reporter think that support for the Colonel is dropping – that the Colonel’s endorsement is no longer strong enough to bury political opponents, uh, metaphorically-speaking…

– WSFC (1240 AM), 5/25/1971 broadcast

…So, for y’all that may not have already heard, former governor Happy Chandler has won Democratic primary for Governor. Here’s a breakdown of what happened. First off, Happy face divided opposition. He was running against another former Governor, uh, Bert Combs, state Senator Wendell Ford, and several others who all together won about 4 or 5 percent of the total vote tonight. Second, Chandler has finally embraced the campaign features of the modern era, getting himself on TV and so on. Thirdly, while the other fellas in the run were eloquent and longwinded, Chandler was the only one who seemed to actually answer any of the questions asked on the campaign trail. He’s certainly learned from his previous unsuccessful bids. We’ll now just have to wait and see if he can beat incumbent Governor Robsion in, uh, November…

– WVLK (AM), 5/25/1971 broadcast


– The New Hampshire Gazette, 5/12/1971

30 March 1971: House of Commons member Lord Lambton is accused of attempting to recruit two underage women he apparently mistook for call girls

26 April 1971: an aide to Powell’s Home Secretary resigns over allegations of sexual pestering.

13 May 1971: Lord Lambton resigns from government after his arrest for soliciting minors; he is ultimately acquitted.

14 May 1971: the Earl Jellicoe of the House of Lords admits to having had “some casual affairs” with call girls in the wake of an accidental confusion with Lord Lambton’s prostitution scandal. The name Jellicoe emerged as a result of a connection between Lambton and Lambton visiting a Somers Town tenement house called Jellicoe Hall, named after the Earl Jellicoe’s distant cousin Basil Jellicoe (1899-1935). Nevertheless, the admission led to him resigning from his position in the government.

8 July 1971: an aide to the Mayor of London is arrested for attempted rape of a female co-worker; he is ultimately acquitted.



– The Connecticut Post, 5/24/1971

Governors Wallace, Castro, And Sawyer Join Democratic Senators Calling For Expansion Of Party Presidential Primaries

– The Sacramento Union, 5/27/1971


– The Sydney Morning Herald, 28/5/1971

I had big shoes to fill after the [1963] death my father and the founder of Wal-Mart. I was young and not too experienced and almost ran this company into the ground. By May 1971, when I was 26, it felt like the banks were closing in on me. I was ready to throw in the towel. But with the help of family, friends, the good people of Arkansas, and the Colonel Sanders deregulation and tax incentive policies, we managed to expand Wal-Mart from a small chain of discount stores in Arkansas into an impressive franchise – stores were founded in, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma by 1972, and we expanded into eastern Texas and Missouri by 1973. And now look at us, our store, Father’s dream – an enterprise of over 2,100 stores strewn across 34 states. And our net total revenue this year, fellow Wal-Marters? (pause) $1.2 billion – our best year in nearly a decade! I couldn’t be prouder of all of you!”

– S. Robson “Rob” Walton (net worth: $2billion) at a private business-dinner function, 2/5/2013


– The Connecticut Post, 6/1/1971


[pic: ]

– Governor Ronald Reagan (R-CA) eating KFC at a political function, 6/3/1971

On June 4, 1971, the vote composition ended up being 6-to-3: Chief Justice Frank Minis Johnson, John M. Harlan, and Potter Stewart sided with Kuhn, while Edward H. Levi, Sarah T. Hughes, Hugo Black, William O. Douglas, Tom C. Clark, and William Brennan sided with Curt Flood. Under the Sherman Antitrust Act, baseball qualified as an interstate commerce, and the reserve clause violated the act. And with the dismantling of barring players from negotiating signing onto other terms for the first year after leaving a team, the court case effectively opened the door for Free Agency in major league baseball.

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994

“I’d also like to take this moment to thank Senator Mondale for supporting this bill. Fritz has been in my corner since my mayoral run in 1947. He’s co-sponsored Medicare with me, and actively supported the Civil Rights Act with me. It’s nice to know that I can trust the Senator that I always sit next to in the chamber.”

– Hubert Humphrey at Democratic Party fundraiser in D.C., 6/5/1971


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– US Senators Walter Mondale and Hubert Humphrey, prior to either one publicly announcing their Presidential aspirations, c. May 1971

…Governor Phil Hoff (D-VT) signs into law today the Free Health Care Act, establishing a “universal healthcare system” for the state of Vermont… The legislation is reportedly based on and inspired by the legislation passed in Canada in August 1969 during their previous Paul Hellyer government…

– The Boston Globe, 6/7/1971

Détente’s continuation into 1971 is evident by the signing of the Strategic Planetary International Care Elucidation (S.P.I.C.E.) Treaty in June of that year. Meant to clarify the parts of the 1968 Strategic Universal Geopolitical Arms Reduction (S.U.G.A.R.) Treaty concerning the disposing of hazardous nuclear material in regards to transportation over international borders, the treaty was minor in scope. However, because the meeting in Geneva between Sanders and Kosygin developed an almost friendly atmosphere, with the two leaders smiling and telling jokes after the official ceremony, gave to many high hopes for the future.

– David Tal’s US Strategic Arms Policy in the Cold War: Negotiation & Confrontation, Routledge, 2017


Minneapolis Star, 6/15/1971

Mondale: A Better Direction For the 1970s

– Mondale ’72 Slogan


Quebec’s Bill 203 [14], which would have made French the only official language in the province of Quebec, was struck down by the Canadian judicial system today on the grounds that English-speaking Natives would be at a disadvantage. …A major concern was that English-speaking motorists driving through the province could be endangered by French-only road signs. …A possible resolution may be to make English the province’s official “secondary language,” which would require it to be used on all road signs and public information signs, but would not make it a require it to teach it in schools in Quebec...

– The Kimberley Daily Bulletin, Canadian newspaper, 6/18/1971

As was the case in 1967, Humphrey decides against an active campaign for President. This time, however, it was over concerns for his wife, the introverted Muriel. In June of 1971, Humphrey spoke with freshman Senator John Glenn, whose wife Anne suffered at the time from a speech impediment. Glenn reportedly told the former Vice President “publicity is doing a number on her, and she’s a brave trooper.” Humphrey mulled back, “yes, and we just had a Senate race. But a Presidential race… More cameras, more prying eyes than anyone would, could, or should ever want.” Glenn would later write, “Politics can, have and will break up families. From what I have seen, I can say one definitive thing – when running for public office, your family has to be all-in on it. Not reluctantly, but willingly. All in.” Humphrey heeded Glenn’s advice, and determined that his positioning for the nomination was even more secure than it was four years ago, when Johnson’s Folley (i.e., Cuba) still lingered in the air and Kennedy managed to secure a large portion of the opposing vote. But in 1971, anti-Humphrey opposition seemed fractured. Humphrey ergo treated the race as a stroll instead of a marathon.

– Carl Solberg’s H.H.H.: A Biography, Borealis Books, 1984 (2001 edition)


Hundreds have women have traveled to training centers in Texas and Florida with the hopes of enduring a rigorous months-long training process. While over two dozen women have been hired for their ground testing programs, NASA hired the best five of the women for special training to actually go into space:

Jerrie Cobb: the unofficial leader of the “Lunar Ladies” movement, Cobb is now closer to achieving her goal of going to space than ever before.

Janet & Marion Dietrich: with these 44-year-old identical twin sisters, NASA may be able to study how spending time in space physically affects the human body.

Jane Briggs Hart: at 49, Hart is the oldest woman to be selected by the program. Her marriage to a now-former Senator was the source of much contention over her presence in the training program, and received flak from both media outlets and her fellow would-be “woman-nauts” for supposed political influence.

Irene H. Leverton: this 43-year-old aspiring moonwalker is a pilot and flight instructor who partook in the original 1961 trainings.

Emily H. Warner: at 32, this longtime-flying Coloradan is the youngest of the women hired to go into space.

– The Miami Herald, 6/22/1971

While I never experienced it, I do remember how many of the women who quit later claimed they dropped out because of the men at NASA created a hostile environment. Some even claimed some of the guys violating their privacy at whatnot. While I do remember one trainee who dropped out finding her locker broken into and filled with dildos, I think that really says more about the guys than us. I mean, where did the guys even get them? But like I said, I never experienced anything that wasn’t professional or friendly kidding around. We were there to get a job done, not to goof off and then some. Or, possibly, maybe the male astronauts were just too nervous to hit on us, what with the Ms. Arkansas Wave still going strong at the time and the heads NASA heavily monitoring our interactions with the guys, and visa-versa.

– Emily Warner, 2019 interview


– The Washington Post, 6/27/1971

As the year progressed, Vice President Scranton’s increasing visibility in the administration led to whispers suggesting that the Man from PA was the one truly in charge, and not the octogenarian-in-chief. In reality, the Colonel had taken a liking to his younger understudy, and wanted to help him “become a household name” ahead of the 1972 Presidential election, according to Harley Sanders.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

The drink was a family devil that not even Ted could defeat. We thought it wasn’t too serious until the incident. On July 7, 1971, Ted drove his Bentley off part of the highway to Reno and slide down a hillside until its rocky surface turned the car to the driver’s side before tipping it onto its top before the car stopped at the hill’s bottom. Ted received a broken arm and nobody else was injured, but Ted was arrest for driving drunk. Knowing the future of his newspaper – and more importantly, the future of our marriage – was at stake, Ted did the right thing, which coincidently was exactly what I told him to do. Ted held a press briefing on the 28th, wherein he admitted, “I am not proud of the fact that I am an alcoholic, but rest assured that I will be taking a leave of absence from the Union to begin counseling.” Years later, Ted would claim that the incident opened his eyes to the dangers of the drink, and the experience made him a stronger person. The experience also was what sparked his famous passion for healthcare and Alcoholics Anonymous...

– Joan Bennett Kennedy’s There Are Always Two Tomorrows: My Life in an American Dynasty, Centurion Publishers, 1999


…The decision is a reversal of his initial refusal to “abandon to the wolves” the staffers in question. …Sources state Powell had grown concerned in recent days over increasingly poor approval polling, and aides have been “repeatedly” reminding him of the political ramifications of the Ms. Arkansas Wave in the United States midterms of November 1970. “Powell has the next general election to think about, and maintaining the confidence of his own party, which has been waning as of late, is pivotal if he wants to stay in power.”

– The Guardian, 7/7/1971

MONDALE IS AN OPPORTUNIST: After Twelve Uneventful Years in the US Senate, Minnesotans Should Not Support His The Presidential Bid.

– Rep. Al Quie (R-MN), The Star Tribune, 7/9/1971 op-ed

Mondale is a friend and ally of unions. Never forget it was the unions that got child labor outlawed, brought us the 8-hour workday, worked in favor of healthcare plans such as maternity leave and sick leave, got us weekends and vacation time, and promote social security and Medicare and Medicaid. And Fritz Mondale supports all of those things, and consistently has ever since I appointed him to the Senate in 1961.

– Former Governor Orville Freeman, 7/10/1971 radio interview

In July 1971, under the advice of then-Congressman Ben Reifel, President Sanders recommended self-determination for Indian tribes to be a goal for the federal government to achieve before the end of his term. A year later, Sanders signed into law the 1972 Indian Self-Determination and Development Assistance Act, which allowed for federal government agencies to enter into contracts with federally recognized tribes – contracts which would assure tribes would have more control over funds used for their needs.

Braid of Feathers: American Indian Law and Contemporary Tribal Life, University of California Press, 1997


– The Wall Street Journal, 7/16/1971

Burger Chef was founded in 1957, three years after brothers Frank Thomas Jr. and Donald Thomas, operators of the General Equipment Corporation of Indianapolis, Indiana, patented a flame broiler and soon opened a restaurant in Indianapolis.

The Thomas brothers knew McDonald’s CEO Ray Kroc back when they sold competing soft ice-cream machines in the early 1950s. The Thomas brothers, with their brother-in-law Robert Wildman, decided to enter the burger business after manufacturing a hamburger broiler for Burger King co-founder David Edgerton. Deciding to mimic McDonald’s company system but needing a unique angle for development, Burger Chef followed a strategy of opening franchises in small towns; by the time General Foods acquired Burger Chef in 1968, the restaurant had over 800 locations. Under new management, Burger Chef locations quickly spread out to over 1,000 nationwide by 1971, making it a burger giant on par with McDonald’s, and surpassing the availability of Burger King and KFC’s Wendyburger Menu.

At the start of the 1970s, however, the burger market began becoming saturated, and Burger Chef’s expansion strategy was beginning to fail as underperforming sales, especially ones in franchises in poor locations, caused the company’s yearly earnings to actually drop for 1970. General Foods went back to basics and sought out better locations. They also slowed growth to focus on quality and customer satisfaction.

This led to the 1971 introduction of “the Works Bar,” where customers added their own toppings from a wide variety of choices; the move set Burger Chef apart from the rest; following this was their 1973 “FunMeal” toy line for children, which was “the inspiration” behind McDonald’s “McHappy Meal” toy line of the 1980s.

Rival company’s responded to Burger Chef’s rise in different ways. The KFC Company, under the leadership of CEO Mildred Sanders, believed in Dave Thomas’s Wendyburger, and did not address the competition directly. McDonald’s CEO June Martino, however, decided to not take any chances, and began a second “burger war” to trounce the company’s latest competition. “Whenever a Burger Chef opened in a small town, McDonald’s was quick to open one of their own restaurants somewhere nearby, whether it was in the city next door, or right down the block,” states Martino’s former secretary...


[pic: ]
Above: Burger Chef’s logo in the early 1970s

– R. J. Anderson’s Burger Chef: A History, Arcadia Publishing, republished 2019

...In political news, the state of Mississippi is reeling from an ethics scandal. The Jackson grand jury has indicted, or formally charged, the Chief of Staff of the state’s Governor, Republican Rubel Phillips, for accepting bribes in exchange for supporting state contracts in his role as an advisor to Phillips...

– NBC News, 7/26/1971 broadcast

ANCHOR: Earlier today, senior rights advocate Maggie Kuhn sat down with President Sanders at the White House.

KUHN (in footage): “Old people and women constitute America’s biggest untapped and undervalued human energy source.” [15]

ANCHOR: Kuhn is an active promoter of “elder rights” activities such as nursing home reform, mental health studies, and anti-ageism organizations. Last year, upon being forced to retire from her job for the Presbyterian Church at the age of 65, Kuhn founded the Gray Americans Organization to promote the aforementioned causes, as well as to promote peace and truth-in-advertising legislation. [snip] …The G.A.O. has found support among young women, with Kuhn stating, quote, “adolescents should be taken seriously and given more responsibilities by society. With their wit and energy, they too are a valuable human resource to squander.” Kuhn has also claimed that retirement homes are “glorified playpens” that isolate elderly people from the rest of society, quote, “shunning them for living for so long.” At her meeting with the President, the two reportedly discussed how to address concerns of age-based prejudice in the American workplace and workforce…

– ABC News, 7/29/1971 broadcast


…the Marine Corps League a Congressionally-chartered organization, while the Retired Enlisted Association is a non-profit organization working to better the quality of life for enlisted soldiers and their families...

Stars And Stripes, 7/30/1971

PRIMARY REFORM DEVELOPMENT: More State Governors Agree At NGA Meeting To Host Presidential Primaries Next Year

– The Washington Post, 8/1/1971


…While currently unclear of how audiences will respond to it, critics are already deriding the currently-untitled film’s premise. The studio’s press release describes the synopsis as follows: “When abused housewife Francesca (Marilyn Monroe) finds $7,000 dollars in a suitcase, she decides to seek out a better life – one without depending on her abusive husband Joe (Robert Wagner) for financial support – by using the money to secretly take night courses. Soon Francesca befriends a librarian named Lyra (Jane Fonda) who, after years of being sexual pestered by him, seeks to murder her boss (Peter Sellers). All while a mysterious duo track down the lost suitcase.” The script was written late last year…

– The Hollywood Reporter, 8/3/1971

“Well, it was an average day in Constantinople. It was peaceful – people were concerned over making a living than stirring up trouble. See, we usually got along with neighbors of different religions due to co-dependency – people other faiths contributed to the community through their trade or their skills or their wares, and so were cherished and loved. There was no need to fight until others convinced others to think otherwise. Idle hands are the devil’s playground, and apparently, the Bulgarians had very idle hands. I remember hearing the clamor, people running past my store window, and sirens going off. A went out and saw smoke rising. One of the Christian houses of worship – one of the important ones – was burning. You don’t need to be Christian to feel bad, to feel sorry for such a horrible sight as a House of God on fire. God doesn’t do harm to good people – but bad people do. A fortunately, for the sake of everyone, the bad people responsible were caught almost immediately!”

– Witness in 2001 interview for documentary of Greco-Turkish relations


The Guardian, UK newspaper, 5/8/1971


– The New York Post, 8/6/1971

“Alright, what on earth’s going on in Turkey this time?”

– President Harland “Colonel” Sanders to his foreign policy personnel, 8/5/1971 (multiple sources)

At the start of the 1970s decade, the Seventh Department of the First Main Directorate of the Bulgarian DS, or “State Security” (essentially, Bulgaria’s K.G.B.) developed “Operation Cross,” a plan to start a confrontation between the nations of Greece and Turkey, which the developers believed would compel the United States into “choosing a side.” The confrontation would arise from the destruction-by-fire of The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in Turkey, which is a highly valued part of the Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches. The goal of the operation was to, eventually, pull the side “abandoned” by the U.S. into the Warsaw Pact via stoking anti-western sentiment, or, at the very least, destabilize N.A.T.O.’s east Mediterranean front. The Deputy Head of the Directorate, believing their destabilizing of the region would impress the Soviet Union, approved the plan in early 1970.

The “Bulgarian Plot,” as the operation was later called outside of Bulgaria, called for three Bulgarian agents (two being secret Turkish collaborators recruited by January 31) to study the location in question by November 30, 1970; determine places that would be best for the placement of incendiary devices by March 15; and the sending of two more agents, both professional arsonists, to the location by April 30. [17]


Operation Cross was finalized in May, ahead of schedule. However, while Bulgaria’s defense personnel, led by Defense Minister Dobri Dzhurov, approved of the plan, the nation’s leader, Bulgaria’s leader, Todor Zhivkov, was generally cautious and was unwilling to risk squandering the past decade of warming Greek-Bulgaria relations (much to the irritation of the USSR) for such a risky and blood-spilling ploy. According to the testimony of their former aides, Dzhurov and Zhivkov argued over the plan for weeks, with Dzhurov accusing Zhivkov of being either “a puppet of the Soviets” or “a spineless puppet of the Soviets” at some point in July. Furthermore, while Yuri Andropov of the Soviet Union’s KGB supported the plan, Soviet Premier Kosygin did not. In early August 1971, the Seventh Department of the First Main Directorate executed the plan, though on whose orders remains uncertain. Analysts are certain Bulgaria’s Zhivkov would not have executed the plan without Soviet approval first.

Thus, the question the Colonel, the US Defense department, the CIA, and the Greek and Turkish governments wished to answer was who had given the order.

“It’s luck that they were caught red-handed,” the Colonel noted.

“Actually, sir, it’s incredibly unfortunate,” Bonesteel explained. The Secretary of Defense and his aides explained how the intelligence and security apparatuses of both Greece and Turkey had greatly improved since the 1969 Turkish Missile Crisis. Both Turkish and Greek agents picked up on Bulgarian agent activity in the area, and noted how similar their actions were to the instigators of a bombing of a museum in Thessaloniki, during a hostile period between Turkey and Greece reached a peak in September 1955. The fact that the Greek and Turkish agents failed to stop the Bulgarian agents before they could set fire to the church was a failure in the eyes of Greek and Turkish officials.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014


The spiritual leader of 125 million Eastern Christians, died in Istanbul while hospitalized for a broken hip sustained in a fall last Thursday, when an arson attack on the city’s religiously important Ecumenical Patriarchate created chaotic panic and disarray in the city. The Greek-born, white-bearded, 6-foot 4-inch prelate became Ecumenical Patriarch in 1948 after seventeen years in New York as Greek Orthodox Archbishop of North and South America.

Newsweek, 8/8/1971

With the ecumenical see empty, the church looked for a successor, and found one in Makarios III. Having served simultaneously as the Archbishop of Cyprus and Primate of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus since 1950 and as the President of Cyprus since 1960, Makarios was a controversial figure amidst the move the absorb Cyprus into the nation of Greece. Greeks in Greece and Cyprus approved of the choice as a means of allowing Makarios to relinquish the Presidency for a “promotion,” while Turks in Turkey and Cyprus approved of removing a man seen as a nuisance whom was difficult to work with.

Ironically, the burning of the church actually eased tensions between Greece and Turkey by removing a controversial figure from the equation and giving the two nations a shared enemy – animosity toward Bulgaria lingered on in both nations for decades. The “Bulgaria Plot” had backfired by strengthening the region.

On August 12, Alexei Kosygin, having already disavowed all knowledge of the Bulgaria Plot, accused Bulgaria of “acting alone” in a phone call to President Sanders.

“I want to believe him,” said the Colonel, “because we’ve gotten along well before. But he’s the leader of the enemy, and he’s got to back up his words with some evidence.” The CIA concurred.

On August 15, agents working for Kosygin discovered flight logs showing that KGB head Yuri Andropov had flown to Bulgaria on July 28. Rather than firing Andropov for “going over his head,” Kosygin instead “tightened Andropov’s leash.” On August 17, Kosygin ordered Zhivkov to fire Dzhurov for insubordination; Zhivkov but as he was told. Dzhurov, failing to gather enough support to lead a planned coup in early 1973, moved to East Germany in the summer of 1972 “for health concerns.”

The whole situation left a feeling of awkwardness between Sanders and Kosygin that would last for months.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014


…the governor is following through on his 1970 pledge to double the number of black voter registrars in Alabama’s 67 counties: a report last month shows an increase of 67%.

– The Birmingham News, 8/15/1971

COLONEL SANDERS BACKS PEPPER IDEA: Florida Rep.’s Push For Senior Rights Act Gaining Strength

…Claude Pepper, head of the newly-created House Select Committee on Aging, is making his way around Capitol Hill, gathering support for a proposed “Senior Rights Act,” also referred to as an “Elderly Rights Act,” which would outlaw ageist discrimination policies in all 50 states. Pepper is also getting his fellow lawmakers on the committee to head investigations and hearings into activist Maggie Kuhn’s claims of abuse occurring in retirement homes nationwide…

– The Miami Herald, 8/30/1971

Geopolitical trends

Tensions between the Cold War era’s superpowers were “cool” at the start of the decade, as the proxy confrontations of the 1950s and 1960s gave way to a period of détente, arguably led by USSR leader Alex Kosygin, who sought to stabilize his country’s internal political chaos following the Shelepin and Inauri periods. The US’s President Sanders cooled tensions with China to impede their support of communist organizations in southern Asia and to prevent war from breaking out on the Korean peninsula, significantly altering Cold War dynamics and opening Red China to the west.


Musicians that either dominated, or rose to fame in, the 1960s, such as Bob Dylan and Tommy Chong, faded in popularity as newcomers such as Ambient Rock morphed into Razor Rock, its vanguards being groups such as Black Sabbath and Led Zeppelin, and other performers that adhered to a younger coming-of-age audience of listeners. Women’s bands/singers such as Dolly Parton and Linda Ronstadt rose to prominence in the 1970s as well. These female performers reflected in their music the increasingly flexible and expanding variety of gender roles for women in the workforce of western countries, though an overwhelming majority of men remained the sole or primary breadwinners of households worldwide.


The 1968 opening of the US and China’s economies to each other led to the introduction of Bruce Lee to American and western audiences.



…The UK’s Dixon of Dock Green had a “bold” episode concerning rape that was controversial, but was nevertheless an early highlight of British television’s move to “realism” in its programming, as also seen in Doctor Who, Z-Cars, and Z-Cars’ spinoff series (“Softly, Softly”) [18]. …Many members of baby boomer generation came of age during the 1970s, and they demanded “barrier-free” programs. Expanding beyond the typical sitcom tropes and styles of the 1960s, '70s saw an increase in program diversity. These changing demands were the result of the “Ms. Arkansas Wave,” popularized by the British as “The Ark Wave,” “The Ms. Arkie Wave” or “The Arkie Wave.” Programs such as All My Children and All in the Family addressed “the boon of the Women’s Liberation movement” while still focusing more on the lives of housewives. The Carol Burnett Show adapted to the changing times too. Concurrently, the big four (NBC, CBS, ABC, and TON) produced numerous shows for the purpose of capitalizing off the Ark Wave, such as Police Women, Wonder Woman, Maude, and spinoffs such as The Bionic Woman. The Overmyer Network was quick to set themselves apart from the older three major networks with more programs appeasing to younger and more progressive audiences.

At the same time, the subject of war began to be presented in movies and television in less glamorous ways, with shows such as M*A*S*H covering not only the physical destruction brought about by warfare, but the psychological damage it created as well...

…Audiences were treated to a growing range of shows starring African-American actors can could be enjoyed by all races; the decade’s first major hit of such kind was Redd Foxx’s Sanford and Son, but more programs arose as the decade progressed…



[pic: ]

– A painting of Colonel Sanders, c. 1971; The Colonel was a prominent figure in pop culture during and long after his Presidency, both in the US and abroad

[1] All italicized portions are pulled from this informative article:
[2] Source:…
[3] Statistic found here:, which also states that IOTL, the number of murders in NY actually rose, from 746 in 1967 to 1,117 in 1970.
[4] Idea for the dam to fail courtesy of @Unknown. Here, the war in Cuba going on led to less time, energy, resources, and attention being allocated to the dam’s needs, leading to the dam’s water level not being lowered enough to prevent disaster like it did IOTL. As for the death toll, I looked at the records of other collapsed dams on Wikipedia for comparison, and considered the people evacuating ahead of the aftershock. If 1,100 seems too low, please say so.
[5] Found here: (page 10): the car accident in November 1926 occurred when the Sanders’ were living in Camp Nelson, KY, and Sanders was working for the Michelin Tire Company; he owned two cars, a fancy Maxwell car and an old Model T Ford.
[6] Edited version of a quote found here: (page 12): “Josephine helped her husband put a large loose flap of scalp back where it belonged, doused the wounds in turpentine, and bandaged him up.”
[7] According to the reviews on her 1980 biography found here:, Claudia’s personality was “mundane,” and she cared very much about the “styles of European and Asian” living.
[8] Based on this chart: (however, the Cuba War caused the rate to be lower than IOTL until 1963, when the Salad Oil Recession propelled it to higher than IOTL)
[9] See here:
[10] This entry is based on @Jackson_Lennock’s interesting thread/thought found here:
[11] Quote is from here:
[12] Italicized segment pulled from her Wikipedia article.
[13] The OTL Hawaii broadcast was “inspired by [the 1972] visit made by U.S. President Richard Nixon to China,” according to this source: Guralnick, Peter; Jorgensen, Ernst (1999). Elvis: Day by Day. Ballantine Books. ISBN978-0-345-42089-3.
[14] Basically an early version of this: brought about due to the alternate Quebec controversies of TTL’s 1960s under the Hellyer and extended Diefenbacker premierships.
[15] OTL quote.
[16] Idea taken from here:
[17] Specifics covered here:
[18] Before anyone asks, I know absolutely nothing about Doctor Who (apart from the fact that the franchise is too large for me to become invested in it at this point in my life), so please forgive me for the lack of any details here.

Also, here: I made a poll for the 1972 Democratic primaries!:

And here’s a breakdown of the candidates, both declared and undeclared, found on the poll:

Governor Mario Biaggi of New York (b. 1917, age 55) – proudly declaring himself the quintessential law-and-order candidate; Biaggi was the race’s early frontrunner, but now is facing criticism for his handling of the Attica prison riot-turned-massacre; still, the moderate is confident that he can bring together enough white-ethnic and suburban voters to form a “New Deal-like” coalition that can win him the nomination.

Former Governor Edmund Gerald “Pat” Brown of California (b. 1905, age 67) – after presiding over 12 years of economic growth, Brown is running on his moderate-to-liberal record (despite the controversies sprinkled throughout it) as governor of The Golden State and on his ability to be a unifying candidate in past elections.

Former Governor Robert Patrick “Bob” Casey Jr. of Pennsylvania (b. 1932, age 40) – the moderate “boy governor” has blue-collar appeal and could win over the youth vote, but some are concerned that his Catholic faith will doom him in the general election, as some have suggested that this was a contributing factor to the defeat the Democratic party’s last Catholic nominee, Jack Kennedy, who was nominated just four years ago.

Representative Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm of New York (b. 1924, age 48) – this African-American woman is mounting a serious campaign focused on bringing together a coalition of working-class voters from all ethnic groups; a progressive supporter of civil rights and women’s rights, her candidacy will at the very least provide a fresh perspective for multiple issues, or at the very most make for a historic and unprecedented campaign.

Retired Admiral John Geraerdt Crommelin Jr. of Alabama (b. 1902, age 70) – having spent 30 years in the US Navy, this perennial candidate brings military experience to the table and wants to greatly expand the US’s military capabilities and have the US take a firmer stand against Communism on the world stage; however, as a staunch defender of racial segregation and white supremacist talking points, who has run for public office several times since 1950 as a Democratic, Independent, or third-party candidate, he will have trouble winning over voters in a party that is quickly evolving away from such political positions; as if to emphasize how out-of-step he is with the national Democratic party, he has refused to debate Chisholm face-to-face.

Senator Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel of Alaska (b. 1930, age 42) – calling for expanding social programs and environmental protection, Alaska’s energetic young lawmaker and political maverick is focusing more on domestic issues and foreign policy matters during what is his second run for the Presidency; he passionately supports expanding America’s healthcare system, denuclearization, environmental protection, grassroots political involvement, and détente.

Governor Philip Henderson “Phil” Hoff of Vermont (b. 1924, age 48) – a progressive and pragmatic pioneer of environmental, development, and social welfare programs concerned about racial justice and women’s rights, the Green Mountain state’s best-known Democrat was a potential pick for the Democratic nomination for Vice President in 1968 if Hubert Humphrey or Mike Gravel had won the Presidential nomination that year; as Hoff is transparent about being a former alcoholic, he has been endorsed by the moderate Harold Hughes of Iowa, who praises Hoff’s “open honesty” in discussing such “taboo” health-related topics during his bids for public office; his signature policy is converting the US healthcare system to a new system modeled off of Canada's.

Senator Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. of Minnesota (b. 1911, age 61) – former VP is running once more after coming so close to receiving the nomination in 1968; he may face a tough challenge from fellow Minnesotan Walter Mondale, who is running as a moderate with liberal appeal and as a younger and less “establishment-friendly” alternative to Hubert “The Happy Warrior” Humphrey.

Senator Henry Martin “Scoop” Jackson of Washington (b. 1912, age 60) – a career politician accused of being a “corporatist” for his deep ties to the aviation industry, Jackson believes he can break out from the crowded field by focusing on his impressive and lengthy record, especially his early support of civil rights (but not the bits about him supporting the Japanese internment camps during the 1940s).

Senator Eunice Mary Kennedy-Shriver of Massachusetts (b. 1921, age 51) – if she runs, this deep-pocketed advocate of healthcare expansion could capitalize on the “wave” of feminism brought about by the ripple effect of the Ms. Arkansas Scandal, though some are concerned that it may be too soon to nominate the sister of the man who lost the last Presidential election just four years prior.

Governor Cornelia Genevive Gjesdal “Coya” Knutson of Minnesota (b. 1912, age 60) – with an inspiring backstory and an impressive governing record, this moderate feminist icon has the experience for the job, and if she runs (and the campaigns of Mondale and Humphrey collapse), she just might be able to win over enough female voters, rural and suburban voters, and middle-class voters to clinch the nomination.

Governor Lester Garfield Maddox Sr. of Georgia (b. 1915, age 57) – as running as merely a controversial businessman in 1968, Maddox’s second presidential bid has more clout to it, as he won public office in the interim; a conservative who swears his opposition to racial integration was not racist, he may be able to win over social conservatives in the party.

Representative Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink of Hawaii (b. 1927, age 45) – a champion of civil rights and woman’s rights, Mink is running on a campaign focused on early childhood education, environmental protection, and “direct democracy” reform; in office since 1965, she believes she has the experience and progressive record to win in the primaries or at the convention, and then in the general election.

Senator Walter Frederick “Fritz” Mondale of Minnesota (b. 1928, age 45) – coming from the liberal side of the party, Mondale is poised to oppose Humphrey in the primaries, as he is positioning himself as a younger alternative to the former Vice President who could appeal to more primary and general-election voters.

Senator Wayne Lyman Morse of Oregon (b. 1900, age 72) – this liberal Republican-turned-progressive Democrat is known for supporting D.C. home rule, opposing American alliances with dictatorial regimes, strongly opposing both the Cuba War and the Indochina Wars, and for pledging to “reverse the big money and big business domination of government.”

Former Senator Maurine Brown Neuberger of Oregon (b. 1907, age 65) – though she has not declared her candidacy, this progressive lawmaker may run if Morse bows out early; she is ideologically similar to Morse and Hoff, but could also win over women voters, or become a “compromise” candidate in the event of a deadlocked convention.

Former Representative John Richard Rarick of Louisiana (b. 1924, age 48) – deeply conservative with a reputation for using racially-tinged rhetoric while speaking on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives, Rarick is running because he believes he is more experienced and “likeable” than Maddox.

Representative Joseph Yale Resnick of New York (b. 1924, age 48) – the moderate-leaning congressperson is retiring from his seat to attempt an “underdog” campaign for the White House; best known as the inventor of a TV antenna in the 1950s that was inexpensive, easy to assemble, and install without the expertise of a specially trained technician, Resnick, in office since 1965, has backed civil rights legislation, the Indochina Wars, and animal protection laws, empowering the USDA’s ability to regulate animal use in research facilities; a heart attack survivor, he also supports expanding America’s healthcare system.

Former Governor J. Terry Sanford of North Carolina (b. 1917, age 55) – this moderate has been out of office for eight years, but is still popular and relevant in his home state for his impressive time as governor; currently serving as the President of Duke University, this undeclared candidate is favored by several southern politicians who are hoping to find someone (other than the populist George Wallace) to be the face of the “New” (post-segregation) South.

Former Governor F. Grant Sawyer of Nevada (b. 1918, age 54) – touting his successes during his three terms as Governor and hoping to receive the endorsement of John F. Kennedy should his sister Eunice Kennedy not run, the 1968 Democratic nominee for Vice President has streaks of libertarianism in his record that could appeal to some in both major parties, along with his record on promoting civil rights and social programs to help low-income families.

Governor George Corley Wallace Jr. of Alabama (b. 1919, age 53) – more populist than moderate this time around, Wallace will be a major candidate when he finally enters the race; he plans on running on a “forward-thinking” platform focused on early education and creating more jobs for blue-collar workers.
Post 27
Post 27: Chapter 35

Chapter 35: September 1971 – January 1972

“Try listening. You’ve got one mouth and two ears; there’s a reason for that.”

– Red Green, The Red Green Show, Episode 298 (11:49 mark), 2005

“The Colonel’s promotion of higher education greatly benefited the prep school [Lakeside School in Haller Laker, Seattle, WA], at least in the departments I was interested in. But I didn’t stick around to see the long-term benefits. Instead, after forming Traf-O-Data with Paul Allen in 1971, I took the summer of 1972 – the summer before my final year there – to serve as a congressional page. An old friend of my parents, Brock Adams, was now a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, and Adams thought the experience would do me so good – especially since experience as a page is a big boost for college graduates trying to be accepted into law school, and at the time, I did not know what I wanted to do for a career [1] As a House Page, I learned a lot, it was a formative experience [2].”

– Bill Gates, KNN interview with Bill Gates and Kent Allen, 9/1/1995


The Washington Post, 9/4/1971

…On September 5, 1971, Henry Kissinger left the State Department over disagreeing with Father on several ideas for foreign policy strategy one time too many. It was an amicable departure, with neither man really missing the other. I recall Kissinger even telling Secretary Rockefeller, “Truth be told, I get along much better with Senator Nixon.” Indeed, Kissinger had worked closely with the former Vice President from 1965 to 1967. Kissinger began serving as an Assistant Secretary of State starting in 1967, and served as a link of sorts between Nixon and the White House. However, Kissinger never rose to prominence or to a truly influential position inside the White House, instead always being on the outermost edges of Father’s inner circle of advisors.


[pic: ]

Above: Father shaking hands with Henry Kissinger in 1967

Kissinger’s departure led to speculation that he was preparing a run for a US Congressional seat, but Kissinger was not interested in being involved in politics in that particular way. Advising candidates was more his style. Instead, Kissinger returned to his career in academia, but also continued to work with Senator Nixon by branching out into the DC lobbying scene.

I mention him because he did leave behind one lasting idea – a term coined by 19th century writer Ludwif von Rochau to refer to the utilizing of pragmatism and practicality in the face of political and diplomatic challenges – a little concept known as “realpolitik,” which was adopted and used much more frequently by Father’s successors than by Father himself…

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991


Breaking from his administration’s normally fiscally conservative practices, Sanders today approved of expanding the use of below market interest loans for rehabilitating housing in designated urban renewal zones. H.E.W. Secretary Rockefeller will oversee the implementation of further programs under his department.

A “below-market loan” means that interest is payable on the loan at a rate less than the applicable Federal rate. According to a spokesperson for the H.E.W. Department, the move is currently affordable due to the currently healthy market interest rate, which is a rate of interest paid on deposits, which are determined by the interaction of the supply of and demand for funds in the money market [3]

This action means that more rents will be set at market rate after rehabilitation is completed. The move will focus on the rehabilitation of existing dwellings in urban renewal. Homes in competitive housing market areas are applicable for a loan to pay for existing home. The move may also assure more funds for insuring loans for multifamily projects in designated urban renewal areas.

– The Associated Press, 9/7/1971

George Jackson
(9/23/1941-8/21/1971) began his life in prison (initially for armed robbery) in 1961, and became a Maoist-Marxist revolutionary writer during the Cuba War. [snip] He subsequently openly opposed America’s presence in Indochina. In 1970, while being held in San Quentin Penitentiary in California, he was accused of murdering a prison guard to avenge the killing of two Black prisoners during a prison riot days earlier. On August 21, 1971, days prior to the start of the murder trial, Jackson and several conspirators smuggled a gun into the prison, to be used in a prison escape attempt. Upon killing five hostages and travelling to the prison yard, Jackson was shot from the observation tower and his accomplices surrendered. Jackson's death would be a catalyst for events that unfolded less than a month later...

– (note: stub article)

At approximately 4;20 a.m. on Thursday, September 9, 1971, 5 Company lined up for roll-call. Hearing rumors that one of their companions was to remain in his cell after being isolated for an incident involving an assault on prison officer Tom Boyle after he was hit in the face with a full soup can by inmate William Ortiz, a small group of 5 Company inmates protested that they too would be locked up and began walking back toward their cells The remainder of 5 Company continued towards breakfast. As the protesting group walked past the isolated inmate Ortiz, they freed him from his cell. They then rejoined the rest of 5 Company and proceeded on their way to breakfast. A short time later, when the command staff discovered what had occurred, they changed the usual scheduling of the prisoners, but did not tell prison officer Gordon Kelsey, the correctional officer in charge of leading 5 Company to the yard. Instead of going to the yard after breakfast as they usually did, the prisoners were led there to find a locked door, puzzling them and the correctional officer Kelsey. Complaints led to anger when more correctional officers led by Lt. Robert T. Curtiss arrived to lead the prisoners back to their cells. Officer Kelsey was assaulted and the riot began.” [4]



[pic: ]
The New York Daily News, 9/9/1971

The rioting prisoners took control of the D-yard and the central control room, which the inmates called “Times Square.” They took 42 officer and civilians hostage, and produced a list of grievances demanding their conditions be met before their surrender. [4] The prisoners agreed to negotiate with Correctional Services Commissioner Russell G. Oswald. They made their demands clear in a hastily-assembly treatise entitled “The Attica Liberation Manifesto,” which called for better medical treatment, fair visitation rights, an end to physical brutality, better sanitation, and improved food quality.



[pic: ]
– Governor Biaggi at his desk, 9/10/1971

Expecting a reply of force, several prisoners began fortifying Attica. They dug trenches, electrified the metal gate, carved table ends into weapons, and poured gasoline on certain places “just in case”. The prison’s command center was fortified the most.

Biaggi saw the event as an opportunity to demonstrate the might of his mantra “law and order.” When we advised him to meet with the prisoners, he outright refused the notion. “We’re taking about criminals – not one-minor-misdemeanor type, we’re taking about cutthroat killers,” is what he said, “When you commit a crime that heinous, you don’t deserve the Governor visiting you.” Biaggi instead demanded the releasing of hostages under the threat, or “stressed warning,” as he called it, of using deadly force against them.

Even a telephone call from the President, Colonel Sanders, couldn’t change his mind. Biaggi respected the Colonel and the two men agreed on several things, but Biaggi did not take the Colonel’s advice of reaching out to the rioters; he believed the Colonel just didn’t know enough about the situation.

After three days of Oswald failing to negotiate the rioters into submission, Biaggi ordered the prison be retaken immediately. Oswald pleaded, practically begged for Biaggi to visit the prison, but to no avail. Biaggi was disappointed in the negotiations failing and demanded force to, in his words, “set an example of zero-tolerance of the dangerous criminal mind.”

– Former employee of the NY Governor’s office, 1981 KNN interview

So many of us died on the 12th. We were expecting them to try to take back the school, we were prepared for it, but they still got the drop on us. The bastards threw tear gas over the walls. Helicopters flew overhead to drop a s#!t-ton of tear gas into the courtyard. Then they breached the doors. Then they opened fire. They slaughtered us. We became sitting ducks as the pigs on the side and in the whirly-birds fired into the smoke. They didn’t give a s#!t if we were part of the rioters resisting them or not, if we were black or white, it didn’t matter because they didn’t care.

A hurricane of metal mosquitos from the guns from above and from the side.

I slammed myself down, right onto the ground, and I covered my head. After over three minutes it all went quiet, then I heard them barking. I heard them approach and the helicopters leave, and I just stayed there, scared s#!tless on the ground as the pigs checked out their victims.

– Attica Prison Riot Survivor “Eye-Dog McGrath,” 1981 KNN interview


[pic: ]
– A police helicopter circles overhead moments before the start of the siege, 9/12/1971

MASSACRE IN ATTICA!: Prison Standoff Ends With State Police Killing “At Least” 60

– The Times-Union, 9/12/1971

“Mario’s response to the hostage crisis is an outrageous and irresponsible abuse of his gubernatorial powers.”

– Former Governor Nelson Rockefeller, 9/12/1971


Breakouts of Violence Hit Chicago, NYC, Boston; Accusations of Racist Prison System Fly

The Houston Chronicle, 9/13/1971

One of the victims was 21-year-old Elliott James “E.J.” Barkley, an ardent orator whom played a key role during the pre-massacre negotiations. The riot began just days away from his scheduled release date. A “Justice for E. J.” campaign formed in his home town… [snip]

Despite forming a special committee to investigate the actions of Attica’s warden leading up to the riot and subsequent hostage crisis, beatniks, peaceniks and shoutniks continued to protest outside Biaggi’s office and home. His September 14 utterance of “good riddance to bad rubbish” continued to offend a public horrified by the newspapers’ photographs of the dead inmate. He repeatedly tried to spin the events, but all people could see were the blood the the bodies.

Still wanting to run for President, though, Biaggi tried to find someone else to, as he put it, “credit to” the events. At one point, he blamed California’s Governor, uh, Ronald Reagan, by claiming the riot was the result of a prison hostage crisis that had happened in San Quentin just about, uh, I want to say, about a month or so earlier. Reagan claimed the prison conditions were still in effect from the previous Pat Brown administration, and pointed out how, as Biaggi had been governor since 1967, “Mario really should take credit for the results of his own policies.”

– Former employee of the NY Governor’s office, 1981 KNN interview

The Attica Prison Massacre, also known as the Attica Prison Riot, Attica Prison Uprising, and Attica Prison Crisis, occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, in 1971. The incident, stemming from prisoner demands for better accommodations, remains the most prominent deadly prison riot in US history. Occurring two weeks after the killing of George Jackson at California’s San Quentin State Prison, roughly half of the prison’s 2200 inmates rioted and took control of the prison, take over 40 staff members hostage [5]

The Governor of New York at the time, Mario Biaggi, refused to visit the prisoners, controversially saying “you waiver your rights when you deprive someone else of theirs” about the prison’s murderer inmates. On September 12, after 3 days of negotiations between the prisoners and the warden, an impasse had formed. After US President Colonel Sanders refused to send in the National Guard, Governor Mario Biaggi ordered state police to retake the prison. By the end of the “retaking,” 94 people laid dead: 75 prisoners, 2 state troopers, 7 correctional officers, and 10 civilian employee hostages.


By the end of the year, the New York State Attica Prison Riot Special Commission called the police assault, “with the exception of Indian massacres in the late 19th century, …the bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans since the Civil War.” Investigations also determined the prison had been violating state regulations, as the jail held over 2,200 prisoners despite the structure being designed to hold no more than 1,200 prisoners.


Prison officers retaliated against surviving prisoners with actions of the physical abuse variety, such as beating them, and forcing them to crawl through mud naked, among other acts. Doctors inspecting prisoners just one month later noted how brutality in the prison had increased since the riot. The Special Commission subsequently subpoenaed several officers. The prison warden promised to reform the jail at a December 2, 1971 court hearing.


An unseen benefit of the Attica Massacre was that the devastating event led to a much-greater push for communication between all parties involved.


Charges of violations were made against the state’s prison system. Racial prejudice was reportedly rampant in the prison; a majority of the prisoners were Black, but most of the correctional officers were white. [snip] Within four years, over 50 inmates involved in the rioting, hostage-taking, and priosn-fortifying were charged in indictments totaling over 900 separate counts, while only two state troopers were indicted for reckless endangerment. The families of inmates killed sued the State of New York for many more years.



– The Burlington Free Press, Vermont newspaper, 9/15/1971


– The Rutland Herald, Vermont newspaper, 9/16/1971


– The Arizona Republic, 9/17/1971

…In international news, the Dominican Republic’s government has officially been reformed into a tri-cameral legislature. The Caribbean nation now has not only a President and a Supreme Court, both also three chambers of congress – an Enarooclia (First Senate), a Deorooclia (Second Senate), and a Triarooclia (Third Senate)…

– CBS Evening News, 9/18/1971 broadcast


…Black had been struggling with poor health for “several weeks” or “several months,” pending on the source...

– The New York Times, 9/19/1971


…According to one of Harlan’s aides, the death of Justice Black prompted Justice Harlan to plan on vacating his seat on the Supreme Court “as soon as a successor has been confirmed.” Harlan reportedly does not wanted his “poor health” to “impede his judgement on the bench.”

– The Washington Post, 9/22/1971


…with President Sanders’ backing, the bill, if it becomes law, would mirror the Civil Rights Act of 1962 in prohibiting age-based discrimination during housing, public utilities, and employment actions. The bill would also provide states with federal funding for adequate housing and medical care meant for retirees and people requiring assisted living essentials, with exact qualifications for people to obtain such funds to be determined at the state level…

– The Washington Post, 9/23/1971


…the situation appears to be polarizing New Yorkers on political and racial lines, as a clear majority of white residents in rural New York and New York City surveyed by Gallup this week approved of the Governor’s “tough-on-crime” response to the Attica hostage crisis, while most non-white residents in both regions surveyed in the same poll disapproved of said response by wide margins…

The New York Post, 9/30/1971


…the new Revenue Act includes a new sales tax and a new income tax, both of which will replace the state property tax and several other taxes. Furthermore, the massive omnibus narrowly approval by the unicameral legislature will create a new department of economic development along with a state personnel office… “The way is now open for a surge in Nebraskan jobs for Nebraskan workers,” says the Governor, “we are going to construct more highways and better sewage treatment plants. We are going to improve our state’s healthcare facilities and enhance our fair housing practices.” The bill package also includes the state’s first-ever minimum wage law…

The Grand Island Independent, Nebraska newspaper, 10/1/1971


...we aim to make the Presidential selection process more open and inclusive to all registered Democratic voters...

The Washington Post, 10/8/1971



[pic: ]

Life Magazine, 10/15/1971 issue

…George was not by any means a perfect man, but, even still…I miss him. I remember, the last thing I ever said to George was “I love you, George. And be careful.” He replied back, “Relax, honey – Weather forecasts are just horoscopes with numbers! I’ve got to go now. I love you,” then he hung up the phone. Their plane was ready to take off. Dangerous conditions like poor visibility never intimidated George. They should have, but they didn’t.

– Lurleen Wallace (1926-1996), 1989 interview


– The New York Times, 10/5/1971

…Wallace had proven to be instrumental in the implementation of racial integration in Alabama, one of the most conservative and pro-segregation states in the Union when the practice was abolished in 1962... The Governor of Alabama was travelling with the native-Alabaman Civil Rights leader Ralph Abernathy in a private aircraft. They and two interns, a pilot, and a co-pilot, were flying from Atlanta, where Wallace had met with political donors, possibly ahead of a planned Presidential campaign. They were heading to a charity fundraiser being held in Pittsburgh. While travelling over Beckley, West Virginia, it seems that their plane either ran into some sort of engine problem or weather problem, and the pilot attempted an emergency landing. Instead, the plane crashed into a patch of forestry… There were no survivors… The state’s Lieutenant Governor, a notably more conservative Democrat named Samuel Martin Engelhardt Jr. [6], will officially succeed Wallace into the governorship upon being sworn in “as soon as possible,” according to an official at the capital. Now, as this is a developing story, the information available to us at the moment is limited. Stay tuned as the details of terrible tragedy continue to come in…

– CBS Evening News, 10/5/1971 broadcast


[pic: ]



– The Chicago Defender, 10/9/1971


– The Guardian, 10/10/1971

Of course, the changes the industry felt in the early 1970s were not all positive. The exposure of its filthy underside during the decade truly began with Jimmy Savile. While accusations of child abuse were made against the 45-year-old radio personality and TV programme host as early as 1963, it was the social climate of the early 1970s made the 1971 allegations of assaulting young children become widely publicized feed for a public hungry for “celebrity dirt.” Being a regular visitor of the Duncroft Approved School for Girls in Surrey, Savile came under fire for lewd conduct on the premises in October 1971. At a time when prominent public figures were falling from grace left and right, reporters, keen on getting the latest addition to the “hottest” trend of the era, descended upon Savile’s hidden private activities. His career was damaged, but not dead. In 1972, Saville fought the charges in court, and, due to insufficient evidence, was acquitted – save for one related charge of endangering a minor, which led to him serving two years in jail, from 1972 to 1974. Naturally, the court ruling outraged the alleged victims and their supporters. In 1975, Saville re-entered the music industry, only for a new sexual pestering claim to arise – this one with physical evidence of attempted rape. In 1977, Saville began serving a 15-year prison sentence. In December 1980, Saville was murdered in prison at the age of 54.

– Donald S. Passman’s Sing-and-Dance Backwash: The Struggle for Transparency In The Entertainment Industry, 1945-onward, Borders Books, 2006

With Justice Black dead and Justice Harlan retiring, President Sanders had two seats to fill at the same time. The Colonel understood that this was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for any President, both long-term and short-term. Immediately, the candidates for the vacancies could salvage Sanders’ waning popularity (nationally due to his connection to the Ms. Arkansas wave and within the party due to the disappointing 1970 midterms and perceived shift to the left over medical care, the SCRA, and the ERA) and could strengthen the chances of Republican victory in November 1972. The long-term result would be that the new justices would determine the composition of the Supreme Court for the next several years. And with Sanders already having appointed Edward H. Levi and Frank M. Johnson Jr. to the court, two more appointments would make four of nine Justices be Sanders appointees – an impressive legacy.

On October 12, after weeks of speculations, the Sanders White House finally released a list of twelve potential candidates for the two vacant seats. Time Magazine hailed half of the list as forward thinking and the other half as uninspired:

Sylvia Bacon (age 40), a South Dakota native, was young but had an impressive resume: judicial law clerk 1956-1957, US Department of Justice employee in various capacities 1956-1969, Associate Attorney General of the US 1965-1969, and Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia since 1969. She was seen as a liberal choice.

Alexander M. Bickel (age 47), a Romania-born, Connecticut-based law professor who was also influential writer on constitutional law and a celebrated expert on the US Constitution; he would appeal to hardline conservatives in the US Senate, but would possible be challenged by the chamber's most liberal members.

Harry Blackmun (age 63), a Minnesota-based Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit since 1959, was viewed one of the most conservative names on the list.

Samuel Conti (age 49), a Judge of the US District Court for the Northern District of California since 1965, who was a strong Sanders supporter with a centrist voting record; he could potentially serve as a compromise candidate that liberals and conservatives could tolerate confirming.

Edward Thaxter Gignoux (age 55), a Judge of the US District Court for the District of Maine since 1957, and a fairly safe and experienced moderate-conservative choice.

William H. Hastie Jr. (age 67), the former Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, a Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit since 1949, and the Senior Judge of said circuit since 1970. The oldest choice offered, Hastie was African-American and had a moderate-to-conservative record.

Margaret Heckler (age 40), a Boston College Law School graduate admitted to the bar in Massachusetts, Heckler had been serving in the US House of Representatives from the Bay State’s 10th District since 1967 and was seen as a moderate-to-conservative choice.

A. Leon Higginbotham Jr. (age 43), a judge of the US District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania since 1964. Higginbotham was a liberal who, if selected, would be the first African-American US Supreme Court Justice.

Thomas Russell Jones Jr. (age 58), a New York State Assemblyman from 1963 to 1964, and an Associate Justice of the New York Supreme Court since 1967. Jones, an African-American, was viewed as the most progressive of the 12 offered.

Mildred Lillie (age 55), a little-known judge serving on California’s intermediate state appellate court, the Second District Court of Appeal, since 1958. Added to the list under advisement from Senator Richard Nixon, Lillie came under scrutiny for her lack of qualifications for the job and was ultimately rejected by the American Bar Association.

Wade H. McCree (age 51), an African-American Judge of the US District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan from 1961 to 1966, and a Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit since 1966. McCree had a moderate/centrist voting record.

Lawrence Edward Walsh (age 59), born in Canada to Canadian parents, was a lawyer, a Judge of the US District Court for the Southern District of New York from 1954 to 1957, the US Deputy Attorney General from 1957 to 1961, and the US Attorney General from 1965 until his retirement in 1970.

Liberal Senators were wary of Blackmun, Conti, Gignoux, and Heckler, while Conservative Senators directed most of their criticism toward Jones, Higginbotham, McCree and Walsh. This left Bacon, Bickel and Hastie. While Bacon’s age and voting history were scrutinized, her resume and knowledge of constitutional law were impressive; the same could be said for Hastie. Bickel was overwhelmed by the Senate vetting process and withdrew his name from consideration.

After meeting with the President, Bickel and Walsh agreed to serve as a designated “first back-up” nominees “in case Plan A failed.” Sanders agrees to the “balanced double-offering” of the left-leaning Bacon and the right-leaning Hastie, with the former appealing to liberal Senators and the latter appealing to conservative Senators.

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s The Johnson Court and the Pursuit of Justice (Second Edition), Sunrise Publishing, 2018


…according to the Texas Christian University football assistant coach, Pittman several a heart attack while the team he coaches, TCU’s Horned Frogs, were leading 5-to-1 in a SW Conference games against longtime rival Baylor. …Pittman’s alleged heart attack come one day after Detroit Lions wide received Chuck Hughes also suffered a heart attack in the middle of a game, with the Lions playing the Chicago Bears on their home turf. “Both Chuck and Jim are going to be alright,” says the President of TCU. “They are strong and resilient, and I have been told that both of them are receiving the best medical attention that money can buy”…

The Houston Chronicle, 10/25/1971



[pic: ]

– The New York Post, 10/26/1971

BILL HASTIE NOMINATED FOR HARLAN SEAT; Would Be Fist Black Justice If Confirmed

– The Houston Chronicle, 10/27/1971


By Lucinda Franks

...after weeks of investigations into the claims of former recruits that they experienced “sexual pestering” and a generally “hostile environment” at N.A.S.A., Director Webb has yielded to a US Senate Committee’s orders and has agreed to “revise” the agency’s H.R. regulations and code of conduct rules.

The New York Times, 10/28/1971 (note: this article was part of a series)


– The Clarion-Ledger, Mississippi newspaper, 10/29/1971


– The New York Post, 10/31/1971


– The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/1/1971

Kentucky General Election Results, 11/2/1971:

For Governor:
John M. Robsion Jr. (Republican) – 459,807 (49.84%)
Happy Chandler (Democratic) – 454,917 (49.31%)
William Smith (Heritage and Independence) – 7,924 (0.85%)
Total votes cast: 922,566
Turnout: 28.89% Total Population

For Lieutenant Governor:
Mary Louise Foust (Republican) – 460,179 (50.96%)
Julian M. Carroll (Democratic) – 438,776 (48.59%)
Jesse N. R. Cecil (Heritage and Independence) – 4,063 (0.45%)
Total votes cast: 903,018
Turnout: 26.77% Total Population


…we have received confirmation that Walter Nixon has won tonight’s election for Governor of Mississippi. A Democrat, Nixon won over Republican nominee Gil Carmichael, and independent candidate Charles Evers. Nixon has served as the state’s Attorney General since 1967 and is a moderate in a conservative state. His GOP challenger is a businessman and an active member of the state’s Republican party, while Charles Ever is an African-American who worked for the NAACP before being elected mayor of Fayette, Mississippi in 1969…

– CBS Evening News, 11/2/1971 broadcast


[pic: ]
– Senator-turned-President-turned-Senator Lyndon B. Johnson walks and talks with Senator-turned-VP-turned-Senator Richard Nixon on Capital Hill, possibly discussing the then-ongoing Senate hearings for President Sanders’ Supreme Court nominees; 11/5/1971

U.S. SENATE APPROVES BACON FOR SUPREME COURT, 61-38: US’s Second Female Justice To Start Term “Within The Month”

The New York Times, Wednesday, 11/10/1971

Hastie’s confirmation was even more difficult than Bacon’s. Nevertheless, the Senate approved of Hastie with a 54-44-2 vote count. As part of a backroom bargain made between Southern Senators who cared more about Hastie’s skin color than his somewhat conservative views, Bacon was sworn into her seat first, given her seniority, albeit by a few days, over Hastie.

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s The Johnson Court and the Pursuit of Justice (Second Edition), Sunrise Publishing, 2018

12 November 1971: Arches National Park is established in eastern Utah, US; adjacent to the Colorado River and located 4 miles (6 km) north of Moab, Utah, the park covers over 77,000 acres and over 2,000 natural sandstone arches, including the iconic “Delicate Arch” along with other unique geological features, formations and resources, making up the most dense natural collection of natural arches in the world



Washington, DC – Governor Callahan has appointed William Lloyd Scott, who has served in the U.S. House of Representatives since 1967, to the U.S. Senate Seat left vacant by the death of Senator A. W. Robertson. With this appointment, Scott becomes the first Republican to represent Virginia in the U.S. Senate in 84 years…

The Roanoke Times, Virginia newspaper, 11/15/1971

I remember part of a speech Kosygin gave in November 1971 at Star City, directed to Vladimir Chelomey and the other lead scientists there: “Over the past decade we have seen failure after failure in our venture to send one of our men to the moon. But we will have failure no longer! We will work together, unifying our efforts and ideas and putting aside our selfish desires. All for the prosperity and glory of Mother Russia seeing one of its children take steps on the moon.” Indeed, competitiveness among the scientists and chief designers was still threatening to doom the program; all of us would most assuredly be blamed and reprimanded for such selfishness under Kosygin – he would have to in order to placate the conservative wing of the national party. The leader then continued with a shocking announcement, “We will have this, but not only this! We will take one step further than the Americans. Due to our increasingly healthy economy, I have decided to fund a program to design and construct our own permanent lunar base. This will supply the Soviet people with employment and prosperity for years to come. As soon as we reach the moon, we will begin the process necessary to establish this base, for by building this base will firmly and concretely establish in the minds of capitalist suppressors everywhere whom it is that truly controls the Earth’s natural satellite. …And this base will be up and running, fully functional and working, by the end of this century. …Long live the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics!”

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995

“And after lunch, I’ve got to go – .”

“Mm-hmm, mm-hmm, yeah.”

“Heh. You seem distracted, Millie.”

“Huh? Oh. Sorry, Margaret. I’m just concerned about the rise of these Ollie Trolleys. Just look at these numbers! They’re sprouting up everywhere, and the fact that the brains behind the operation is a bitter ex-employee is, well, troubling.”

“Aw, you’re always frettin’ about something.”

“It’s different this time! You know June Martino, the CEO of McDonald’s? I heard through the grapevine and even she’s concerned!”


“Word is they’re already filming attack ads. Not outright do-not-eat-over-there types, but still, their readying their armaments.”

“Huh. Well, at least KFC is still dominating the fired chicken industry.”

“For now, but – ”

“ – And it makes sense, when you think about it, Millie. Those Burger Chef places have also been poppin’ up all over the place recently. The market saturation’s gotta be jumpin’ June!”

“Yes, but the new competition could jeopardize our Wendyburger. That’s jumpin’ me!”

“Ooh, yeah, that’s right. Dang, I forget about that.”

“Yeah. But, uh, anyway, you were talkin’ about – ”

“ – And have you ever tried an Ollieburger?”

“Huh! Of course, you’ve got to inspect the competition!”

“And…? What’d you think of it?”

“Honestly, Maggie, I don’t get the appeal. Too rich for my taste, I suppose.”

“Well I’ve tried them, and I for one have always loved bold, exciting and exotic dishes.”

“You don’t think the Ollieburger’s too overwhelming? I mean, right now hope that, at the most, it becomes, like, a niche-market kind of burger. I don’t think such complex flavors can have wide-reaching appeal, at least not in the U.S.”

“You know what, Mill, I bet people said the exact same thing about chicken less than fifty years ago, back when it was considered a delicacy because of how expensive it was.”

“Oh, damn, you’re right!”

“Big sisters always are, Millie.”

“I mean, health food stores weren’t really a thing until the beatniks came around, right?”


“Yes…then it wouldn’t help to, well at the least consider trying to, uh, beat them at their own game.”

“Meanin’ what?”

“Meanin’ maybe KFC should make, like, a richer, fancier version of the Wendyburger. Make it a limited offer-for-a-limited-time type of thing.”

“It wouldn’t hurt to – ”

“ – Yes, yes that could work!”

– Audio transcript of Security Camera footage, KFC Inc. headquarters, Florence, KY, 11/20/1971


Washington, DC – President Sanders signed the Nation Cancer Act into law today. The new federal law, which amends the Public Health Service Act of 1944 by strengthening the National Cancer Institute, aims to increase cancer research funding in order to “improve humanity’s understanding of cancer and the treatment of cancer patients,” said Sanders at the ceremony. This law means that scientists conducting drug trials and preventative/early detection research now have access to further funding. [snip] Health activist Mary Lasker, who has championed the increase in research funding for health problems sicne 1943, played an instrumental role convincing Congress to pass the law earlier this year…

– The Washington Post, 11/23/1971


[pic: ]

– Coya’72 logo, c. late November 1971

…In other news, The Leyland Motor Corporation, a prominent British firm, has today announced the sales of over 2,000 buses to the Cuban transportation company Straight Arrow Transportation, in a landmark business deal for the post-war island nation of Cuba that aims to create hundreds of jobs for both countries. Also in Cuba, the Mayor of Havana is the target of a smear campaign by political opponents who allege he is maintaining business ties to KFC-Cuba due to his recent approval of three more outlets being built in the nation’s capital city…

– BBC World News, 30/11/1971 broadcast


As Canada marks the 1-year anniversary of Prime Minister Stanfield entering office, let us take a look back on the highlights of his administration so far: …Keeping true to his campaign promise, Stanfield immediately introduced wage and price controls to help end inflation encroaching Canada’s economy, based on the fair success of President Sanders’ 1968-1969 wage freeze. …In January, the federal government announced plans to convert the nation to the metric system. …In February, the use of phosphates (and other dangerous chemicals and substances) in laundry detergent is banned nationwide. …In June, the federal voting age was lowered from 21 to 18. …In July, Stanfield, being a promoter of free trade, met with Vice Chairman Zhou Enlai in Beijing in order to establish formal relations with the People’s Republic of China, a move opposed by Paul Hellyer during the last year of his tenure in office… In August, Stanfield was hailed for his swift response to the destructive Sudbury, Ontonario Tornado Event of 1971, which killed 4 people, injured 230, and caused $16 million dollars in property damage... Stanfield at first seemed to united the post-Diefenbaker P.C. party, and Stanfield’s blunt and laconic speaking style allows him to translate complex political concepts into related layman’s term. Most recently, though, he is upsetting conservatives over his (arguably tepid) support for official bilingualism. Nevertheless, his gentlemanly and civil manner amid situations and vital diplomatic moments have helped to keep his approval ratings hover at around 63%.

– The Kimberley Daily Bulletin, Canadian newspaper, 12/17/1971

A United Nations Secretary-General selection process occurred December 17-21, 1971 to find a successor to U Thant, who had opted to step down after serving for two full terms. The winner selected would begin him term on January 1.


In January 1971, U Thant announced that he would not serve for a third term, having held the office since 1961. Despite there being strong support for U Thant to serve for a third term due to his opposition to Apartheid and colonialism (even the US delegation was not opposed to a third term for U Thant despite his opposition to past American activities in Southeast Asia), U Thant was adamant in his decision.


Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan – the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (a citizen of France, Iran, and Switzerland, but nominated by the U.S.)

Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe – the Permanent Representative of Ceylon to the UN

Max Jakobson – the Permanent Representative of Finland to the UN

Endelkachew Makonnen – the Minister of Communication of Ethiopia and the former Permanent Representative of Ethiopia to the UN

Kurt Waldheim – the Chair of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and unsuccessful candidate for President of Austria in April 1971


Max Jakobson ran for the position on a strongly anti-colonial stance, and eventually obtained support from the US and the UK, while Arab countries believed he would be subject to Zionist pressure due to his Jewish ancestry. Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan touted his coordinating of the response to the refugee crisis that had begun in March 1971. [7] Waldheim gathered support from France and the USSR. While the US and USSR had played kingmaker in past selections, the warming of relations between the US and China complicated matters, as it remained unclear who China would support. Soon Jakobson presented himself as the only candidate who could be acceptable to Mao’s China.


The Security Council voted via secret ballot while in a closed session; a candidate required 9-vote majority to win. On the first ballot, the UK and US opposed Waldheim, while the USSR opposed Jakobson; additionally, China remained on the fence. The Second ballot yielded basically the same results. After the first round of voting failed to produce a winner, US Ambassador to the UN John More Allison visited the Chinese delegation. [8] Gaining their confidence led to China deciding not to veto Jakobson on the second ballot, allowing him to win over Waldheim and Prince Sadruddin on the third ballot. Jakobson was sworn into office on January 1, 1972.


Months after the election, an investigation into Waldheim’s contradictory statements concerning his actions during the 1940s led to the revelation that archived and stored files from a post-WWII UN War Crimes Commission had labeled Waldheim a suspected war criminal due to his involvement with the Nazi German army. The scandal damaged, but did not finish, Waldheim’s public career.



– The Sacramento Union, 12/5/1971

SPOKESPERSON FOR LEARY CLAIMS CHARGES ARE “TRUMPED UP”: Legal Team Believes They Are “Part Of A Vendetta Against Freedom And Personal Liberties”

– The San Diego Union-Tribune, 12/6/1971

As the 1972 primary season neared, I felt conflicted. For roughly two years, I had worked to lead the G.O.P. to the right as Senate minority leader. Butting heads with non-conservatives in the party, and tackling the issues near and dear to me was fulfilling. The President being on my side more often than not also made my day.

But then there was Scranton. Personally, I had no qualms with the Vice President, but politically, he was a generic moderate who kowtowed to New England Republicanism without contributing anything original to the political conversation. He had the skills needed to lead, but not to inspire; the man brought no new ideas to the political fray. The more apparent it became that he was eyeing the nomination for President – traveling abroad to beef up his foreign policy bona fides and increasing his visibility at home via one talk show guest spot after another – the more convinced I was that he was too bland, unenthusiastic, and uninspiring to win in 1972. I knew from the ’64 season that running for the Presidency was something like trying to stand up in a hammock [9], and Scranton was too much of a greenback to stand up in November. Plus, at 64, I thought that this election was possibly my last chance to take charge of a federal government still out of line, to weaken the power of the reigning bureaucrats, to reduce the spending, to abolish nonproductive programs, and to emphasize the harm overregulation was inflicting on our country. [9]

– Barry Goldwater’s autobiography No Apologies: My Personal and Political Memoirs, Morrow Publishers, 1979

“I agree with the President. I have faith in the wisdom and the ability of the President. I cannot in good conscience say the same about the Vice-President. His policies and ideology are too dangerously liberal for the party and the nation. …If the Republican Party offered me the nomination next year, I would unapologetically accept it.”

– Barry Goldwater to an Associated Press reporter, 12/12/1971

I figured, at the very least, that I could influence the party platform better, or cause Scranton to shift to the right. However, openly opposing the presumptive nominee would likely offend the other party leaders; as senate minority leader, I could not afford to burn those political bridges. Instead, I reminded my fellow conservatives that I was still interested in becoming the party’s nominee someday. Soon enough, William F. Buckley was calling for me to run; a “Draft Barry” movement slowly but surely gathered momentum.


[pic: ]
Above: a picture of me, ready to take on the woes of the country I love

– Barry Goldwater’s autobiography No Apologies: My Personal and Political Memoirs, Morrow Publishers, 1979

…The President signed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act into law earlier today, creating the largest land claims settlement in American history. …After being supported by Alaska’s Senators, Mike Gravel and Ernest Groening, and Alaska Governor Hammond, in the early stages of development, the bill found a strong ally in US Senator and potential dark-horse Presidential candidate Scoop Jackson. The law aims to both settle land claims in the state and promote economic development through the union’s largest state. …The size, scope and generosity of the law can be compared to similar laws passed in the last year of the Lyndon Johnson administration...

The Overmyer Network, 12/17/1971 broadcast


…the second of three rounds of voting in the race for governor of Louisiana has resulted in a clear winner of the Democratic nomination. In tonight’s runoff, former Governor Jimmie Davis (who previously served from 1944 to 1948 and again from 1960 to 1964) defeated former Governor Gillis W. Long (who served from 1964 to 1968) by a margin of roughly 4%. Incumbent Governor John J. McKeithen, a Democrat, declined to endorse either candidate ahead of the contest, finding both men – who advanced from a crowded Democratic primary on November 6 – to be “insufficiently supportive” of defending civil rights legislation. …As the state is heavily pro-Democratic, tonight’s election results all but guarantee Davis the governor’s seat early next year… Republican nominee Robert Max Ross claims he can pull off an upset, but according to all polls taken since the November 6 primaries, the Democrats are heavily favored to win in the general election, which is set to be held on February 1st…

The Times-Picayune, Louisiana newspaper, 12/18/1971

Roy O. Disney, Instrumental Aide to Cartoonist Brother, Dies at 78

…Mr. Disney’s sudden and fatal stroke struck only roughly two months after the grand opening of Walt Disney World in October of this year. Roy had finally retired from the company after the opening ceremonies, announcing he accomplished all that he "ever possibly could" for the landmark production company...

The New York Times, 12/21/1971


Jackson, MS – Phillips has announced his intention to run for the GOP nomination for US President, claiming Vice President William Scranton and US Senator Barry Goldwater are “not conservative enough for America.” Phillips disagrees with Goldwater’s support of President Sanders’ more liberal political stances, and, and plans to run to the right of Goldwater, a Senator who is already considered to be to the right of the Republican party.

In his announcement speech, Phillips touted his reform of the state education system, his 1969 reinstating of compulsory attendance laws that were repealed in 1958, and his deregulating of the state government. …One GOP committeewoman states that due to Phillips and other republicans such as Alabama’s US Senator John Martin (who, like Phillips, is a racial-moderate), the GOP has “throw off the tag of being a racist, segregationist party in the south.” This claim, however, contrasts with several prominent Republicans whom are racial-conservatives, most notably US
Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina…

…Phillips concluded his speech by explaining he would win over delegates due to the lack of Republican primaries being held in any Deep Southern states next year: “The party of the people will not let the people down.”…

US News and World Report, 1/2/1972, p. 25

“If your party nominated a generally well-qualified person for president who happened to be a woman would you vote for that person?”

1955: 4% Yes, 44% No, 52% No Opinion
1959: 4% Yes, 39% No, 57% No Opinion
1963: 4% Yes, 41% No, 55% No Opinion
1967: 5% Yes, 38% No, 57% No Opinion
1969: 7% Yes, 40% No, 53% No Opinion
1970: 11% Yes, 35% No, 54% No Opinion
1971: 15% Yes, 29% No, 56% No Opinion

– Gallup [10]

EUNICE KENNEDY-SHRIVER DECLINES PRESIDENTIAL RUN: Claims A Woman “Could” Win the Nomination This Year, But Not “Another Kennedy”

– The Boston Globe, 1/3/1972

In the weeks leading up to the incident, Humphrey’s doctors would repeatedly call and admonish him for missing and rescheduling appointments for checkups in order to spend more time campaigning for President. The Minnesotan believed time was fleeting, telling his wife, “for all I know, this could be my very last chance at this.” At the start of the new year, Humphrey looked as if he had no health concerns. Then on January 7, the Presidential candidate collapses at a political fundraiser. No photographs of the incident are known to exist, but news quickly spread of what the Minnesota Star labeled a “simple stumble.”

Humphrey the politician was underperforming in polls taken in early primaries; pundits blamed the lack of enthusiasm on his apparent failure to overcome his connections to the Lyndon Johnson administration, despite Johnson himself salvaging his legacy in the Senate in recent years.

Similarly, Humphrey the man’s bladder illness was not improving as well as hoped. Doctors demanded he undergo treatment with radiation and intravesical thiotepa, - treatment that would plague him via the pain from the treatments, all while continuing to serve in the Senate and run for President, albeit making much less appearances of the Trail of ’72 than Humphrey had initially anticipated. [11] The seemingly sporadically active campaign would hurt Humphrey in the early primaries…

– Carl Solberg’s H.H.H.: A Biography, Borealis Books, 1984 (2001 edition)

Gravel’s 1968 had primarily focused on foreign policy at a time when American forces were embroiled in conflict in three Southeast Asian nations. Four years later, the political situation was much less hectic – the Indochinese Wars had been won, the threat of Soviet bombardment was being cautiously cooled in the face of bilateral treaties, and China was slowly and tepidly reaching out to foreign markets. Thus, when Gravel announced his 1972 Presidential bid, he focused more on domestic issues. His new campaign highlighted his calls to eliminate the “corrupt” federal income tax in exchange for a national sales tax, abolish the IRS, expand on the Negative Income Tax Rebate, expand guest worker programs for immigrants, ease the naturalization process, and oppose the death penalty. Gravel also called for “saving our inner cities.” He did, though, on occasion, touch on his support of cutting military spending by “at least” 10 percent, arguing that “treaties even stronger than the ones passed under the Colonel” would make such an action “feasible.”

– David Frum’s How We Got Here: The ’70s, Basic Books NY, 2000, p. 298


“I do not represent Black power or woman power; I represent the power of all the people”

– Associated Press, 1/25/1972

NBC TO HOST DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY DEBATE ON FEBRUARY 16 AT 9:00 PM; Debate Schedule Rules And Timetable Finalized

The Chicago Tribune, side article, 1/26/1972

A WOMAN IN THE WHITE HOUSE?: A Look At Three Women Running For President


[pic: ]
Above: US Rep. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), Governor Coy Knutson (D-MN), and US Rep. Patsy Mink (D-HI)

…A committee to draft the reluctant Knutson into the field led to Knutson announcing her candidacy for President “as a compromise candidate” in the event of a deadlocked/contested convention. She also will run as a “favorite son” candidate in her home state of Minnesota, which will hold a caucus in March… Mink and Chisholm, on the other hand, are actively running for the nomination. According to an anonymous member of her campaign, Mink is targeting her home state’s caucus and the winner-take-all California primary as the contests she can most likely win.

…All three women acknowledge the odds they face in the race, with Knutson calling it a “rock-wall of an uphill climb.” This awareness makes one wonder why they are even running. The answer to that may lie in their campaigns. Mink is calling for better treatment of “lesser-discussed” ethnic groups such as Asian-Americans and Hispanics. Chisholm, on the other hand, is campaign on the more reconciliatory message “a leader for ALL of us,” promoting peace and communication between white and non-white, and male and female Americans. The “Draft Knutson” campaign, meanwhile, touted her gubernatorial accomplishments prior to her tepidly throwing her hat into the ring. …While none of them may become President, it is possible that if they can still prove to be significant players in the upcoming primaries, Coya, Patsy and Shirley may wind up in higher office, cabinet positions, or even as the running mate of the 1972 Democratic nominee. We shall find out how it all unfolds as the year progresses.

Time Magazine, late January issue

(dates are on map)


[pic: ]

Dark blue = primary

Light blue = caucus


“When I leave this here office in less than a year, I’m not going to run off to no library with my name on it, hang up my hat, and call it a life. I don’t believe in retirement, not a bit in the world. There’s a time and place for resting, and it’s called the afterlife. When the Good Lord put old father Adam here, he never told him to quit at 65, now did he? No, no he didn’t. Adam kept going, and he kept working, and he didn't stop until he died at the age of 930. And I’m only 73 – that’s nothing compared to 930, and you don’t need a college degree to figure out the arithmetic on that.”

– Colonel Sanders to a reporter, 1/27/1972

28 January 1972: On this day in history, Disney’s “Chanticleer” is released in theaters in the United States; based very loosely on the rooster character Chanticleer that appears in the 12th century fables of “Reynard the Fox” (another prominent character in the film) and also appearing as a character in “The Nun’s Priest’s Tale” told in Geoffrey Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales,” the film follows a series of interconnected misadventures centered around Chanticleer and Reynard, and their animal friends and enemies; the film had been in “development hell” for several years and had experienced a “rushed” production, with a budget that was much lower than those of previous Disney films; as a result, the film, while still yielding a profit for the company, was considered a box office disappointment by Disney executives and “underwhelming” by contemporary film reviewers such as Variety…


“Kids don’t have a little brother working in the coal mine, they don’t have a little sister cougher her lungs out in the looms of the big mill towns of the Northeast. Why? Because we organized; we broke the back of the sweatshops in this country; we have child labor laws. Those were not benevolent gifts from enlightened management. They were fought for, they were bled for, they were died for by working people, by people like us. Kids ought to know that. That’s why I sing these songs. That’s why I tell these stories, dammit. No root, no fruit!”

– singer-songwriter and labor rights activist Utah Phillips [12], 1/30/1972

[1] Italicized parts of this run-on sentence are pulled from page 34 of Michael A. Schuman’s “Bill Gates” Computer Mogul and Philanthropist,” Enslow Publishers, Inc. (2008):
[2] Italicized parts are from page 196 of Marcie Sims’ “Capitol Hill Pages: Young Witnesses to 200 Years of History,” McFarland (2018):
[3] Definition taken from here:
[4] All from the Attica Prison Riot Wikipedia page, so basically, the crisis starts out the same as it did IOTL
[5] Slightly rewritten version of the start of the Attica Prison Riot wiki page
[6] Who? This guy!:
[7] Oh yeah, that whole thing happened; it’s basically the same here as in OTL.
[8] IOTL, US Ambassador G. H. W. Bush feared that talking to the Chinese delegation would “only arouse suspicion” and instead asked other ambassadors about how China would vote; with a different, less fearful ambassador, things go differently!
[9] Italicized part is a Goldwater quote from OTL found here:
[10] Pre-1970 Data found here!:
[11] Edited version of sentence pulled from here:
[12] OTL quote, but I can't find a source saying when he actually said it; if any of y'all know, then please do say so!

EDIT: fixed Bickel sentence. Good eye and thanks, dude!

RyuDrago said:
Charming update as usual!

I wish to ask, if possible, to any expert in matter, why the two parties made limited voting primaries for a certain period of time, I mean organize elections just in few states, until allowing all the states to be part of the process? It was always like this in even older periods, what was the social and political reason to do this from those parties?

I'm not sure; I think it had to do with a combination of factors like the complicated impracticality of hosting contests in so many states, and the belief that party leaders determining the ticket at a national convention was the superior method.

DTF955Baseballfan said:
You know that's true, we'll have a new challenger for each, why not make a predecition?

GOP. Scranton is VP and while Nixon made the leap to the top spot in '60, I don't think Scranton can make the leap to the top spot. Humphrey did OTL but otherwise it took till '84 when Mondale tried, and I just don't think Scranton has quite enough backing. Whereas Goldwater doesn't have OTL's blowout going against him - though he is getting old. He might be a collage of Nixon's comeback and the '80 reagan OTL, though, and there's enough GOP backlash against Sanders' more liberal policies on things like health care - plus he was someone who was "only" a one-term governor that I don't think they intend to repeat.

So, in the end, I suspect Goldwater has the popularity of someone who has been in the Senate for a long while, and his age doesn't matter as much after we had a President who was in his 80s. Attica and other things will make people wantg more law and order, and REagan may be an optgion but as I said, I don't think they want just a governor - Reagan will seem too much like a risk of "Sanders II" since he wasn't in offfice before that. So, Goldwater gets the nod, with a slim chance of Nixon.

For the Democrats, I don't know about Humphrey's health,I think he'd have a shot, but will he also be connected too much to LBJ? Johnson is probably getting rehabilitated some, he did win theCuba War, but I'm thinking they might pick Robert Kennedy if he wants to run, I think John's Addison's Disease might still be slowing him down too much even if it's been slowed by his not having the pressure, and he'd gladly campaign for Bobby. John might also back awaay because of the Ms. Arkansas thing; I think Bobby's less of a womanizer.

(Just checked - it's been a crazy 2 months, I forgot he ran in '68, but Nixon came back and it was possile he'd have tried, too.)

We really Havoline seen a lot about the Democrats, though - it's a much more open field. America isn't going to want an extreme peacenik, no McCarfthy or McGovern, but I don't think they'll want someone extrmely hawkish, either.

I also predict a somewhat narrow Democratic win, maybe with 300-350 electoral votes, 16 GOP years out of 20 has meant there's probably enough desire for a change, and Sanders is getting up in years enough that I doubt you'd see him actually campaigning for the GOP candidate actively. He's more likely even without the age bit to say he's done his part for the country and now he just wants to relax.
Click to expand...

House leader Halleck would likely back Scranton, especially if he campaigns on his record as VP, such as helping to cool down those race riots in 1967, and his recent diplomatic trips abroad. But yes, the conservative faction of the party may rally behind Goldwater - if he keeps gaffes to a minimum and Rube Phillips doesn't act as a spoiler. Both are possibilities.

Robert F. Kennedy served as Undersecretary of State from 1961 to 1965, then worked on Jack's 1968 campaign; he now heads a successfully law firm and a political think tank in D.C. while raising his (still!)- growing family in McLean, VA. He and newspaper magnate Ted could play a role in the primaries if Jack decides to play a larger role, too, and endorses someone (also: Jack's currently heading a think tank while concurrently serving as the head of the Kennedy family (after Joe Sr. died in '68)). It is yet to be determined which way the American voter will sway come November 1972.

Great analysis, dude! Thanks!

Electric Monk said:
What's up with Haddon Salt? (Almost Famous: The King of Fish and Chips by Ben Proudfoot / NYT) It seems utterly perfect for this timeline :)

Great idea! I'll be sure to mention him (somewhere...)

Ogrebear said:
Another great chapter @gap80

1) I cannot see Governor Mario Biaggi surviving next election cycle, if he makes it that far!

2) RIP Wallace- racist you may have been, but you where turning it around towards the end.

3) Goodbye Saville- no one will miss you. I wonder of Rolf Harris avoids his own entanglements given the Saville scandal. I bet the 'permissive/no one talks about it' culture of the 70's UK entertainment industry had been shaken up. Far less affairs, and sex rings. More press scrutiny. Does this cut the amount of booze/drug/sex parties I wonder?

4) FBI hiring women? Surprised that didn't happen already for an intelligence gathering service!

5) KFC limited time Wendyburger offers? Might work.

6) Sink Waldheim sink!

7) I wonder if the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act encourages other Native Americans to examine their deals with the governments of the USA and Canada?

8) Three Women running for President in the same year? Some sort of record?
Click to expand...

1) I dunno, IOTL Governor Rockefeller became VP just three years after Attica (which was less bloody IOTL, but still). I think the question is whether Biaggi can downplay the incident and lessen sympathy for the victims, since most of the victims were convicts.

2) Indeed. He'll definitely be remembered better here, and his hypothetical survival may even be the premise of many "what if" threads on TTL's version of Alternate History Forum!

3) Well, when a light's turned on, the rats don't stick around, they crawl into the darker parts of the basements. The wave of apprehended perverts could encourage others to be more cautious and clandestine in their activities. On the other hand, it could increase/enhance steps taken to apprehend more of them. We'll see how it plays out...

4) I was surprised by that, too!

5) Yes, indeed!

6) Unoriginal Joke: "Hey, you know how to save a Nazi from drowning?" "No." "Good!"

7) They could, especially when one considers the pro-NA actions taken toward the end of the LBJ Presidency.

8) I believe it is!

Unknown said:
Goodbye, Mr. Savile. 1) One thing's for sure: Jim cant fix this!!!XD

2) RIP, George; at least you were better ITTL with regards to Civil Rights...

3) Governor Mario Biaggi, when Ronald Reagan is calling you out on the Attica riots and your handling of them...yeah, you'll be very lucky to survive to the 1974 governor's race. A parallel can be drawn between Biaggi ITTL and James Rhodes, the governor of Ohio, and his handling of the Kent State Shootings; while Rhodes did serve two more terms as governor, it destroyed his national hopes...

4) Three women running for president in 1971--that's impressive!!!

5) Welcome to the late 20th century, FBI...

6) Can't wait to see how the 1972 Democratic and Republican primaries turn out...
Click to expand...

1) Indeed!

2) Yep.

3) I suppose a parallel can be drawn there!

4) Indeed

5) Yeah-huh!

6) The E.T.A. of the next update is September 5
Post 28
Post 28: Chapter 36

Chapter 36: February 1972 – August 1972

“I read in the papers that the Los Angeles police are hunting for a Chicago gangster. But why do they want one from Chicago? Can’t they be satisfied with a hometown boy?”

– Gracie Allen

The Declaration of Independence says “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with uncertain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” There’s two things in there I want to point out. The first is that it says “endowed by their Creator,” not “the Creator” or any specific creator; it supports the old saying of “to each, his own,” while confirming at the same time that America is in fact a nation with religion – a nation with religious people, a nation with religious roots. A nation of people who share the same basic set of values: Love thy neighbor. Do onto others, uh that, um, that you’d want them to do unto you – y’all know what I mean. And lend a helping hand to those who need it – or at the very least, don’t be a jerk to them. The second thing about that passage is that it says “among these” rights. That means that people have other rights as well – rights to safety, security, education, the list goes on and on. Thomas Jefferson wrote those words. He was a very smart man. And I should know – I use to sit next to him when we were in the fourth grade together! Always raising his hand, he was.

– President Sanders at the National Prayer Breakfast, Thursday, 2/3/1972

VOICE-OVER (as footage rolls): “…In Irvington, the family at this house had an argument with their daughter. With the creation of the NJ Negative Income Rebate, the oldest daughter of five child, Susanna [1], plans to move out of her family home when she turns 18 in two years, in order to, in her words, ‘have some breathing room.’
“Just down the street from her, the oldest son of an African-American family gave his first N.J.N.I.R. check to his father, to help him pay for car repairs, and to pay for a new refrigerator for his mother.
“In this dilapidated home in Toms River, police arrested a man after threatening his wife at gunpoint, allegedly attempting to take money from her cashed-in N.J.N.I.R. check to gamble at the horse track.
“And in this apartment in Tenefly, a high school senior has begun saving for Princeton without worrying too much about the cost.”

STUDENT: “I know that if I fall, the rebate will keep me from landing on hard times.”

VOICE-OVER (as footage rolls): “This is the new world in which many of New Jersey’s over seven million residents finds themselves.”

REPORTER (in footage): The NJ Negative Income Rebate Law, which oversees the issuance of an income supplementation dividend, was passed in early 1970, in the Garden State’s first legislative session under Governor McDermott. McDermott came under scrutiny last year as after workplace production and employment dropped after the rebate law took effect, but in the most recent quarters, productivity has risen. College applications have increased, and applications for higher-up jobs have, too. The biggest benefit the rebate may be having on the state, though, is in consumer consumption. People in New Jersey are now buying more in light of a new confidence in their financial security. The risen demand is leading to a rise in production.
“Additionally, the number of people moving into New Jersey has increased. From 1960 to 1970, the state grew roughly 18% in size, averaging at 3.6% every 2 years. In the past two years, though, the population has risen roughly 4% in size, with many of the new residents hailing from New York City…”

– ABC Special Report, Friday 2/4/1972 broadcast

By the start of the primary, the candidates had found their corners:

Walter Mondale, running an energetic and fairly youthful campaign on a platform appealing to working class voters and the generic slogan “The Change We Need,” found support among establishment politicians despite also being heavily backed by many unions, including most Hispanic farm workers and their unions.

Hubert Humphrey, swiping at Mondale’s candidacy with the slogan “Some Talk of Great Change – Others Create It,” also found support among members of the party establishment, including Chicago Mayor Daley and Jack Kennedy; he also found support among urban laborers and white ethnic groups.

Mike Gravel was a passionate progressive grassroots campaign highlighting his accomplishments; with the slogan “Putting People First,” Gravel won over young people, Hollywood celebrities, and college-educated individuals. Gravel was also best known for his 1968 campaign’s heavy focus on dovish foreign policy prior to announcing his candidacy. While that rhetoric was beneficial at a time, when American forces were fighting in Cambodia and Laos, the US was at peace at the start of ’72; as such, Gravel switched to focusing more on domestic policy, with a heavy focus on regulating businesses.

Mario Biaggi, the conservative New York Governor and former primary frontrunner, sought to recover from the Attica Massacre scandal and return to frontrunner status by doubling down on what had brought him victory in 1966 and 1970: “Peace and Prosperity Through Law and Order;” the most conservative Democrat in the race, accusations of racism threatened to hurt his campaign in northern states. Biaggi was also the least critical of the President, even after their openly contrasting views on Attica.

Shirley Chisholm’s historic run immediately pulled in many progressives, feminists, Black activists, and shoutniks, but the Congresswoman continuously emphasized her ability to appeal to a wider range of voters, including white suburban voters.

Scoop Jackson, seemingly the second most conservative Democrat in the field, ran on the message “Great at Home, Great Abroad,” and focused on his long resume and legislative experience, betting it would propel him to the front of the pack.

Wayne Morse, and his slogan “Wayne All the Way,” was the focus of other progressive voters, too; peaceniks and people nostalgic of his prior runs gathered around the septuagenarian to support his fourth consecutive bid for President.

Bob Casey, at age 39 the youngest of the candidates, ran on the message “Never Too Early to Lead;” Casey, a favorite among Catholics, it seemed, sought to appeal to the party as a moderate.

Grant Sawyer, capitalizing on his 1968 stint as Jack Kennedy’s running mate, promoted his 12 years as governor of an example of him being a pragmatic “Western progressive”/left-leaning centrist candidate.

– David Frum’s political textbook How We Got Here: The ’70s, Basic Books NY, 2000, p. 298

Humphrey: “I’m happy to have a debate. Freedom is hammered out on the anvil of discussion, dissent, and debate.” [2]


Mondale: “This is a campaign for all working Americans, from the immigrant farmers of New Mexico to the factory workers of New England. I have the experience needed for leading effectively from the White House. I’ve been a Senator since 1961, and before then was the Minnesota Attorney General.”


Gravel: “We need to provide more funding for these social programs. So I would transfer money from the military budget to cover these expansions.”

Jackson: “Uh, if I may make a rebuttal? Thank you. Mike, what you propose is dangerous and frightening. When you say we must take risks for peace by cutting the meat from our military muscle, I say you are unwittingly risking war. [3]

Morse: “He’s not saying make America vulnerable – he’s saying he’d rather spend the money meant for missiles on medicine and meals instead.”


Humphrey: “Despite Senator Jackson’s claims, compassion is not weakness, and concern for the unfortunate is not socialism. [2] [snip] As President, I will fight, as I always have, for minorities of all races and religions, for all who deserve to share in the fullness of American life.[2]

– Snippets from the transcript of the 2/16/1972 Democratic Primary debate between Humphrey, Mondale, Gravel, Jackson and Morse

The lack of any wars, the kind which had helped the candidacy of many an anti-war candidate in 1968, took the wind out of those same sort of sails in ’72. Morse and Gravel had to instead focus on the Colonel’ opposition to regulation and his censoring policies, largely ignored by most major media outlets and a minor issue in political world until their campaigns promoted them to the front page of newspapers nationwide. [snip] In the first Democratic primary debate, Morse looked old, worn out and tired, while Gravel looked too radical to be able to win in November, his flair for flamboyance coming off as wiry to many. Nevertheless, Gravel’s passion stole away Morse’s thunder. Making his fourth consecutive bid for the nomination, the aging Senator Morse had developed a “used goods” vibe – while Gravel was picking up the mantle of being the bold “new face” of the Democratic far-left.

– Theodore H. White’s The Making of the President: 1972, Atheneum Publishers, 1973

…The troubled nation’s February 20, 1972 Presidential election saw Salvadorans nationwide, after years of military dictatorships and corruption, take what could have been the nation’s last attempt at reform through peace.

President Gen. Fidel Sanchez Hernandez’s plans for electoral fraud – PCN Presidential candidate Col. Arturo A. Molina – were blatant and poorly disguised. A native political coalition called the United National Opposition soon formed thanks to organizational efforts by leftist parties, trade unions, and activist Roman Catholic clergy. The coalition was not taken seriously by conservative sectors [4]. Nevertheless, the incumbent administration commenced making political activities the targets of National Conciliation Party (PCN)’s harassment and assault tactics; creating increasingly restrictive voting qualification rules also occurred. By January, the coalition had finally rallied around one candidate – Jose Napoleon Duarte of the Christian Democratic Party. Understanding the need for him and the broad-based reform movement united behind him to win the Presidency, all other candidates other anti-Molina dropped out by the end of January.

As the election date neared, Max Jakobson stepped in. The new Secretary-General of the UN, in light of his narrow selection for the post, and continuing criticism from Middle-Eastern nations, felt compelled to prove his ability to be a pragmatic leader on the world stage. Jakobson lead the international pressure that urged Fidel Sanchez Hernandez to host “free and fair” elections. Taking the Monroe Doctrine to heart, the US President Harland “Colonel” Sanders took the situation “one step further” by threatening to send in a U.S.-led deployment of UN peacekeeping troops to the country if “open and honest” election were not held.

On election night, the Central Election Board in San Salvador announced Duarte had won by over 26,000 votes, after 900,000 votes were cast (a high number which many observers alleged was the result of ballot stuffing). On February 22, President Sanchez Hernandez claimed the results were inconclusive. Jakobson and Sanders subsequently increased the international pressure over the following weeks, threatening the President’s regime with economic boycotts and other leverage, until the incumbent relented. On June 23, just days the July 1 1972 inauguration, Sanchez Hernandez announced that Duarte had won. He subsequently fled to Venezuela upon leaving office, while Molina supporters shocked by the “betrayal” of Sanchez Hernandez failed to launch a paramilitary coup against Duarte and his allies that same week.

While the nation itself continued to dapple with warring anti-reform factions for a few more years, the election itself became a powerful symbol of how through the democratic process – and a little international pressure – reform can come without bloodshed.

– Ashley Carse’s The Sins of The Savior: Politics and People in El Salvador, MIT Press, 2019


Baton Rouge, LA – In tonight’s gubernatorial election, 72-year-old former Governor Jimmie Davis won a third nonconsecutive term. …Davis, a Democrat, bested a Republican nominee – the 39-year-old activist-turned-former state party chairman Robert Max Ross – by a 7% margin. The narrowness promotes the notions of psephologists of late who believe the South is becoming more open to the ideals and philosophies of the Republican party, in part due to the popularity of President Sanders, and the seemingly rightward shift in the party’s principles in the Senate under Senate minority leader Barry Goldwater (R-AZ). …Davis, who ran on a left-leaning moderate platform that appealed to lower-class voters, previously served as Governor from 1944 to 1948 and again from 1960 to 1964…

– The Times-Picayune, 2/1/1972

Jones’ wife, Marceline, was put on trial. As there was no evidence of her knowing of the motives of her husband or Manson, she was acquitted in February 1972 and soon she returned to the Peoples Temple church as its new leader. Seeing the need to repair their image, she renamed church “The Temple of the Followers of Christ’s Love,” and began advocating policies such as “Active Humanitarianism” and “Unilateral Forgiveness.”

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982

THE XI WINTER OLYMPICS IN JAPAN: Feats Surmounted & Records Broken

[pic: ]
Sports Illustrated, 2/13/1972 special issue

…Earlier tonight, Ms. Coya Knutson, the Governor of the North Star State, won the Democratic Minnesota caucus with 33% of the vote, with Senators Mondale and Humphrey coming in second and third place, respectively, and several other candidates making up the bottom 10% of votes cast. In this reporter’s analysis, the mudslinging that occurred between the Humphrey and Mondale camps is mutually destructive for the candidates, as the negativity is uninviting to decent, well-to-do, undecided Minnesotans voters. The results may be the boon the campaign of Coya Knutson needs…

– The Overmyer Network, 2/22/1972 broadcast


…Running on the big-tent Unified Socialist Party label, the incumbent President of France bested Georges Pompidou of the UNR in tonight’s second and final round of voting. Two weeks ago, Mitterrand and Pompidou were the top two finishers of the first round, which they won over Alain Poher (Popular Republican Movement (MRP)), Jacques Duclos (French Communist Party (PCF)), Gaston Defferre (French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO), Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour (Miscellaneous far right (DVED)), and Gaston Monnerville (Reform). …The Reform (“L’ Réforme”) Party, the nation’s newest party, favors an electoral college to France’s current Presidential selection process…

…Mitterrand’s team of advisors, which included Marxist academics Etienne Balibar, Jacques Ranciére, Pierre Macherey, and Henri Lefebvre, proved to be controversial surrogates on the campaign trail; this may account for Mitterrand achieving a margin of victory of only 4%.

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 27/2/1972


…In the speech, the Congresswoman accused the Senator of racism for being “both an enthusiastic defender of the evacuation” of Japanese-Americans from their homes and communities, an opponent of Japanese-Americans serving in combat, and a “staunch proponent of the campaign to keep the Japanese-Americans from returning to the Pacific Coast after the war.” [5] Mink ended the speech by saying to the cameras, “Senator Jackson, when you look at me, what do you see? A color, or a fellow American?” …Despite Jackson’s stronger record on civil rights, the remarks are valid… Mink is also critical of Jackson’s opposition to détente...

– The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 2/28/1972

…In tonight’s Democratic caucus held in the state of Washington, Senator Scoop Jackson of Washington won the contest, but real winner of the night was Congresswoman Patsy Mink, who scored an impressive 20% of the vote against Jackson. Only two other candidates, Senators Mike Gravel and Wayne Morse, appeared on the ballot…

– NBC News, 2/29/1972 broadcast

“The response to Attica was necessary. Those prisoners were not exactly in there for swiping candy. These hooligans were murderers, horrible lying thieving monstrous individuals who refused to play by society’s rules. These were truly dangerous, dangerous men. That is why they were in prison!”

– Governor Mario Biaggi (D-NY), 3/1/1972 stump speech

BIAGGI DESCRIPTION OF ATTICA VICTIMS COMES UNDER FIRE: Relatives Call Some “Exaggerated,” Others “Outright Wrong”

– The Concord Monitor, New Hampshire newspaper, 3/3/1972


…Humphrey came in second by a 5% margin, while in the Republican race, Senator Goldwater raked in roughly 32%... Knutson underperformed... Goldwater tonight performed better than expected by many pollsters…

– The Daily Hampshire Gazette, 3/7/1972

Earlier today, congress passed the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act. Introduced by Philleo Nash in the Senate in October and by Presidential candidate Patsy Mink in the House in November, the amendment prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in all federally funded education programs and activities. President Sanders is expected to sign the legislation into law fairly soon…

– ABC News, 3/11/1972 report

TULIPS AND FINGER LICKS: K.F.C. Opens First Outlet In The Netherlands

– The Los Angeles Times, 3/12/1972


…The controversial Governor of New York won over conservatives in the Sunshine state. Biaggi received little support from Black voters, whom have been rallying behind Gravel and Humphrey in recent weeks… In regards to the female candidates, Chisholm surprised pundits with a strong showing while Knutson and Mink again underperformed...

The Los Angeles Times, 3/14/1972

The political establishment’s preferred candidate won the Illinois primary once more in 1972. Humphrey won 40% of the popular vote, but 75% of the state’s convention delegates. The March 21 contest was essentially a breeze for Ol’ Hubie thanks to the perennial string-pulling of Chicago’s Mayor Richard J. “Big Dick” Daley. Fortunately for America, Daley’s stranglehold on the democratic process was lingering. The efforts of Nevada Governor Grant Sawyer to expand the number of primaries weakened Daley’s influence in the nomination selection process…

– Roger Stone’s The Liberal Elite: How They Strive to Regulate Us All, Vol. I, Stone Stallion E-Publishing, 2007

Walt Disney first began contemplating the idea of an animated adaptation of Hans Christian Andersen’s “The Snow Queen” even before Snow White premiered, but the story and titular character appeared to be not relatable enough to the audiences of the 20th century. This was proven to be true by the 1952 live-action MGM version of the fairy tale starring Danny Kaye and directed Charles Vidor, entitled “Hans Christian Andersen,” which failed to “properly” present the story and character. The concept was shelved indefinitely.

Fast-forward two decades. Walt Disney and Roy Disney are dead, and the Walt Disney Company, under Card Walker, is searching for a way to retain the years of glory and success experienced under their founder. By 1972, the company was suffering on numerous fronts. Films were seemingly decreasing in quality and popularity (especially live-action films, such as “The Horse in the Gray Flannel Suit,” “The One and Only Genuine Original Family Band,” “Never a Dull Moment,” “The Boatniks,” “Million Dollar Duck,” and “The Biscuit Eater” [6], and older members of the company were retiring or itching to do so (if not quit over rumored layoffs to save costs). Several department heads – and, especially, Board of Directors member Roy E. Disney – soon can to believe that “some diamonds” could be found among Walt Disney’s earlier shelved works. “I feared creatively the company was starting to go nowhere interesting,” Roy E. Disney later recalled. Turning to the proposals that Walt had never lived to see become reality, Disney animators suggested an attempt to bring the Snow Queen to the big screen.

According to Charles Solomon’s The Making of: Disney’s “The Snow Queen” (Disney Chronicles Books, 2005), the inspiration behind the notion was surprisingly not artistic possibility, but geopolitics. At the time of the studio’s “grand search,” the policy of détente was warming tensions between both sides of the Cold War. Due to the efforts of political leaders such as Colonel Sanders and Alex Kosygin, the company opted to look for a concept that both Russian and American audiences could enjoy, and found it in a story set in snowy Scandinavia.

As Production on The Snow Queen began, production on Robin Hood stalled. But before anything more could happen, the company had to overcome one major problem – the story. Andersen’s original fairy tale consists of seven long “stories” with complicated plots and over a dozen characters. To condense it down to a standard 80-to-90-minute feature, the writers decided to “skim away” as much as possible… [snip] The story’s tone was also changed from dark and grim to more hopeful and light-hearted. The redesigning of the main character to be more of an anti-hero than a sympathetic villain was a pivotal move that “made the whole thing come together,” according to Solomon.

Finally came the second step: determining the animation style. In early 1972, Disney sent several artists on a tour of Alaska to draw inspiration from the snow-capped state, while others researched similarities between American and Russian customs.

This is where a young Fairbanks-based painter taking the Alaskan art world by storm came into the Disney picture…

– James B. Stewart’s Disney War, Simon & Schuster, 2005

…Earlier tonight, the United States Senate finally voted to send the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the states for ratification…

– CBS Evening News, 3/22/1972 broadcast


Washington, DC – Ray Kroc, the former CEO of McDonald who now owns the San Diego Padres, donated $255,000 to Senator Goldwater’s Presidential bid last week… [7] Senator Philleo Nash (D-WI) now claims that the contribution is an attempt to persuade the Senator’s political positions for financial gain. According to Nash, who serves on several Senate committees connected to election finance law, Kroc hoped the donation would encourage Goldwater to oppose talk of a nationwide minimum wage raise proposal going around congress in recent months. The proposal would directly affect teen-aged employers, who make up “the very center” of McDonald’s work force, according to the Senator. Kroc has furiously denied the allegation, claiming he “wants the best man to be President – a man who, like me, understands the importance of self-reliance and opposes government handouts.” When asked if the donation was then a jab against the President, with whom he was once a business rival, Kroc replied, “We buried the hatchet some time ago.” Nash is nonetheless considering calling for an investigation into the matter.

The San Diego Union-Tribune, 3/26/1972

HUBERT WINS WISCONSIN BY A HAIR: Scranton Beats Goldwater By “Fair” Margin in State's Presidential Primaries

– The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 4/4/1972


– The Pittsburgh Courier, an African-American newspaper, endorsing Congresswoman Chisholm for President, 4/5/1972

For years, the media had discussed, either jokingly or seriously, the idea of Father cooking his famous Kentucky Fried Chicken on live TV at the White House Correspondence Dinner. Father was personally against the notion over fears of political opponents claiming it to be a conflict of interest. Months ahead of the final W.H.C.D. of the Sanders administration, however, after discussions with the appropriate judges and law experts, the Attorney General convinced the Colonel that such an activity, if done dramatically enough, would be considered an act of showmanship and not a promotion of KFC products. After eight years, the Colonel finally relented.


On the stage, Father joked that he had been so busy over the last seven years that he could not remember how to make it, only to expertly dance through the steps of the KFC-making process, culminating in the President pounding his hands onto the pressure cooker’s lid to make sure it closed. After just seven minutes, the Colonel passed the pieces over to the tables closest to the stage.

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991


[pic: ]
– Senators Mondale and Humphrey feign smiles for the cameras while at a charity dinner in their native Minnesota, 4/17/1972

Conservative Governor Engelhardt May Run For H.I.P. Presidential Nomination This Year

Birmingham, AL – In an official press conference, Governor Sam Engelhardt of Alabama changed his party registration from "Democratic" to "Heritage and Independence." Engelhardt explained that he disapproves of all of the Democrat candidates running for President this year, and believes the party has shifted “too far to the left for them to be viable in future elections. The Hippies,” an awkwardly-assembled moniker for members of the conservative Heritage and Independence Party, “have a far better understanding of the issues facing Americans.” When pressed about a potential Presidential bid, Engelhardt remarked, “We’ll see. Well, you will.”
Samuel Martin Engelhardt Jr., 59, started out as a planter and ginner in Shorter, Alabama. He began his political career in the state House of Representative from 1950 to 1954. From 1954 to 1958, he served as a pro-segregation state senator. Nevertheless, his legislative accomplishments included authorship of the Alabama Placement Act of 1956, and the Tuskegee Gerrymandering Act of 1957. Engelhardt ran unsuccessfully for lieutenant governor in 1958 and for Governor in 1962. Until last year, he was associated with the White Citizens Council. From 1959 to 1963, Engelhardt served as the state highway director under Governor Patterson and as the chairman of the State Democratic Executive Committee. Under Engelhardt's directorship, the Highway Department built, maintained, repaired many roads and bridges throughout the state. However, his tenure was marred by an investigation and charges related to a highway striping contract. Engelhardt was also investigated by the U.S. Civil Service Commission for allegedly violating ethics laws via serving as both the highway director and chairman of the State Democratic Executive Committee. After being cleared of all charges in 1968, he unsuccessfully ran for Congress on the H.I.P. party label. He successful ran for Lieutenant Governor in 1970. As Lieutenant Governor, he often sparred with the late George Wallace.

– The New York Times, 4/18/1972

…Governor Phil Hoff won tonight’s Democratic Presidential caucus in his home state of Vermont. Hoff, an active Presidential candidate whose campaign is heavily focused on healthcare concerns, has fared poorly in all previous primary contests… …As of tonight, the tally for the delegates allotted to the Democratic candidates so far are as follows: Hubert Humphrey holds the lead with 135 delegates, while Fritz Mondale is in second with 81 delegates. Senator Gravel holds 40, Senator Jackson holds 35, Governor Biaggi holds 34, and the rest hold less than 10 each…

The Overmyer Network, 4/20/1972

Gravel Campaign Expecting “Big Boost” In Support Now

The Washington Times, 4/25/1972

I think my favorite trip abroad as First Lady, I’ve got to say, was the time when Harland and I met with Francois [Mitterrand] and [his wife] Danielle in Paris for the third and final time. It was in April 1972, and because there was only nine months or so left for our time in the White House, neither of us worried too much about making any faux pas in front of the now-familiar and recently re-elected President. The political pressure was off our backs and the four of us could really relax more than before. It was still a political meeting, an official state visit, of course, but it was the most comfortable one we had. Naturally, we dined on chicken – fine-roasted Chicken Provencal with chestnut stuffing. Oh, and the pastries were to die for!

– Claudia Price Sanders, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1979

GOLDWATER: Peace Through Strength; Lower Taxes; Morality In Government

– Pamphlet circulated in Nevada, c. mid-to-late April 1972

Gravel: “The state of Alaska has produced great riches for the entire United States. The gold rush era I think has to be done today, uh, as this wealth is being taken from the ground and taken from our seas, that the efforts have to be made to see that this wealth is used to benefit people. [8] And Alaska is going to be relying on its oil deposits and other resources to cover its Permanent Alaskan Dividend Fund now, so I wouldn’t oppose drilling in the Artic National Wildlife Refuge [9], but as President I would implement the precautions needed to protect and preserve the local ecosystems during such use.”


Mondale: “Workers need work. They need job security, to be able to trust their employees to not be exploited. We need to close up loopholes, and ensure that unions remain key players in the workforce.”


Gravel: “We need to raise the standard of living in rural places, create opportunities for decent living – job, housing, education for children. The people who say it can’t be done either haven’t the will or are running for the wrong office.”


Moderator: “Governor Biaggi, critics persist that you demonstrated poor leadership skills in last September’s Attica Incident. Could you clarify the reason behind this and what I says about your leadership style?”

Biaggi: “I’ve said this many times before – the prison needed to be retaken to return law and order to it. The rioters inside were threatening the lives of the hostages, and I had to respond. Leadership requires action, and action yields results, and the results were that the prison as reclaimed and the rioters were brought to justice. My leadership style is pragmatic and effective, and it’s the kind of style that America needs in the White House in the 1970s.”

Gravel: “May I have this rebuttal?”

Moderator: “Senator, you have one minute.”

Gravel: “Thank you. Gentlemen, Biaggi won’t say it so I will. What happened in upstate New York last September was not a riot gone awry or an incident or a kerfuffle. It was a massacre. The killing of civilians whom the courts had ruled would live and serve time in that prison for their crimes, not for them to be treated like they were less than animals and to be shot down like they were nothing. If we were describing another country, we’d be discussing human rights abuses and sanctions at the UN right now.”

Biaggi: “Mike, you exaggerate, like many other politicians who are soft on crime because they don’t understand it. They fail to understand the necessity of the rule of law, the thin blue line that separates order and chaos. Those prisoners were threatening the lives of dozens of hostages, and with them the foundations of our criminal justice system. If they didn’t like prison, they shouldn’t have committed crime in the first place. .”

– Snippets from the transcript of the 4/22/1972 Democratic Primary debate between Gravel, Mondale, and Biaggi (Humphrey declined an invitation to participate due to a “family emergency,” later revealed to be a medical emergency concerning cancer treatment)


…The three-term Governor of Nevada appeared elated at his home state’s participation in the nomination selection process. However, the smiles, confetti and balloons littering “Sawyer For The Seventies” headquarters could not hide the unaddressed elephant in room – that the odds of winning the nomination are highly unlikely for the former running mate of 1968 nominee Jack Kennedy. Political analyst David Brinkley theorizes the Nevada primary was “more about the democratic process than the victory itself.” Local ardent backers of Sawyer, though, truly believe the former Governor will gather momentum now. “His record as governor will translate into votes for him, I’m sure of it,” argues one Sawyer supporter…

– The Philadelphia Inquirer, 4/25/1972

THE PENDULUM EFFECT: What Past Presidential Trends Can Tell Us Now

…Will the Democratic party nominate a friend of the labor unions to try and succeed the man many Democrats and liberal shoutniks see as “a businessman President,” or will they nominate a peace dove who wants to never fight another war overseas to try and succeed the president who has overseen three wars and has won all of them?

Tumbleweed Magazine, 4/28/1972

“I opposed opening relations to China four years ago because I believe it was bad form to abandon Taiwan. But the past is past. The best thing we can do now is ensure the exposure of China to the world will affect China more so than the world.” [snip] “While I am a great believer in the free competitive enterprise system and all that it entails, I am an even stronger believer in the right of our people to live in a clean and pollution-free environment. To this end, it is my belief that when pollution is found, it should be halted at the source, even if this requires stringent government action against important segments of our national economy.[10]

– Barry Goldwater at a campaign stop in Morgantown, WV, 4/30/1972

“Now I’ll admit I had some reservations on signing this here Consumer Product Safety Bill. I was concerned it would inhibit business-led innovation, but I trust Ralph Nader’s judgement, and I know even of the folks on the hill to know who wants what. I think this bill will inform consumers without trampling on the rights of business owners.”

– President Colonel Sanders signing the Consumer Product Safety Act into law, 5/1/1972

The Consumer Product Safety Act of 1972 established a new independent agency of the US government called the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, or CPSC, which seeks to promote the safety of consumer products by researching and addressing “unreasonable risks” of injury, and developing safety standards (though none established under President Sanders were mandatory). Passed by the 92nd Congress and signed into law by President Colonel Sanders, the act, which became effective on June 1, 1972, placed a Chairman as head of the CPSC and headquartered it in Bethesda, Maryland.


Lead-based paint was widely used due to its durability. However, cases from as early as the start of the 20th century cited lead poisoning from such paint. After years activism based on studies conducted by doctor Philip J. Landrigan, the government began to response to lead-based health concerns during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Congress banned the use of lead-based paint in residential structures in 1969, and founded the CPSC in 1972.


Tonight was a busy night in the world of politics: three states each held two presidential primaries. On the Republican side, Vice President Scranton won all three contests held in Ohio, Indiana, and Washington DC. On the Democratic side, though, things were more complicated. Um, huh. In fact, we’ve only just now learned which Democrat won Ohio. Um, ah. The bulletin states that Hubert Humphrey achieved a plurality in the Buckeye state, and may receive 58 of Ohio’s 140 party delegates, if not more. Earlier in the night, Mondale edges out Humphrey and Gravel to win Indiana, also by a plurality. Washington, DC, however, was a historic outcome. With over 55% of the vote, Representative Shirley Chisholm became the first African-American to win a party primary. She will likely be allotted all, if not most, of the District of Columbia’s 15 convention delegates. Undoubtedly a boon for her campaign, Chisholm likely won the primary thanks to both the capital district’s large African-American voter population, and her outreach to low-income voters of all races…

– NBC News, 5/2/1972 broadcast

…In tonight’s Democratic primary election for US Senator from Alabama, the incumbent Senator Sparkman has lost re-nomination in a major upset to underdog opponent John LeFlore. Sparkman has held the seat since 1946, and was the pro-segregation nominee for Vice President in 1952. LeFlore is a 67-year-old African-American political and civil rights activist whom was elected to the Alabama state senate in 1970. A third primary candidate was Allen Cavett Thompson, the 66-year-old former Mayor of Jackson, Mississippi. Prior to tonight’s runoff, Thompson accused Sparkman of “betraying the South,” and falsely claimed Sparkman “sat out the calls to defend segregation.” This likely damaged Sparkman’s candidacy ahead of the runoff. LeFlore will run against Republican nominee Winston “Red” Blount Jr. in the general election and – hold on, mm-hmm, we have an update: Senator Sparkman has just announced his intention to run in the general election as an independent. And from reporter’s perspective, the move could benefit Blount. This could split the Democratic vote in November and ascend Blount to the Senate on a plurality, much like how Alabama’s other Senator, the Republican, uh, John Martin, was first elected in 1962. Such a result would make one of the biggest pro-Democrat states in the South have both of its Senators be Republican…

The Overmyer Network, 5/2/1972 broadcast

HOST: “Hello and welcome back to our discussion on tonight’s Presidential primary results. Goldwater won tonight’s GOP Tennessee primary, while Biaggi won the Democrat version. Both men are conservatives and the state is fairly conservative, but the two men differed greatly on the extent of the federal government and have suffered numerous controversies this primary season.”

HUNTLEY: “Yes, between Goldwater’s gaffes and animosity shared between Biaggi and more progressive Democrats, it seemed both of their campaigns were floundering. I deduce the unexpected victories are the result of vote-splitting, at least in Biaggi’s case.”

HOST: “Goldwater received roughly 52% of the vote over Vice President Scranton’s 43%, with the remaining 5% or so going to Mississippi Governor Rubel Phillips. Biaggi, meanwhile, won 40% against Humphrey, Mondale, Gravel and Chisholm, with the only other conservative Democrat on the ballot, uh, Scoop Jackson, receiving under 5%. What do these numbers mean?”

HUNTLEY: “That conservatives in both parties have found their respective standard-bearers, and are rallying behind Goldwater and Biaggi.”

– Exchange on Meet the Press, 5/2/1972 broadcast

GOLDWATER GAINS GROUND: Wins Nebraska Primary In Landslide; Scranton Scrapes By In W.V.

DEMOCRATS STILL SPLIT: Mondale Wins NE, Biaggi Takes WV Despite HHH’s Best Efforts

The Washington Post, 5/9/1972 main articles


Associated Press, 5/16/1972


– The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 5/17/1972

I was in a bind. Two men that I admired were asking for my endorsement. It was the 1956 Senate race between Wetherby and Cooper all over again! [White House Counsel] Cliff White was urging me to choose Goldwater – a passionate man of honesty and ideals, who understood that small businesses cannot thrive if government limits or even monitors every action they take. [Chief Domestic Policy Advisor] Whitney Young, meanwhile, wanted me to endorse Scranton – a loyal apprentice who had proven his ability to lead on many occasions, most notably housing and employment reform, the 1966 Milwaukee Race Riots, the 1969 busing probe, and 1970 health committee report. In the end, I decided to repeat what I had done in 1956. I refused to take a side, arguing that the primary voters should decide who the party’s standard-bearer should be in November instead.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


…Bipartisan praise is ringing through the halls of congress for “Nader the Crusader,” who has served as the Administrator of the National Roadways Safety Administration since 1966…

– The Washington Post, 5/19/1972


…Senator Gravel came in second place, losing the contest by roughly a mere 1,200 votes. Gravel was gracious in his concession speech, telling the crowd “Morse is a worthy opponent whose care for his constituents and the well-being of this nation are genuine. If I was destined to lose this race to someone, I’m glad it was him.” However, the second place finish may boost the Senator’s campaign, as Humphrey and Mondale underperformed…

The Oregonian, Oregon newspaper, 5/23/1972


Oregon Puts VP Numbers Over Threshold

– The Washington Post, 5/28/1972

I was angry at the Colonel for not supporting my bid. We finally had a confrontation about it in May, where I hollered “I’ve added a thousand times more input to this administration than that little Scranton s#!t has.”

The Colonel bellowed “Watch the language, darn it!”

“Argh!” was my immediate reply.

Sanders then became more conciliatory, suggesting Scranton and I come up with a compromise like what the two of us had agreed on back in ’64.

“Barry Goldwater doesn’t compromise,” I said. “And it’s not like I can afford to wait until the 1976 or 1980 primaries come along. I’m already 64!”

“And I was 74 when I started this job. I waited and good fortune came to me for it,” the Colonel noted.

“The American people can’t wait – we need a pragmatic President.”

“Then work with Scranton like how you worked with me. Lead him down a path of pragmatism.”

I sighed, “At this point, I guess that’s the only option.” However, in order to ensure that Scranton did not ignore the party conservatives and their ideals, I had to increase my influence ahead of the RNC, and that meant winning as many of the remaining contests and delegates as I could.

– Barry Goldwater’s autobiography No Apologies: My Personal and Political Memoirs, Morrow Publishers, 1979

Post-Khanh Vietnam established a unicameral government consisting of a Preisdent and Council of Representatives, with the latter having more strength and influence over the President than does the US Congress. This situation accommodated Vietnam’s composition of culturally, religiously and linguistically diverse citizens which required multiple viewpoints to be heard.


Vietnam’s first Presidential election was held in May 1972. After a blanket primary was held on Tuesday the 16th, the final runoff was held on Tuesday the 30th. The runoff saw incumbent President, Harvard-trained banker-turned-politician Nguyen Xuan Oanh (of the Peaceful Today and Tomorrow Party), lose to the popular Mayor of Saigon Nguyen Hop Doan (of the Heal and Rebuild Together Party).

– Ellen Joy Hammer’s Settling The Dust: Vietnam After Khanh, E. P. Dutton, 1975

For the third and final Democratic primary debate, Mondale, Gravel, Humphrey and Chisholm converged in Sacramento, in the vitally important winner-take-all California primary…

Mondale called for further influence of labor unions in business activities directly effecting workers, as “an implemental and instrumental force for worker protection from the bureaucratic oversights of their bosses in the collective bargaining agreement.”


Gravel: “I would be fine with raising the age for eligibility for the US military to 21.”


Mondale: “Hubert, in 1963, you called American involvement in Cuba to be, and I quote, ‘our greatest adventure and a wonderful one it is.’ [11] Do you still think that way after seeing the number of veterans from that war still suffering permanent loss of intact bodies and minds, not just here in California but across all 50 states?”


Humphrey: “Senator Gravel’s defense proposals would greatly diminish the influence America has around the world. We can’t risk the US falling into the category of ‘second-rate nation.’”


Humphrey: “We need an electable politician for America, and Senator Gravel, you are too radical to win.”

Gravel: “And you are too moderate to lead!”

Humphrey called for the closing of $16 billion in tax loopholes, while Chisholm instead called for raising inheritance taxes.


Humphrey: “My economic plan is to spend $11.5 billion on welfare programs, including Social Security benefits and, pending circumstances, the Negative Income Tax Rebate.”

Chisholm: “Sir, that will boost consumer spending but you must also address the continuing discrepancies between employment and education levels among racial lines. We need to promote welfare programs that will both lift the people’s spirits and get results, that will inspire and encourage all to seek out their full potential and reach out for the American dream. That starts with Social Security, and goes on to more spending on programs for domestic workers, vocational schooling, reducing mortgage interest rates, and the removal of racial and gender-based bias from national, states and local governments.”

CBS’s Face the Nation describes Chisholm as the most radical of the four candidates…

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1972, Centurion Publishers, 2021

…hello and welcome back to tonight’s coverage of the final round of Presidential primaries for the Democratic and Republican parties. Already, Scranton has won all of the G.O.P. contests save for California, which is still too close to call. Democrats are also waiting on results from the Golden State, where one of the race’s underdogs, Senator Mike Gravel, was polling surprisingly well in the last few weeks. California seems to be experiencing a three-way race between Humphrey, Mondale and Gravel, and it is not surprising why – the state is allotted a whopping 271 delegates – and this is a winner-take-all primary...


…hold on, we have an update, yes, and the Democratic Presidential primary in California has been called for Mike Gravel. This is a game changer for the election, and puts Gravels delegate count ahead of that of Biaggi, Chisholm and many other candidates…


…Mondale’s best performance of the night was in New Mexico due to his support among Hispanic voters. Representative Chisholm, on the other hand, won the New Jersey primary due to other candidates not competing for it. However, she did outperform polling in New York, where she obtained roughly 19% of the vote. Compare this to New York Governor Mario Biaggi winning roughly 15% of the vote, who was plagued by the Attica Massacre for his entire campaign. To recap, Mondale won New York by a plurality, Humphrey won South Dakota in a landslide due to his roots there, and Gravel exceeded expectations…

– CBS Evening News, 6/6-7/1972 broadcast

The Goldwater campaign shifted from seeking the nomination to influencing the party platform. With Governor Reagan by his side, the Arizonan canvassed California. On June 6, Goldwater won the state and its hefty share of convention delegates. Scranton still maintained a majority, but it was one much smaller than what he thought it would be six months prior. The strength of the Goldwater campaign would now certainly influence both the party platform, and who Scranton would pick to be his running mate.

– Stephen E. Ambrose, Unforeseen Victories: When Politicians Triumph Over Politics: 1953-1973, NY Simon and Shuster, 1989


[pic: ]
Popular Vote Count:
Scranton: 3,293,214 (55.2%)
Goldwater: 2,392,359 (40.1%)
Phillips: 280,398 (4.7%)
Total Votes Cast: 5,965,971



[pic: ]
Delegate Count on 6/6/1972:
Mondale: 462
Humphrey: 455
Gravel: 385
Chisholm: 124
Casey: 117
Biaggi: 82
Jackson: 24
Morse: 20
Sawyer: 12
All others candidates: 3
Total delegates: 1,684
Delegates Needed to Win: 843


A lack of strong winds, soil saturated from light rain that fell just a few days earlier, and overlapping cloud formations pushed in from Canada and Colorado created the perfect conditions for the creation of consistent rainfall in the areas around Rapid City, South Dakota. The intense rain that began on the afternoon of June 9 would not cease on until after midnight on June 10.

Immediately, the flash flood made the area’s creeks overflow, carrying rubble along Rapid Creek to western South Dakota’s Canyon Lake Dam, creating a barrier in front of its spillway. Not wanting a dam-related disaster like what had occurred in California just last year, Governor McGovern ordered the debris to be cleared as soon as he learned of the clogging. This action helped keep the depth of the water behind the dam down to just 4 feet, as opposed to the estimated 10-to-15 feet it would have risen to otherwise, which would have only contributed further to the floodwaters.

The flood’s waters (estimated to have been “1 billion metric tons of water”) uprooted trees, trailers, automobiles and even entire houses. Thousands of homes and businesses were ruined in some capacity across the Back Hills of South Dakota. The destruction in Rapid City tallied up to $46 million, and almost $1mill in Keystone (in 1972 dollars); the entire flooding cost the state a total of $165million. 82 people died, and over 4,000 were injured.


After the flood, more warning systems were placed across the regions. Additionally, while houses and motels were not barred from being built in the flood zones, Governor McGovern did order all that were there to be raised and/or moved to avoid the chance of people drowning while sleeping the next time a flood so intense occurred.



[pic: ]
– Two local residents walk past the effects of flooding in Keystone, SD, 6/11/1972


…Credit also goes to the National Weather Service in Rapid City, whose personnel who used their training, tools and skills to issue effective forecasts and warnings with the information and technology at their disposal. However, it should be noted that they had such tools and training due to Governor McGovern increasing the service’s budget size last year...

– The Capital Journal, South Dakota daily newspaper, 6/11/1972

STAND UP: The Beatles’ “Stand Up,” the band’s first album since the attempt on their lives at L.A.’s The Forum, is a celebration of life peppered with both positive accolades and darker imagery. A diverse collection of songs, the tracks almost have a pattern to them, as light melodies – focused mostly on the importance of family, friendship, love and the best of mankind and the potential of humanity – are followed by gloomy and very intense records about pain, suffering, anguish, loss, the worst of mankind, and the inevitability of death.

– review, Tumbleweed Magazine, 6/15/1972

…With the conclusion of the Presidential primaries two weeks ago, Vice President Scranton is on his way to becoming the nominee at the Republican National Convention in August, where the party platform will be finalized and a running mate will be selected. The Democrats, meanwhile, will have a much more daunting atmosphere entering what could be a brokered convention, after an expanded primary season yielded more candidates, only for none of them to secure enough delegates for them to win the nomination on the first ballot. While Senators Mondale and Humphrey are in the lead, it is currently uncertain who will win the nomination and who will be their running mate…

The Overmyer Network, 6/19/1972 broadcast

In 1972, Disney artists and writers travelled to Alaska seeking inspiration for the then-planned animated adaptation of “The Snow Queen.” During their stop in Fairbanks, locals told them to the most famous artist in town: our Bob. Word soon spread of the animators’ presence, and Bob’s family convinced him to approach them with a humble proposal. Bob found 30-minute pocket of time at the animators’ hotel, where Bob was permitted to demonstrate to some of the artists his quick-rendering skills. Most present were impressed at his style. Shortly afterwards, Bob was asked to visit the company’s studios in Los Angeles to repeat the rendering technique. In the Golden State, Bob wowed other members of the Disney family with the pace of his ability to quickly create backdrops – particularly the wintry backdrops. After some hesitance over his lack of professional art schooling, the Disney men agreed with Bill Alexander and offered Bob a job working for the animation studio.

Bob was initially hesitant, wondering if they would trick him into signing a contract prohibiting him from painting outside of Disney projects. To protect himself, Bob contacted the best lawyer that he could find – and after two weeks, Bob contacted Disney with the best lawyer that he could actually afford. A contract was agreed to and signed, and the army granted Bob a six-month leave of absence.

Bob worked with Disney artists (officially, as an "advisor") and taught them how to work with fast-drying paint, from the brush-beating to the pairing of trees. He would return six months later for some additional weeks when assistance and suggestions on additional background scenes were needed.

[pic: ]
Above: an early test image from The Snow Queen

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014

“I remember this one time in, I want to say, mid-summer, 1972, when SBA Administrator Marshall Parker, went ahead and showed off to Father his new electronic digital wristwatch. He boasted that it cost him $2,100, like it was a real sign of his success. The joke was on him, though, as by the end of the decade, those kind of watches were being sold for just 10 bucks a pop! Seriously, go look it up!”

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., 1999 interview

Hogan’s Heroes Star Swears He Told Lover He Would Film Their “Intimate Time”

The Hollywood Reporter, 7/7/1972

By the start of July, Lennon was enthusiastic to go on a global tour calling for World Peace. As Paul was one who was shot, he supported John’s vision on the grounds of raising awareness on the issue of gun violence. The tour could also promote their new album, and assure their loyal fans that the band was still as powerful as it was prior to The Forum Incident. Apart from “Stand Up,” it would be their first major event without the guidance of [their slain manager] Brian Epstein.

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

The 1972 General elections were held in Cuba on 10 July of that year to determine who would serve as President for the next six years, and to determine who would serve in the Cuba Chamber of Representatives. After the collapse of the Nationalist Party, the elections were largely dominated by three major parties. The major presidential candidates, in alphabetical order, were the following:

Aureliano Sanchez Arango (1907-1976), the nominee of the heavily pro-American hard-right Conservative Party, a former Minister of Education under President Carlos Socarras who originally sided with Castro during the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista, but changed sides after Castro declared himself a communist. Sanchez developed a positive reputation in the late 1960s by serving as Lopez-Fresquet’s Secretary of Commerce from 1966 to 1971.

Manuel Francisco Artime Buesa (1932-1977), the nominee of the left-leaning centrist Stability Party, who had served in Cuba’s Chamber of Representatives since 1966. Like Sanchez, Artime had fought for Castro before switching sides. His call for complete amnesty for all former Communists helped him win a seat in congress in 1966, but the idea was largely unpopular at the national level, resulting in him coming in third place.

Erneido Andres Oliva Gonzalez (b. 1932), the nominee of the “third position” New Authority Party and the youngest candidate in the race (turning 40 just days before the election), who had served as the outgoing President’s Foreign Policy Advisor from 1966 to 1970 and as Minister of Defense since 1970. He supported strengthening ties to the US.


Presidential election results:


[pic: ]

Under Cuba’s 1965 constitution, the President can serve for more than just one 6-year term, but cannot succeed himself into office.


The course of action for the serious candidates ahead of the July 24-27 convention was to try and convince former candidates to relinquish their delegates to them. In an attempt to shore up support from former Morse supporters, Gravel made an unprecedented and unconventional announcement at a press conference on July 12: “When I receive the nomination for President, Congressman John E. Moss will be my running mate!” Moss soon joined him at the podium where he, somewhat controversially, remarked “This campaign is a fight to restore openness and truthfulness to DC. The Colonel’s anti-obscenity laws are too oppressive for them to be tolerated. A government cannot regulate morality or the freedom of expression!”

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1972, Atheneum Publishers, 1973

Mondale studied his options. He could go for the nomination at the convention, and do whatever it took to appeal to as many state delegates as possible. But this would take too long for the two weeks we were working with. He could promise concessions and appointments to the various “favorite son” candidates, like Bob Casey of Pennsylvania, which would also consume up our time. Then he studied a sort of Hail Mary pass – appeal to the one sole candidate beside Humphrey who could provide him with enough delegates to put them over the edge.

I arranged and then sat in on the meeting between Mondale and Gravel. Mike Gravel would appeal to the left, yes, but the main benefit of him being in No 1 Observatory Circle was his removal from congress. Since entering the chamber in January 1970, Gravel had repeatedly had difficulty collaborating with his fellow Senators, relying more on showboating tactics to draw attention to issues rather than play by the Senate’s rules. Mondale knew this, that the Senate would be glad to see him be promoted if the ticket won, and so did Gravel.

To sweeten the pot, Mondale agreed to add a stronger peace plank to the party platform.

“And what about Moss?” Gravel asked about the Congressman who had been his running for only a week.

“A cabinet position, or head of some commission or organization or some other cabinet-level job.”

After a long pause, Gravel answered, “This better be worth it.”

“Well then,” Mondale smiled, “several Senators are going to be ebullient when they hear about this.”

– political strategist Mark Shields’ memoir The Pundit Next Door, Borders Books, 1993

…breaking news! Mondale and Gravel have just held a press conference, in which they revealed that Gravel has dropped his presidential bid to serve as Mondale’s running mate. This move will certainly lead to Gravel throwing his delegates to Mondale, and that could lead to other candidates, such as Senator Morse and Representative Chisholm, following suit, which would push him comfortably over the threshold of 843 delegates on the first ballot, which is needed to win the nomination without creating a brokered convention…

– CBS Evening News special report, Thursday, 7/20/1972

“I’m outraged that after expanding the primaries to more than half of the states, our ticket may be again chosen not by the people but by another backroom deal!”

– Former Governor Grant Sawyer (D-NV), 7/20/1972

The election had once again not run in his favor, even after promising to make Bob Casey his running mate won him most of Pennsylvania delegates. “After all this time,” he complained, donors were “still wary of betting on another member of” the Johnson administration. Humphrey regretted his “Stroll” through the early primaries as they cost him momentum and allowed Mondale to seal his thunder. Thirdly, the election proved to be more exhaustive than he initially envisioned it would be. “Th[is] presidential election took something out of me [but] I heal rapidly,” he confided in [his wife] Muriel.


On the final day of the 1972 DNC, Humphrey’s bladder ailment had again flared up, and the doctors swore that he needed to spend at least "a couple of weeks" convalescing after surgery to correct an infection. …Humphrey would later describe the recovery process as “An agonizing period, both in worry and discomfort” [12]. Despite this and the loss of the nomination, he seemingly optimistic about his future, telling is wife “I may not get to be President, but I’m still on Capitol Hill, and I’m going to make the most out of my time there!”

– Carl Solberg’s H.H.H.: A Biography, Borealis Books, 1984 (2001 edition)

1972 Democratic National Convention
Date(s): July 24-27, 1972
City: Miami Beach, Florida
Venue: Miami Beach Convention Center
Keynote Speaker: Senator Harold Hughes of Iowa

Presidential nominee: Walter Mondale of Minnesota
Vice Presidential nominee: Mike Gravel of Alaska
Other Candidates: Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota

Results (by popular vote):
Walter Mondale – 26.1% (and 935 delegates on the first ballot)
Hubert Humphrey – 25.7% (and 574 delegates on the first ballot)
Mike Gravel – 19.3% (and 15 delegates on the first ballot)
Mario Biaggi – 7.2% (and 82 delegates on the first ballot)
Shirley Chisholm – 6.5% (and 25 delegates on the first ballot)
Scoop Jackson – 4.9% (and 24 delegates on the first ballot)
Bob Casey – 3.2% (and 12 delegates on the first ballot)
Wayne Morse – 1.8% (and 5 delegates on the first ballot)
Grant Sawyer – 0.7% (and 12 delegates on the first ballot)
Terry Sanford – 2.4% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Phil Hoff – 1.1% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Coya Knutson – 0.9% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Patsy Mink – 0.3% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Lester Maddox – 0.1% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Others – 0.1% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)

Total delegates: 1,684
Delegates Needed to Win: 843



[pic: ]

– Governor Lester Maddox (D-GA), formally dropping his bid for the White House after failing to win the nomination for President at the Democratic National Convention, 7/27/1972; in his concession speech, which received little media attention, Maddox criticized the national party ticket and refused to endorse it, instead saying "I hope everyone votes for the best ticket they find on their ballot, regardless of the party label next to it"

Fritz & Mike: Real Governing For a Change

– Mondale/Gravel’72 bumper sticker, c. late July 1972

…breaking news out of Little Rock, Arkansas, where the state’s governor, Winthrop Rockefeller, has announced that he has suspended his re-election bid and that in two days he will resign from the office of the governorship in order to better combat a recent diagnosis of pancreatic cancer [13]. Rockefeller was the first Republican Governor of Arkansas since the Reconstruction era of the 1870s and has served as the state’s governor since 1965. Upon his resignation, Rockefeller will be succeeded by lieutenant governor Maurice Lee “Footsie” Britt, a Medal of Honor recipient who once played professional football for the Detroit Lions…

– NBC News, 8/5/1972 broadcast

William Scranton’s running mate had to appeal to his own base of supporters and to the more conservative Republicans to avoid the latter staying at home. Stuart Spencer swears “Scranton believed that a lack of party unity had doomed Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 re-election bid, and sought to not repeat LBJ’s mistakes.” Ahead of the convention, the Vice President met with conservatives leaders, including southern conservatives and their leader, Strom Thurmond. A longtime former Democrat, Thurmond had quickly developed a following in the G.O.P. hierarchy despite only being a Republican since 1962. Nevertheless, Scranton needed the conservative faction’s blessing in regards to his choice of running mate, and so presented several options before them:

Senator Rogers C. B. Morton of Maryland was an experience legislator, but he also was too geographically close to Scranton.

Senator Paul Laxalt of Nevada was a fiery conservative who, to Scranton, was too reminiscent of Goldwater’s negative campaign.

Governor Bo Callaway of Georgia was also a conservative, who could have appealed to both sides of the Democratic party.

Governor Charles Percy declined interest to instead continue running for a US Senate seat

Governor Paul Robsion of Kentucky seemed like a possible compromise choice until he, after much hesitance, declined to be considered in order to better focus on his economic development plans. Nevertheless, his positive activities as Governor placed Robsion on Scranton’s list of possible cabinet members.

Scranton initially was eyeing Senator Jacob Javits of New York to serve as running mate, but even his aides considered this to be “more than just” unwise.

Senator James D. Martin of Alabama, similar to Laxalt and Callaway, was pushed by southern conservatives; however, Scranton did not believe he could help him win votes outside the south.

Governor Mitchell Melich of Utah was a tempting choice to pick due to his successful two terms, but was not well known outside of his state and was instead placed on the list of potential cabinet members.

By process of elimination, Scranton and the representatives of the party’s growing conservative faction chose a soft-c conservative political dark horse: Mike Stepovich. The Governor of Alaska Territory from 1957 to 1958 and Governor of Alaska from 1963 to 1971, Stepovich was born to a Montenegrin Serb father and a Montenegrin Croat mother in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1919. Scranton believed Stepovich could win over (white) ethnic communities in northern cities, bolster the party among libertarian-minded voters in the west, and cut into Walter Mondale’s home-state advantages in the Midwest, a place of many Americans of Eastern European descent. Ideologically, it was the “soft” part of “soft-c conservative” that Scranton hoped would appeal to both the waning liberal and waxing conservative sides of the party while also appealing to independents.

– Theodore H. White’s The Making of the President: 1972, Atheneum Publishers, 1973



[pic: ]
– The Washington Post, 8/15/1972


– The New York Times, 8/21/1972

MARY SCRANTON’S SPEECH DEEMED THE BEST ONE GIVEN AT THIS YEAR’S R.N.C.: Goldwater’s Speech Endorsing Ticket Seen As Lackluster

The Los Angeles Times, 8/23/1972 side article


– Scranton/Stepovich ’72 logo, c. late August 1972


“I think it’s time for the hippies to make a comeback” was the misguided battle cry bellowed out by the rambunctious Samuel “Uncle Sam” Engelhardt, America’s sole “H.I.P.” Governor, on August 27, 1972. It was the final line of his speech on the first day of the Heritage and Independence Party National Convention, a gathering of conservatives, populists, and warhawks registered with the party founded by former Governor C. Farris Bryant in 1964. In light of the Democratic and Republican parties nominating tickets the “hippies” perceived to be unacceptably liberal, attendance was higher than the 1968 HIPNC. The atmosphere seemed to suggest that 1972 would be the year the hippies would finally return to national prominence.

Engelhardt was alone in vying for the party’s nomination – other candidates included Lieutenant General Edwin Walker, who oversaw operations during the Cuba War before launching three unsuccessful bids for Governor of Texas; Bruce Alger, a former US Congressman from Texas’s fifth district for 10 years; and the former US Congressman John Rarick of Louisiana, who, after failing to win a single delegate in his run in the 1972 Democratic Presidential primaries, had bitterly rejoined the hippies.

As the nominating process proceeded, it became increasingly evident that the party was splitting over how to move forward. Former HIP member Sam Nunn noted in 1976, “The question was ‘should we focus on fiscal conservatism, social conservatism, or double down on both?’ The answer we got from the convention goers was ‘D: all of the above.’”

The competition turned negative, with each candidate slinging mud onto at least two others. Upon making a back-room deal with Rarick, Engelhardt finally wrestled away the nomination from Walker and Ager on the fifth ballot. The party then saw two factions walk out on the convention to form tickets of their own. Thus how 1972 had three HIP tickets: Sam Engelhardt (AL)/John Rarick (LA) (of the Heritage and Independence Party) represented a greater focus on social conservatism than fiscal conservatism; Ed Walker (TX)/Robert J. Morris (NJ) (of the aptly-named Defense Party) focused heavily of fiscal conservatism, isolationism, and higher military spending in the name of “national protection”; and Bruce Alger (TX)/Iris Faircloth Blitch (GA) (of the Country Party) ran on the theme of small government, reinstating segregation “in willing areas” and “reinforcing traditional social roles,” which was ironic given how the Vice-Presidential candidate was a woman who served in the US House of Representatives for eight years.




– A quote by Colonel Sanders, said shortly after the 1972 RNC during a speech in support of the Scranton/Stepovich ticket, c. 8/29/1972

[1] My mom.
[2] Italicized part is an OTL quote!
[3] OTL quote, according to his Wikiquote page.
[4] As covered in the 1970 chapter, Salvador Allende lost the 1970 Chilean election; as a result of this, and the repulsion of communism from Cuba, fears of communism encroaching central America are not at all as high here as they were IOTL!
[5] Source 24 on Scoop Jackson’s wiki (toward the end of the long blogspot)
[6] All real movies, by the way. Yeah – even “The Boatniks”!
[7] In OTL, Kroc in 1972 donated $255,000 to Richard Nixon’s re-election campaign:
[8] Gravel’s first words in his OTL 1968 campaign video:
[9] According to his wiki page, he did not oppose such activities while a Senator.
[10] OTL quote!, according to Source 81 on his wiki page.
[11] OTL quote, according to’s article on the Third Democratic debate of 1972.
[12] Page 416 of Carl Solberg’s Hubert Humphrey: A Biography, as seen and found on Google Books.
[13] Because he’s still in office ITTL, the cancer is detected a month earlier, possibly due to the stress of another term worsening his health.
Post 29
Post 29: Chapter 37

Chapter 37: September 1972 – January 1973

“Get busy living or get busy dying”

– Stephen King (OTL)

Two weeks before the start of 1972 R.N.C., [then-boyfriend] George [Stanley Clinton] and I struck a deal: he would be more supportive of my political interests in exchange for me learning to play at least one musical instrument. I chose the violin, as that is a great counterpart to George’s piano.

When we went to that year’s convention, George was not impressed by the affair. On the trip back home he complained “I get that it’s all important, but does it have to be so boring? So sterile?”

“What do you mean? Goldwater and Mary Scranton were very passionate speakers,” I said in my defense.

“Apart from them and the Colonel, all these politicians just seem to phone it in,” he somewhat grumbled.

I replied, “Well, change starts somewhere, so why not with us?”

“You mean with you, honeybun.”

After a moment of hesitation, I decided to finally break the news to him. “Funny you should say that – I’ve signed on to Scranton’s campaign. I’ll be coordinating with teams of canvassers who will be registering voters across Tennessee and North Carolina.”

Clinton looked at me before asking, “We’ll still see each other every day, right?”

“Of course!”

“Then you can run around bothering people all day long if you want to, honey.”

“Thanks for understanding, George.”

“Ol’ Bill Scranton’s lucky to have a gal like you in his corner.”

“Hmm, Bill,” I thought, “I really like that name.” Years later, I would honor our son with that name.

– Hillary Rodham-Clinton (R-TN), in her autobiography The Decisions I Have Made, 2016

The two Democrats serving as Alaska’s US Senators at the time were very inspirational to me. Ernest Gruening had led the state throughout World War Two, and was a fierce opponent of America’s military actions in Cuba during the LBJ years. Gravel was more inspirational to me, and not just because of the anti-war rhetoric. Here was a man who just took off to America’s own little great white north without any connections to the state and without that much money, and just 15 or so years later, at age 42, was the Democratic nominee for Vice President. It convinced me that Alaska was a land of possibilities.

That spring, I had campaigned for Mondale in the Midwest. In the summer, I requested being assigned to work on the Mondale/Gravel ticket’s Alaska division. I figured that if a guy like him can make it big by going up there, maybe there’s something waiting for me up there too.

I worked closely with Gravel and his inner circle to try to win the state away from Stepovich. Early polls showed the Republicans had a ten-point lead. I liked a challenge. In those eight weeks I rubbed elbows with Alaskans of all kinds – from Mayors and state Senators to housewives, drillers, fisherman, and Native Inuit hunters – in all corners of the state. I was exposed to the majesty of the land and the political opinions of the people, many of which I agreed with…

– Bill Clinton’s Putting People First, University of Alaska Press, 1986


[pic: ]
– Scranton for President advertisement, c. September 1972


…for both debates, candidates will discuss foreign policy in the first half-hour and domestic policy in the second half-hour, with an additional ten minutes of time allotted to any other concerns. The nominee of the Heritage and Independence Party, Governor Sam Engelhardt, has not been invited to attend…

– The Washington Post, 9/3/1972

…we are getting reports of some kind of shooting occurring at the Munich Olympics… it appears that armed men attempted to scale a chain-link fence on the border of the Olympic Village. The men in question had with them duffel bags from which they produced pistols, and then assault rifles, upon security spotting them. We’ll have more information for you as further details come to light… For those just tuning in, it seems that would-be terrorists tonight attempted to sneak into the Olympic Games in Munich, but were spotted by security officers. When they were discovered, one of the trespassers shot the officer, drawing the attention of other personnel. A gunfight ensued in which the terrorists attempted to use their weapons to march into the Olympic village, but were repelled by security. While our correspondents in Munich believe but cannot confirm that the trespassers had more firepower than security, they can confirm that many of the security personnel who arrived on the scene were shot, but no deaths have been announced. All of the trespassers, meanwhile, were shot by security after officers fired upon the trespassers from the roof of a nearby building. Of the unconfirmed number of five trespassers, only one received non-fatal injuries, and the yet-to-be-identified man is currently in police custody… Our correspondents in Munich tell us that security personnel at the Olympics, publicly known for being relaxed to present a “carefree” atmosphere, report that security measures were heightened last week after Prime Minister Enoch Powell and several secretaries of his premiership quietly threatened to boycott the games if their safety was not assured…

– BBC News, 9/5/1972

THE MUNICH SUMMER OLYMPICS CONCLUDE TODAY: “The Cheerful Games” Lived Up To Nickname, Despite Shooting Incident

The Guardian, 9/11/1972

Australia’s last major “Arkie-wave” scandal of 1972 concerned the misconduct of Rolf Harris, a 42-year-old singer-songwriter. Accused of sexual pestering, Harris went from being called an entertainer to being called a “pest,” a word quickly taking on a whole new meaning in a “post-Ark” world. In mid-September, sufficient evidence was brought against Harris concerning charges of alleged assault against females aged seven-to-eight in 1968-to-1969 [1]. Harris vehemently denied the charges, but the evidence was clear. In 1973, Harris was sentenced to 20 years in prison, which he served from 1974 to 1994. In 1997, though, Harris was arrested for violating parole and for sexual pestering 13-year-old schoolgirl. He was sentenced to 15 years in prison in 1998, and was released early in 2012. Since then, Harris, now approaching the age of 88, has maintained a low profile, and currently resides near his hometown of Bassendean, a suburb of Perth, Western Australia.

Political activists observing the 1972 fall from grace demanded the passing of the Protection of Women and Children bill being worked on in Canberra at the time, and pushed the issue of “women’s rights” to the forefront of Australia politics just days ahead of that year’s Liberal coalition leadership election…

– Donald S. Passman’s Sing-and-Dance Backwash: The Struggle for Transparency In The Entertainment Industry, 1945-Onward, Borders Books, Second Edition, 2018

Prime Minister Harold Holt, after six years in office, had lost party confidence, and on September 1 announced he would resign over the internal unpopularity. John McEwen, officially of the “Country” political party, expanded his base of support (grazers, farmers, rural residents) via garnering the support of women’s rights organizations by being the first national politician to publicly condemn Harris “and all who actively seek to pester women,” siphoning support from more liberal candidates without alienating his base of supporters. McEwen subsequently won the Liberal coalition leadership election over Holt favorite Malcolm Fraser and several others, making McEwen the 18th Prime Minister of Australia on September 24, 1972.

– Rodney Smith and Ariadne Vromen’s Politics in Australia: An Overview of Histories, Theories, Practices and Issues, Cambridge University Press, 2012


[ pic: ]
– still from a campaign film on the Mondale family, first aired 9/20/1972


Harmon Archibald Dobson stepped off his private airplane beaming with pride. 22 years prior, Dobson founded Whataburger as a “wooden box” stand in Corpus Christi, Texas; now, after expanding in several more states over the years, the franchise was celebrating the grand opening of its 100th location, and its first one in the Golden State [2]. Dobson stood in front of the distinct A-frame building and its Flying W logo, meant to be reminiscent of a plane’s wings, and faced the crowd of attendees to cut the ribbon officiating the restaurant’s opening. While “other burgers on the market are meant for quick convenience,” Dobson says, “I wanted to make a burger that took two hands to hold and tasted so good that when you took a bite you would say ‘What a burger!’[3]. Even so, the Whataburger will certainly face competition from local franchises, not to mention nationwide giants such as McDonald’s, Burger Chef, KFC’s Wendyburgers, and the newest fast-food major player, Ollie’s Trolleys.

– The Sacramento Union, 9/23/1972

Mondale: “the Santa Barbara oil spill is just one of many examples that demonstrate why businesses need to be regulated to ensure they protect workers and the environment from harm.”


Scranton: “young and old Americans have much to thank Colonel Sanders for. Medicare and Medicaid costs dropped under this administration. Housing costs are down, and several studies have proven that the Colonel’s promotion of vocational programs has increased college enrollment and allowed college tuition rates to drop. I think we should keep the good times rolling. …Lincoln would be proud to know his party still contains the energy and moral compass it possessed over one hundred years ago. …Colonel Sanders achieved bipartisan support in order to maintain the safety, sanity and security of this nation, and I will continue this on during my time as President.”


Scranton: “My opponent would raise taxes.”

Moderator: “Senator, your rebuttal?”

Mondale: “Yes, I would raise taxes, but I would raise taxes on the rich, not on the lower classes.”

– Snippets from the transcript of the first Presidential debate between Mondale and Scranton, Tuesday 9/26/1972

Mondale shined when asked economic questions, but did poorly on foreign policy in the first of two debates. Scranton, for his part, again played up his activities in the Governor’s office and his actions as Vice President, but executed his talking points in a manner many pundits called “dry” and “uninspiring.” Most observers considered the debate to be a stalemate, with Scranton having a slight edge over Mondale.

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

Scranton: 45%
Mondale: 40%
Other: 5%
Undecided: 10%
– Gallup poll, 10/1/1972

Despite the 10-months-long freeze on prices and wages in that was implemented in late 1968, inflation is still on the rise. The economy has suffered no major downturns since 1963, making for a record period of growth at eight years and ten months, but the threat of rising prices and drop in value could end this expansion.

– report, The Wall Street Journal, 10/1/1972

Labor leaders such as Walter Reuther and George Meany stumped for Mondale after the White House began floating the idea of announcing a second price freeze in order to keep the economy afloat and stabilized.

– Meg Jacobs’ Pressure at the Polls: The Transformation of American Politics in the 1970s, 2016 net-book edition

HOST: So why do you think your campaign tanked when it had the potential to go all the way?

JACKSON: I should have won and I could have won, but I lacked the name recognition of the bigger candidates more familiar to voters thanks to their 1968 runs. I think my brand of international involvement would have resonated really well with primary voters if that had been the sole thing discussed about me.

HOST: You’re alluding to Patsy Mink, correct? Do you think she was the main factor in your campaign failing?

JACKSON: Ah, I don’t think so. It had more to due with a lack of name recognition in my opinion.

HOST: Well, you’ve recently publicly endorsed Mondale despite his anti-intervention running mate. Did you back Mondale out of party loyalty?

JACKSON: No, I’m backing him because Mondale is the better man for the job out of the men we have to choose from. I don’t think Gravel can really do any damage to anything as the Vice President.

– Scoop Jackson interview, KAFE 104.1 FM radio broadcast, 10/2/1972

ADVISOR 1: “Mary, we want to cut down your time spent on the campaign trail.”

MARY: “The crowds don’t seem to mind.”

ADVISOR 2: “That’s the thing – they like you more than your husband. If anything, your energy is making voters more aware of how, well, boring your husband is.”

ADVISOR 1: “Opinion polls show it, he has a charm deficit that your charm is only amplifying.”

MARY: “Well wouldn’t people notice me suddenly being off the trail?”

ADVISOR 2: “We think you should take a few days off to recover from an illness.”

MARY: “How about instead, you gals show that when people vote for Bill, they’re not just voting in a new President – they’re voting in a new Frist Lady.”

ADVISOR 2: “...uh, I guess that might work.”

ADVISOR 1: “Hmm… alright, we’ll try it your way.”

MARY: “And I’ll try to get Bill to show more of his personality on the trail. I’ll work on it with him and his PR people.”

ADVISOR 1: “Deal.”

– Second Lady Mary Scranton and two campaign advisors, A/V security camera footage from a hotel lounge in Kansas City, MO, 10/3/1972 (footage discovered in 2011)


[pic: ]
– Scranton at a campaign rally near Jefferson City, MO, 10/6/1972

HOST: The biggest question I have is this: Why Stepovich? He is not that well-known nationally and he comes from an electorally-small state.

SCRANTON: Well, yes, the state of Alaska does not have a lot of people but it does have a very diverse people from the state’s rich history. As Governor, Mike presided over a period of economic growth due to a responsible handling of Alaskan resources, which shows he has the leadership skills for the job. Alaska is also a western state, or I consider it a western state, at least, so with him the ticket represents both sides of the Mississippi. And most importantly for this race, is he is a representative of conservatives in the party of Lincoln.

HOST: But some conservatives such as Senator Goldwater have complained that Stepovich is not conservative enough to appeal to that base of voters.

SCRANTON: I disagree. And, well, I think Mike’s record as Governor speaks for itself.

– Scranton and host on Meet the Press, 10/8/1972


– The New York Times, 10/9/1972

Mondale: “Some of the biggest tasks for the next administration will be economical and geopolitical. America as a duty to protect allies and to maintain both immediate and long-term prosperity. ...America needs the E.R.A. …I believe we can finally lead the globe in education innovation by 1982.”


Scranton: “Too many people fear finances – they vote for high taxes for high services so they have less responsibilities. I believe the American citizen can stand on his or her own two feet when given the opportunity.”


Scranton: “We need criminal justice reform. We cannot have another massacre like the one that happened under Democratic Governor Biaggi.”

Mondale: “I agree, but I would take things a step further and promote transparency in government, so we know exactly what our government is doing for us, how our taxpayer money is being spent, and how laws truly affect things.”

– Snippets from the transcript of the second Presidential debate between Mondale and Scranton, Tuesday 10/12/1972

Mondale was seen as the winner of the debate. Scranton again gave a milquetoast performance, while Mondale presented himself as well-informed and energetic without appearing unprofessional. Additionally, in wake of his response to the administration’s 1972 price freeze initiative, Mondale gained a slight lead to most post-debate polls.

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

So now we have to pick between two puffy-eyed vampires. They look and sound like robots or clones; one’s an evil twin to business, the other’s an evil twin to unions. Because of their aesthetic boredom, I actually find the irrelevant running mates more interesting! A Polack chameleon, changing his policies to match whatever’s popular, versus a bleeding-heart Quebecois peacenik, both from the politically unimportant state of Alaska. But the voters were deprived of a debate between those two. Instead we got stuck watching tweedle-dope and tweedle-dumbass drone on and on for nearly an hour – twice! This may have been fascinating to watch for stuffy politicos, but for average Joes with lives of their own, this is just going to keep them even farther away from the potentially-fascinating world of political discussion.

– Hunter S. Thompson, Tumbleweed Magazine article, 10/12/1972

“Bill [Scranton]’s a good man, but I think he really could have done better in those debates. He’s got the right ideas, he’s just got to work on his showmanship to actually sell them.”

– President Sander to a reporter in a moment later considered to be a gaffe similar to one made by President Eisenhower made in 1960, 10/13/1972

A CONSERVATIVE CRUSADE: Goldwater Takes His Message To The People

…the passionate Senator is stumping for conservative candidates such as Senate nominees Hank Hibbard (R-MT) and Governor Harrison Thyng (R-NH), and the results are already evident in the latest polls…

National Review, 10/15/1972 issue

Mondale: 48%
Scranton: 45%
Other: 6%
Undecided: 7%
– Gallup poll, 10/1/1972


Dick Allen Wins Triple Crown In Kansas City, Vida Blue Talks Pitching Record

The New York Post, 10/22/1972

…Meanwhile, the owner of the Louisville Colonels of the American League, and other managers, congratulated George Steinbrenner on finally purchasing the Cleveland Indians…

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994


[pic: ]
– Mondale campaigning in Gary, IN, 10/23/1972


…Economic fears, heightened by the ongoing price and wages freeze, seem to have overshadowed this administration’s past foreign policy successes. Hoping to capitalize on this, democratic candidates are now focusing more on the economy, while more conservative and Republican candidates see foreign policy as the higher priority in this race…

– The Washington Post, 10/28/1972


“Archie gets upset when Mike donates money he recently inherited towards Walter Mondale’s presidential campaign instead of contributing towards his room and board, and Gloria is appalled that Archie is considering voting for one of the conservative “hippy” candidates.”



Archie: “Nobody living under my roof for free is voting for some droopy-eyed pinko.”

Mike: “Arch, Mondale’s nowhere close to being a socialist.”

Archie: “Eh, all them Democrats are pinkos. Especially that Gravel guy.”

Gloria: “What do you mean especially, Dad?”

Edith: “Oh, that Mike Gravel is so handsome, just like a movie star.”

Archie: “Edith, will you stifle yourself, please?”

Mike: “Go on, Archie, I’d like to hear this.”

Archie: “It’s very simple. He’s from Alaska, right? Right. And who’s Alaska’s neighbor? Russia!”

Gloria: “So?”

Archie: “So if he don’t like pinkos, why’s he living next to them?!”

Gloria: “Well at least that means you’re voting for Scranton.”

Archie: “The guy with the Russian running mate? You’re crazy!”

Mike: “Oh, what now?!”

Archie: “Hello? Stepovich! His name is ‘Stepovich.’ The Russians aren’t even trying to hide their spies anymore!”

Mike: “What? Stepovich isn’t even Russian; it’s Polish!”

Archie: “(dramatic) Oh-ho-ho! So, one of your kind, eh? That explains so much! Also – Russkie, Polack, same difference, both kinds are pinkos!” [4]


– Transcript from All in the Family, Season 3, Episode 8, “Mike Comes Into Money,” first aired 11/4/1972 [5]

“It is now time for another great American to hold high the torch of liberty.”

“Apollo 10 and the Hydrogen Bomb are both testaments to mankind’s potential, as they are examples of our constructive and destructive nature and our constructive and destructive potential. We must understand that we must always look to the constructive ways, with diligent consideration and contemplation, and in the years ahead I believe that, if elected, my good friend William Scranton will do just that.”

– Excerpts of Colonel Sanders’s 11/3/1972 national address


[pic: ] [6]
Popular Vote
Mondale/Gravel: 39,383,725 (48.2%)
Scranton/Stepovich: 35,870,241 (43.9%)
Engelhardt/Rarick (H.I.P.): 2,859,812 (3.5%)
Walker/Morris (Defense): 2,287,851 (2.8%)
Alger/Bitch (Country): 1,062,216 (1.3%)
Jenness/DeBerry (N.M./Socialist Workers): 163,418 (0.2%)
All other candidates: 81,709 (0.1%)
Total votes cast: 81,708,972

Close States
Ohio, Wisconsin, Arizona, Florida and Nevada were the closest states in that order. Early polls suggested Scranton would win all four, only for him to win Arizona, Florida and Nevada in the end.[49] Scranton won Alaska by a margin of 3.7%, possibly due to media scrutiny of his running mate made more Alaskans aware of Stepovich than Gravel.[50-better_citation_needed] Scranton also came within 5% of winning California, which would have given him the election via its hefty 45 electoral votes[49].

Many contemporary pundits agreed “Scranton lost an election he should have won quite easily,”[51] but failed to “bring new ideas to the table,”[17] “appeal to enough party conservatives to unity the party before election day;”[52] others criticized his “flat”[53] and “uninspiring”[18] personality for the loss. Mondale, meanwhile, was considered “energetic”[33] and subjectively “charismatic,”[34] and pundits commended him for his “work-heavy” coalition of blue-collar voters “ranging from Latino farmhands in New Mexico to construction workers in Chicago to the white ethnic groups of New York City to hard-working and assiduous-but-unsung housewives nationwide” and young progressive college-educated voters.[54]

Records Broken
The election made Mondale the first Norwegian-American US President, the second youngest President in American history (elected at the age of 44, but turning 45 fifteen days before the inauguration), and the first person under the age of 50 to be elected President in 68 years, since Theodore Roosevelt won a full term in 1904 at the age of 46. The Electoral College, conservative former US Representative I. M. Blitch became the first woman to receive an electoral vote in a US Presidential election, via a faithless elector. ...On Inauguration day, the oldest American to serve as President was succeeded by the youngest American elected President.



[pic: ]
– Mondale holds up the arm of his running mate in front of a cheering crowd shortly after receiving over 270 electoral votes, 1:57 A.M., 11/8/1972

United States Senate election results, 1972

Date: November 7, 1972
Seats: 35 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Mike Mansfield (D-MT)
Senate minority leader: Barry Goldwater (R-AZ)
Seats before election: 54 (D), 45 (R), 1 (I)
Seats after election: 56 (D), 43 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 2, R v 2, 0 - I

Full List:
Alabama: John L. LeFlore (D) over Winston “Red” Blount Jr. (R), incumbent John Sparkman (Independent Democrat), and Herbert W. Stone (Conservative)
Alaska: Eben Hopson (D) over Howard Wallace Pollock (R)
Arkansas: incumbent John L. McClellan (D) over Wayne H. Babbitt (R)
Colorado: incumbent Gordon L. Allott (R) over Floyd K. Haskell (D) and Secundion Salazar (La Raza Unida)
Connecticut (special): incumbent appointee Antonina P. Uccello (R) over Gloria Schafer (D)
Delaware: incumbent J. Caleb Boggs (R) over Joseph Biden (D)
Georgia: Jimmy Carter (D) over Fletcher Thompson (R) and J.B. Stoner (HIP); incumbent appointee Ernest Vandiver (D) lost nomination
Idaho: Richard H. Stallings (D) over incumbent Len Jordan (R)
Illinois: Charles Percy (R) over Roman Pucinski (D); incumbent Paul Douglas (D) retired
Iowa: Dick Clark (D) over incumbent Jack Miller (R) and William A. Rocap Jr. (HIP)
Kansas: incumbent James B. Pearson (R) over Arch Tetzlaff (D) and Gene Miller (Conservative)
Kentucky: Lawrence W. Wetherby (D) over Jesse Nicholas Ryan Cecil (R), Louie Nunn (I) and Helen Breeden (HIP); incumbent John Sherman Cooper (R)
Louisiana: incumbent appointee Jack P. F. Gremillion Sr. (D) over B. C. Toledano (R) and Hall M. Lyons (HIP)
Maine: William Hathaway (D) over incumbent Margaret Chase Smith (R)
Massachusetts: incumbent Ed Brooke (R) over John J. Droney (D)
Michigan: incumbent Robert Griffin (R) over Frank J. Kelley (D), Jerome P. Cavanagh (Independent), Patrick Dillinger (HIP) and Barbara Halpert (Human Rights)
Minnesota: incumbent Walter Mondale (D) over Phil Hansen (R)
Mississippi: incumbent James Eastland (D) over James H. Meredith (R) and Prentiss Walker (I)
Montana: Henry S. “Hank” Hibbard (R) over incumbent Lee Metcalf (D)
Nebraska: Orrin Hatch (R) [7] over Philip C. Sorensen (D) and Terry Carpenter (I); incumbent appointee Dwight W. Burney (R) retired
New Hampshire: Harrison Reed Thyng (R) over incumbent Thomas J. McIntyre (D)
New Jersey: incumbent Clifford P. Case (R) over Balfour Bowen Thorn Lord (D)
New Mexico: Roberto Mondragon (D) over Pete Domenici (R) and Jack Daniels (Independent Democratic); incumbent Clinton Presba Anderson (D) retired
North Carolina: Terry Sanford (D) elected over Jesse Helms (R); incumbent B. Everett Jordan (D) retired
Oklahoma: incumbent Bud Wilkinson (R) over Ed Edmondson (D) and William G. Roach (HIP)
Oregon: incumbent Mark Hatfield (R) over Edith Green (D)
Rhode Island: incumbent Claiborne Pell (D) over John Chafee (R) and John Quattrocchi Jr. (Independent)
South Carolina: incumbent Strom Thurmond (R) over Eugene N. Zeigler (D)
South Dakota: James Abourezk (D) won over Robert W. Hirsch (R); incumbent Karl Earl Mundt (R) retired
Tennessee: incumbent Howard Baker (R) over Ray Blanton (D)
Texas: incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson (D) over Bruce Alger (R)
Vermont (special): Robert Theodore Stafford (R) over incumbent appointee Thomas P. Salmon (D)
Virginia: John Otho Marsh Jr. (D) over incumbent appointee William Lloyd Scott (R) and Horace E. Henderson (Independent)
West Virginia: incumbent Jennings Randolph (D) over Louis Leonard (R)
Wyoming: incumbent Gale W. McGee (D) over Keith Thomson (R)


…Tonight’s map favors the Democrats. Of the 35 seats, Democrats hold 15 and Republicans hold 20. …Four incumbent US Senators died last year, and that tipped the Senate composition in favor of the GOP by a net of 1 seat. One seat made vacant by the death of Democratic US Senator Thomas J. Dodd, but was then filled in by the Republican Antonina Uccello. Governor Callahan of Virginia, meanwhile, appointed a Republican to Democratic Senator Robertson’s seat, and Governor Hoff appointed a Democrat to the seat of the late Republican Senator from Vermont… The seat of the late Senator Richard Russell stayed in Democratic hands. …All in all, tonight’s senate elections saw the election of 14 new Senators. …Overall, the night’s US Senate results were a mixed bag of sorts. The most likely explanation for the Republican losses, in this reporter’s opinion, is plain old voter fatigue...

– CBS Evening News, 11/7/1972 election coverage broadcast

While city councilman Joe Biden initially trailed Boggs by almost 30 percentage points, the young neophyte narrowed the gap to a loss of just 2% due to his running of an energetic campaign. Boggs, suspecting the year to be a bad one for Republicans, increased the time he spent on the campaign trail starting in early October, and outspent Biden 2-to-1 by Election Day. The narrowness, however, greatly impressed Delaware Democrats, who decided to keep his name in mind for the 1974 midterms and the 1976 governor’s race.


United States House of Representatives results, 1972

Date: November 7, 1972
Seats: All 437
Seats needed for majority: 218
House majority leader: Mo Udall (D-AZ)
House minority leader: Charles Halleck (R-IN)
Last election: 231 (D), 206 (R)
Seats won: 228 (D), 209 (R)
Seat change: D v 3, R ^ 3


Most leaders and prominent members of the G.O.P. blamed Goldwater for the election loss, but Barry fought back the accusations. “They brought this upon themselves by not listening to the voices of the millions of conservatives that supported my campaign. They wanted their voices heard, and Scranton failed to hear!” he told a reporter on November 10. As the weeks passed, the passion seemed to subside as analysts realized how well Republicans had performed. Republicans only lost 2 out of 20 seats, but due to earlier reports suggesting further losses, the slight increase in conservatives entering the House, the gaining of 2 new conservative Republicans in the Senate, and Goldwater’s opponents failing to unite behind a single challenger, it seemed Goldwater would be narrowly re-elected Senate minority leader. However, just days before the January leadership election, half of the anti-Goldwater candidates withdrew their names from consideration and threw their support behind US Senator Howard Baker of Tennessee, the son-in-law of former Senate leader Everett Dirksen. The election was narrow, but Goldwater in the end found himself out of the position. His brand of conservatism was the leading Republican voice in the Senate no longer, but conservatism in the GOP remained on the rise.

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition

United States Governor election results, 1972

Date: November 7, 1972
State governorship elections held: 19
Seats before: 32 (D), 18 (R)
Seats after: 37 (D), 13 (R)
Seat change: D ^ 5, R v 5

Full List:
Arkansas: Dale L. Bumpers (D) over incumbent Maurice Lee “Footsie” Britt (R)
Delaware: incumbent Russell W. Peterson (R) over Sherman W. Tribbitt (D) and Virginia M. Lyndall (HIP)
Illinois: Paul Simon (D) over Richard B. Ogilvie (R); incumbent Charles Percy (R) retired
Indiana: Robert L. Rock (D) over Otis Bowen (R), Berryman S. Hurley (HIP) and Finley N. Campbell (NM); incumbent J. Irwin Miller (R) was term-limited
Iowa: incumbent Armour Boot (D) over Fred Schwengel (R)
Kansas: Morris Kay (R) over incumbent Robert Docking (D)
Missouri: James W. Symington (D) over Christopher S. “Kit” Bond (R); incumbent Ethan A. H. Shepley (R) was term-limited
Montana: Thomas Lee Judge (D) over Ed Smith (R); incumbent Tim Babcock (R) retired
New Hampshire: Malcolm McLane (D) over Chester Earl Merrow (R); incumbent Harrison Reed Thyng (R) retired
North Carolina: Walter B. Jones Sr. (D) over James Holshouser (R), Hargrove “Skipper” Bowles (Independent Democrat) and Arlis F. Pettyjohn (HIP); incumbent James C. Gardner (R) was term-limited
North Dakota: Aloha Pearl Taylor Brown Eagles (R) over Arthur A. Link (D); incumbent William L. Guy (D) retired
Rhode Island: incumbent J. Joseph Garrahy (D) over Herbert F. DeSimone (R) and Philip W. Noel (Independent)
South Dakota: incumbent George McGovern (D) over Carveth Thompson (R)
Texas: incumbent Waggoner Carr (D) over Henry Grover (R) and Ramsey Muniz (La Raza Unida)
Utah: K. Gunn McKay (D) over Nicholas L. Strike (R); incumbent Mitchell Melich (R) retired
Vermont: Consuelo Bailey (R) over Randolph T. Major (D) and Pete Diamondstone (Liberty Union); incumbent Phil Hoff (D) retired
Washington: incumbent Daniel J. Evans (R) over Albert Rosellini (D) and Vick Gould (Taxpayers)
West Virginia: incumbent Arch A. Moore Jr. (R) over Jay Rockefeller (D)


…James Callaghan, then the leader of the UK’s Labour Party, congratulated Mondale by phone call, as did President of France Francois Mitterrand. …Canada’s Prime Minister Stanfield announced he looked forward to “developing a strong relationship” with Mondale; in Quebec, though, more excitement was made over the election of Vice-President-Elect Mike Gravel, who is the son of Quebec immigrants. Similarly, Norway’s Prime Minister Lars Korvald gave a speech celebrating Mondale’s victory, adding “the win is one for us as well because of Mr. Mondale’s roots here; his paternal grandparents were from here.”…


…The night’s gubernatorial results also confirmed the election of two female governors. The people of Vermont and North Dakota voted for their respective Republican nominees, Consuelo Bailey and Aloha Eagles [8].

…Bailey is a 73-year-old former Lieutenant Governor who was successfully drafted to run for the nomination earlier in the year. Having first won election to public office, winning a seat in the Vermont state senate, in 1930, Bailey was over 40 years of experience, which also includes time spent as the first female speaker of the Vermont house of representatives…

…In North Dakota, Bismarck Tribune’s front page read “Gal Succeeds Guy,” a play on the name of outgoing Governor William L. Guy. His successor is state representative Aloha Eagles, her full name being Aloha Pearl Taylor Eagles (nee Browne). Eagles, 56, was an underdog in the state primary, having only served in the state house since 1967 (she was elected in 1966, 1968 and 1970), but defeated more established candidates by touting her experience as a homemaker to relate to women voters, who gave her a plurality victory in the primary. Eagles is fiscally conservative but socially progressive, which has often put her at odds with other Republicans in the past. In 1969, before the Ms. Arkansas Wave, she promoted women’s rights by authoring a bill to legalize abortion in North Dakota, leading to her receiving death threats; while the bill failed, she nevertheless showed fear in the face of violent opposition, which only contributed to her rising fame in her home state…

Woman’s Day Magazine, special “election ’72” edition, 11/9/1972

“Well, on one hand, too many politicians fudgel [9] around the place, and others are real snollygosters [10], so when it comes to them, I’m glad to be leaving their world. But on the other hand, even more politicians are sincere, or at least try to be. There are politicians who do, or at least try to do their best to do good, or who may not look it but will do what’s right when push comes to shove. Those are the folks going to miss working with.”

– Outgoing President Sanders to a reporter, 11/11/1972


– The San Francisco Chronicle, 11/11/1972

…We never found who tried to take me out, and while I got plenty of sympathy from it, I got the cold shoulder from Mondale. I privately met with him before he became President, and I talked to him about legalizing pot. Mondale outright opposed it, both nationally and even on the state level. I wasn’t going to get backed up by him and his administration over the next four years, I knew that much. So moved up here, to Canada [11]. Decided the best course of action was to continue to fight for my rights, and the rights of all Californians, in political exile.

Timothy Leary, 1989 KNN interview


– The Columbus Dispatch, 12/1/1972


William Alexander Morgan had a colorful and controversial life that did not at all seem like the kind that would be maintained by a successful Congressional candidate. For many years, Morgan was a man unpopular with the US military. In 1948, he went AWOL, was captured, and spent two years in a military prison. Perhaps spurred by this experience, Morgan initially supported the overthrowing of pro-American Batista, the dictator of Cuba until 1959. Morgan even contributed to Fidel Castro seizing power on the island, over for the American to turn on Fidel in 1961. Morgan then redeemed himself in the eyes of America’s fighting forces by becoming a gunrunner during the Cuban War, and was instrumental in several early battles. After the end of the war in 1965, Morgan returned to his native Ohio a hero. In a move reminiscent of Jean Valjean’s journey of redemption, Morgan’s best-selling 1967 autobiography propelled him into making a successful bid for state senate in 1968. There, he promoted veteran affairs and social programs, and co-authored an unsuccessful “Assured Income” bill. Less than a month ago, he and his wife Ellen, a former snake charmer, and their three children (Anne, b. 1955; William Jr., b. 1957; Carl, b. 1966) were celebrating his election to the US House as a Democrat from one of Ohio’s most liberal congressional districts. Now, a bitter veteran and former member of the Communist Cuban front has slain William Morgan, taking from us one of America’s most compelling characters. He will be greatly missed.

– The Washington Post, obituary column, 12/2/1972

Almost ten years had passed and my Communist Cuban brethren still held contempt for Americans. From Morgan’s assassination, I knew I would still not be forgiven, and that my life would remain in danger as long as I stayed here. I had to leave America after only just having come back a few days prior. I managed to meet with my brother for moment before leading back to the port. I made Robert [E. Lee Oswald Jr.] promise me he would not tell Mama I had been back but had not managed to see her again.

When I asked him how Marina was doing, he told me about how she had he declared legally dead in 1965, had remarried two years ago, and now had a third child, a son named Harland.

I felt so betrayed.

– Lee Harvey Oswald’s autobiography “Call Me By My Real Name: Confessions From a Fallen Hero,” published posthumously


…The programs are certainly popular among an overwhelming majority of Americans… From January 1961 to January 1965, federal aid for the poor rose from $9.9million to $24.1million despite the heavy amount of the 1963 and 1964 budgets going to the military. From 1965 to 1973, that number only rose to $31.2million due to Sanders’ focus on balancing the federal budget and more libertarian policies. Also during the Johnson administration, almost half-a-million citizens received vocational training from previously inexistent programs. Because Sanders retained most of Johnson’s Great Society legislation, that number of citizens increased to 3 million citizens between January 1965 and January 1972 [12]… Mondale’s calls for expanding programs such as Medicare, Medicaid and the N.I.T.R. played well in the November election, but his middle-of-the-road record in the US Senate makes many progressives pause. Congressman Don Edwards, a supporter of Vice-President-Elect Mike Gravel during this year’s Democratic primaries, says “we [the growing progressive wing of the Democratic party] will work to ensure the President upholds the promises he made during the campaign.”…

– The Los Angeles Times, 12/10/1972

The end-of-the-year report for 1972 was pretty pessimistic – sales were dropping in both foreign and domestic markets. Dave [Thomas]’s Wendyburgers were doing particularly poorly as the market became saturated with more and more competitors. The fancy limited-time-only Wendyburger Supreme, or “Super Wendy,” our response to the surprising successful Ollieburger, was the only silver lining of the year, as it showed there was an audience for more artisanal foods. However, it didn’t seem to be enough. We need a new approach, and that sparked the idea of expanding KFC’s menu.

At the end-of-the-year staff meeting, Pete [Harmon] objected to changing what Pops had left behind, announcing, “I say we stay the course and use the surveys to improve customer experience to stay better than the rising competitors.”

Millie seemed to disagree, instead suggesting that KFC launch a negative ad campaign against the competition, or even implement cost-cutting measures or employee layoffs to cover losses. Harmon, Thomas and I shot down those ideas due to historical backlash to such moves. KFC has always been a positive-minded company, and I wasn’t going to see it resort to attack ads. I instead countered with, “Playing it safe won’t be enough. We need to expand into new territory. The Super Wendy’s proof-positive we can add more offers to the menu without having to remove or change any old classics.”

Millie looked over the numbers and replied, “Even if we bring back the Super Wendy, it won’t be enough to combat the drop in sales. We need something else to renew interest in our brand. Something familiar to remind our customers why KFC became so popular and successful in the first place.”

I knew what she meant.

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

In December, Margaret dropped by the White House to ask for what she called “a little favor.”

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


– The Star Tribune, Minnesota newspaper, 12/26/1972


Secretary of State: Carl Curtis (R-NE)
Secretary of the Treasury: Eugene Siler (R-KY)
Secretary of Defense: Charles H. Bonesteel III (I-VA)
Attorney General: Lawrence Edward Walsh (D-NY) (1965-1969), Wayne M. Collins (I-CA) (1969-1973)
Postmaster General: Leif Erickson (D-MT)
Secretary of the Interior: George Dewey Clyde (R-UT)
Secretary of Agriculture: Bourke Hickenlooper (R-IA) (1965-1971), Walter Judd (R-MN) (1971-1973)
Secretary of Commerce: Milton Friedman (R-IL)
Secretary of Labor: Arthur Larson (R-SD) (1965-1969), Herbert Hoover Jr. (R-CA) (1969), Charlotte Reid (R-IL) (1970-1973)
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare: Nelson Rockefeller (R-NY)
Secretary of Transportation: John C. Coolidge III (R-MA)

Cabinet-Level Positions:
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency: Allen W. Dulles (R-NY) (1965-1969), Joseph H. Ball (R-MN) (1969-1973)
Director of the Federal Bureau of Information: J. Edgar Hoover (I-DC) (1965-1969), William C. Sullivan (D-MA) (1969-1973)
US Trade Representative: Florence Dwyer (R-NJ)

Other Notable Members:
Surgeon General: Luther Leonidas Terry (I-AL)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: William B. Franke (I-NY) (1965-1969), Benjamin O. Davis Jr. (I-DC) (1969-1973)
Federal Reserve Chairman: William McChesney Martin (D-MO) (1965-1972), George Wilder Mitchell (D-WI) (1972-1973) [13]
NASA Director: James Edwin Webb (I-NC) (1965-1972), Harold Brown (D-NY) (1972-1973)



Washington, DC – Upholding his pledge to maintain a transparent administration, President-Elect Mondale today allowed his transition team to release the names of several politicians currently being vetted for positions in the upcoming Mondale White House. The list features many “outsider” considerations alongside well-known names. …US Senator Philleo Nash (D-WI) may be chosen for Interior or even State… US Congressman and former state senator Fred R. Harris (D-OK) may be selected for an advisory position… Former Treasury Undersecretary Robert Roosa in being vetted for Treasury… Prominent lawyer Warren Christopher may be tapped for Attorney General…

In regards to the Mondale White House’ inner circle, Sam W. Brown Jr., who worked on the Mondale campaign from the beginning, will likely become the White House Communications Director. …Former Undersecretary of State Robert Kennedy, famous for campaigning with labor activist Cesar Chavez and the late Ralph Abernathy, may be nominated for Secretary of Labor, H.E.W., or for a diplomatic position…

The Washington Post, 12/29/1972


[pic: ]
– Mondale meets with Ralph Nader to discuss the possibility of the latter being nominated for Secretary of Transportation; Mondale’s Senate office, 12/29/1972

ANNOUNCER (as newsreel footage plays): …”The Great Roberto, the roaming and batting Roberto Clemente, arrived in Nicaragua yesterday to deliver aid to earthquake victims. Clemente’s activism lead to him organizing emergency relief flights after the nation’s capital city of Managua suffered a massive earthquake on the 23rd, only for the relief equipment of the first three flights to land in the hands of corrupt government officials in the troubled South American country. The baseball right fielder for the Pittsburgh Pirates has opted to personally oversee the transfer of the goods, sparing no expense as he climbed into a brand-new airplane in Miami for the long trip over. [footage of Clemente boarding plane] Clemente spends much of the off-season doing charity work, and to him, Nicaragua is no exception. [footage of plane at capital] Hundreds of locals wave and cheer as Clemente hands out towels and sandwiches. [footage of Clemente distributing aid] When asked, Clemente says he is not discouraged by the corruption.”

CLEMENTE (in footage): “You have to help out those who can’t help themselves no matter who may want to stop you because they want to worsen the situation. You have to do your best and be the best you can be, because you never know what can happen tomorrow. You could wind up in their shoes someday.” [14]

ANNOUNCER (as footage plays): [footage of plane landing] “As the Grand Roberto received a warm welcome home today, his mind seemed to linger on the prospects of the people of Managua. It may just be that his humanitarian work has only just begun.”

– BBC World News report, 1/4/1973


...Sanders leaves behind a mixed legacy in the eyes of fiscal conservatives. “On the one hand, he and his treasury were generous when it came to promoting free enterprise via subsidies for industry. On the other hand, his use of federal funds for social aid and development programs bordered on socialism,” [L. Brent guy] laments. Other conservatives remain critical of the N.I.T.R., a landmark bill, but most conservatives and business owners seem proud of the Colonel’s effective calls for industry self-regulation, albeit “self-regulation within reason,” as the Colonel once put it, establishing guidelines instead of mandatory regulations.

…Farmers supported Sanders due to his paradoxical support of both anti-centralized-government policies and the expansion of the government’s role in assisting in crop price support, disaster relief, flood control, national weather warning systems, trade details, farm loans, highway development, rivers being dammed, food and drug safety, and medical in rural areas.

…What’s next for the Colonel? At 82, he would be forgiven if he retired from public service, but most of the people close to him disagree. “Even now, he’s still a man who likes to keep himself busy. He’ll find something to do, some problem to fix, some idea to build upon, and when he does he’ll roll up his sleeves once more,” promises First Lady Claudia…

The New Yorker, 1/6/1973 issue

The Five Best and Five Worst Aspects of the Colonel Sanders Presidency

The Best Aspects

1 Negative Income Tax Rebate Act of 1971 – A moderate alternative to the Federal Assistance Dividend proposal, the NITR changed the composition of poverty in the United States.
2 The Cold War Thaw – while roughly the first half of the Sanders Administration handled an icy relationship with the USSR’s Premier’s Shelepin and Inauri, Sanders and Kosygin managed a friendly détente; furthermore, in order to prevent war from breaking out on the Korean peninsula in 1967, Sanders achieved success in the game-changing task of opening up trade to the People’s Republic of China.
3 The Ms. Arkansas Scandal – While it sullied the reputation of the man America had grown to almost idolize (albeit temporarily), the scandal turned out to be a watershed moment for feminism that left a positive impact on the world in the long-term.
4 Winning the Indochina Wars – Overseeing a strategy of utilizing the land of Southeast Asia to American advantage led to the unification of Vietnam in 1967, the defeat of the Pathet Lao in 1968, and the capturing of Cambodia’s Pol Pot in 1972.
5 Promoting Healthy Practices – The Scranton Report impacted the tobacco industry and promoted exercise and healthy food consumption practices

The Worst Aspects
1 Deregulating Business – While it initially boosted the economy in the aftermath of the Salad Oil scandal, the Colonel’s moderate pro-management laws were partly if not mostly to blame for the economic effects that occurred after he left office.
2 Alleged Conflicts of Interest with KFC
3 Strengthened Censorship Regulations
4 Alleged Religious Bias
5 Temper – until his fifth year in office, the Colonel was infamous among his inner circle for having a temper; though no public incidents of cane whacking ever happened while he was in office, later reports, most notably an incident concerning FBI Director Hoover, have confirmed his aggressive personality trait.

Overall: The Colonel is general considered to have been an above-average President, often ranking in the second-highest tier of Presidential rankings, most often between numbers 5 and 10. Americans remember his administration as one of prosperity for the nation, with the Colonel’s negative aspects often being either overlooked or, given his positive aspects, forgiven.

– The President Colonel Sanders Historical Society website, c. 2019

In my last month in office, I took things both slow and fast. I knew that if I ever wanted to see the White house again, it would have to be through invitation or via the tour, so I made the most of it without stressing myself out. I made some Presidential Pardons. I watched the Super Bowl with friends and family; it was a good game. I helped Claudia and the staff with the packing. I passed some executive orders, too. Most were small things, but one included an increase in funding for welfare programs.

I also spent a great number of hours conversing with Mondale over what was in store for him once he went and sat behind the President’s desk. On the first day, the tenth of January 1973, I met with the President-elect to help Mondale learn the ropes, which I hope starts a tradition of the outgoing President participating in the transition process. I think it would help ease the switch. Anyway, I called him to the White House to discuss how to implement exercise into what I call the “American routine.” Typically, that’s sitting down at all three square meals of the day, sitting while traveling to work, sitting while traveling from work, and sitting after work to relax. A part of me thinks that if the average American works hard enough, sweating and cracking their backs to make a living, they’re already keeping themselves fit. But in this modern work of unhealthy food and typewriter desks and more people riding subway trains than tractors, working hard isn’t always body-working. Those kind of folk need to be encouraged to move around so they can keep themselves well fit. Promoting exercise regimen recommendations and programs was the best I could do on my way out the door, and I hoped my successor would continue it.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974

The former fast-food giant promoting healthy living was ironic and even a bit funny to me, I will admit, but it was not the only baton he passed to me. In his last meeting with me before I started the job, the Colonel brought me over to the Resolute Desk. He pulled out a manila folder from the bottom drawer and handed it to me. Inside was a very blunt letter of resignation, dated June 1966.

“What’s this?” I asked him.

“Fritz, after the first try at stormin’ into northern Vietnam failed, I was feeling so low over the deaths overseas. I felt this unbearable guilt hit me like a slow-moving train. I figured I alone was to blame for forever taking those boys away from their loved ones. In those moments of shock, I felt so unworthy of the Presidency, I thought I didn’t deserve to stay on any longer.”

“What made you stay on?” I inquired.

“I had to right the wrong. To leave would have been cowardly, which is not my style. I soon figured that if it was my responsibility, then it was my duty to make sure they did not dies in vain. It was my mess, and I had to clean it up.”

“Why are you telling me this?” was my final thought.

“Because I want you to remember two things above all, Fritz. Number one: never, and I mean, never, back down from what you know is the right thing to do. And number two: always own up to your mistakes. The buck has to stop here, because that’s an unwritten part of the job description.”

“I knew this was a tough job went I applied for it, Colonel,” I assured him.

“Well, remember those two things just the same. Because you’d be surprised by how much running a country is not at all like running a chicken franchise. Instead of grease-fires and exploding pressure-fryers, you got fire-bombings and the threat of nuclear explosions. Instead of annoying customers, you got annoying legislators,” he sighed, and, breaking off into a tangent, ranted, “And there’s rarely a moment where, instead of ordering the cook to do it, you can actually go and sneak on down to the kitchen to make some of your own chicken for yourself!”

The Colonel came off as a very deep and passionate man.

– Walter Mondale’s The Good Fight: An Autobiography, D. McKay Company, 1995; second edition (note: passage not found in first edition from 1981)


– The New York Post, 1/14/1973

“My fellow Americans, in just two days I will return to being a citizen. Serving in this position has been a most tremendous honor. …Now, we look for a moment into the very future of America, a future that has been opened up to us by the hard work done during this administration and assisted by the advancements of the previous administrations, and smile with optimism at what the next administration promises to bring. In short – so long, D.C.! It’s been a heck of a ride!”

– Colonel Sanders, live from the Oval Office, multi-channel TV/radio broadcast, 1/18/1973

The Colonel finally stood to give one last speech. “Gentlemen,” he began, “There’s nothing more for us to do on these grounds but to grab as many office supplies as we can. Then, we’ll watch over the long-term effects of all the good work that has been accomplished during these last eight years. Some of you have been here since the beginning, others for much less. But I must say that it was equally wonderful working with y’all. It was a real honor. I couldn’t be more proud of what we have done together.” And picking up his glass of ginger ale, he toasted the room. “To us, and to America!”

– Former WH Press Secretary Lee Edwards, recounting the final meeting held at the WH house during the Sanders administration, 2010 KNN interview


[pic: ]
– The Colonel, on his last walk around the White House grounds as the incumbent President, early 1/20/1973

“The world is constantly changing and we must change with it, or fall behind and be left in the dirt and dust that lies behind the path of progress and prosperity.”

“And as your President, I pledge to secure your safety at home and abroad, to support your right to speak as loud and as passionate as you can, to protect your prosperity, and to defend the American way from all forms of harm!”

– Quotes from Walter Mondale’s inaugural address, 1/20/1973

[pic: ]
Walter Frederick “Fritz” Mondale, the 37th President of the United States of America

[1] OTL:
[2] So here, Dobson: doesn’t die in a plane crash on April 11, 1967. Like Walmart founder Sam Walton, Dobson was a pilot (Huh. I guess the fates of Dobson and Sam Walton ended up reversed for this TL. Hm, wasn’t planning on that, but, you know what? I like it, I think it works.)
[3] Quote found on Whataburger’s wiki page.
[4] My apologies for the insensitive language, but this really is how that character would talk.
[5] OTL episode:
[6] Florida received one less electoral vote than IOTL due to its slower rate of increase in population here. IOTL, Florida’s Cuban population increased dramatically in the aftermath of Castro’s consolidation of power on the island; between 1959 and 1974, “about 500,000 Cubans…arrived in Miami,” according to Here, communism was defeated in Cuba, and so the Cubans who migrated post-1965 in OTL never did so here; some may have even moved back to Cuba (this also means that Miami has a bit less of a Cuban influence, but is still becoming the preferred tourist destination of the state). Wisconsin gets the additional vote due to its OTL rise in population, based on the chart in the demographics section of Wisconsin’s wiki article.
[7] IOTL, Hatch moved from his native Pennsylvania to Utah in 1969 to practice law. Here, butterflies make him end up in Nebraska instead.
[8] Real person!:
[9] It means “to pretend to work while actually doing nothing.”
[10] It means “shrews and unprincipled persons.”
[11] He wouldn’t stay and fight his legal battle because he fled from them in OTL!
[12] All statistics based on the data found on Wikipedia’s Great Society article, but here the 1965-1969 trends have been adjusted to demonstrate how they likely would have played out in 1961-965 instead, and under President Sanders.
[13] Secretary Friedman declined the Colonel’s offer to give him the job due to a lack of interest, the F.R.C.’s early opposition to some of Friedman’s views, and preferring to return to academia.
[14] Italicized part is OTL quote (Source 68 on his wiki page).

Stretch said:
Bob Ross and Disney sounds like a match made in heaven.

RyuDrago said:
Well, considering this is the proper thread to talk about, I wonder what you would think of this latest OTL KFC PR idea... Don't blame me for posting this.

I wonder what would or could happen TTL... Ideas, opinions on the matter?

o_0 Um, uh, I don't, um, what in the - I mean, the Colonel would certainly never - would he? No! Argh... [insert "there is no emoticon for what I am feeling" gif here] (I don't blame you, but IMHO, that is no way to honor a legendary American. Then again, neither is "Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter," yet most folks in my high school were not offended by the disrespect and historical inaccuracy.)

Pop culture does what it does. If it's what (a portion of) the people want, who am I to oppose it?

Good eye, @Sciox , fixed it! (It was originally one speech and it seems there was some overlap when I split it into two small speeches) Thanks!

DTF955Baseballfan said:
1) Vida Blue may well have played all year without a signed contract. I'd expect Oakalnd (if that where's the Athletics are) to still win the World Series, their first since 1930 back in Philadelphia (and first pennant since 1931), but questions will swirl if Blue becomes a free agent. OTOH, Steinbrenner didn't yet have the Yankees, he bought them in early 1973, so who he goes to will be a good question.

2) TTL the A's might be known as the Berded Bunch. OTL Charlie Finley told all his players to grow mustaches for publicity and also becasue that was such a stand against the system. TTL, however, President Sanders has a mustache and even a small beard. (Would that be considered a goatee?) Facial hair is therefore not a onerous as it was OTL. OTOH, some of the more conservative franchises will still forbid faciaal hair, I'm sure.

3) 1972 in Decemberis whenRoberto Clemente died in a plane crash - he could survive here.

4) I presume that the Braves still moved to Atlanta? Hank Aaron might get a couple extra home runs and set the record on one of the last days of 1973 - hopefully against the Dodgers still, as Vin Scully's call is a thing of beauty

5) The more I thinkabout it, it's possible the financial straigts of the Pilts inSeattle are known early and Louisville is an Ameircan League team. Knsas City was going to get an expansion team becasue of the A's move, so that means the White Sox could move to MIlwaukee and announce it in 1972 - Dick Allen nearly won the Triple Crown for them (and could TTL) but that might not even be enough.

Or, they could have moved in 1972, and Allen's Triple Crown comes for the new Milwaukee White Sox.

If they move, they are actually sold to Bud Selig.

6) I guess you *could* throw us a curveball, though - Finley almost moved his A's to Louisville in 1965 or so but league owners rejected it. You haven't told us who the Louisville team is. What if Finley is fought for a couple years and that Louisville Colonels franchse is really the Athletics - and it's Louisville with its garish green and gold winning the 1972 World Series?

7) Oh, boy, I can see it now - Finley would have promoted that name by inviting every colonel, both real and fictional, to the ballpark at one time or another. He could give away monocles like Colonel Klink with the team emblem, oh what a face3!

But, more likely, he stays. Expansion was set for 1971, but they moved it up 2 years because of Finley's antics. You have the Colonels forming for the 1970 season or maybe 1971, so it's just as likely there are expansion teams in Montreal and San Diego in the N.L and theAl.L. has Milwaukee andLouisville, with Finley forced to stay in Kansas City. Maybe he sells to Ewing Kauffman early and becomes the Colonels' owner anyway - the Athletics still win in 1972 but Finley's team comes close to a division title

8) Another thought - Ray Kroc could own the Padres but in the American League. Gene Autry wanted a 2nd west coast team in the A.L.. If the A.L. gets the Padres, because Finley stays in Kansas City (and the commissioner might have forced him and then brokered that agreement for him to sell and get an expansion club), then you have your pick of which other club goes into the A.L., the Brewers or Colonels. With the other joining the Expos in the N.L..

So, to summarize:

1. Athletics win first World Series since 1930, maybe in Kansas City.

2. Vida Blue doesn't have his contract tiff if they are in Kansas City becasue Finley probably sells the team and gets an expansion one.

3. Dick Allen might win the Triple Crown, leading the league in battling average, home runs, and RBIs.

4. Roberto Clemente could survive his plane crash TTL.

5. Hank Aaron will come closer and likely break Babe Ruth's home run record at the end of next year, especially if the Padres are in the A.L. - having to play in San Diego, a horrible park for hitters, 9 games a year for 5 years definitely took at least 2 home runs from Aaron between 1969-1973.
Click to expand...

Alright then!...

1) Interesting. Apart from Steinbrenner (do you really think he'd end up somewheres else? ITTL, Donald Trump's playing for the Yankees (I mentioned it in the later 1968 chapter), maybe that changes something?), I'd say all this stays the same.

2) What a fun detail about how the Colonel's facial hair (I think it is a goatee) affects the MLB!

3) Already working on it (as a news(paper?) report covering his humanitarian actions set either in January 1973 or much farther into the future).

4) Consider it canon!

5) But would their financial situation be the same as IOTL if the economy is doing better at this point ITTL than it was in OTL?

6) I'm not an expert on professional baseball (not even close); I'm not even sure what you mean when you ask "who" is the Louisville Colonel's baseball team? But I suppose Finley could join them, sure! The Louisville Colonels' colors are red and white (and gold, too, if I'm remembering my own TL correctly).

7) Whoo, that'd be fun!

8) Could the Padres face off against the Colonels in the American League (and when?)? That means it's still Oakland v Cincinnati in the 1972 World Series (instead of the Colonels vs someone else)?

A lot of interesting ideas here!

DTF955Baseballfan said:
Thanks, I'm glad you like it.

1. Steinbrenner could buy the Cleveland Indians - he bid on them OTL but was in trouble for campaign donations to Nixon that likely don't come OTL.

5. According to this, the stadium was a dump and there were protests that prevented the building of it where the voters originally approved it. The team might end up moving to Milwaukee anyway; a California bank caalled in a $4 million loan they took out to get the team in the first place. However, this brings up my answer to #6.

6.By who the Colonels are, I mean were they an expansion club and if so in which league? Or a team that moved.

Expansion only came in 1969 because of Finley's move. Otherwise it wouldn't have happened till 1971. Since you have a new commissioner (who could well block his move, unlike OTL, Finley had driven American League owners crazy threatening to move everyplace under the sun almost since the day he bought the club) they could be awarded an expansion team when you say, in the summer of 1969, and then prepare for the 71 expansion which was planned. This lets Finley be the maverick owner of the Colonels and have those wild promotions. The Athletics are thus in Kansas City, and win the World Series (Blue wasn't a big factor in 1972, due to the contract and also arm fatigue), the Padres are an American League team, and so are the Colonels, who are a substitute for the Pilots of OTL.

This means the Colonels and Padres are both American League clubs, and face each other in 12 or 18 games a year, spending on whether the Colonels are in the East or West.

Option B: The Expos almost didn't form in 1969. Butterflies preventing the N.L. President from going to a game at a 3,000 seat facility and being impressed by it, could have caused the deal to fall through, as could not being able to meet with Charles Bronfman after every other member of the group that had put money in on the team dropped out.

NOw, I don't think the Colonels would be a National League club - they would only be about 100 miles from Cincinnati, and thus more likely to be an A.L. city. Mikwaudde and Chicago are about the same distance, though, and if it's an emergency situation then American League history can play out like it did OTL, and the Colonels placed there on an interim basis before everyone realizes, "Hey, the Reds and Colonels are *both* drawing really well, this isn't a problem like we thought." Thus shelving plans to try and move the Colonels somewhere else long term.

The Expos could have even formed in 1969 but then the blurb about the Colonels could mean that they are the ones who failed to make it after a year, too. In this case, the Braves would move to the East and the Colonels would become rivals to the Reds in the West. AAnd, the Colonels and Padres have 18 games against each other in the National League.

Which is more likely? Finley original asked the A.L. to let him move his club to Louisville OTL - he even had a 2-year stadium lease. (WHich of course meant he could move if he wasn't happy.) A more effective Commissioner, like you have TTL, might well say, "Look, FInley is a creep, let's give him an expansion club and make hi sink some investment into it (though he ran everything on a shoestring)." Ewing Kauffman got the expansion club OTL, he could buy the Athletics and then Finley be given the expansion club. No club in Oakland for now, but they could get one later with the new Coliseum, and in fact the Giants might move there instead! (Yes, Candlestick was an awful place to play, its placement at Candlestick Point meant it was 10-15 degrees chillier than the rest of the area and very windy)

And, Finley could even trade for Blue. If his club is playing starting in 1970 (a compromise between the 1969 of OTL and the planned 1971), Blue is just a young minor leaguer who had a few games in 1969.Yes, Finley might have to give up a fair number of players, but as noted, the Athetics can still win the Series in 1972 in Kansas City, while Blue - a CY Young winner and MVP in 1971 who got his club to 2nd place almost singlehandedly - plays without a contract and then blots Louisville as a free agent.

The White Sox are probably going to move to Milwaukee, maybe for the 1973 season, maybe they already did in 1972. Or, Bud Selig might just join forces with Seattle and push for expansion by the mid-'70s. Because a delay of a year means those protests in 1969 keep a domed stadium from being started ont he site which had been promised, which dooms the Seattle bid, but Seattle would still want a major league club.

I hope this helps, and that it hasn't made it more confusing for you. This was really an interesting time in the major leagues.
Click to expand...

1) Very plausible that he ends up with the Cleveland Indians

I guess Finley owning the Colonels and them being in the American League is more plausible, especially if TTL's Commissioner decides to keep his eye on things.

BrianD said:
I'd go with option A, and keep the team in the city long-term. I think there would be enough local businesspeople to buy the club when Charlie Finley sold it.

If you keep the idea of the Louisville Metropolitan Statistical Area growing to 2 million in the coming years, it could easily support a Major League Baseball team as well as an NBA team. Which leads me to the basketball Colonels.

IOTL, the Colonels didn't make it into the merger because the Chicago Bulls coveted one of the Colonels' star players -- Artis Gilmore -- and would have nixed the ABA/NBA merger unless the Colonels agreed not to go along. The owner, John Y. Brown -- later governor of Kentucky -- sold out, brought the Buffalo Braves of the NBA, then sold off that team's best assets until swapping ownership of the Braves for Irv Levin's ownership of the Celtics. Brown then sold his majority share in the Celtics after making a series of bad deals, basketball-wise.

So when the baseball Colonels get sold, you do NOT want John Y. Brown involved.
Click to expand...

I concur, option A is a less chaotic/complicated scenario. Well here, J.Y.B. is busy trying to make Ollie's Trolleys the next big thing, so he wouldn't be the owner. I don't know who would be, but for the sake of simplicity, let's assume it's someone competent and reasonable. I thought I already covered the inclusion of the Colonels into the merger (I'll check). Anyhoo, if the Colonels had to trade Gilmore for inclusion in the merger, and if that's the most sensible thing to do, then I guess they'd do that.

I honestly didn't know there was this much complexity and activity in professional baseball, with there being different leagues, levels, trades, moves, negotiations, interactions, complications, etc.

Personally, I just prefer simply hitting (okay, trying to hit) the ball and then running along the diamond. That's sports to me - playing around in the fresh air with good friends in a healthy bit of competition and camaraderie. Good air, good friends, good food, good times, good game.
Post 30
Post 30: Chapter 38

Chapter 38: January 1973 – January 1974

“I’ve never met a Kentuckian who wasn’t either thinking about going home or actually going home”

– Happy Chandler [1]


[pic: ]
– Mike Gravel retaking the oath of office for the Vice Presidency in a private ceremony, after tripping over the words at the public ceremony [2], as his wife and children look on, 1/20/1973


Secretary of State: US Senator Philleo Nash of Wisconsin
Secretary of the Treasury: former Undersecretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs Robert Vincent Roosa of New York
Secretary of Defense: outgoing Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and retired US Air Force General Benjamin O. Davis Jr. of Washington, D.C
Attorney General: attorney and former Deputy Attorney General Ramsey Clark of Texas
Postmaster General: former US Senator Maurine Neuberger of Oregon
Secretary of the Interior: former state senator Fred R. Harris of Oklahoma
Secretary of Agriculture: former Governor Ryan DeGreffenried Sr. of Alabama
Secretary of Commerce: US Congressman John Emerson Moss of California
Secretary of Labor: former Undersecretary of State Robert F. Kennedy Sr. of Virginia
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare: former Governor Albert Rossellini of Washington state
Secretary of Transportation: outgoing Administrator of the National Roadways Safety Administration Ralph Nader of Connecticut

Cabinet-Level Positions:
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency: banker and former US Congressman Joseph Walker Barr of Indiana
Director of the Federal Bureau of Information: incumbent William C. Sullivan of Massachusetts
US Trade Representative: President of the United Automobile Workers Walter Reuther of Michigan

The President’s Executive Office:
White House Chief of Staff: Chief of Staff to Senator Mondale Richard Moe of Minnesota
White House Deputy Chief of Staff: African-American attorney Joseph W. Hatchett of Florida
White House Counsel: outgoing White House Appointments Secretary Liddy Hanford of Washington, D.C.
Counselor to the President: lawyer Warren Christopher of California
Chief Domestic Policy Advisor: US Congresswoman Julia Butler Hansen of Washington state
Chief Economic Policy Advisor: former President of the Export-Import Bank of the United States Harold F. Linder of New York
Chief Foreign Policy Advisor: businessman and former US Army combat technician Robert Dale Maxwell of Colorado
Chief National Security Advisor: Columbia University political science professor Samuel P. Huntington of New York
Director of the Office of Management and Budget: former First Lady of Florida Mary Call Darby Collins of Washington, D.C.
White House Communications Director: political activist and campaign organizer Sam W. Brown Jr. of California
White House Press Secretary: former Assistant White House Press Secretary Malcolm MacGregor “Mac” Kilduff Jr. of New York
White House Appointments Secretary: political activist and former campaign press secretary Rudy Boschwitz of Minnesota
Administrator of the Small Business Administration: businessman Alexander Buell “Sandy” Trowbridge III of New Jersey

Other Notable Members:
Solicitor General (representative of the Federal Government before the US Supreme Court): state Supreme Court Associate Justice William Wayne Justice of Texas
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: African-American US Navy Commander Wesley A. Brown of Maryland
Federal Reserve Chairman: incumbent George Wilder Mitchell of Wisconsin
NASA Director: incumbent Harold Brown of New York

Notable US Ambassadors (in alphabetical order):
To Brazil: former Governor Carl Sanders of South Carolina
To Canada: outgoing Governor Phil Hoff of Vermont
To China: US Congressman Lester Wolff of New York
To France: former Governor John J. McKeithen of Louisiana
To Ireland: actor and political activist Gregory Peck of California
To Japan: businessman, former coast guard commander and former Governor of Guam Carlton Skinner of California
To Lebanon: journalist, peace activist and President of Earlham College Landrum Bolling of Indiana
To Panama: Ambassador to Costa Rica and former Ambassador to El Salvador John Gordon Mein of Washington, D.C.
To Saudi Arabia: outgoing Governor William L. Guy of North Dakota
To Sudan: former US Congressman Alec Gehard Olson of Minnesota
To the U.K.: former First Lady of the United States Ladybird Johnson of Texas
To the U.N.: retired US Army Lieutenant General Keith Lincoln Ware of Colorado
To the U.S.S.R.: US Congressman Joseph Karth of Minnesota
To West Germany: Mayor of Detroit Jerome Cavanagh of Michigan

– [3]

My first destination out of the White House was a familiar one: Kentucky – known for horseracing, moonshine and bourbon distilleries, coal mining, car manufacturing, tobacco, bluegrass music, college basketball, and my kind of chicken. I had missed the leisurely pace of a good Kentucky morning, the sights, the sounds, even the smells. It felt great to be back in the state I call home, but as I’ve said many times before, I don’t like to rest for too long. My time on Earth wasn’t up, so my work on Earth wasn’t done either!

For months, people had been telling me to write a book. This book. Now that I was out of office, I finally decided to try and write it. But I was too antsy sitting in front of a typewriter all day, and it didn’t feel right to use a Dictaphone, so I wrote this whenever I could while also keeping myself busy doing other things. One of the biggest things that I have done while writing this book by far was me returning to KFC as Official Spokesperson and Chief Senior Advisor. Mildred believed my presence in the company would alleviate its recent decline in profits.

But I don’t want to spend the last chapters of this book telling you about how I wrote this book last year. I’ll tell you what I’ve actually done in this past year instead.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974

“Now I’ve worked with the French, and while they are good people, when it comes to food I don’t care what anyone says – Kentucky cuisine is the best cuisine! We have more than fried chicken to offer. We’ve got fried catfish and hushpuppies, country fried steak, fresh green beans, pinto beans with cornbread, fried green tomatoes, corn pudding with cheese grits, fried okra and barbecued mutton, burgoo, chili, pecan pie, blackberry pie, bread pudding, and hot browns. We even have derby pie, though that wasn’t around until the late ’50s, so it’s kind of a new thing, but I digress. The point is, folks, I’ve tried the food of every state, from Alaskan king crab to Louisiana gumbo to New England’s clam chowder and lobster rolls to Chicago deep-dish pizza and Michigan’s coney dogs. All that food is wonderful, and I still prefer the good ol’ home cookin’ of good ol’ Kentucky. And I want everyone to know what that’s like. KFC is a slice of Americana experienced outside of Kentucky, across the country and around the world, and as the years go on I want to bring the experience and joy of KFC to even more places on the globe. Because Kentucky Fried Chicken is too good a thing to miss out on!”

– Colonel Sanders’ comments at a “return-to-KFC” ceremony held at KFC headquarters in Florence, KY, 1/31/1973

…The Colonel had many ideas on how to boost KFC sales, and the most popular one was him appearing in new commercials…


The biggest change made to the franchise that Sanders ultimately came to accept was replacing the hydrogenated vegetable oil used in his chicken for animal fat. HV oil was cheaper, which was why it had replaced lard in the chicken-making process in the early 1960s, but in 1972, HV oil’s trans fats were linked to artery blockages. Ironically, the revelation came about due to the Scranton-led health-promoting investigations that the Colonel himself had called for while he was President.

Upon his return to working for the company he had founded, The Colonel immediately went to work tweaking the recipe just right, so customers could not taste the change. The Colonel spent days in the kitchen until finally the perfect mixture was found. Cooking is an awful lot like chemistry – you need to understand which elements will create what results under what conditions; this makes me find it funny that the Colonel had quit school all those many years ago over algebra when the man was quite the chemist.

I was not alone in being surprised by his acceptance to change even this central aspect of the company. It seemed we all thought for sure that he would throw a fit. Well, he did, but it was not the tirade we were all expecting; it was much mellower, more serene. Maybe he was slowing down in the temper area as he grew older. Maybe it was his born-again Christian attitude of accepting positive change. Or maybe he had dealt with so much while he was President that something like animal fat replacing hydrogenated vegetable oil was not a top priority to him anymore.

– Dave Thomas’ Under the Colonel’s Wing, Mosaic Publishing, 1982

On February 3, President Mondale proclaimed “A coordinated national government is critical to political stability and economic growth by assuring businessmen do the right thing for their country and do right by their hard-working employees.” Keeping true to his campaign promises, one of the new leader’s first actions in office was the push for further business regulations at both the federal and statewide levels of government. Labor Secretary Kennedy would explain during an appearance on Meet the Press that “many corporations are much older than the agencies that oversee their actions, but many of the laws are outdated or too ineffective.” Kennedy also defended Mondale’s call for workers to have “a better, fairer seat” during C.B.A. negotiations by explaining, “Right now, we are a largely industrialized nation, but we fall far behind the people of Western Europe in regards to unionization.”

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition


…the Justice’s son, former Assistant Attorney General, Ramsey Clark is Mondale’s official nominee for Attorney General…

– The Washington Post, 2/4/1973

“I’ve travelled all over North America as a restaurateur, and I think I can safely say that Toronto has taken prodigious strides in establishing many fine restaurants. Tourists are now aware of this feature of Toronto, and so is KFC,” I told the room of investors. It was my first trip abroad post-Presidency, and I wanted to improve the company’s situation in Canada. For our Francophone customers, I “even attempted to speak French for regional commercials, but the results were mangled[4]. …The best part of the trip, as it was with many trips, was when the youngsters would see me and recognize who I was. One Ontario-based KFC manager, Ted Gogoff told the local paper the Star... “They’d flock around all the time when he was here. And he was delighted to see them. He loved kids. To them, he was like a year-round Santa Claus.” Ted’s words, not mine. [4]

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


Washington, DC – Mondale spoke before the U.S. House of Representative today to make the case for another Civil Rights Act… The new Civil Rights bill, introduced by Emanuel Celler on September 2 of last year, will add to and protect the laws put into effect under the Civil Rights Act of 1962, and expand on the section of that law concerning fair housing and employment practices for African-Americans…

– The Washington Post, 2/19/1973

…Okay, we can now confirm reports coming in from down in Oglala Lakota County, that the, uh, chairman of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, Richard A. “Dick” Wilson, has just been assassinated. On the ninth of this month, impeachment charges were brought before Wilson for corruption. The prosecution, apparently, did not fully prepare for the case despite months of calls for the chairman to resign over quote, “irresponsibly corrupt actions,” end-quote. And, um, upon being escorted out of the city council meeting where the attempt to impeach the chairman had proved unproductive, a reportedly young and angry young man fired several bullets into Chairman Wilson. He died shortly after arriving at a hospital... Um, oh and the assassin, whose name is currently being withheld by police for the time being, was immediately captured at the scene. This development follows months of accusing Wilson of abuse of power such as nepotism, and corruption…

– KBHB (810 AM) South Dakota radio, 2/23/1973 broadcast


Washington, DC – Billy Mondale celebrates his 11th birthday by blowing out the candles on his cake like any other 11-year-old. But not all kids his age get to have a live elephant at their birthday party. The elephant is on loan from Labor Secretary Robert Kennedy’s home in McLean, Virginia. William H. “Billy” Mondale, the youngest son of President Mondale, is joined in the festivities by his older siblings: Theodore A. “Teddy” Mondale, age 15, and Eleanor Mondale, age 13.

The White House south lawn today hosts a plethora of child-friendly activities: slip-and-slides, clowns, animals, food, and games galore. The festivities culminate in the presentation of a multi-tier chocolate and vanilla cake. The kids dig in mercilessly and soon return for seconds despite the weather beginning to become a bit nippy out.

“It’ll just keep the cake from melting away,” one energetic 11-year-old guest observes.

The Star Tribune, 2/27/1973

LORD OF THE LAND?: Mondale Nominates Miles W. Lord For Supreme Court Seat

...Miles Welton Lord has served as a Judge of the US District Court for the District of Minnesota since 1961… Damon Keith, an African-American judge from Michigan, was rumored to be a potential nominee. Most pundits, however, predicted the nomination would go to William Joseph Nealon Jr., a Judge of the US District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania since 1962…

– The New York Post, 2/28/1973

“Another liberal judge on the court will lead to another Lochner Era, a time when the Supreme Court enforced their own laws on the land in complete violation of and in complete disregard for States’ Rights!”

– Conservative US Senator Henry S. “Hank” Hibbard (R-MT), 3/1/1973

“Harland was not the kind to chit-chat small-talk. He disliked the slow pace of Washington, and would later confess to me that he may have made more executive orders than he should have at the start of his administration. But neither the cabinet nor the boardroom could break Harland’s passionate spirit. [snip] …Harland would strive to be present at the grand opening of every KFC outlet in the United States. Often he would go into the kitchen to meet the new employees and oversee how they did the work. And if he ever saw one of the workers cooking the chicken incorrectly or making the gravy or biscuits the wrong way, he’d fume and stir up a storm, keeping himself from using adult language, but still making his outrage known, swinging his cane and sometimes even throwing the ruined food onto the workers. More than once in his lifetime Harland poured gravy onto someone’s head, or slapped someone in the face with a pipin’ hot piece of bird.”

– Claudia Price Sanders, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1995


…With a turnout of 58%, it is clear that a majority of the people of the province have voted to remain a part of the UK…

The Daily Telegraph, UK newspaper, 9/3/1973

WINNER BY A FOOT!: MP Dingle Foot Elected New Labour Leader As Party Eyes This Year’s Upcoming General Election

Sir Dingle Mackintosh Foot has served in Parliament since 1957 and has, in the years since the Stonehouse Scandal, become a leading critic of PM Enoch Powell. Foot calls for a moderate, “peaceful approach” to the Northern Irish debacle. At age 67, he is the oldest person to become Prime Minister since Winston Churchill...

The Guardian, 13/3/1973

The controversial Conservative leadership of Enoch Powell saw record unemployment as deindustrialization in turn saw the end of much of the country’s manufacturing industries. Paradoxically, though, Powell also oversaw a time of economic growth as stock markets as state-owned industries became privatized. Additionally, inflation dropped; however, so did the power of trade unions. Overall, the Powell years seemed plagued with both fortune and misfortune. Workers kept going on strike, Powell’s own conservative MPs voted against reinstating capital punishment in a vote held in the British House of Commons in 1972, and let’s not even start on the Cod Wars (until the next chapter).

By 1973, Powell’s task of running to maintain office in the upcoming general election seemed to be increasingly difficult. Leaders in Northern Ireland backed the Labour party’s “peaceful pathway” campaign, while Powell’s more aggressive handling of Northern Ireland had been proven to be both ineffective and unpopular. Powell thus sought to capitalize of the fiscal successes of his time in office. Public sector unions had risen consistently due to the tax system remaining robustly progressive and top marginal federal income tax rate was 70%. [5]

However, organized workers heavily backed Labour. When government workers began to organize in large numbers in the 1960s, state school teachers helped lead the way. During the 1960s, the N.U.T. and the N.A.S./U.W.T. grew at a furious pace; in the 1970s, teachers were the most militant government workers, willing to strike even when it was illegal in order to press their demands. Through this period teachers elevated their pay and benefits and won significant reforms, especially reductions in class sizes and increases in education funding. [5] Privately, Powell feared he could not overcome the increasingly powerful political influence of these organizing groups.

– Andrew Marr’s Modern Britain: A History, Pan Macmillan Publishers, 2002 edition

Objectively, the Black September Organization did not have a good record. Since its inception in 1970, the most notable successful act of terrorism they had committed was the assassination of Jordanian Prime Minister Wasfi al-Tal in November 1971. From then on, it was attempted assassinations, botched bombings, and half-baked hijackings. After the failed attack on the Israeli team at the 1972 Olympic Games, Yasser Arafat approved of a plan he called their “last chance.”

On March 1, 1973, eight Black September terrorists assaulted the Saudi Embassy in Khartoum, Sudan, taking 13 people hostage and demanding the release numerous Palestinians held in Israeli prisons. Among the hostages was our Ambassador to Sudan and two American assistants. Mondale demonstrated strength throughout the crisis, outright refusing to negotiate with the terrorists. Instead, the Sudanese government collaborated with us at the CIA to apply pressure to the terrorists holed up and surrounded. On March 3, CIA snipers removed four of the terrorists before the local military stormed the embassy, killing the remaining hostages in the basement, presumably moments before they could murder all the hostages. In the skirmish, two hostages were injured by friendly fire, but made full recoveries.

With this failure in mind, Arafat approved of the PLO shutting down the organization that April, believing “these acts of violence [are] not proving to be beneficial to [their] cause.”

– Joseph Walker Barr’s The Mulling Minnesotan: Mondale’s Military Moments, Borders Books, 1994

The Way Home
is 1973 drama film directed by Hal Ashby from a screenplay written by Waldo Salt from a story by Cuban War veteran John Gilbert. The film stars Jane Fonda and Jon Voight in the lead roles, and stars Bruce Dern, Penelope Milford, and Peter Graves in supporting roles. The film’s narrative follows a young woman, her US Marine husband, and a paralyzed Cuban War veteran she meets while her husband is stationed in post-war Havana.

The film was released theatrically on March 16, 1973. Upon release, the film was a critical and commercial success with critics and audiences; the film grossed $32 million against a budget of $5 million, becoming one of the highest-grossing films of 1973. The film also received seven Academy Award nominations, and won three Academy Awards (one each in the categories of Best Actress, Best Actor, and Best Original Screenplay).



…financed by taxes and with no cost sharing, the concept has received tepid support from President Mondale in recent weeks, while newspaper mogul Ted Kennedy is an enthusiastic backer of the proposed legislation...

– The Boston Globe, 3/25/1973

Last year, coincidently around the same time Senator Shriver was introducing health reform, I felt ill and decided to check into a hospital. It was discovered I had a polyp on my colon. The doctors were afraid the polyp was an indication of cancer. So after calling my minister, the great Reverend Waymon Rodgers of Louisville, Kentucky, he came by to visit me and I prayed with him about my case. I promised to God I would spend whatever days I had left doing right by my fellow man if I made it through the cancer. Pastor Waymon came in and prayed for me. And God healed me. The next day, the tests showed that the polyp had disappeared. The doctor said, “Colonel when I opened you up there wasn’t any polyp.” The doctors pronounced me “cured”! Call it a coincidence all you want to, but I believe that the power of faith saved me that day. And I am determined to stick to my promise to God. [6]

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


Washington, DC – After a lengthy search to replace the seat of retiring Justice Tom Clark, Judge Lord of Mondale’s home state of Minnesota official began his time on the bench this afternoon…

– The Washington Post, 4/2/1973


[pic: ]
– The Colonel, discussing business concerns with his son Harley and other KFC executives, while also inspecting a KFC kitchen work station, c. April 1973

…in other news, Ray Kroc, the owner of the San Diego Padres basketball team and the former head of McDonald’s, was cleared of any wrongdoing in a senate committee investigation of his campaign contribution to the Barry Goldwater presidential campaign last year...

– NBC News, 4/10/1973

On Monday, April 16, weeks of deliberations and debates culminated in the House passing a wide-reaching Tax Reform Bill. Then came for the Senate to debate the merit of restructuring tax margins to alleviate the burden felt by the lower and middle classes. Freshman Senator Hank Hibbard, R-MT, was the most vocal opponent of the bill, claiming “this goes too far to the very edge of socialism.” Senator Eastland, Long, and Dole soon followed suit to lead a bipartisan wall of opposition.

New Ideas For Old Problems: The Walter Mondale Presidency, Borderless Books Publishing, 2004

King Zahir Shah was facing a crisis. He had been the ruler of Afghanistan since he was 19, following his assassinated father into office in 1933. 40 years later, his nation was failing to combat the effects of the severe drought of 1971-1972. In April 1973, the King traveled to Washington, D.C. to strike an agreement with President Mondale. The King secured grain and other supplies from the United States in order to repel famine in exchange for more open trade relations. The relief appeased the discontented masses.

Meanwhile, the former Prime Minister of Afghanistan and the King’s cousin/brother-in-law, Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan, had been planning to overthrow the King over allegations of corruption made against the longtime ruler. The grain deal, however, made his supporters fear the coup would now fail in the wake of the people’s renewed faith in the monarchy. Ultimately, the CIA uncovered the plot, and Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan was exiled.

In gratitude for saving his country from a possible coup-based civil carnage, King Zahir Shah developed even closer ties to the US. This development angered members of the Soviet Union’s politburo such as Yuri Andropov and Leonid Brezhnev, whom wanted the USSR to have stronger influence over the region and quietly disagreed with Premier Kosygin’s backing of “razryadka” (détente) with the West. Their view of the situation subsequently led to Andropov and Brezhnev assuring increased financial support of the pro-Soviet Khalq and Parham Communist parties in Afghanistan’s bicameral legislature.

– Tamim Ansary’s Games Without Rules: The Often-Interrupted History of Afghanistan, Hachette Book Group, 2012

Billy Graham’s relationship with Mondale was considerably less personal than the one he experienced with Lyndon Johnson and the Colonel. For instance, Graham reported feeling “snubbed” by the new President during the White House Easter Egg Roll of April 22, 1973. The President’s less-than-warm reception of the reverend, though, may have had to do with another, considerably more liberal religious figure – Mondale’s older half-brother, the Unitarian minister and Humanist Rev. Lester Mondale.

– Mark Pendergrast’s “For God, Country, and Kentucky Fried Chicken,” Perfect Formula Publishing, 2000

[vid: ]
– The 1st KFC commercial to feature the Colonel since 1964, in which he discusses his faith in a bright future for the next generation, first aired 4/29/1973

TAX REFORM BILL NARROWLY PASSES SENATE! Mondale Will Most Likely Sign It Into Law Next Week

…The Tax Reform Act of 1973 repeals the investment tax credit, increases the minimum standard deduction from $300 plus $100/capita (a total maximum of $1,000) to simply $1,000, and taxes high-income earners who had previously avoided incurring such tax liabilities due to various exemptions and deductions implemented from 1965 to 1972…

The Washington Post, 5/3/1973

Attention: K.F.C.’s first system-wide approved line of desserts, to be entitled “The Colonel’s Little Bucket Desserts,” which officially will be sold as individual portions of approximately 3 ½ ozs. for approximately 40 cents each on May 21. As always, please contact the home office for any additional information. [7]

– KFC memo from HQ to all outlets in the US and Canada, dated 5/7/1973


…The Labour party, led by Sir Dingle Mackintosh Foot, needed only 318 seats of all 635 seats of the House of Commons to obtain a majority; tonight saw the party’s number of seats swing from 205 to 368. The Conservative Party, led by Enoch Powell, saw their number of seats swing all the way down to 225, in a clear rejection of five turbulent years of Powell’s “Enochonomics” policies... Meanwhile, the Liberal party, led by Eric Lubbock [8], lost five seats, leaving them with a total of 19 seats. Additionally, the Scottish National Party received a total of 15 seats, and the Ulster Unionist Party received a total of four seats, while Plaid Cymru won just two seats.

The Guardian, 15/5/1973


Washington, DC – The newly-confirmed US Attorney General Ramsey Clark is launching a crusade against Governors and statewide governing bodies across the southern states with the intention of enforcing the 1962 Civil Rights Act. At a press meeting held earlier today, Clark claims “numerous organizations” are “still dragging their feet” in regards to the removal segregated and racially biased policies from establishments and institutions. This query on local practices officially began with investigations into colleges and major multi-state businesses in South Carolina and Georgia this week…

The Clarion-Ledger, Mississippi newspaper, 5/18/1973


…Rankin was elected to three nonconsecutive two-year terms in the US House from Montana. She was elected to Congress in 1916, 1940, and 1970. She was the first Women elected to Congress, and was the sole member of Congress to vote against US entry into World Wars I and II. Rankin was a lifelong activist for peace and women’s rights who declined to run for re-election last year due to poor health.

The New York Times, 5/20/1973

In light of the US-Afghan grain deal, the USSR’s Secretary of Agriculture, intellectual reformist and Kosygin ally Alex Yakovlev, landed in Washington DC to discuss the possibility of a much larger grain deal between the US and USSR. Yakovlev was aware of the US’s decline in steel production continuing on since the late 1950s while maintaining “a breadbasket in the middle of the country,” while the situation was reversed in the USSR – Kosygin’s industrialization practices kept his comrades busy, but not well-fed. While Yakovlev did not meet with Mondale, he did meet with the more eager Vice President Gravel, who believed the idea could “become a key step in finally ending the Cold War.” The next step, then, was to pass the ideas on to their respective bosses…

New Ideas For Old Problems: The Walter Mondale Presidency, Borderless Books Publishing, 2004


The Wall Street Journal, 5/27/1973

That June I travelled the world with Claudia to check on the KFC restaurants established across the globe since 1964. I relished in the freedom to work at a pace much quicker than that found in Washington. No more three-day weekends, long vacations for every holiday, and political fundraiser dinners for me. However, I would often remember to enjoy my time with Claudia while staying active with work – before Claudia would often make sure I didn’t forget it. Anyway, the first destination was Australia. While not my first time visiting the Land Down Under, it was my first time ever visiting the outback, a sparsely populated desert that in many ways reminded me of the American West. I enjoyed the whole experience immensely, even with the strong winds getting my suit absolutely covered in sand! When one of our guide saw this and look concerned, I told him, “relax, I have more than one set” of my iconic clothes. Claudia, on the other hand, did not appreciate any of the dust, wind, or sand.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974

At Mondale’s request, Congress established the US Department of Education with the Department of Education Organization Act of 1973. The act, approved 31-19 by the Senate in June, effectively split the responsibilities of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare into two newly formed Cabinet Departments: The Department of Health and Welfare, and the Department of Education. HEW Secretary Rossellini opted to become the new HW Secretary, which kept control of the Center for Disease Control in the bill, while former Governor Grant Sawyer of Nevada was sworn in as the inaugural Secretary of Education by the end of the year.

New Ideas For Old Problems: The Walter Mondale Presidency, Borderless Books Publishing, 2004


– The Courier-Journal, 6/4/1973

In retrospect, the Shawwal War, also known as the Eid al-Fitr War, was inevitable. The 1967 Sukkot War had left the Arabic nations in the region bitter of their defeat, and subsequent negotiations for a peaceful return of territory had gone nowhere. Egypt’s President Anwar Sadat had built up his country’s supply of aircraft, artillery and tanks, and had replaced political military generals with competent military generals.

One element working on the side of peace, though, was Kosygin’s use of détente, which would be jeopardized by instability in the Middle East. However, due to Sadat being supported by Andropov (but, curiously, not Brezhnev, as later reporting revealed), Kosygin all but confessed to having little power of Egypt’s actions in the region in a phone call to Mondale on June 7 [9].


The Israel Defense Forces, overconfident in their abilities since the 1967 war, were caught completely off-guard as they truly did not expect an attack during Shawwal. Initially, the war heavily favored the allied nations of Egypt and Syria, and much land was reconquered as Israelis retreated in disarray. However, the Israelis began to bounce back by the fourth day of fighting, recovering from the surprise attack to launch a well-organized counterassault that dug deep into the Sinai. While Kosygin only offered moral support, the United States came to the side of Israel. This very much angered the Saudis.

– Joseph Walker Barr’s The Mulling Minnesotan: Mondale’s Military Moments, Borders Books, 1994

…In a shocking development that will surely reverberate around the world, the multinational group called the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC, has proclaimed and imposed an oil embargo on all nations financially and militarily aiding Israel in the current war raging between them and Egypt. This embargo thus impacts us here in the United States, as the US government is allied with Israel…

– Walter Cronkite, CBS Evening News, 6/24/1973 broadcast


– The Houston Chronicle, 6/25/1973

WHITE HOUSE IN PANIC MODE AS US LOSES KEY OIL ACCESS: Press Secretary Answers “We’re Working On It” 15 Times During Briefing

– The Washington Post, 6/26/1973

The US’s wavering support of the Saudis in exchange for their oil all started with a handshake agreement made in ’45 between FDR & King Abdul Aziz. I would be a hypocrite if I had opposed such a deal when I was in office. The Saudis have always been good to United States and I saw no reason in stirring up trouble over there when I was president. Now, though, now they’ve broken their end of the deal by joining their other friends in this embargo nonsense. And welching on a deal, that’s, well, it’s very disheartening.”

– Former President Harland “Colonel” Sanders to a reporter, 6/25/1973

CONSERVATIVES STAY ON!: Stanfield Secures Thin Majority Of Seats

…Robert Stanfield led his part to victory over Paul Martin Sr. of the Liberal party, Ed Broadbent of the Progressive Tomorrow party, and Réal Caouette of the Ralliement Créditiste party…

The Globe And Mail, Canadian newspaper, 7/12/1973


The New York Post, 7/14/1973

The Oil Crisis was hurting the economy and Fritz’s approval ratings. Hundreds and hundreds of soldiers were being killed on both sides. Damascus was being shelled by Israeli forces stretching themselves thin across two battle fronts. Everyone was exhausted.

We needed the war to end. With Egypt being overwhelmed at the back-and-forth of territory on the Sinai Peninsula, Mondale’s prayers were answered when both sides agreed to a ceasefire, the second one that was proposed and to be brokered by the UN. Then the administration learned of OPEC’s announcement – that even though the war was over, the OPEC embargo would stay indefinitely. Naturally, Mondale was downright ticked off, but we soon decided to try and figure out how to get the embargo to be lifted.

– Joseph Walker Barr’s The Mulling Minnesotan: Mondale’s Military Moments, Borders Books, 1994

HARMAN: Well, we decided to invest in the three-year-old Huntsman Container Corporation because it was a struggling business looking to produce superior egg cartons, replacing flimsy paper and cardboard models with a sturdy-yet-lightweight plastic variety. A contract lead to them producing the clamshell carton for KFC products that has become a classic staple of the KFC experience. Containers, plates and bowls were also produced for KFC as the years continued on; these superior plastic containers ensured the food’s flavor did not leak into the packaging, see? Especially the gravy, that was what sealed the deal for us. And that deal saved the Huntsman Corporation from cash flow issues plaguing them since it was founded, and has greatly advanced the career of its CEO…

INTERVIEWER: So do you believe KFC is responsible for Huntsman’s success?

HARMAN: I don’t like to boast, but it does seem like the company played a major role in it.


HARMAN: The Colonel thought one way for KFC to stand out above the other fast-food chains was to open an outlet where no other American fast-food chains existed, but a place that he’d been to once before…

– Pete Harman, 60 Minutes interview, early 1992

“We are pleased to announce the beginning of negotiations for establishing and opening the People’s Republic of China very first Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise outlet!”

– KFC CEO Mildred Sanders at a press conference in Florence, KY, 7/28/1973


[pic: ]

– Colonel Sanders, dropping in at a social event in Bangor, ME, gives autographs to some fans while secret serviceman stand guard in the background, 7/30/1973

…The Northern Ireland Assembly elections held on June 28 yielded an unprecedented result, as the government’s white paper revealed… The elections led to an agreed state of power-sharing between Unionists and Nationalists for the first time ever. In the first sitting of the Northern Ireland Assembly today, respective party leaders shook hands in front of the assembly to promote the message of, in the words of UUP party leader Brian Faulkner, “peace over harm and words over stones”…

– BBC World News, 7/31/1973 broadcast [10]

In subsequent cabinet meetings, Transportation Secretary Ralph Nader believed the 1973 Oil Crisis could work as an opportunity to move the country away from foreign oil. Vice President Gravel enthusiastically supported the nation, but Mondale was more concerned for the short-term detriments than the long-term benefits of such a shift in nationwide policy. Mondale believed that he would be a one-term President if Americans were denied a decent price for oil for much longer, and was generally dismissive of Nader’s thoughts on long-term energy investments.

On August 1, Mondale travelled to Saudi Arabia to visit the King of Saudi Arabia, Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud to try to convince him to end the embargo. The King held persuasion over OPE – if anyone could force its hand, it was he. President Mondale offered the expansion of Saudi rights and benefits in and to the American oil industry, to be made official in via treaty. Ultimately, the King agreed to end the embargo in exchange for setting prices on oil at 30%, which the President bartered down to 18%.

The situation was an embarrassment for the White House, as many saw it as the first real time in recent memory that the US had been at the mercy of another nation – or in this case, a multinational organization. It made the country seem weak. Average Americans’ confidence in their nation’s military, political, and diplomatic leaders noticeably dropped…

– Meg Jacobs’ Pressure at the Polls: The Transformation of American Politics in the 1970s, 2016 net-book edition

…While have unconfirmed reports coming in that Elvis Presley has been taken via ambulance from this hotel room here in Chicago to a local hospital, we can confirm that his South Side concert planned for tomorrow has been “postponed indefinitely,”…

– The Overmyer Network, 8/7/1973 broadcast

One good thing that came about from the Colonel’s Waddlin’ Incident – uh, y’know the whole Ark Wave phenomenon – is that it made me eventually start to think about what I myself was shoving into my mouth. I mean, I’m The King, not The Slob. I loved KFC and all, and I would eat at that place all the time too, but after my mini-heart attack back in 1973, I knew I had to cut back on the rich and fatty food. I was 38 and dying, and I went from figurin,’ “with my music, I’m immortal,” to “Holy crap, death is f@#kin’ terrifying!” Heh. Of course, putting down fried chicken and hearty burgers was a struggle – not as bad and slow and as painful as putting down the drugs, but that’s another story, um – but, uh, you know, in the end, it was worth all of it…

– Elvis Presley, KNN interview, 1993

MONDALE SIGNS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION BILL INTO LAW: Bill Meant To Close Loopholes, Protect Union Benefits, And More

– The Chicago Tribune, 8/10/1973

FROM POVERTY TO PROFITS: Local Businessman Tells His Story

For most of his life, local man Sam Byck struggled to make a living; now he owns his own store. Samuel Byck, 43, dropped out of the ninth grade to work odd jobs to support his destitute family, only to repeat the routine upon having a family of his own after two years of service in the US Army. By the end of the 1960s, his wife and four children were often without food despite Byck’s best efforts to make ends meet. Then the economy improve, and the Negative Income Tax Rebate was introduced. “The rebate really helped us stay afloat,” Sam Byck, whom also credits the Small Business Association granting him a loan in 1970 for his newfound success. Given “the chance to prove [him]self,” and with the help of his “family, friends, and consumer confidence,” Byck went from selling tires out of an old school bus to opening his own autoshop here in South Philly…

– The Philadelphia Inquirer, minor “fluff piece” article, 8/11/1973

The UN brokered, US-sponsored ceasefire was signed between Egypt and Israel on August 15, roughly two months after the war had begun, and with it, the oil embargo was lifted.

– Doris Helen Kearns Goodwin’s Leadership In Turbulent Times, Simon & Schuster, 2018

CORRESPONDENT: …while some registered Democrats we spoke to praised Mondale for ending the Oil Crisis, polls show he still has an under 50% approval rating average.

MAN 2: “He dug us out of a hole he put all of us in to begin with.”

WOMAN 3: “He’s the President, he should’ve known backing Israel would make the price of gas shoot up.”

– Overmyer Network special report, 8/29/1973 broadcast

Everybody works as a team and they think nothing of working 12 to 14 hours a day. I guess that’s my influence. I set that example. My telephone is open 24 hours a day. I’m on call 24 hours a day, seven days a week, every week of the month. Before I was President, I once worked three years without taking a single day off. We here in the KFC family had a picnic once on the Fourth of July but I even worked during that. I don’t believe in vacations. My theory was if I could do without them two weeks out of the year, I probably didn’t need them the rest of the time. [11]
– Colonel Sanders, discussing his new advisory role at KFC, Overmyer Network interview, 8/30/1973


[pic: ]
– The Colonel celebrates his 83rd birthday at KFC headquarters in Florence, KY, 9/9/1973


“We need to help veterans suffering from drug addiction… The worries of our veterans do not go away as soon as the war ends or as soon as the cameras stop rolling. The wars in Cuba and Vietnam are over, and the constant news coverage of them is gone, but many of their scars, especially their mental scars, have yet to heal.”

– The Washington Post, 9/12/1973

The Colonel approached the PRC government with the idea of opening a single KFC outlet in Beijing “where Mao could keep an eye on it” in the midst of sweeping economic reforms within the country. In the months leading up to the historic opening, many doubted that a distinct and visible American enterprise like KFC could make a profit in the Chinese market or that a western company could survive in such a climate… Mao era China was far behind the world economically, but the 1968 Mao-Sanders Summit had nevertheless opened up the country to trading with capitalist nations. The Colonel hoped to bring the positive aspects of capitalist business to China for the benefit of his enterprise and the Chinese people, and to strengthen the bond between the two lands. Mao was quietly shying away from the chaotic mixed results of the revolutionary idealism of the Cultural Revolution and inching closer to elevating his country’s economic development in order to build a modern, market-oriented nation. In doing so, Mao was altering the Chinese economy and restructuring Chinese society and culture. Under these conditions, KFC landed what many dubbed “the deal of the century.” [12]

Deng gave me a second chance by allowing me to join him in welcoming the Colonel at the airport to discuss negotiations for opening outlet there. Deng said to Sanders, “I again must apologize for our great Chairman being unable to visit,” as Mao and Vice Chairman Zhou were under the weather.

“Ah, don’t sweat it none, I know how busy running a country can be!” was the Colonel’s reply.

As we walked to the motorcade, Deng watched as the Colonel’s Secret Servicemen perused the area.

“I see you still have a flock of black suits following you,” he observed.

“As a former President, they were part of my farewell package. I’ve tried getting’ rid of ’em, but they just keep followin’ me around like a pack of bloodhounds!”

In the meeting, the Colonel covered every detail that would go into the deal, from the quality of the restaurant’s façade (“I’m okay with fancy stuff, but I want there to be a focus on family and high-quality food”) to the quality of Beijing’s closest chicken farms (“Back in the states, a lot of our chicken comes from local places. A lot more, though, come from Arkansas, specifically the town of Springdale, Arkansas. There’s so many chickens there, you wouldn’t believe it! But still, I want to make sure the customers of the PRC’s KFC outlet are getting the finest locally-raised chicken available”).

– Bo Yibo’s The Dragon and The Eagle: Chinese and American Dances, Daggers and Dinners, English translation, 1998


…In a radio Q & A interview, Secretary of Transportation Ralph Nader was asked for his opinion on the concepts of flying cars and self-driving cars, popular elements in science-fiction short stories and comic books since the 1940s. While he described the first idea as “fantastical but not impossible,” he replied to the second concept with “That is a genuinely interesting notion. It’s actually not that outlandish, we’ve been trying out the idea since at least December 1926 [13], by my recollection. We just need to improve the technology for such a thing. It’s my opinion that some sort of computer-based guidance system could curb road accidents.” The Secretary elaborated with “The driver has dozens of variables to judge. Speed, signs, other drivers, pedestrians, disruptive passengers, engine trouble. That’s a lot of stimuli. Some kind of semi-autonomous device for the car could help drivers do some, if not do all, of the driving, at the least for the sake of safety.”…

– The Hollywood Reporter, 9/21/1974


…church bells rang out today in celebration of the Holy Union of Hillary Diane Rodham and George Stanley Clinton…

The Nashville Tennessee, celebrations section, 9/25/1974

In September [1973], KFC started regulating what frying oils were being used for their non-chicken products, as uh, what was used differed in some regions – sunflower oil was in parts of California, soybean, canola, or palm oil was used in other parts. And of course the chicken itself was inspected, too – corn-fed chickens taste different from wheat-fed, see? Don’t ask how the Colonel could tell, because it’s very subtle, but he had the taste buds for it, he could always pick out which was which ….The Colonel found my burgers at Wendy’s to be delicious, and when he inspected how the kitchens were kept, he happily approved of my handling of the franchise.

– Dave Thomas, KNN interview, 1993

Another perk to not being President anymore was finally being able to drive again. I no longer had secret servicemen demanding that I always have a driver to the fun part of riding in a car. Having let my old one expired, I finally found the time away from everything to get my license re-issued shortly after turning 83. The same day, I hopped into a trusty old Ford pickup and toured the old roads that I'd driven down so many years ago. I noticed that while I’d grown older, they had grown younger, trading in their gravel and dust for smooth new pavement.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


[pic: ]
– The Colonel’s driver’s license, reissued, late September 1973

So I spent the next few years advocating for better working conditions for Mexican Americans. Convinced Zappa and the gang to play at a few benefit gigs in ’72 before we went our separate ways in ’73. After that, I started working on the Mexican Rights movement almost full-time, writing music and joining in on protests and sit-ins. The rest of the country may have been movin’ on, but it was still like the early ’60s for some of us. I got together with some protestors sometimes and we’d drive from injustice spot to injustice spot, crusading against high rent, low pay, unsafe working conditions, and so much f@#kin’ discrimination against the same people who pick the crops that feed you and your family. And of course, we did drugs at the end of the day. After seeing all the misery we were trying to undo, we kind of had to do drugs to remember there was still joy and wonder in the world. And, well, I guess I got careless with how I, uh, stowed away the stash one time too many.

– Richard “Cheech” Marin, KNN interview, 2012


…Roberto Clemente was still celebrated for bringing the Pirates to victory over the Mets in the National League East division…

Sports Illustrated, 10/21/1973 issue

SCHLAFLY: The ERA will eliminate gender-segregated bathrooms and remove the concept of maternity leave, as that would not be equal to male workers. They can’t get pregnant, so by the law’s own logic, maternity leave is a biased practice!

KENNEDY-SHRIVER: That is not at all what the amendment will do! It ends discrimination, it doesn’t remove benefits that level the playing field. Women too frequently get the short end of the stick when it comes to divorce, employment, wages, and sexual protection laws –

SCHLAFLY: But men and women are not equal at the biological level. The amendment works against women by acting like they are. The ERA will remove dependent-wife benefits from Social Security. It would eliminate the judicial tendency for divorced mothers to receive custody of their children, as it would replace consideration for a mother’s love for the concept of equality based on financial capabilities, and thus judges will always rule in favor of the breadwinners.

KENNEDY-SHRIVER: What? That contradicts the whole point of the ERA. More widows will be eligible for Social Security benefits. The Era addresses this, and how few divorcees receive the alimony the courts call for. Housewives will be given the fair and equal opportunity to develop skills they need to enter the labor force if or when necessary. They no longer have to sit at home tending to an empty nest. They can go out into the world and pursue their interests if given the same opportunities experienced by their male counterparts!

SCHLAFLY: Equalizing the law will benefit men by removing protective aspects upheld by the differences in the law!

KENNEDY-SHRIVER: Ugh, what? A – Have you even read this Amendment, Phyllis? You’re saying nothing but lies and, you know what, I think you know it!

SCHLAFLY: You have to read between the lines, Eunice; everyone knows that.

– US Senator Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D-MA) and political organizer Phyllis Schlafly (R-IL) on Meet the Press, Saturday 10/6/1973 transcript

…Governor of Massachusetts Pierre Salinger signed the commonwealth’s Free Healthcare Bill into law today… the law establishes a, quote, “universal,” unquote, type of healthcare system for the commonwealth’s residents that will feature options regarding patient’s doctors, hospitals, and insurance; the law is also meant to work with the federal healthcare laws such as Medicare and Medicaid… critics of the bill claim it will only compound and contribute to the state’s rising debt crisis. …Salinger credited former Governor Phil Hoff of Vermont for the concept of the bill gaining support in Massachusetts, as Hoff had campaigned on the subject when running for President early last year. Hoff’s own legislation was inspired by the health care system established in Canada under Prime Minister Hellyer in 1969…

– NBC News, Tuesday, 10/16/1973 broadcast

In October 1973, Mondale, the Joint Chiefs, and the President’s top aides and military experts convened at Camp David to review both the US military budget and US’s strengths and weaknesses in nations around the globe. The biggest good news was that no major socialist or pro-socialism movements were threatening American allies or neutral countries at the moment, but the biggest bad news was that the energy crisis had lowered Americans’ approval of defending US and NATO allies. Mondale decided to deflect the negativity by increasing his focus on domestic concerns.

Immediately after the meeting, Mondale traveled to New York City, where economists were concerned that the metropolis’ debt would trigger a recession, end the past nine years of growth.

New Ideas For Old Problems: The Walter Mondale Presidency, Borderless Books Publishing, 2004


New York City Hall, NYC – After meeting with US Congressmen, US Senators Javits and O’Dwyer, Governor Biaggi and Mayor Periconi, Preisdent Mondale today announced that the federal government would “bail out” the city of New York. “We still worry about a domino effect oversees, but we have to focus on the more immediate potential for a domino effect at home. If NYC falls, so will the rest of the nation’s economy,” Mondale proclaimed at the announcement in New York City today… The agreement to alleviate the city’s financial woes could benefit Periconi’s approval ratings, especially so close to the next mayoral election. As of the time of this publication, the Republican-Liberal Periconi led the Democratic-Conservative nominee by only roughly 7%...

The New York Post, 10/27/1973

Amtrak Improvement Bill Signed Into Law

The Washington Post, 11/3/1973

…In tonight’s gubernatorial elections, Francis X. McDermott was re-elected Governor of New Jersey in a landslide over state assemblywoman Ann Klein…

– CBS Evening News, 11/6/1973 broadcast

DEMOCRATS WIN BACK GOVERNORSHIP: Elmo Zumwalt Beats Mills Godwin By 5%

…Zumwalt, 53, one of the few Democrats elected in tonight’s elections, ran a conservative campaign… As a retired Navy Admiral, Zumwalt was highly critical of President Mondale’s leadership during this summer’s Oil Crisis...

– The Daily News-Record, Virginia newspaper, 11/6/1973

…And in the city of New York, Mayor Joey Periconi has won a third term, defeating his Democratic challenger, 37-year-old state senator Harrison Jay Goldin, by a wide margin…

The Overmyer Network, 11/6/1973 news broadcast


– The Lexington Herald-Leader, Kentucky newspaper, 11/6/1973


…As of now, Kentucky Fried Chicken has over 6,000 locations in over 50 nations and is bringing in over $2 billion in revenue annually according to its January 1973 public disclosure forms. …If negotiations are successful, the franchise will become the first Western Chain to open in China [14] …For the first time ever, Chinese citizens will be able to experience not only the flagship pressure-fried chicken of 11 herbs and spices, but also the chain’s classic gravy, fluffy potatoes, and hot rolls with honey, jellied salads, cheese tray and delicacies fore and aft [4].

The New Yorker, 11/14/1973

Their moment seemed to be approaching. Both Mao and Zhou Enlai were in increasingly poor health. The insolence of Mao’s warming of relations to the US was too dangerous for their taste, believing it was a corruption of communist ideals. Even Mao’s wife agreed he was taking things too far. They hoped “the return of the Chicken King” would be the final straw for other leading members of the Communist Party.

In mid-November, Generals Huang Yongsheng and Li Zuopeng, and hard-right ideologue Chen Boda met with Lin Biao and his son Lin Liguo in the basement of a cannery factory four miles outside of Guangzhou, in southern China, where local politicians disliked the idea of capitalism “infesting” the northern region around the capital of Beijing. They needed to be discreet but productive. Via Yongsheng’s connections in Xianning, the Group of Six began to spread the word of their plans, though only through ears and mouths they could trust, starting with official military officials who were promised greater freedom and funding once China “returned to fulfilling the goals of the Cultural Revolution”…

– Jung Chang’s Mao: The Untold Story, Knopf Books, 2005

Heh. Man, I was so pissed off when I got arrested in Fresno [California] for possession of marijuana. It was just a little bit, only 10 kilos, but they threw me in jail and tried to throw away the key. But the great thing about being a political activist is that when you end up behind bars, you become a martyr for your cause, and a political prisoner, kind of. Or at the very least, you’ll have friends working for ya on the outside. Well at least I did. But, uh, honestly, I didn’t expect the “Free Cheech” Movement to become such a huge thing when my friends started it, you know? And I was really surprised when it grew into this whole phenomenon. Doroles Huerta, Cesar Chavez, Zappa, and so many big names made me into thing rallying call for fairer treatment of Hispanics, for prison reform, even for legalizing Mary Jane, something Tim Leary used to be the face of. It was crazy! But it was also kind of awesome! I just wish it hadn’t taken so long for it all to get me out of there.

– Richard “Cheech” Marin, KNN interview, 2012

The Rodina-1 mission was riddled with issues from the start, pushing it back from its initial launch date in June. Both big and small details needed to be returned to: the safety locks, the decompression methods, the landing specifics, they all had to be redesigned as tests suggested they would break off or burn up during the travel, or it would kill the cosmonauts inside. We did not want a repeat of the 1971 Soyuz 7K-T tragedy. The rocket itself also needed to be redesigned and readjusted to match the landing pod after an initially rushed job.


On December 3, I joined Vladimir Komarov and Vladimir Chelomey at Star City to witness the culmination of years of work – the launching of the Rodina-1 to the moon!

The landing location was essential, as we needed a surface smooth enough to cover any human errors we may have overlooked. Americans have a great term we, after so many failures due to oversights, were starting to use ourselves: “better safe than sorry.” As John Glenn would later tell me, the Rodina-1’s landing in the Taurus-Littrow Valley had NASA nervous, as the cosmonauts could conceivably visit the site of a previous Apollo landing, which they estimated would take 90 minutes to walk to, and 40 minutes for the unmanned Lunakhod 2 lunar rover to reach. I laughed at the thought, because the mission was to conduct research of our own, not the salvage another nation’s vessels like some sort of lunar vultures.

The real focus never really was on the location, anyhow. Instead, viewers in America, the Soviet Union, and the world over paid attention to the crew: 40-year-old Oleg Makarov and 36-year-old Irina Solovyova. Solobyova was world champion parachutist before being recruited into the USSR’s Female Group cosmonaut training program in the 1960s, who joined Makarov in the landing pod while 38-year-old Georgy Shonin remained in orbit. On December 7, after a successful touchdown, Makarov became the first Soviet to step foot on the moon, and Solovyova became the second Soviet and very first female to step foot on the Earth lunar satellite.

Of course, America’s press could not uphold their First Amendment if they stayed silent on another nation making it to the moon, so the Big Four – ABC, NBC, CBS, and Overmyer – covered the event and it was published in their newspapers. But they ensured people remembered that they had gotten there first, and had return thrice since.

Of course, some newspapers downplayed it with headlines like “Soviets Get to Moon Four Years Too Late,” or printed small articles that were not put on the front page. NASA really downplayed it, and some broadcasts tried to trivialize the milestone. It was understandable. They had done the same thing with Sputnik and I, and the Pravda did the same thing with Apollo 10.

But the fact remained that the Soviet Unions had proven to the world that they were still a major player in space. This got to many in Washington, D.C. to worry that the space race was still far from being over.

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995


Bryn Mawr, PA – In a shocking announcement, musician Jim Croce has announced that he is retiring from the music industry [15]. The announcement comes just weeks after completing his extensive “Life and Times” tour while also creating new songs for an album, which is still set to be released next year. The revelation that this will be Croce’s last album comes as a surprise to many fans and supporters of a young musician many see as being at the height of his popularity.

Croce, 30, stated the reason for his departure from music to be of a personal nature. “I want to raise a family. My son is two years old now and I want to be there for him while he’s growing up. You can’t raise a kid on a tour, and to try to do so would be asking too much of Ingrid,” referring to his wife, Ingrid Jacobson, a musician who performed and recorded music as a duo with her husband from 1964 until her own retirement two years ago.

Croce elaborated, “I’m going to stick to writing short stories and movie scripts, but my main focus for the next several years is going to be on raising a family with love and devotion.”

Hope springs eternal for followers of the popular singer-songwriter, though, as Croce did not rule out a permanent departure from the music scene. “In time, I might make it my profession again. I guess time and my wallet will tell.”

The Hollywood Reporter, 12/12/1973

Kosygin would prove to be a very competent administrator, with the Soviet standard of living rising considerably due to his moderately reformist policy. …Kosygin attempted to revitalize the ailing economic system by decentralizing management… Historians Evan Mawdsley and Stephen White claim that conservative members of the Politburo such as Dmitri Ustinov, Leonid Brezhnev, and even Kosygin’s biggest critic, Yuri Andropov were unable to remove Kosygin because his removal would mean the loss of their capable administrator. [16] …The moon landing further cemented Kosygin’s position in the party and his popularity among the Soviet people, who for the first time since Sputnik were genuinely proud of their country’s endeavors in outer space.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

“Colonel Sanders will tell you today that there is a big, big difference between being a church member and being saved. He speaks from personal experience. And no one loves the Church, regardless of denomination, better than Colonel Sanders. Those who know him best know that it is his first love, beyond even the preparation of original food. He tells his associates today, ‘There is an inner experience, a new birth that brings peace. Morality and good works cannot accomplish it. It is the work of the Holy Spirit.’

Colonel Sanders' testimony today is this. ‘You can join the church. You can serve on committees. You can be baptized and receive communion. You can become the superintendent of the Sunday school—and not be saved.
’ You need to know something deeper within your soul. And for that you need more than songs, and prayers, and church suppers. You need a personal experience with Jesus Christ." [17]

– Pastor Waymon Rodgers of the Evangel Tabernacle of Louisville, KY, Christmas service 1973


[pic: ]
– A 1973 KFC greeting card featuring Colonel Sanders and Harley Sanders, found at a yard sale in 2002


The Washington Post, 12/28/1973


My ideas are way out of line with current trends, and I see no particular point in staying around and being obnoxious.” [18]

– The New York Times, 1/5/1974

We found that the new commercials featuring the Colonel were increasing sales 70%. The advertisement were noticeably differently from the ones filmed prior to the Colonel’s stay in the White House. Sanders was now more serious and dramatic, more sincere. Due to his age, he had trouble enunciating clearly and loudly at times, and so would have much on-screen time in the post-Presidency commercial. Still, the ads demonstrated that the octogenarian icon still had physical strength, agility and stamina that was impressive for a man of his age. With market studies showing positive results, production on the commercials continued on and on!

– Pete Harman, KNN interview, 2003

[vid: ]
– A popular KFC commercial, first aired 1/12/1974

…Also, tonight, the people of Finland took to the polls to determine who should serve as their President for the next six years. The incumbent President, Urho Kakkonen of the Centre Party, was elected to a fourth six-year term over Raino Westerholm of the Christian League Party. Kakkonen’s time in office has seen the continuation of his predecessor’s “active neutrality,” the establishing of the Nordic Nuclear-Free Zone, and the continuation of fair relations and trade practices with both NATO countries and Warsaw Pact countries… [19]

– BBC World News, 1/16/1974 broadcast


– The Washington Post, 1/27/1974

[1] OTL quote!
[2] This happened to Obama in 2009:
[3] Some cabinet pick explanations: Gregory Peck would have been nominated for that post if LBJ had won re-election in 1968 IOTL!: IOTL, Nixon considered making Ladybird Johnson an ambassador, according to source 33 on her wiki page: John Moss ends up in charge of Commerce as he chaired two subcommittees relating to Commerce IOTL, and commerce concerns the buying and selling of things such as colorful adult comics, meaning he can use the position to oversee the deregulation of censorship and improve consumer protection, which he also advocated for IOTL:
[4] Italicized parts from here:
[5] Parts in italics are pulled from Wikipedia’s articles on the history of the modern UK.
[6] True story; this passage is a paraphrase of one found here:
[7] Introduced two years earlier than in OTL:
[8] Jeremy Thorpe stepped down from party leadership in 1971 over a sex scandal brought about in the Ark Wave (which I may or may not have forgotten to include in one of that year’s chapters (to quote Rick Perry, “oops…”).
[9] Also, another slipup I may have made was misreading Shawwal as starting in June, either on the fifth or the seventh or so, so maybe it changes each year like Easter... If the date is inaccurate, please let me know so I can change the name of the war to the correct [holiday] (an easy fix) or change the date (a quick edit job).
[10] For the record, I’m not at all an expert of Northern Ireland politics, just the generic/basic gist of the OTL Troubles conflict, so if something’s inaccurate here, please let me know. Also, a reminder that Ian Paisley was killed in 1968 ITTL.
[11] OTL quote from Sanders’ 1966 Autobiography!
[12] All italicized part found in this intriguing and detailed source here:
[13] Really!:,3766749
[14] Info found here:
[15] According to and according to sources 3, 19 and 20 on his wiki page, Jim Croce (prior to his fatal OTL plane crash which is butterflied away here) really did plan on retiring from music and withdrawing from public life to focus on family, and writing stories and movie scripts!
[16] Italicized parts pulled from his Wikipedia article
[17] Passage pulled from here:
[18] OTL quote found on William O. Douglas’ wiki page.
[19] IOTL, according to Wikipedia, “on 18 January 1973, the enacting of an emergency law saw Kekkonen's presidency extended by four years;” here, the country’s in better shape, at least well enough for this to not happen, or at least fail to happen. Just some minor butterflies, that’s all…

E.T.A. of the next chapter: October 3rd!

nbcman said:
I have a question on the 1972 Senate results. It lists "Minnesota: incumbent Walter Mondale (D) over Phil Hansen (R)". Did Mr. Mondale run for 2 positions with the expectation if he won the Presidency that the Governor of MN (Coya Knutson - D who won in 1970 per prior post) would appoint his replacement? Or did the MN Dems run another candidate for Senate?

In OTL/TTL, LBJ had TX state law amended so he could run for President and the Senate at the same time in 1960. In 1969, before Humphrey had even announced his candidacy for the 1970 Senate election, Mondale's allies in the Minnesota state legislator pushed through a law clarifying that one can run for both a Senatd seat in the state and for the Presidency concurrently. NJ recently did something similar IOTL for Booker 2020:
Knutson is mentioned appointing her Lt Gov to be Fritz's successor in the Senate.

Ogrebear said:
1) Nice update there!

2) Bye Rolf- UK art TV in the 70/80’s won’t quite be the same without you, but I think we will manage.

3) No 1972 Munich Olympics disaster- what effect on Israeli politics?

4) Bill Clinton moves to Alaska?

5) Mondale should be wary of open topped cars- esp now he is President. Even more so if he pushes his tax rises on the rich through. I hope Pres Fritz really tries to fix the tax holes the rich and corps exploit.

6) What’s Mondale’s stance on alternative energy and such given the Wind Tribune and solar panel are viable tech in the early 70’s?

7) I noticed a lot of .co.usa domains - is there no .com and the USA uses a local domain like Maybe the UK keeps .gb in this timeline.

8) President Colonel Sanders sounds like a great President overall.
Click to expand...

1) Thanks!

2) Indeed!

3) I guess we'll see what happens; would Black September become more desperate or would its membership drop in light of their failure?

4) I got the idea from a post in the alternate presidents thread. I can't find the post now, but within it, the person who posted the list accidently wrote "(D-AS)" instead of "(D-AR)" after Bill Clinton's name, and someone commented jokingly something along the lines of "ah, yes, I forgot Bill Clinton was Governor of Alaska." And that got me thinking, "Hey, why not? Moving there seemed to work out well for Mike Gravel, so why not Ol' Slick Willy, too?!" :)

5) We'll see!

6) As this very long article points out: , solar energy was a popular notion in the 1970s. Mondale campaigned on jobs and protecting workers, so he could see him supporting it if it is beneficial to the workforce, but his dismissal of solar energy in the article suggests he would not make it a passion project. Either way, he would most likely want the industry to be regulated.

7) I usually add ".uk" to the UK websites; as ".com" is short for "commercial," here they just shortened it by one more letter.

8) Thanks!

Unknown said:
Bye, bye Rolf; no one will miss you, just like Savile...

I concur.

Bookmark1995 said:
I'd describe him as what Compassionate Conservatism ought to be: a belief in traditional values, tempered with empathy and respect toward change.

Great analysis!

AndyWho said:
Much as my luck may be, I come in to an amazing timeline at the brunt end of the focus of the Colonel's Presidency. I do hope you plan to continue on with this timeline (especially noting on the fate of KFC as a Sanders family-owned public company and even the long-term effects of his Presidency and the political sphere).

If anything, I have no doubt my late maternal grandmother (whom had a hatred for LBJ like no other, even when living out on base with my late grandfather) would have voted for the Colonel happily.

We'll see how things go in regards to continuing the TL. I do want to cover how the Sanders Presidency affects things in the long-term, so, yeah, we'll see how things go...

And The Colonel would have greatly appreciated her vote!

Sceonn said:
Happy for Mondale Win. Hope TL continues. High expectation for greater regulations.

Thank you!

Glad you're happy that Fritz won.

You're very welcome! :)
Post 31
Post 31: Chapter 39

Chapter 39: February 1974 – December 1974

“[Perfection is a man-made idea]. Nothing in nature is that even; man is the inventor of straight edges.”

– Stephen King (OTL)


The New York Times, 2/9/1974

KFC’s entry into China was unprecedented, as was the company’s eventual success. The first KFC in China, a short walking distance from Tiananmen Square, the political heart of traditional and Communist China “opened to the warmest embrace imaginable by the citizens of Beijing.” Unlike any other business in China, Beijing’s first KFC was also unlike any KFC found in the US: “occupying three stories and 12,000 square feet, [the restaurant] had a seating capacity of 500, and a staff of more than 150.” This enterprise was American business with Chinese characteristics. For the Chinese, KFC was novelty and social curiosity, a permanent exhibition on capitalism served with a side of fries. The Western-style food, however, was only one among a myriad of temptations: customers came from miles around to enjoy a new, American way of eating, heralded by a smiling bearded mascot, speedy counter employees, and spotless bathrooms. This new business model was a complete about-face from the Mao’s China of ten years prior, merging foreign innovation and a new prosperity. For China, KFC was the definition of modern.
In its early days, KFC in China was not simply “fast food,” but rather an “exciting, unique, and brand-new experience never before encountered…like taking a tour of American, with all its connotations: political, cultural, time, and space – real or imaginary.” The “idea of KFC” was so distinctive, that many customers at the Beijing flagship restaurant “spent hours talking to each other and gazing out the huge glass window that overlooks a busy commercial street—thereby demonstrating their sophistication to the people who passed by.” One important aspect of this perception of KFC in China is the meaning of fast food. The emergence of KFC by no means marked the beginnings of fast food in China. To the Chinese, fast food or “kuaican,” is synonymous with “hefan,” cheap meals found along every street in major Chinese cities, served out of Styrofoam containers and plastic bags. Judged by this standard, KFC is hardly considered fast food
as far as the people of China are concerned. [1]


[pic: (note: please view the ".com" in the corner as a typo)]
– Bo Yibo’s The Dragon and The Eagle: Chinese and American Dances, Daggers and Dinners, English translation, 1998


The Colonel’s decision to break bread with Chairman Mao may have actually been bigger than just a move to make the company stand out in the saturated fast-food market of the 1970s.

According to a new book by historian Joseph Hildebrand, “Our Grand Old Flag: The People Who Love It (And The People Who Hate It),” a possible reason for the Colonel deciding to bring KFC to China was his belief that the sharing of popular culture, namely foods, would tie the people of China and America together, lowering the chances a war occurring between the two nations long after he had died. Hildebrand explains “The ‘capitalist peace theory,’ or the ‘commercial peace theory,’ which in 1996 New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman simply called it ‘the Fast Food thesis,’ simply states the following: ‘No two countries that both have at least one KFC have ever fought a war against each other,’ which has been true ever since KFC exploded into the international food scene in the early 1960s.”

Rebecca Weisser, a researcher at the Centre for Independent Studies, points to prior historical incidents of such consumer-based diplomacy as proof that the Colonel’s idea had merit. “The relative peace globally between 1815 and 1914 is attributed to the dramatic rise of international trade, investment and migration whereas the downward spiral in international trade in the 1930s contributed to the hostilities that led to WWII.” [2]

Tumbleweed Magazine article, e-publication, 11/8/2014

By the start of 1974 there were almost 100 Ollie’s Trolleys nationwide, most of them east of the Mississippi River. But despite its rapid growth, the place had yet to find its footing among enough customers to surpass KFC on the fast-food market. Many Americans, whose collective idea of an ideal burger was focused more on ketchup and mustard than thyme and oregano, found Ollieburgers a challenge to their taste buds. It seemed that, while Americans were quick to embrace spicy fried chicken, spicy hamburgers were something else entirely.

Already deeply invested in Ollie’s brainchild, [John Y.] Brown convinced the founder that they needed to modernize, and they soon began installing drive-thrus to numerous locations, like what several competitors were doing. [3]


The Venceremos Front
was an American organization that focused on militant urban guerilla warfare as a means of enforce left-wing ideas. The organization was formed in 1969 and gained a foothold in the post-Arkwave shoutnik scene of the early 1970s before slowly losing membership and ultimately dissolving in 1977.


The “front” was based in Berkley, California, and was one of many left-wing pro-Prison Reform organizations to either form or gain prominence and membership in the aftermath of the Attica Prison Massacre. The organization’s members mostly conducted acts of vandalism, but occasionally also committed acts of armed robbery.

Army veteran teacher and linguist at the University of California Berkeley Colston Westbrook gave the Venceremos Front credibility via his involvement in their ideology, but this did little to help it expand in popularity. By the start of 1974, it seemed that support for Prison Reform on the national level was waning in the face of other issues such as the rise in gas prices and the Equal Rights Amendment. The organization became more militant during this time under the leadership of William Lawton Wolfe and Patricia Soltysik. [4]


In early 1974, Wolfe, Soltysik, and a former ex-convict who went by the name Rathbone X, decided to travel to New York to kidnap Mario Biaggi in order to pressure the government into releasing wrongfully incarcerated individuals in several prisons located in New York and California. Biaggi was the Governor of New York who was controversial for his role in the events leading up to the Attica Prison Massacre.



Continuing with our bid to boost Wendyburger sales, the KFC parent company, KFC Inc, also established some KFC-Wendy’s “Combo” Locations, where both buildings were used, and both menus were given. For older customers, it was a throwback to the early years of KFC, when the chicken was sold in other people’s establishments alongside said place’s menus instead of there being places actual run entirely by KFC. For others, it was a convenient merger of their two favorite joints. For customers eating in groups, it was convenient because you could order a KFC bucket and a Wendyburger at the same ordering station. It was introduced in early 1974, but discontinued in 1980...

– Dave Thomas’ Under the Colonel’s Wing, Mosaic Publishing, 1982


The Portland Tribune, 3/5/1974

…After months of deliberations, President Mondale has nominated state Judge Constance Motley of New York for a seat on the US Supreme Court being vacated by the retiring Justice Douglas…

– CBS News, 3/6/1974 broadcast

INTERVIEWER: Can you tell us what the 1974 kidnapping experience was like for you?

BIAGGI: Oh, yeah, that thing. Man, what ridiculous failure that was, let me tell ya! Now they did study the layout of the Governor’s mansion, because they drove around to the back, er, side entrance. It was also impressive that they got past security by setting fire to a nearby dumpster as a distraction, but it was obviously their first rodeo. Once inside, they didn’t know how to keep quiet, and they didn’t know the layout of the actual interior of the place. And they didn’t know how to whisper softly enough, nor know where my office or my bedroom was. At least they knew I was home, they knew that much, and fortunately, my wife was out with a friend. They found me in my inner office, which was on the first floor, near this study-library room on the side. That’s the room they came in through. They gave me and my secretary a startle bursting into the room, wearing those ski masks, and started hollering something at her and I. But I thought it was some joke, see, so I said, “What kind of gag is this?” So the one guy tried to show they were serious by firing the gun into the air, only for the gun click. The idiots still had their safeties on.

“Dammit, you said this was how you worked it, X,” one of them said.

“Shut up, just nab the f@#ker,” said the first one. That’s how I knew they weren’t kidding around. I’ve been around enough guns to know when one was real, and those were legit. Plus, if they were joking, they would have known better than to call me “f@#ker.” My secretary trembling at the sight of them was another tipoff.

So I took the moment to get us out of there. Now my desk didn’t have a nameplate – or is it a name plaque? – You know, the Toblerone thing at the front of desks? I didn’t have one of those in the Governor’s mansion, but I did have a bust of FDR on the desk. I grabbed it, and pow! I whacked the one trying to grab me right in the face! I grabbed my secretary by the hand, and as the other two struggled to put the safeties on their guns, we dashed to the study and locked the door behind us. Then they started firing into the door, so while my secretary called security, I grabbed the commemorative rifle we had in the room. It wasn’t loaded, but I shouted out to our assailants the claim that it was. I threatened to blow them away if they kept it up. I heard them talking to each other over whether or not I was bluffing, but we didn’t get to hear the conversation’s conclusion. Law enforcement arrived in the office with their guns drawn before they could even disperse from the area.

Afterward, security was doubled, and I started keeping a gun right in the desk drawer of my inner office and also in my study, instead of just in the master’s bedroom, guest rooms, front-door closet, back-door closest, butler’s pantry, hallway closets, basement, attic, outer office, main bathroom, main washroom, linen closets and drawing rooms. Kind of an oversight on my part, really. After twenty years of being a cop, eight years of being a governor had led to me putting my guard down. So, yeah, that was sort of embarrassing, but that’s not how the newspapers reported it, let me tell ya!

The experience was frightening, I’ll admit, but in retrospect, those would-be kidnappers did so many things wrong, it was ridiculous.

– Mario Biaggi, ABC interview, 1998


Personally Holds Back Assailants, Saving Secretary’s Life

The New York Post, 3/16/1974



[pic: ]

The Louisville Times, Kentucky newspaper, 3/19/1974


…the man who robbed a bank before fleeing the scene, being cornered by police officers, and then firing upon them until he was killed has been identified as local ex-soldier Michael Corbett. Corbett reportedly suffered from violent outbursts in public, and had recently been evicted from his apartment in Walsenburg, Colorado for "unruly behavior" and "threatening to kill" a fellow tenant, according to his former landlord...

– The Fort Collins Coloradoan, Colorado newspaper, 3/21/1974


– The Washington Post, 3/22/1974


…the Senators in question disapprove of a massive multimillion-dollar spending omnibus package – four bills focused on urban utilities development and urban renewal; research and development of domestic oil and gas reserves; farm aid; and water sanitation – for being too “invasive and wasteful,” according to Senator Hank Hibbard (R-MT).

Secretary Ralph Nader joins others in strongly backing the package, stating “It should be noted that a majority of these Congressmen hail from white-collar districts, and polling shows upper-middle classes are upset at the president for ignoring their needs. But these needs, the needs of the lower classes, they can’t wait.”


[pic: ]
Above: Secretary Nader looking over his prepared notes ahead of speaking to the press

The Senate plans to review the package next week…

The Washington Post, 3/23/1974

“Can I get anything salty?”

“For the hundredth time, no!” I stressed.

Jack and I were walking out of a meeting with Ted about his involvement with Jack’s think tank in DC, and we were discussing what to have later for dinner. The Addison’s-induced salt cravings only worsened the disease’s other side effect, dehydration. I recall, on that day, Jack was being more stubborn than usual, and was refusing to use his crutches.

As we were approaching the building’s main staircase, I asked him if he would reconsider using leg braces, similar to what Franklin Delano Roosevelt used.

Jack didn’t appreciate the comment, “Jackie, I am not a cripple,” he huffed and quickly moved past me down the stairs, “I just have weak legs, that’s – ”

Jack either mistook a step or he slipped. I yelped as Jack fell down the stairs, his body doing a sort of somersault as he tumbled down to the landing in the middle of the staircase. Witnesses immediately rushed over, and soon Ted and I were helping him into a car around back.

At the hospital, I remember asking him, “How much longer is this going to go on for, Jack, before you admit you need the damn braces?” Maybe I was being a bit dramatic, but I didn’t want to lose him, and he his stubbornness kept him from resting to address his affliction head-on. Instead, he was ignoring it by running off the think tanks and Democratic fundraisers, sailing on yachts and partaking in cigars everyday it seemed. In my mind, I began to think that it was not a question of “if,” but “when.” When would his disease take him from me?

– Jackie Kennedy’s autobiography, With My Own Eyes, Simon & Schuster, 1993

Patient received moderate injuries during incident. The carpeting of the staircase softened the blow the body received, but injuries were still substantial. Patient received a lightly sprained neck, pulled and sprained muscles on his back, a compound fracture in his left hand, and contusions to his neck and both legs and right arm.

The most serious injury, however was received by the patient’s scapula, the area around the right shoulder blade. Patient’s scapula received a pull muscle and some light internal bleeding, which may cause significant local inflammation and pain. Due to Patient suffering from Addison’s disease, his immune system is weak, and prone to infection. As a result, it is imperative that the area of the internal bleeding is heavily and routinely observed to ensure it heals properly.

It is of this director’s professional opinion that Patient must cut back on strenuous activities in order to build up his mental and physical strength and stamina. The body’s system cannot fight the disease if the body itself and the person himself are not helping the system along in its fight.

– George Washington University Hospital, internal memo, 3/29/1974


– The Boston Globe, 3/30/1974


[pic: ]
– An F5 tornado, one of seven to reach the F5 rating to touch down during the 1974 Super Outbreak, ravages southwestern Ohio, 4/3/1974

Over 100 tornadoes touched down in 13 states and one Canadian province, killing 295 people and injuring over 5,000 in roughly 18 hours. Seven F5s were observed—one each in Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky, three in Alabama and the final one which crossed through parts of Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky. 31 were killed in Brandenburg, Kentucky, and 28 died in Guin, Alabama. The tornado the struck Windsor, Ontario, Canada, killed nine and injuring 30 others there, all of them at the former Windsor Curling Club. During the peak of the outbreak, a staggering sixteen tornadoes were on the ground simultaneously. At one point forecasters in Indiana, frustrated because they could not keep up with all of the simultaneous tornado activity, put the entire state of Indiana under a blanket tornado warning. This was the first and only time in U.S. history that an entire state was under a tornado warning. [5]



[pic: ]
The New York Times, 4/8/1974

…with the local economy increasing due to nationwide recovery efforts and the city’s population increasing as well, the Mayor of Colorado Springs has announced a 25% increase of the city’s police fund…

– KOAA-TV, Colorado TV station, NBC, 4/9/1974 broadcast


…the 52-year-old African-American female had an impressive resume. Motley had previously served in the New York state senate, as the Borough President of Manhattan, and has served as a Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York since President Sanders appointed her to that seat in August 1966 (in exchange for Sanders appointing a deeply conservative judge to a different seat). However, conservatives in the US Senate strongly opposed her progressive ruling history…

– The Washington Times, 4/10/1974

…Another issue that I’d like to discuss tonight is President Mondale’s Secretary of Labor, Robert Kennedy, who is allowing unions to increase the power and influence they have over honest businessmen. The Secretary’s attempts to make a Mondale-esque espirit de corps among white and non-white workers is admittedly working to keep them from blaming each other for job losses, but his policies in office nevertheless border on the edge of socialism, or at the least on the edge of violating several federal overreach laws. Most recently, Mr. Kennedy has begun to push for increasing communication between the federal government and private enterprises to reduce employment and employee treatment concerns whenever businesses fail to surrender to the demands of unions. Americans everywhere should be outraged at this, but for some reason are not, most likely because they are not adequately informed as to what is really going on here. I would like to start to change that with tonight’s discussion…

– William F. Buckley Jr. (host), Firing Line, WOR-TV, Tuesday 4/16/1974 broadcast

In April 1974, during an excellent season for his team, pitcher Douglas James “Dougie” Rau of the L.A. Dodgers tore the ulnar collateral ligament in his pitching arm. Months later, Rau underwent a surgical graft procedure where the odds of success were at 1 in 100. While the surgery put Rau out of commission for the rest of the season and all of the 1975 season, his arm reacted positively to the surgery, and he returned for the 1976 season good as new. His recovery was deemed “miraculous,” and it increased public awareness of the surgery to such a height, that by the time Rau retired from MLB in 1991, the procedure was better known by its nickname: a “Dougie Rau” surgery.

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994


The Sacramento Union, 4/20/1974


Lisbon, PORTUGAL – Army rebels are in control of Portugal tonight after an almost bloodless dawn coup ended nearly 50 years of dictatorship... [6] Locals are beginning to call the peaceful overthrow the Carnation Revolution as the leaders of the rebels have proclaimed their goal of restoring democracy to the people Portugal. …It remains unclear what this development means for the overseas territories of Portugal…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 25/4/1974


Pittsburgh, PA – Former Second Lady of the United States Mary Scranton is the brainchild behind “Keystone Opportunities,” a non-profit organization based in this state that intends to collaborate with local governments to implement community development programs in poverty- and crime- striken areas…

The Philadelphia Inquirer, PA newspaper, 5/2/1974


The Washington Post, Tuesday, 5/7/1974


The Miami Tribune, 5/12/1974


After floating the names of judges June Lazenby Green, Damon Keith, and surprise early favorite A. Leon Higginbotham Jr. as possible candidates, President Mondale has formally nominated William Joseph Nealon Jr. for Justice William O. Douglas’ Supreme Court seat. Nealon, a Judge of the US District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania since 1962, has already won the support of the retiring Douglas and several Senatorial leaders…

The Washington Times, 5/16/1974

On May 18, 1974, a new player entered the nuclear arena. India became a nuclear power – the first nation outside of the UN’s permanent Security Council to do so – with the success of their “Smiling Buddha” test in the Pokhran Test Range of Rajasthan, northern India. Declaring it a “peaceful nuclear explosion” – a term to describe non-military purposes for nuclear testing, the most common use being excavation – the test revived Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s waning popularity.

This development changed the dynamics of international relations with India. The most negative reaction to the test, however, came from their western neighbor. Pakistan went on the offensive, claiming the test was not “peaceful,” and the nation’s Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto promising to fight back against the perceived threat of “Indian hegemony or domination over the subcontinent.” Furthermore, the Prime Minister saw the test as justification for his late 1974 decision that Pakistan would develop and test a nuclear bomb of its own. However, Pakistan’s progress on fulfilling this promise was slow from the very beginning…

– David Tal’s US Strategic Arms Policy in the Cold War: Negotiation & Confrontation, Routledge, 2017

…and his wife Christine Chubbuck are ecstatic to announce the successful birth of their first child, a daughter weighing 6 pounds, 11 ounces [7].

– The Sarasota Herald-Tribune, celebrations section, 5/23/1974

KFC’s growth as the ’70s continued allowed for KFC franchisees to take the risk and try out new expanded menu selections. In some places, customers could find offerings such as the Colonel’s personally created versions of ham and bean scallop, sausage shortcake, orange coconut custard, cheese meatloaf, and of course, in the UK, one of the nation’s most popular dishes of the ’70s – Chicken Kiev. More versions of chicken-based foods were tried out with every piece of the bird – breasts, thighs, wings, organs, and feet. Even fried chicken heads were available in select locations in Mississippi and Louisiana. KFC’s expansion of its regional menus may have also been in response to regional competitors...

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012


Orson Welles’ long-anticipated work “The Deep” has finally premiered, after infamously being worked on for well over a decade. Based on the 1963 Charles Williams novel “Dead Calm,” the film is a dramatic suspense thriller that follows two honeymooners in the middle of the ocean who discover a mysterious young man in a lifeboat. The film is posthumously dedicated to its lead star, Laurence Harvey, who passed away late last year. Production on the film stalled until 1968, when the state economy allowed Welles to find funding for remaining scenes to be completed and edit over the next five-to-six years...

Variety magazine, 6/7/1974 film review


The Washington Post, 6/12/1974

Under President Mondale, the federal government agency entitled The National Science Foundation began compiling a comprehensive study that when published in June 1974, claimed that years of data agreed with a 1956 abstract [8] that suggested Earth is experiencing “anthropogenic global disruption,” the idea that the actions of decades of burning feul was increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, affecting the world’s climate. The linking of global temperature levels to human activity was a landmark declaration. However, it was met with scrutiny by manufacturers who claimed the report was inaccurate and, “if taken seriously,” would create “unnecessary panic,” according to commentator William F. Buckley. For President Mondale, the report conflicted with his goal of ensuring manufacturing jobs for American workers, and while he did not openly comment on the report at the time, he did not inhibit the NSF’s calls for increasing “responsibility and awareness” among industries emitting “too much” carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As the report came at a time of increased environmentalist activism, arguably beginning with the Santa Barbara Oil Spill of 1969, it found support in the Global Weather Protection movement, founded the same time as other groups favoring a massive change in “industrial nature treatment” worldwide…

– Robert Wilder’s Listening to the Land and Sea: The Politics of Environmental Protection in California, University of Sacramento Press, 1999


…It seems outspoken women are causing headaches for the Chicken King once more, as seen in new photos capturing what primary sources confirm was a heated argument between the former President and a concerned citizen. Speaking her mind, the unidentified woman was heard calling Colonel Sanders a “warmongering pervert” as she waved her hands in his face. The former leader of the free world proceeded to scold her “like she was a schoolgirl,” says a second witness, who explains the Colonel eventually walked away “like a cowardly schoolgirl” to regroup with Secret Service agents waiting for him at the store’s entrance, “like a clique of schoolgirls,” says the same witness…

National Enquirer, tabloid newspaper, 6/16/1974


[pic: ]
– Photograph of The Supermarket Incident, captured by an onlooker, 6/14/1974

Oh. That thing. That was just an unfortunate run-in with a very ill-informed woman. Called my husband a bunch of names, so Harland told her off. It was embarrassing, but on the plus side, Secret Service started keeping a tighter leash on him to keep such things from happening again. I don’t want to talk about it any further. Next question, please.

– Claudia Price Sanders, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1979

Derided as “Worzel Gummidge’s other brother” for him and Michael’s “rumbled” appearances, Dingle was not as left-wing as his brother had been while Prime Minister, but nevertheless, Dingle was willing to make concessions to the most left-leaning members of Labour in order to preserve party unity.


Dingle was a masterful diplomat who improved the monarchy’s reputation abroad. [snip] Relations between France and the UK improved that month [June 1974] when Dingle Foot met with Francois Mitterrand in Paris. [snip] Due to his past career as a solicitor or practitioner for nations such as Ghana, Northern Rhodesia, Sierra Leone, Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, and Nyasaland during the late 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s, Dingle Foot was successful in strengthening relations between the UK and many countries in Africa. Dingle’s support of nuclear disarmament, however, put him at odds with India, where he also had once worked as a Senior Advocate for the Indian Supreme Court, once the subcontinental nation became a nuclear power.

– Kenneth O. Morgan’s Putting Our Foots Down: The Days of Michael And The Years of Dingle, Guardian publications, 2011


…The law is meant to cut down on “unreasonable” qualification measures in regards to worker visas to allow “the best and the brightest in the world and America’s best and brightest to join together in the American workplace,” Mondale explained at a press conference early today... …It is the President’s attempt to find a balance between appealing to white native-born workers and to the immigrant labor force that began his Presidential candidate three years ago…

The Washington Post, 6/27/1974


…set for release in November, the former President will briefly show up as “a customer in a general goods store,” says the anonymous source close to the casting process for the independent film. It is currently unclear if The Colonel will have spoken dialogue in the scene, or will simply appear in the background, a la Alfred Hitchcock…

The Hollywood Reporter, 7/1/1974

…On July 12, police discovered the serial killer had struck again when five men were discovered to have been killed in a San Francisco bathhouse. While publicly calling on officials to “do your duty,” Governor Reagan amended the declaration to “do your duty despite the immoral activities of the victims’ personal lives” for a private fundraiser held two weeks later….

– Brandon Teena’s The Rise of BLUTAG Rights: The Story of the Bi-Lesbian-Undefined-Trans-Asexual-Gay Movement, Scholastic, 2019

Morse Loses Last of Many Battles


[pic: ]
By Henny Willis – The Tiger is dead. Wayne Lyman Morse, the old “Tiger of the Senate,” died at 8:10 a.m. today of kidney failure at Good Samaritan Hospital in Portland. He was 73. One of the most dynamic and controversial figures in Oregon’s political history, Morse died in the midst of a re-election campaign for the US Senate he held for over 29 years, from 1945 until his death. Morse was in Portland organizing his campaign when he was stricken Wednesday with a severe urinary tract infection. He was hospitalized and physicians said he was responding to antibiotic treatment, but he slipped into a coma at 5:50 a.m. today and never regained consciousness. Funeral services were incomplete as of noon today…

– The Eugene Register-Guard, 7/22/1974 [9]

…as the Senator passed away only a few weeks after obtaining the Democratic nomination for that November’s senatorial election, the party had enough time to replace Morse’s name on the ballot” with state politician Betty Roberts…


…In other news, any customers travelling from Virginia to Texas will no longer be confused by the existence of the What-A-Burger franchise of Virginia and the Whataburger franchise of Texas. The two separate and independently created companies have settled out of court in order to end a federal trademark infringement lawsuit concerning the similarity of their names. Upon learning of each other in 1970, the Texas Whataburger publicly vowed to not expand into Virginia. However, the larger Texas Whataburger broke this promise in 1972, during a period of great expansion for the company, and this is what sparking the lawsuit. With this new development, though, the Virginia-based company has announced that, in order to avoid confusion, they will change their name from “What-A-Burger” to “Bestburger,” allowing both companies to compete for customers regardless of the other’s presence in the area…

The Overmyer Network, 7/27/1974 broadcast

“Kentucky Fried Chicken had owned H. Salt Esquire Fish & Chips since 1969, but after just a few years was experiencing a decline sales, adding to the parent company’s woes. So the Colonel – busy guy that he was – decided to help us out. Helped us revamp our menu, increase the quality, uh, you know, how we kept the interior all cleaned up and everything. He even recorded a commercial for us! That’s how much the Colonel cared for every single member of the large and diverse KFC family – that he’d go out of his way to have himself a spot in an ad for a restaurant chain that mostly sold the British fish and chips dish across what back then was only a few US states.”

– Former H. Salt Esq. Fish & Chips employee, interview for ABC report on KFC, recorded 2002


The Washington Post, 8/5/1974

Oh, well, Harland had been thinking about the Arab-Israeli conflict long before deciding to actively get involved. At first, I thought he was only joking, but the wars in Israel in 1967 and 1973, they had an effect on him. I’d say, shortly before the publication of his autobiography was when he really started thinking about how he could help. I remember how he spent several months discussing what he called his “duty as a Christian” with his pastor, and how he’d run around to, uh, run the idea by his friends and business associates. He even reached out to his former diplomats who were happy to advise him on the feasibility and the extent to which he could work to bring peace to the middle east.

– Claudia Price Sanders, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1979

…the House of Commons has approved on Prime Minister Foot’s tax plan to combat the country’s rising inflation crisis…

– BBC News, 8/19/1974

A lot of things have changed over the years – business strategies and complicated economic theories – but they haven’t been able to change the Golden Rule. That one still works and my story is the proof.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974 [10]

The businessman-turned-President-turned-businessman’s memoirs, “Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger Lickin’ Good,” is a reflection on his many careers over the decades, wherein he expresses his many views and touts his many accomplishments. While other politicians may shy away from, or attempt to justify, the most negative aspects of their administration, Sanders attempts to address the biggest blunders of his years in office, most notably the aborted 1966 attempt to invade northern Vietnam, and the sexual pestering accusation that started a multinational phenomenon. However, he does spend little time covering his restricting of “underground” comics. Nonetheless, the detailed book is a must-read for anyone who likes colorful and Horatio Alger-type characters and stories with twists, turns, and politics…

The New York Times, book review, 8/29/1974


– The Chicago Tribune, 9/1/1974


…“we have reason to believe the suspect in custody is tied to cases going back nine months concerning 19 murdered homosexual men across the state of California,” reads the official statement… Neighbors describe the suspect as a quiet middle-aged man who was often seen driving in and out of his garage but seems to have had visitors to his home. “We just though he was a very private man,” notes one concerned neighbor… The string of killings has raised sympathy for and awareness of the BLUTAG community in California and the United States, albeit in the worst and most tragic of ways...

The Los Angeles Times, 9/5/1974


Biaggi Claims New Law Will Do Little To Inhibit “Dangerous Young Punks”

The New York Times, 9/7/1974



[pic: ]

The Washington Times, side article, 9/9/1974

It was clear that, after 45 years in power, Haile Selassie would soon be out of a job. The Wollo Famine, the inflation and economic recession brought about by the rippling effects of the 1973 oil crisis, and the rising riotous resentment felt towards the King among a majority of the people all created the conditions necessary for the Derg to come to power. The Derg, a Soviet-backed communist military junta, overthrew the 7,004-year-old monarchy, prompting the 83-year-old King to flee to Oman, an adamantly neutral country during the Cold War.

In the United States, public reaction to the military junta led to criticism of their President’s handling of foreign affairs. After the Cuban and Indochina Wars that successfully propelled communist elements from four nations, polls showed many expected the hubristic U.S. to send troops to Ethiopia. When their leader, President Mondale, only admonished the junta for their violent rise to power, his approval ratings dropped among both “dove” and “hawk” Americans. The former group wanted the President to treat the junta as a humanitarian crisis, while the latter group supported military intervention; thus, both groups considered his ignoring of the event to be weak.

– Saheed A. Adejumobi’s The History of Ethiopia, Greenwood Press, 2007


The Houston Chronicle, 9/22/1974

…Mondale welcomed West Germany’s Chancellor Helmut Schmidt to D.C. in September to boost strengthen relations with that country. This meeting was also met with criticism, as reporters observed the lack of any discussion on the Berlin Wall (their conversation instead mainly focused on trade and commerce), which only reinforced the notion that Mondale was ignoring some troubled parts of the world such as Berlin, while unnecessarily interfering in other parts such as Israel and Egypt…

– Joseph Walker Barr’s The Mulling Minnesotan: Mondale’s Military Moments, Borders Books, 1994

…A new Gallup polls shows that most Americans do not approve of the President’s handling of foreign affairs. 57% of Americans polled ranked the President’s foreign policy as “poor,” 30% as ranked his handling as “well,” and 13% ranked it as “unsure”…

– The Overmyer Network, 10/3/1974

KILDUFF: The United States is maintaining fair relations with the nations of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. In fact, the President is currently meeting with the Ambassador from Chad.

DAVID BRODER (Washington Post): Speaking of which, is it true the US is establishing warmer relations with Chad over the uranium deposits found in the Aouzou strip area that Chad and Libya are at war over?

KILDUFF: No, we have offered to establish relations with Libya’s leader, uh, Muammar Ghaddafi, and he has been less responsive than Chad, that’s all.

DAN RATHER (CBS News): What about the civil war developing in Ethiopia?