God is a Frenchman - a Timeline (Seven Yrs War POD)

The Six Years War (POD-1762)
What if France and Austria were victorious in the Seven Years War? Many years back there was a TL in development here centered around the French winning the Seven Years War. That timeline has been defunct for a long time and the author long-since banned. It really grabbed me, though and I've spent a while adapting, expanding, and detailing it into my own timeline stretching to the modern era. I have pretty fleshed-out details through the 1880s and outlined events through 2025.

This update takes us through the alternative ending to the OT Seven Years War. Enjoy!

God is a Frenchman: Six Years War Post-POD (1759-1762)
~~ "With faithful winds, strong men, and a bit of luck, the stables have outlasted the conflagration" ~~
The Marquis de Montcalm

May 1756-Jun 1761
Six Years War
Beginning in North America and spreading across the globe due to competing alliances, territorial interests, and colonial ambitions, the French, Austrians, Saxons, Swedes, and Russians battle against the British, Hanoverians, and Prussians.
9 July, 1759

Point of Departure 1: Battle of Minden
The Marquis de Lafayette survives the Battle of Minden and is captured by British and German forces. He is later ransomed back to France. [1]
10 August, 1759
Death of King Fernando of Spain
Reign of Carlos III of Spain
Reign marked by sweeping modernization reforms in Spain and its colonial empire. Alliance with an ascendant France also reaps great benefits.
18 October, 1759
Point of Departure 2: Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Bad weather forces delays to a planned British attack against the citadel of Quebec. French scouts discover several cliffside vertical trails and place them under watch. British General Wolfe launches a risky attack to beat anticipated cold weather after his own scouts report the cliff trail. Wolfe gambles that he will be able to take the French by surprise and defeat the poorly staffed and equipped French colonial garrison. The French scouts are able to warn the citadel and troops and cannon are roused to box the British in on their beachhead and prevent them from establishing battle formations. British advance forces are thoroughly defeated by the French garrison under the Marquis de Montcalm and Wolfe orders the retreat of the remaining army attack. Colonel William Howe, in command of the ascent and actions at the top of the cliff is greatly affected by the defeat and resolves to never put his troops in the position of facing a bottleneck. The sickly General Wolfe dies in camp two weeks later and the British withdraw to Halifax for winter, unable to push the French out of their Quebec stronghold. [2]
19-20 November, 1759
Point of Departure 3: Battle of Quiberon Bay
In the midst of intense gales from the west, the French home fleet under the Comte de Conflans attempts to take advantage of gaps in the British blockade of Brittany to run for the open ocean to regroup. They're spotted by elements of the British fleet that took shelter from the winds in Quiberon Bay and word is sent to the main British blockade fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, who has taken refuge on the Cornwall coast. After consulting with his captains, Conflans makes the unorthodox decision not to give chase to the British squadron or find shelter in Quiberon and rather make haste to the southwest before tacking north, passing behind Hawke's fleet and turning east as the wind shifts from the north. [3]

Conflans move, and Hawke's failure to react to it with sufficient speed has flipped the field on the British; the 27 ship French fleet placed upwind of the 29 ship British fleet. Hawke is unable to maneuver sufficiently for a fleet action and decides to make for Quiberon Bay where he can join with the five ship squadron already posted there. Conflans however is able to run on Hawke's southern flank, harassing his screen with volleys and forcing the British close to the dangerous shoals around the bay. As darkness falls, two British frigates and four ships-of-the-line are dashed and lose nearly all hands. Hawke makes a bold move to turn downwind and run south toward Conflans' lines in the fading light. By morning, the British fleet regroups south of Quiberon, battered and having lost three more ships and severe damage to four more. The French have suffered two ships lost and three with significant damage. Continued gales discourage the continued prosecution of the action and Hawke's fleet withdraws to the southwest, leaving Conflans fleet freedom of movement.

The French victory effectively breaks the British blockade, allowing for relief missions to Quebec and India and keeping the potential for a 1760 invasion of Great Britain open. The victory also helps the French with recruitment into the Royale, easing the shortages in crew numbers. Over the winter, there is a ferocious debate in French war councils about whether to attack the British Isles directly or to take advantage of the break in the British blockade to reinforce the American and Indian theaters of war. Ultimately it is decided that strengthening other theaters will force the British to continue draining their resources and benefit France's aims more than a high-stakes confrontation off the coast of Britain itself. The possibility of invasion will be emphasized for the benefit of heightening British fears, but plans are made to embark on strong new campaigns in India and North America in 1760. [4]

On the British side, the loss greatly hampers their plans. The Admiralty hurriedly takes stock of their naval assets and redistributes their forces to defensive positions in home ports, while still attempting to maintain a semblance of blockade against France. They also find themselves needing to replenish over a dozen ships-of-the-line, an expensive endeavor which requires the government to make difficult financial choices. After a heated debate, King George II assents to the proposition that shoring up the Royal Navy will take priority over maintaining subsidies to their Prussian allies on the mainland. The Prussians are outraged and warn that such a move could lead to the collapse of the continental effort. Frederick II interprets the cuts , but the British have become hyper-focused on maintaining their naval strength, and subsidies to Prussia are cut in 1760. [5]

12 February, 1760
Battle of Wandiwash
Six Years War: At Wandiwash, a French allied army under the Comte de Lally, freshly reinforced from France, smashes a British force under General Sir Eyre Coote. The outcome cements French control over southern India.
April-June 1760
Second Siege of Louisbourg
Six Years War: Admiral Conflans' fleet departs France for America in March with a goal of replenishing Quebec and recapturing British-occupied Louisbourg in Acadia. The British have only a small force of seven ships-of-the-line and a 3,000 strong garrison at Louisbourg, allowing Conflans larger force to replicate the British actions two years prior. In an action in April, three British ships are sunk and two are captured, forcing the remaining three to retreat to Halifax. French troop ships are then able to embark up the Saint-Lawrence River to Quebec, where they will be placed under the command of Montcalm and used to hold back the British from advancing into the heart of New France. Despite two British efforts from Halifax to break the siege at Louisbourg, the French are able to recapture the fortress by early-Summer, ensuring that the fortress of Quebec will be safe from another British assault for the foreseeable future.
16 June, 1760
Battle of Lake Champlain
Six Years War: A British-American army under General Amherst, aiming to capture Montreal is defeated at the southern end of Lake Champlain by reinforced French, Canadian and allied forces under the Marquis de Montcalm. Amherst's shattered forces retreat south to Ticonderoga, hoping for reinforcements. The French opt not to pursue, preserving their North American forces in a defensive posture. Montcalm has instructions from Paris to hold remaining territories and leverage alliances with native tribes to harass British occupiers, in the hopes that a favorable treaty settlement will see tracts and outposts returned to French control.
15 August, 1760
Point of Departure 4: Battle of Liegnitz [6]
After years of attritional warfare in central Europe, the Austrians aim to finally land a crushing blow against the Prussians in Silesia. Although the siege of Breslau is broken by Prince Heinrich, Austrian command of the Silesian countryside leads King Friedrich to finally commit to an engagement. Near the town of Liebnitz, the Austrian attempt to encircle the wily Prussian king fails, and the two sides fall into an artillery duel, with the Prussians holding the high ground. A near-miss at the Austrian powder cart leads Austrian commander von Lauden to move his stores further to the rear. Frustrated by the Austrian's, Frederick II orders a charge down the heights against enemy's flanks, which is savaged by Lauden's well-placed batteries. When Austrian reinforcements under General von Daun arrive, Frederick orders his forces to retreat, but thousands are captures in the Austrian pincer. The defeat at Liegnitz is a devastating blow to the Prussian King's confidence on the battlefield and he agonizes over his decision-making, falling into a deep malaise that is highlighted by his commanders. As the Austrians increase their hold on Silesia, Frederick's increased caution is noted and his army continues to cede ground as they retreat north to defend Berlin, effectively abandoning offensive campaigning. By the end of the 1760 campaign Frederick is also becoming increasingly embittered against his British allies for the abandonment of their continental allies and is considering making his own peace with Austria, France, and Russia. [7]
25 October, 1760
Death of King George of Great Britain
Reign of George III of Great Britain
Reign marked by multiple wars with France, which on-balance go very poorly for Britain. Political and economic strife is a frequent problem. Mental illness disrupts later years. Often seen as successfully steering Britain through a very challenging time.

2 March, 1761
Battle of Ganjam
Six Years War: In their last major offensive in the Indian theater of the war, the British attempt a landing at Ganjam on the eastern coast of India. While the initial naval bombardment and troop landing, commanded by Robert Clive, is successful, the tide quickly turns against the British due to the smart tactical response of the Marquis de Bussy. As redcoats are driven back towards the water, British aspirations to expand in India beyond Bengal fade.
3 July, 1761
Battle of Gibraltar
Six Years War: The Royal Navy successfully engages the Spanish fleet off of Gibraltar, preemptively dashing Spanish hopes of successfully blockading the British enclave.
23 July, 1761
Battle of la Gallette
Six Years War: British-American forces under General Gage head a thrust towards Montreal along the St. Lawrence River, capitalizing on British captured forts along Lake Ontario. The offensive is decisively halted by the French, again under the Marquis de Montcalm just west of Fort la Gallette. When France's native allies cut off the British to the rear, Gage is forced to surrender his forces to capture. The battle removes the largest remaining professional British force from the field in North America, crippling their ability to launch continued campaigns without further reinforcements from Britain or the colonies. For their part, the colonial assemblies are hurting financially and resistant to call for more volunteers to fight in the frontier. The French are able to reoccupy postings at Frontenac, Oswego, and Niagara with little difficulty through the fall of 1761.
September, 1761
Treaty of Prague (1761)
Six Years War: Prussia exits the war due to a loss of British subsidies and dwindling fighting forces. A string of defeats dashes the confidence of Prussian King Frederick II and he breaks his alliance with Britain to make a separate peace with Austria and France. The Treaty of Prague is signed between Austria, Prussia, France, Saxony, Russia, and Sweden. The treaty states that:
  • Silesia is returned to Austria.
  • Hohenzollern lands west of Brandenburg-Prussia are transferred to other German states, mainly Saxony, Oldenburg and Baden.
  • East Prussia is granted to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in exchange for Courland being granted to Russia.
  • Prussia will cease any continued cooperation or assistance with British-Hanoverian forces in Europe.
The terms of the treaty are humiliating for Prussia, which is severely weakened as a major European power. Prussia loses its old realm at Königsberg, its influence in the Rhineland and therefore its electoral strength in the Holy Roman Empire.


March, 1762
Death of Tsarina Elizabeth of Russia
March-September, 1762
Reign of Peter III of Russia
Reign marked by perceived disinterest and frivolity. Deposed by wife in a plot.
14, August, 1762
Treaty of Paris
Six Years War: The Treaty of Paris restores peace between Britain and France.
  • Britain recognizes French claims in North America and returns all French possessions captured during the fighting. The treaty specifically notes key outposts such as Pitt/Duquesne and Carillon/Ticonderoga, but fails to delineate clear borders.
  • France also stipulates that the British assist in the repatriation of expelled Acadians to French territory.
  • In India, the British are required to recognize certain French trading rights and allies, and refrain from political interference in India outside of Bengal and Madras.
  • British troops must leave Hanover.
  • Spain offers to recognize British control of Cuba in exchange for a return of Gibraltar, but Britain elects to return Cuba to Spain and keep Gibraltar.
31 August, 1762Emperor Momozono of Japan Dies
Reign of Empress Go-Sakuramachi of Japan
Reign marked by an aborted attempt to restore imperial powers and displace the shōgun. The plot is unsuccessful but signals changes in the future.
September, 1762
Peter of Russia Deposed
A conspiracy is hatched by the Tsar's wife and members of the court, who are distrustful and disdainful of Peter's strongly pro-Prussian bend. The Tsar vacillates between riotous parties and exchanging despairing letters with Prussian King Frederick over the loss in the Six Years War. Peter writes that, had he come to the throne earlier, he would have backed Prussia against Austria and avoided Frederick's humiliation. This letter, read by his wife is used as justification to remove Peter from power, which occurs in September of 1762. [8]
Reign of Catherine II of Russia
Reign marked by major expansion of Russian power on all frontiers as well as mixed results of attempted reforms.

[1] Our Lafayette's dad. This is just for fun so I can use him later. OTL he dies from an artillery blast during the Battle of Minden. ITTL it falls a bit further to the left.
[2] OTL Wolfe was concerned that his health would fail before capturing Quebec and also that weather would preclude a successful attack. ITTL the slight delay enables the French to discover the cliffside path that allows the British to flank the fortress.
[3] OTL Conflans sails for the bay, setting up his fleet for the devastating engagement against Hawke'.
[4] OTL France had these debates before Quiberon Bay ruins any possibility of invasion or reinforcement. With the success ITTL, the argument runs its course until it's decided to aid the colonial campaigns.
[5] OTL as ITTL the British borrow heavily to pay for the 7YW. With a reduced Royal Navy they need to make difficult financial choices. In this case, abandoning the Prussians in their fight against Austria.
[6] I know, I know... too many PODs... but it's pretty difficult to give the French/Austrian side a comprehensive victory. Bear with.
[7] OTL the Austrians charge because their powder stores are hit. ITTL it escapes and is pulled back allowing the Austrians to hold on and force a Prussian charge.
[8] The circumstances are different, but Catherine still deposes Peter. No way that doesn't happen.
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It’s a very interesting presentation but I read a lot faster than I can swipe/load the next part so all I’m wishing for is a boring old text version

That said I remain intrigued by this timeline and your variant of it, it’s quite rare to have France wins timelines in the era. Plus so many awesome maps!
It’s a very interesting presentation but I read a lot faster than I can swipe/load the next part so all I’m wishing for is a boring old text version

That said I remain intrigued by this timeline and your variant of it, it’s quite rare to have France wins timelines in the era. Plus so many awesome maps!
Thanks for that feedback! The boring text version is currently trapped in an elaborate spreadsheet used to feed the timeline. For now it's more trouble than it's worth for me to reformat it, but perhaps I will in the future!
Inter-War (1763-1770)

God is a Frenchman: Inter-War (1763-1770)

Virginia Debt Crisis
After the Six Years War the economy of Virginia collapses. The most populous British province in North America had been heavily invested in land speculation in the Ohio Country; land that was now beyond Britain's control according to the Treaty of Paris. The investments of thousands of Virginians evaporates the moment the treaty is signed and some of the province's most prominent families now teeter on the edge of financial ruin as they are overrun with bad debts. Many plantations are parceled off for sale. This causes a collapse in tax revenues in Virginia and depresses commerce, spilling over into other provinces in British America.

By the end of the decade, Virginia has gone from being one of the most belligerent British provinces towards France to one of the least. The sting of lost investments in the west causes a shift in thinking among both the gentry and the government, bringing a new focus towards internal improvement and commerce. Some plantation owners begin to think on alternative ways of managing their agricultural and labor practices.
March-September, 1763
Unionist Papers Published
Pennsylvanian Benjamin Franklin resumes his advocacy of a union of British-American provinces that has some structural autonomy from Parliament in particular for the purposes of the common defense. The papers are published in Britain and American and are widely read. Although he was roundly mocked and rejected in 1754 for his unionism and "Join, or Die" propaganda, in the aftermath of the Six Years War, a more structured defense system for British America is a priority on both sides of the Atlantic. Franklin continues to be a leading voice for unity in the British-American provinces until his withdrawal from public life in 1789.
May, 1763
Proclamation on Inheritance and Colonization
Upon advisement of his ministers, King Louis XV proclaims that bequests in which all assets remain in continental France will be subjected to an 18% inheritance tax. Bequests in which at least 15% are delivered to colonial development, typically in the form of sending a later son to New France, will be tax free. The purpose of the proclamation is to begin the process of seeding French America with a gentry, a process expected to begin bearing fruit by the turn of the century.
5 October, 1763
Death of King Augustus of Poland
Also the Prince-Elector of Saxony.
Reign of Stanisłaus Augustus of Poland
Reign marked by ending the personal union between Saxony and Poland and the collapse of the Polish monarchy to foreign intervention.
Russo-Ottoman War
Russians battle the Ottomans in the Caucasus and Black Sea regions. Russia claims substantial territory in Cossack lands up to the Dnieper River, the Khanate of Crimea, Circassia and kingdoms in the west Caucasus.

January, 1764
Treaty of Fort Duquesne
French authorities formalize an agreement with the trans-Appalachian native tribes that guarantees them the rights to their lands if they will answer the French call as allies in the event of future wars, trade exclusively with the French, and negotiate in good faith to allow increased French settlement.
February, 1764
Proclamation on Colonization in New France
To further develop colonial holdings in New France, King Louis XV proclaims that
1) migration to New France and a term of servitude be acceptable sentence for certain petty crimes;​
2) land grants in America for French urban poor if they produce materials for colonial export; and​
3) encourage Huguenots to emigrate to New France.​
While the provisions are popular, the third creates tension within the Catholic Church, as the conservative diocese in Quebec strongly objects to the decree, while Church authorities in France see a benefit to the migration of Huguenots out of Europe.
July, 1764
Fort Montcalm Established in New France
After victory in the recent war, France troubles itself with increasing its colonial and military presence in the Ohio River valley to protect against expected British incursions. A large fort is built on the Ohio River named Fort Montcalm after the vaunted French commander in the New World. The fort dwarfs Fort Duquesne and swiftly becomes a center for trade in the region and a hub for settlement.
September, 1764-March, 1765
Burmese-Siamese War
With French arms and advisors, the Siamese defeat a Burmese invasion. Siam opens itself to trade with France in return for the aid.

July-September, 1765
American Taxation Riots
British mercantile tariffs, strongly enforced after the recent war, as well as quartering laws for resident regiments of soldiers create great resentment among American colonists, especially in the port cities. When a direct tax on the sale of paper products is attempted by Parliament, Americans across a broad spectrum of society explode in anger. Niche agitators who had cried "no taxation without representation" in earlier years are catapulted into the spotlight. Newspapermen and lawyers, particularly affected by the proposed tax, stir up anger over the British attempts to make American pay for their failure in the Six Years War.

Residents of every major city in British America as well as many other communities rise up in anger, custom houses and governor's mansions are attacked and threatened. Many local militias refuse to intervene and officials need to summon soldiers garrisoned in western forts to the cities. The regulars arrive and settle the chaos and residents of the frontier with France petition with pleas to keep the peace so that the soldiers can quickly return to their western posts. Parliament withdraws the paper tax upon the advice of provincial officials.
April, 1765
Town of Vaudreuil Founded in Québec
After the French victory in the Six Years War, France orders the creation of more permanent settlements and centers for trade around Quebec. In 1764 surveyors identify a key location at the narrows of the Odawa River. By April, 1865 a street grid is laid out and a church is built. The town is named Vaudreuil after the Governor-General who led New France through the Six Years War. Fur trappers are the most frequent visitors in the early years, though by 1769 about 3,000 new settlers have arrived in addition to a seasonal influx of 1100 Algonquin.

Multiple mills are constructed during King Louis' War and settlements sprawl out from the town center. Numerous farms are established making Vaudreuil a bustling colonial town, shipping out materials and produce to Montreal and beyond, while taking in manufactures from France. By 1779 Vaudreuil and its environs have a French population of nearly 9,000 and a winter native population of over 2,500.

12 February, 1766Death of King Frederik of Denmark
Reign of Christian VII of Denmark
Reign marked by mental illness and practical regency of his brother Frederik and then his son. Despite his inability to rule, his councilors are able to produce several positive enlightenment reforms.
May 18-21, 1766
Battle of Meachamton
In September 1766, Virginian Andrew Meacham illegally leads a party of nearly 100 settlers and establishes Meachamton deep in French Kentucky. By February, word reaches the French in Fort Montcalm from the Shawnee of the incursion. By April, correspondence between the commander at Fort Montcalm and the Governor of Virginia confirm that Meachamton is not authorized by the British.

The French dispatch an expedition from Montcalm with Shawnee guides. Its commander, Captain d'Aboville, has instructions to offer the settlement a grant to the land if they declared allegiance to the French crown, paid all taxes due to New France and vowed to respect the sovereignty of the Shawnee. D'Aboville is also instructed to scout locations for a series of forts from the Ohio River into the southern Kentucky region. On May 19th, advance scouts from the French expedition reach the outskirts of Meachamton. A call to arms is issued by the townsfolk. Unable to safely make contact and deliver their message, the scouts retreat to d'Aboville's column.

The Captain decides to issue the demands in person. As French forces assemble on May 21st, a nervous Andrew Meacham agrees to meet with d'Aboville. Meacham says that he will consult with his peers and respond to the demands, but after the meeting, one of d'Aboville's men is shot by a settler. Despite Meacham's quick action to arrest the man responsible, a furious d'Aboville demands an immediate capitulation to French demands or the town people will be expelled. Meacham vows to fight to the last if the French retaliate with violence. Outnumbered but well-armed, the residents of Meachamton plan a defense while Ensign d'Aboville consults with his officers.

That night the French penetrate the town, and a skirmish occurs outside the Town House. During the firefight, the town granary is set ablaze. Residents abandon the firefight and rush to the granary. French forces prevent the desperate residents from fighting the inferno. When dawn breaks, much of the town lays in ash. D'Aboville repeats his demands from the day before, but this time insists on arresting Meacham and other leaders and holding them at Fort Montcalm.

Upon the refusal of the settlers to declare allegiance to France, the settlers arms are confiscated and they are escorted to the Cumberland Gap where they are told to return to British America. Meanwhile d'Aboville travels to Fort Montcalm with his hostages. Meacham is soon ransomed back to Virginia by the provincial government.
Sino-Burmese Wars
A series of conflicts between the Burmese-backed Shan states and Qing Chinese forces pushing their frontier. The war proves more costly for China than it is willing to devote and they break off the attacks.
"On Chinese Despotism" Published
Economist and royal physician François Quesnay publishes this study of Chinese politics for a French audience. While Quesnay has never been to the East himself, what he has learned about Chinese political economy and philosophy inspires him to contrast the burdensome aristocratic court of France with the rationalist court of the Chinese Emperor, headed by learned men of education and philosophy. Quesnay's writings lead to increased interest in the Orient, particularly as France deepens its colonial presence in India and seeks more access to Chinese markets. Additionally, his writing and those of his peers serves as an anchor for moderate reformists who seek to incorporate meritocracy more formally into the French court.

June, 1767-April, 1770
Polish Civil War
Several factions of the Polish nobility rise up against the Crown due concerns of increasing subservience to Russia and alleged hollowing out of Polish-Lithuanian power in eastern Europe. Ultimately King Stanislaus is able to prevail, but only with substantial assistance from Russia. The "Russian Party" in the Warsaw court has clear control of the country's affairs by the early 1770s. Nationalist agitators against the pro-Russian faction continue to be a nuisance, drawing Russia's expansionist gaze by mid-decade.
October, 1767
Franco-Mysore Treaty of Friendship
France and the Kingdom of Mysore sign a mutual agreement for trade and military alliance on the Indian subcontinent.
October, 1767-July, 1771
Carolina Regulator Wars
Settlers in the western Carolinas in British America revolt against the plantation elites on the coastal plain. Courts are shuttered and officials are threatened. Provincial militia led by Governor Tryon put down the revolt by the early 1770s, with the regulators fearful of French and native attacks.
12 November, 1767
Friedrich of Prussia Dies
Falling into a years long depression after his defeat in the Six Years War, the King becomes unhealthy and embittered, withdrawing from his court and his formerly prolific academic pursuits. Friedrich is often seen heavily intoxicated in the residence of his Berlin palace. Although it is never confirmed by the royal family, rumors persist that the King committed suicide.
Reign of Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia
Reign marked by Prussia's turn away from militarism and towards internal development and artistic patronage.

Feb-March, 1768
Iroquois Quebec Raids
Angered by their relative loss of clout in the aftermath of the Six Years War and spurred on by British diplomacy and arms, the Iroquois Confederation launch a series of late-winter raids against the French and their Algonquin allies along the St. Lawrence River. The first raids are successful against outlying French settlements and the destruction of Algonquin winter stores. As Iroquois forces near Montreal resistance from France and her allies intensifies. The Marquis de Montcalm directs the French defense and counterattack from Montreal's formidable fortifications.

The Iroquois forces are lured into an ambush at the fields of Kentaké, south of Montreal. The French utilize native-style tactics to eliminate the Iroquois vanguard and a night assault is launched against the Iroquois encampment. The Iroquois are decimated and survivors are driven back into their territory. The totality of the Iroquois loss sets the stage for French overtures drawing the Confederation away from the British orbit in the coming years.
May, 1768-March, 1770
French Conquest of Corsica
France is granted Corsica by the Savoyard King in exchange for relinquishing its claims in Italy. Corsican nationalists fight against French power but are ultimately defeated.
June, 1768
Vaudreuil Proclamation on Aboriginal Subjects
Governor-General Vaudreuil of New France proclaims that all allied native peoples in French territory will be secure in their territorial claims from colonial settlers. The proclamation orders agents and surveyors to make treaties and map the lands of New France to account for land exclusive to natives and identify or purchase land open for sale and settlement.
July, 1768
Voltaire's "Seguin" Anonymously Published
Considered the last of Voltaire's great works, Seguin follows a Spanish orphan who, through a series of unlikely events, becomes an important minister in the French court. The novel lampoons the French government and aristocracy, with harsh criticisms leveled at the influence of the Church. It's banned in France and Voltaire publicly, yet coyly, denies having penned it. Seguin is widely read in France's liberal underground and is popular abroad as a takedown of French political culture.
Sept, 1768-May, 1771
Voyage of Captain James Cook
The British government finances a scientific voyage by Captain Cook to explore the Pacific Ocean and survey any islands, with a specific mandate to find the lost Southern Continent. Cook's voyage is an astonishing success, with Cook naming the continent of Australia, the islands of New Zealand, and surveying dozens of islands in the South Pacific. He is hailed as a hero in Britain. His voyage captures the attention of the French, who are eager to replicate and build on Cook's success for France.

2 February, 1769Pope Clement XIII Dies
Papacy of Clement XIV
Papacy marked by political tensions with Catholic kingdoms and ultimately endorsing the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773.
Bengal Famine
Harvest failures combined with British East India Company tax policies culminate in a devastating famine in Bengal. By the end of the famine, more than four million are dead from starvation. The famine greatly weakens the Mughal Emperor's already tenuous hold on Bengal.

April, 1770
Vergennes Proclamation on Religion in New France
Governor-General Vergennes, acting in accordance with the wishes of the Archbishop in Quebec, bans the organization of non-Catholic church congregations in established cities and towns in New France. This order means that the incoming numbers of Huguenot settlers must establish new settlements in order to practice their religion.
May, 1770-Oct, 1771
Austro-Venetian War
Austria uses a border dispute near Trieste as an excuse to declare war on Venice and grab land. Austria seizes Monfalcone and Udine as well as Istria. In the west the Habsburg Duke of Milan captures Bergamo and Brescia. France does not intervene due to the wishes of the Pope, who is embittered towards the Doge of Venice for neutering the powers of the clergy. France acts only so far as to warn Austria not to annex Venice itself, after which the Habsburg's sue for a treaty.
14 August, 1770
Marriage of Louis-Auguste of France to Maria Amalia of Saxony
The fifteen-year-old Dauphin of France, Louis-Auguste, is wed to the fourteen-year-old Maria Amalia of Saxony at the insistence of his grandfather King Louis XV. A hoped for marriage arrangement with Maria Antonia of Austria collapses due to Maria Theresa's distrust of France following their mutual victory in the Six Years War. Eager to have his successor wed to a good match before his death, King Louis arranges a marriage with the House of Wettin instead. The adolescent Maria Amalia arrives in Paris from Dresden unprepared for the lavish lifestyle of the French court, nor the intrusiveness of the underground press.
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King Louis's War (1771-1775)
God is a Frenchman: King Louis's War (1771-1775)
12 February, 1771King Adolf Frederik of Sweden Dies
Reign of Gustaf III of Sweden
Reign marked by a successful power grab from Parliament and rule as an "enlightened despot."
10 March, 1771-1 May, 1775
King Louis's War
In late-1773 the British East India company makes a pair of decisions that lead France and Britain back into war. First, the EIC makes direct diplomatic overtures to the court of the Mughal Emperor, the nominal sovereign of Bengal. Second, the EIC leases the post at Bombay from the Portuguese. France protests these acts as being in direct violation of the Treaty of Paris, which required Britain to take no actions in India beyond its existing settlements in Bengal and on the east coast. The hawkish British government of Lord Dartmouth uses the French demands as an excuse to launch a new war.

The British hope to reclaim their footing on the global stage and launch campaigns on multiple fronts across the world, while France plans to knock Britain out as a major competitor.
5 April, 1771
Battle of Fort Pownall
King Louis's War: As soon as Castine militia captain François Derache hears of the declaration of war from a courier ship in April 1771, he leads a team of 50 chasseurs from Castine to Fort Pownall, just across the Penobscot Bay. The fort is taken in by surprise as the company of Massachusetts men within the fort are as yet unaware of the state of war and are caught in their nightclothes. Their commander, William Prescott standing in his nightdress with his tricorn and his sabre, surrenders the fort to Derache. Prescott and his garrison are sent in rowboats to Fort Frederick, down the Maine coast.
21 June, 1771
Action off Plogoff
King Louis's War: A British fleet under Admiral Howe attempts to engage a French convoy off the coast of Brittany. A chase ensues and the skillful navigation of French Admiral Comte de Suffren helps the convoy successfully escape to the port at Brest. The successful escape of the convoy is hailed as a victory in France.
4 August, 1771-23 August, 1772
Siege of Madras
King Louis's War: A French and Mysore army lay siege to the main British post in southern India, Madras. In 1771 British Lord Germain commands a garrison of 1400 regulars with over 9000 native Indian allies. The Marquis de Bussy and Hyder Ali surround the port of Madras in early August with over 15,000 French, Mysore, Hyderabad and Telugu troops. British Admiral Graves manages to resupply Madras by sea in January, 1772. Comte d'Orvilliers commands French naval forces in the Indian Ocean and is able to prevent additional resupply missions from Bengal in June and July, precipitating the ultimate surrender of Lord Germain in August.
21 August-16 October, 1771
Siege of Halifax
King Louis's War: The French mount a large invasion of Nova Scotia as part of the Reconquest of Acadia. Led by the Marquis de LaFayette and the Comte d'Estaing, the endeavour involves a large French naval force and considerable army resources. LaFayette successfully establishes a beachhead southwest of Halifax and is able to cut off the city from reinforcements. British General Garth refuses to leave the fortifications and fight, keeping his soldiers in Halifax.

LaFayette captures Fort Edwards on October 10th with over 1100 British regulars. British General Burgoyne hastily retreats to Fort Lawrence to the north. With no realistic prospect for reinforcements, General Garth in Halifax has little choice but to surrender or confront the French siege head-on. The Battle of Halifax Fields ends the siege when Garth's forces are routed in less than half-an-hour. Garth himself is killed in the opening volley and his troops surrender at 10:30 in the morning on October 16th.
Sep, 1771-20 Nov, 1771
Allen Quebec Expedition
King Louis's War: After the declaration of war the militia commanders of New England meet at a council in Worcester, Massachusetts and plan an expedition to Quebec that bypasses the heavily fortified corridor from Lake Champlain to Montreal. Firebrand New Hampshire militia colonel Ethan Allen is chosen to lead the dangerous mission and he enlists 1400 men selected from militia units across New England led by a cohort of colorful officers of Allen's own unit.

In September, Allen's army embarks from Brunswick, Massachusetts and paddles up the Kennebec River in over 120 bateaux and canoes. After leaving Fort Halifax, the expedition finds itself deep in the wilderness. Wary of Abenaki attacks and navigating poorly mapped landscape, progress slows. Portages are longer than expected and marshy conditions make night encampments miserable. By late-October the force reaches Moosehead Lake on the borderlands of the Quebec frontier.

Over the course of the expedition thus far, gangrene has developed among some of the men and over 250 have deserted, their bateaux disappearing in the night. A full platoon of 14 men is executed by Allen and his officers when they're caught preparing to abandon the force at night. Before navigating Moosehead Lake, a detachment chases after a party of Norridgewock Indians without success, raising concerns of French discovery.

Allen determines to accelerate and two days later the American militia descend from the mountainous highlands into the Saint-Lawrence Valley. Under no pretense of having the element of surprise, the Americans brutally forage among the farms and villages south of Quebec. Many homes are torched and livestock killed as Allen's militia makes its way towards the river. When they arrive at the village of Pointe-Lévy they face the formations of the garrison of the Citadel of Quebec led by the Marquis de Montcalm himself...
9 October, 1771
Treaty of Trieste
The treaty ends the Austro-Venetian War. Austria affirms its control of Istria and also pushes its border west to the Tagliamento River. Milan claims Venetian lands northwest of Lago di Garda.
Reign of Emperor Go-Momozono of Japan
Reign marked by natural disasters including a famine. The poor management of the Tokugawa shōgunate leads to some unrest and a clear desire among many of the people to return to imperial governance.
20 November, 1771
Battle of Pointe-Lévy
King Louis's War: Concluding the harrowing expedition through the Maine backwoods, Col. Ethan Allen and his force stand beyond the town of Pointe-Lévy, just across the Saint-Lawrence River from New France’s capital of Quebec. They prepare to face the crack troops of the Quebec garrison led by the Marquis de Montcalm himself. Allen delivers a rousing speech to his men as they form up into ranks to face the French formations. Survivors of the battle corroborate that his words are,

“I see in your eyes the same fear that would dare to seize my own heart. But take comfort! A day may come when our courage fails, and we forsake our country and break all bonds of fellowship, but it is not this day. An hour of wolves and bayonets when our great civilization comes crashing down under the feet of Papists, but it is not this day! This day we fight! By all that you hold dear on this good earth, I bid you to stand your ground! Do not break, men of New England!”

As the French lines close distance they exchange several volleys with the militia before charging. Allen's men refuse to break and the armies clash in close combat for nearly ten minutes before a French cavalry unit storms the battlefield and breaks up the fighting.

Nearly 800 Americans are captured and nearly 300 are killed to about 150 French deaths. Allen himself is brought down after personally making casualties of a dozen Frenchmen, including a cavalryman. The failed expedition becomes the stuff of legends in both New England and Quebec. General Montcalm himself marvels at the American tenacity writing, "these men simultaneously fought as disciplined soldiers and deranged savages! Rarely have I ever seen such passion inspired in an assembly of farmers and country boys."

January, 1772
Swedish Revolution of 1772
Royalist-aligned forces in Sweden enlist King Gustaf in wrestling political power away from parliament after years of party political infighting. Legislative prerogative is returned to the monarch and privy council. Parliament is sidelined as an advisory body in Sweden for over a generation.
1 March, 1772
Fort Western Raid
King Louis's War: Fort Western on the Kennebec River is briefly captured by François Derache's Castine regiment. The French plan to blow up the fort's stores of powder, but heavy rainfall hinders the operation. Ultimately a single wall is blown out of the fort and Derache's forces retreat to the east. By the summer of 1773 Fort Western has been repaired and reinforced under the command of Colonel Henry Knox.
March, 1772-February, 1778
Persian Afghan War
Persia engages in a war of conquest in Durrani Afghanistan. After years of fighting and civil strife, the Durrani Empire is incorporated into the Persia as a vassal state.
6 May, 1772
Fort Halifax Raid
King Louis's War: At Fort Halifax up the Kennebec River, Captain Samuel Flagg Bemis successfully wards off a raid from François Derache's Castine regiment with strategic use of grapeshot and a number of makeshift grenades. Suffering losses and impressed with the ingenuity of his enemies, Derache retreats back to Castine. Bemis's garrison is championed in New England and adopts as a moniker "the Halifax Grenadiers".
15 May, 1772
Battle of the Missiguash
King Louis's War: The French, under the Marquis de LaFayette successfully drive the British military out of Nova Scotia. The French spend the winter securing most southern and western towns on Nova Scotia for the return of the Acadian diaspora. After the spring thaw, they turn their sights on the last British stronghold in Acadia, Fort Lawrence. British General Burgoyne knows he is in an enviable position, with French territory to his north and a French army approaching from the south.

Burgoyne has held out through the winter hoping for reinforcements but none are forthcoming. While he considers withdrawing his 6,000 troops by sea to Boston, sightings of French warships plying the Bay of Fundy and a shortage of boats dissuade him. As LaFayette approaches with his own force of 6,500 troops and 800 Mi'kmaq militia, Burgoyne marches to meet them. In the ensuing battle the British show their honor but are unable to break LaFayette's formations. Burgoyne surrenders to LaFayette in the late-afternoon, securing the French reconquest of Nova Scotia.
2 June, 1772
Battle of the Monongahela
King Louis's War: British-American forces under generals Howe and Mercer with an army of over 6500 attack a French force of 4200 French and native allies about five miles west of Fort Duquesne under the Marquis de Montcalm. Despite his confidence, Montcalm is outplayed by Howe's tactics and finds his formation broken by the relentless British assault. American militia neutralize the tactics of Montcalm's native allies and the venerated Marquis himself is killed in the engagement. The defeat leaves the path to Duquesne open. After a month-long siege, the remaining French garrison surrenders, leaving the Forks of the Ohio under British control.

The death of General Montcalm casts a pall over the French realm. Church bells peale from Quebec, to Paris, to Pondicherry as news of his passing spreads. Governor-General Vergennes resolves to hold the Ohio Country west of Duquesne at all cost and pledges to work with the Marquis de Chastellux, appointed by Versailles as new Commander-in-Chief of New France.
24 June, 1772
First Battle of Fort Carillon
King Louis's War: The French garrison of 1000 under Jean-Baptiste Berthier successfully defends the fortifications guarding the southern bounds of Lake Champlain from an assault by over 5000 New England militia commanded by Artemis Ward and John Sullivan. Ward is shot in the fighting and dies as the American retreat.
9 Sep-20 Dec, 1772
First "Sieur de la Mer" Raids
King Louis's War: French privateer Absalon Grosjean unleashes a wave of terror and destruction along the northern New England coast in his 18-gun brig-sloop Port Bonheur. Sailing out of Louisbourg, from September through December Grojean raids Falmouth, Kennebunkport, Newburyport, Gloucester, and Salem.

New Englanders fear an imminent attack on Boston, but Grosjean returns to Acadia by the year's end. While the death toll and material damage vary between targets, the impact of the raids is sharp throughout British America. Fear and outrage take over, especially in coastal New England and demand for British naval support increases. In France, Grosjean is hailed as a hero and given a nom de guerre: the Sieur de la Mer.
3 Oct-29 Nov, 1772
Saltonstall Raids
King Louis's War: American naval captain Dudley Saltonstall mounts an expedition of retaliatory raids against French settlements in Acadia, following the news of Absalon Grosjean's assault on Falmouth. Sailing on the sloop Thetis outfitted with eight guns, Saltonstall captures three French merchantmen in the first two weeks of sailing. Turning his sights on the troublesome French settlement at Castine, Saltonstall realizes he's bitten off more than he can chew when he discovers that the town has mounted two 38-lb guns over the narrows leading to the harbor. The Thetis suffers sail and mast damage while managing little return fire.

Saltonstall has better luck terrorizing the fishing fleet at Leloutre on the Saint-Jean River, though he's chased off by French sloops before he can do much damage to the town itself. Saltonstall's most successful raid on a town is at Saint-Etienne, a risky endeavour due to how far up the Saint-Croix River he has to take the Thetis. All of the towns wharves and docks are destroyed as are a number of riverside buildings. The Thetis is able to slip out of Passamaquoddy Bay before French naval assistance arrives.

April-July, 1773
Cadwalader Expedition
King Louis's War: After capturing Fort Duquesne in 1772 the British American forces make plans to push deeper into the Ohio Country and capture Fort Montcalm. Pennsylvania militia General John Cadwalader leads a force of 2,300 men west from Duquesne, which the Anglo-Americans rename Fort Howe. The expedition is immediately plagued by bad weather and supply-chain problems. War parties of Lenape and Mingo Seneca mount several ambushes that cripple the forward progress of Cadwallader's force.

Learning that a large French force is marching towards his position from Montcalm, Cadwalader realizes that his regiment is too weak to stand against them. He abandons the mission in July and retreats back to Fort Duquesne. Returning to Duquesne, his officers vote him out of command for alleged cowardice, but whatever window the Americans had to pierce French dominion of the Ohio Valley has passed. The British do not mount any further missions into the Ohio Country after 1773.
30 May, 1773
First Battle of Fort Stanwix
King Louis's War: A British-American force under Richard Montgomery pushes west from Albany to reoccupy Fort Stanwix and aim toward the French fortress at Oswego. An ailing Sir William Johnson convenes a council with Iroquois leaders at Stanwix to gain their support, but the Six Nations are immovable in their stated neutrality. Even Britain's allies among the Mohawk balk at pledging any support beyond safe-passage. Joseph Brant, the most vocal among pro-British Mohawk, agrees to accompany Montgomery with a dozen warriors.

The French, under the Comte de Malartic embark to dislodge British forces from Iroquois country, having also received a guarantee of safe-passage from the council in Onondaga. Malartic meets Montgomery near Stanwix and in the resulting battle the British hold the fort. While this victory is heartening for Montgomery's men, the French dig into a new fortification on the western shore of Lake Oneida, hindering any British advance toward Lake Ontario.
June, 1773-June, 1779
Chickasaw War
At the onset of King Louis's War, South Carolina Governor William Bull seeks to leverage his connections with natives in French territory to his advantage. Knowing that the Chickasaw are the most hostile Indians to the French in the Mississippi River basin, Bull spends the better part of a decade as Lt. Governor building a black market between the Carolina frontier and the Chickasaw. South Carolina funnells bulks of arms, ammunition, and other tools to the Chickasaw, with a tacit understanding that these weapons will be used against the French.

The war is fought up the Mississippi between Fort Rosalie and the Ohio River as well as in the interior towards the Appalachians and British America.
28 June, 1773
Fort Rosalie Massacre
King Louis's War/Chickasaw War: The Chickasaw have been increasingly upset by French movement through their territory up the Mississippi. Tishomingo, an especially aggressive anti-French chieftain, rallies the warriors of several towns to strike a wounding blow against their enemies. In late June, 1773 the Chickasaw war party reaches Fort Rosalie, a fortification with a large settlement of French and Choctaw around it. Tishomingo takes the town totally by surprise and over three hours over 300 settlers and Choctaw and 100 French soldiers are slaughtered. Fewer than two dozen Chickasaw fighters are killed before Tishomingo retreats into the countryside. The attack launches a devastating war against the Chickasaw people by the French and Choctaw.
12 July, 1773
Battle of Ushant
King Louis's War: A French fleet from Brest under the Comte de Suffren engages the British blockade of the French coast at Ushant. British Admiral Howe miscalculates the French line of sail and Suffren routs the British fleet, capturing six ships-of-the-line and destroying nine. France loses no ships in the engagement. When he hears the news of the successful battle, the Comte de Vergennes writes King Louis from Quebec that "our good fortune in this great contest suggests to me indeed that God is a Frenchman."

Howe limps away with his surviving ships and delivers the catastrophic news to London. Panic ensues throughout Great Britain that the island is wide open to a French invasion. The British government of Lord North orders that regular troops be recalled from colonial engagements after the current campaigns conclude, effectively leaving the colonies to their own devices for the remainder of the war.
9 August, 1773
Battle of Newport
King Louis's War: Victorious in Acadia, the Marquis of LaFayette determines to disrupt the British-American war effort by bringing his army to their doorstep. After a year of planning, reinforcement, and resupply in Acadia, LaFayette's army sails to New England with a strong naval escort under the Comte de Bougainville.

In Newport, General Spencer of the Rhode Island militia receives reports of new raids by the Sieur de la Mer, and reacts accordingly when Bougainville uses sloops as his vanguard against Newport. The few British ships protecting the seaport set to intercept the van, believing it to be Grosjean's raiders, leaving Newport wide open for the main lines and transports. Faced with naval bombardment and over 9,000 French troops, General Spencer surrenders with his garrison of 1100 New England militia.

The occupation of Newport creates widespread panic in British America that the war effort is crumbling. Many militia forces are recalled from the frontier to defend the homefront. At the same time, the imminent departure of the British regulars heightens the fear and feelings of abandonment by the mother country. Meanwhile, the French use Newport as a base to raid communities along Narragansett Bay.
18 Aug, 1773-4 June, 1774
Scheldt Offensive
King Louis's War: Austria declares war on France in late July and launches a major offensive from the Austrian Netherlands in part as a response to panicked communiques from Britain that France will upend the balance of power in Europe if it invades the island.

Austrian General von Lauden plans a strong push along the Scheldt River corridor. Hoping to take Valencienne, Lauden's forces are stopped by French fortifications just over the border. The Battle of Hergnies halts the Austrian advance with large casualties on both sides. After numerous skirmishes in September and October, the Austrians successfully reach Valencienne, which is used as winter quarters, while the French hunker down in Cambrai.

In April, the French mount an early counterattack at the Battle of Marly and the Austrians are forced into a retreat back into the Netherlands. Lauden, determined to stand and fight to regain the initiative, rebuilds his forces at Quiévrain. The French, under the Comte de Rochambeau decisively smash Lauden's forces there, marking an end to the offensive.
31 Aug, 1773-1 May, 1775
Siege of Gibraltar
King Louis's War: After Austria's entry into the war on Britain's side, Spain joins with France in July. The Spanish seek to take advantage of Britain's declining prospects and see an opportunity to retake the fortress at Gibraltar.

Spanish naval forces cut off the peninsula, increasingly isolated from any relief due to the recall of British forces to the Channel. Spanish Admiral Luis de Córdova leads the assault and becomes notorious for his taunting communiques to British General Eliott. The siege is never broken, due to a paucity of British naval support in the Mediterranean. The Spanish relent only upon the signing of the Treaty of Exmouth and the orderly transfer of the citadel at Gibraltar to Spain.
3 September, 1773
Vergennes Proclamation on Wartime Emancipation
After learning of the occupation of Newport, Governor-General Vergennes issues a proclamation offering freedom to any slave or indentured servant in British America who joins the French, converts to Catholicism, and fights alongside them in the war. While reaching the French lines proves difficult, several thousand enslaved blacks and a smaller number of white servants successfully escape, serving on French Navy warships, or in Lafayette's army.
14 September, 1773
Battle of Freetown
King Louis's War: A French force under Captain Phaneuf departs from Newport and raids up the Taunton River, torching hay bale stores and fishing boats in Freetown. Local militia commander Captain William Barton rushes with his men to intercept Phaneuf before they return to their boats. A brutal hand-to-hand fight occurs, in the marshy shallows of the Taunton River in which the French best the American militia. Blood stains the brackish waters and only ten of Barton's twenty-eight men survive the encounter, while all but six Phaneuf's 35 raiders reach their boats, bloodied but determined to carry on.
17 September, 1773
Taunton Raid
King Louis's War: Raiders led by Captain Phaneuf accomplish their deepest raid into Massachusetts during King Louis's War when they attack Taunton. Several homes and barns are burned as the French sweep the town's outskirts. Local militia under Colonel Thomas Gilbert successfully drive off the French raiders before much damage is done. While the raid is far less deadly and violent than the recent fighting in Freetown, but the effect of French troops penetrating so far into Massachusetts is distinct. Already fearful New Englanders panic as the specter of French attack seems to manifest everywhere. Many families residing in southern Massachusetts towns decamp to stay with family in more insulated communities for the duration of the war.
Sept, 1773-March, 1774
Second "Sieur de la Mer" Raids
King Louis's War: Absalon Grosjean embarks on his second series of raids, this time of southern New England and Long Island. Sailing out of occupied Newport, Grosjean raids Westerly, New London, New Haven, Setauket, Sag Harbor, and Montauk before setting his sails for a return to Acadia. In New Haven the Bonheur is tracked by the British sloop Gaspee, but Grosjean is able to lose her through a series of maneuvers in a storm on Long Island Sound. During attacks on New Haven and Setauket, the Bonheur liberates over three dozen enslaved blacks and brings them to Newport.
2 October, 1773
Nantucket Raid
King Louis's War: Five French frigates under the command of Gabin Valjean cruises out of Newport and hit Nantucket harbor. The town's whaling fleet is crippled and French marines burn several warehouses before departing.
10 November, 1773
Warwick Raid
King Louis's War: Valjean's squadron of frigates sails from Newport to the town of Warwick, Rhode Island. Carrying the experienced raiders of Jacob Phaneuf, it proves to be the deadliest raid against New England during the Newport occupation, as 38 Rhode Islanders are killed, mostly from the local militia of Captain Benjamin Arnold.
20 Dec, 1773-5 Jan, 1774
Florida Expedition
King Louis's War: Georgia and Carolina militias unite to push into Spanish Florida, with a goal of taking St. Augustine and claiming more land for plantation expansion. William Moultrie and Button Gwinnett lead 1600 American militiamen into the disputed territory between British and Spanish claims. Landing at the Satilla River the Americans marched over thirty miles to confront the Spanish fort of Santa Amalia.

Gwinnett and Moultrie have strong disagreements about the mode of attack, with Gwinnett insisting on a siege of the fortress and Moultrie preferring to draw out the Spanish by marching further south. Gwinnett's insistence on a siege leaves Moultrie little choice but to remain with Gwinnett's larger detachment of Georgian militia. For two weeks the Americans surround the fort, but without any heavy artillery and no knowledge of how long the Spanish can sustain themselves behind the walls, Moultrie grows increasingly frustrated with Gwinnett. Gwinnett orders the stone fortress to be stormed with ladders constructed by his men. this does not succeed and making matters worse, scouts bring word that a large Spanish detachment from the south has nearly reached their position.

Moultrie insists on a tactical retreat, leaving with his Carolinian militia against Gwinnett's wishes. Gwinnett remains with his 1000 Georgians, holding them in formation. But as the Spanish approach, with nearly 2000 soldiers and cavalrymen, his lines begin to break, with whole units hastily retreating. Gwinnett order men back into formation under threat of summary execution. Ultimately, though it is unknown by whom, Gwinnett is shot by his own men. Nearly 900 Georgians surrender to the Spanish under Enrique White. The expedition becomes known as "Gwinnett's Folly".

15 Jan, 1774
Battle of Nassau
King Louis's War: 200 miles west of Nassau, Spanish Admiral Lángara with a fleet of fifteen ships bests the last British fleet in the Caribbean under Admiral Rodney with eighteen ships. Rodney loses five ships to Lángara's two and the British fleet sails east to Barbados, which he is ordered to hold for the remainder of the war. Lángara lands troops in Nassau and Spain occupies the town until the end of the war.
21 Jan, 1774
Death of Ottoman Sultan Mustafa
Reign of Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire
Reign marked by increasing efforts to reform the military after losses to Russia in the Caucasus the previous decade.
20 March, 1774
Port-au-Prince Raid
King Louis's War: British naval forces bomb Port-au-Prince, the second city of Saint-Domingue, burning it to the ground. This severely disrupts trade from the crown jewel of the French Caribbean and leads to unrest on the plantations.
Apr, 1774-Jun, 1777
Caucasus War
Persia attacks Georgian kingdoms under Russian protection, launching a war in the Caucasus. Russia successfully claims the eastern Caucasus and pushes into Azeri territory before Tehran seeks treaty terms to end the war.
3 April, 1774
Dartmouth Raid
King Louis's War: Captain Phaneuf's again raid out of Newport, attacking the seaside town of Dartmouth. Most significantly, the powder house on the outskirts of the town center is destroyed, creating a fire that engulfs many of the buildings in town.
12 April, 1774
Battle of Tombecbe
King Louis's War/Chickasaw War: Conflict between the Chickasaw and French ramps up after the massacre at Rosalie. The Chickasaw turn their sights on Fort Tombecbe in the eastern reaches of Choctaw territory. As a Chickasaw war party travels the hundred and fifty miles to the fort, their movements are picked up by Choctaw scouts. A Choctaw runner named Kannakli races to Tombecbe with a warning against the expected Chickasaw attack.

Fort commander Jean Gonthier prepares his garrison of 300 men and calls for aid from Choctaw and Creek villages in the vicinity. He receives the support of over 600 native fighters. 250 Chickasaw warriors arrive expecting to catch the fort by surprise as they had surprised Rosalie but they are in fact being drawn into a trap. Nearly all Chickasaw fighters are killed in the firing circle and subsequent hand-to-hand combat in the courtyard of Tombecbe. The Choctaw claim nearly 200 scalps and care is taken to make sure that word of the great victory spreads far and wide, so the Chickasaw will know what happened to their war party.
7 May, 1774-30 Aug, 1774
Siege of Savannah
King Louis's War: Spanish General Bernardo de Gálvez, supported by the fleet of Admiral Lángara lay siege to the important port city of Savannah. The Spanish hope for the city's quick capitulation so the fleet can move north to Charleston. Unfortunately for the Spanish, Governor Wright skillfully rallies settlers across Georgia and the Carolinas to aid the stricken capital with shipments of food, especially after Gálvez sends raiders to liberate slaves and burn rice plantations up and down the Georgia coast. These shipments are secreted into the city at night via the Savannah River, the only weak point in the Spanish siege lines.

A frustrated Gálvez encourages Creek Indians to renew raids of backcountry farms in Georgia. These raids occur in July and fearful settlers organize their militias under Lachlan McIntosh to confront the Spanish siege of Savannah. McIntosh plans an assault on Gálvez's forces in two stages, a traditional battle in line formations, and a secondary guerilla attack. The Georgia militia is in position on 14 August and draws Spanish soldiers on the western reaches of Savannah into battle. With Spanish lines thinned, the secondary militia under John Dooly succeeds at breaking the line and a dozen wagons are brought into the suffering city.

While McIntosh is beaten back by Gálvez, the goal of supplying Savannah is accomplished. The city has enough supplies to survive the summer. Admiral Lángara is anxious to return his fleet to Cartagena for hurricane season and Gálvez begrudgingly abandons the siege at the end of August. Wright, McIntosh, and Dooly are hailed as heroes throughout British America.
May-August, 1774
Hudson Bay Campaign
King Louis's War: In the spring of 1774 a flotilla of French warships under Admiral La Touche-Tréville enters Hudson Bay with orders to destroy or capture British infrastructure along the shoreline before winter. Hudson Bay Company vessels are outmatched and La Touche-Tréville's forces are able to secure the HBC's factory ports by the end of August. La Touche-Tréville dispatches agents to negotiate with the Cree and deliver them supplies to make up for the loss of HBS trade. An expedition is also sent to establish overland contact with Montreal. La Touche-Tréville leaves the bay well before the encroaching ices of winter set in, with promises to the Cree that France will resume seasonal trade in the spring.
2-6 June, 1774
Battle of Quiévrain
King Louis's War: The Comte de Rochambeau receives intelligence that the Austrians are preparing another push into France for the summer campaign. He musters an army of 35,000 and attacks von Lauden's 30,000 man strong force at Quiévrain. Over three days of harsh fighting, the French suffer 12,000 casualties and the Austrians 13,000. Rochambeau is finally able to rout the Austrians, with an unexpected flanking maneuver of rearguard troops and cavalry to the north. Unable to reconfigure his formations, von Lauden has little choice but to send orders for his rearguard to retreat and surrender the main body of his army. Nearly 13,000 Austrians surrender to Rochambeau.
16 June, 1774
Battle of Tiverton
King Louis's War: New England militia muster in Massachusetts to force the French occupiers out of Newport, Rhode Island. Nearly 7,500 New England men under General John Glover board boats in Freetown, Massachusetts and row to Rhode Island. French scouts send word to Newport and the Marquis de LaFayette readies his men for battle.

The two armies meet outside the town of Tiverton at the north end of Rhode Island. The Marquis' force is outnumbered and the battle exacts a terrible toll on both sides. When LaFayette is killed by a stray musket ball is seems that Glover's Americans will win the day. Incredibly, the Marquis' sixteen year old son rallies his men and leads the French cavalry in a flanking maneuver that cuts off the American left from the rest of the battle. The French formations are able to recover from the loss of their commander and Glover is forced to retreat, leaving his left flank of 2,500 men to be captured.

The loss of the Marquis de LaFayette is felt throughout the French realm. This is the second major loss of a French commander in North America through the course of the war. LaFayette is sanctified as a hero of France and his son held up in both the press and the military as a worthy successor to his father's legacy.

For New England, the loss is a painful one. Morale is low and the drive to continue the fight is flagging. Many openly suggest making their own deal with the French in Quebec and not waiting for Britain's lead. The French will hold Newport until the end of the war.
June-Sept, 1774
Boone Expedition
King Louis's War: Daniel Boone leads a militia expedition from Virginia into French Kentucky. With few French settlements or fortifications south of the Ohio River, Boone's militia encounters little resistance. He is known to gripe that the land is rich and ripe for settlement, but with the war going poorly he doubts he'll have the opportunity. The militia burns the remnants of two French forts that were abandoned after the loss of Duquesne to reinforce Montcalm. Several skirmishes with Shawnee war parties keep Boone's men on their toes through the late summer before they return to Virginia in September.
27 July, 1774
Fort Toulouse Raid
King Louis's War/Chickasaw War: A band of Exodus Chickasaw and Carolina backcountry militia mount an attack on the French Fort Toulouse in Creek territory. The fort is central to the French armament of the Creek for raids into Georgia in support of the Siege of Savannah. The commander of Toulouse, François Dugué, has strong communication networks with the wide network of Creek villages in the region, and is on constant alert against raids from British America.

The Anglo-Chickasaw attack comes at night in late-July, but they are unable to breach the palisades. A fire does damage some of the walls and structures and three guards are killed and raiders also burn more than a dozen bundles of hay before retreating. After the raid on Toulouse, multiple Creek villages report attacks, though they are not very damaging.
8 August, 1774
Castine Raid
King Louis's War: Samuel Flagg Bemis leads a New England militia to Castine in late summer, successfully destroying granaries and destroying the powderhouse before retreating back into British territory. He considers this his revenge for the attack on Fort Halifax earlier in the war.
11 August, 1774
Providence Raid
King Louis's War: Valjean's squadron of frigates from Newport attacks Providence destroying wharf infrastructure and warehouses. The militia under Colonel James Angell heroically fight the blazes resulting from Valjean's cannon fire.
18 August, 1774
Treaty of Oswego
King Louis's War: In August, 1774 the Iroquois alter the landscape of the war in North America by signing a treaty with the French at Fort Oswego creating a military alliance in exchange for autonomy in their historical lands and a pledge from the French not to allow any other native fighters into Iroquois territory without their permission.
20-23 August, 1774
Second Battle of Fort Carillon
King Louis's War: New England forces under generals Arnold and Greene, eager to show France that New Englanders still have fight left in them, successfully capture Fort Carillon. As French forces in North America are redistributed to guard points north and west of the captured Fort Duquesne, Carillon itself is understaffed to man the numerous defensive positions the late-Marquis de Montcalm had set up. Green is able to repurpose a battery on Mount Sugarloaf, threatening the fort, while Arnold successfully captures the heights across the Lake Champlain from Carillon.

When the French retreat to the north by water, Arnold pursues with a lake fleet of his own, though he is forced to abandon the chase when the retreating French reach the safety of Fort Saint-Frédéric. Frustrated, Arnold withdraws back to the captured fort and convenes with General Greene to plan an mass assault against the formidable fortress before the campaigning season ends.
15-30 September, 1774
Battle of Plymouth
King Louis's War: A French invasion fleet of 24 ships-of-the-line under Admiral Suffren routes the British naval defenses near Plymouth. British Admiral Graves goes down with his flagship, the First Rate HMS Britannia. Dozens of troops transports drop anchor within a protective cordon of warships, while the town is bombed for two weeks. The British navy is unable to mount an effective relief mission due to shifts in the wind. By September's end, the town capitulates and French troops begin landing that day, quickly overwhelming the local militia and able to confront the regulars hastily dispatched from London. By mid-October over 50,000 French troops have landed in England.
2 October, 1774
Second Battle of Fort Stanwix
King Louis's War: Following the Treaty of Oswego the French and Iroquois plan a campaign against the British occupying the Mohawk Valley. In October a French and Iroquois force under the Comte de Malartic captures Fort Stanwix and 900 American militia, most of whom are paroled to Albany under condition of pacification.
7 Oct, 1774-6 Jan, 1775
Siege of Fort Saint-Frederic
King Louis's War: British-American forces under generals Arnold and Greene move their army up Lake Champlain in boats and launch a siege of the French stronghold at Saint-Frederic. The Marquis de Chastellux himself leads the defense of the fort and the Americans have a difficult time making progress. As the French dispatch soldiers from Montreal in November to break the siege, word arrives of the armistice declaration in December and the Americans begrudgingly end their offensive.
16-17 October, 1774
Battle of Haldon Hill / Battle of Kennford
King Louis's War: British forces rush to cut off the French advance east of Plymouth. Under the Comte de Custine, advance formations of 16,000 French troops moving toward Exeter are met by British defenses up the road from Oxencombe. The French fortify a high ridge on the road to Exeter and await the British forces to make their move. Under the command of General Howe, hero of the Monongahela, the British plan a frontal assault against the hill with 18,000 men. The aggressive Howe believes that his army can dislodge Custine's men and claim the high ground, while preventing further French advance. The first wave of British troops march up the face of Haldon Hill into heavy fire in mid-morning and are forced to retreat. Howe is undeterred and orders more assaults up the hill. By 14:00 the British are on their fourth wave and have suffered over four thousand casualties when the French defenders on their right flank break, finally allowing the British to begin moving along the ridge forcing the French back.

Unknown to Howe, Custine had dispatched 8,000 troops in the morning to march four miles around Howe's army to the north to seize Kennford at the British rear. The general only learns of this from a rider during the fourth attack on Haldon Hill and he leads his reserves to march back to Kennford and engage the French there, leaving Colonel Robert Pigot in command of the remaining actions on the hill. Howe arrives in Kennford to find the French have already managed to cross the bridge over the River Kenn. He sends a rider to inform Brigadier General Grey, guarding the city of Taunton, of the French position, requesting that he decamp at once for Kennford and box in the French. Howe endeavors to cross the narrow river but his troops are harassed by the French on the opposite bank of the culvert. An engagement ensues with shots fired across the river and an attempt by the British to seize the narrow bridge. Frustrated, and with darkness falling, Howe posts sentries to keep an eye on the French and has his men break for the evening. He receives word from Pigot that, while the French continued to put up a strong fight on the hill, they ultimately retreated in the direction of Oxencombe. But Pigot's dispatch notes that not all of the French companies are accounted for and the Comte de Custine's command post was never identified. Howe orders Pigot to hold Haldon Hill and to inform him should the French attempt to return. He also sends out scouts to reconnoiter the rolling dells of the countryside in case of any unknown French movements.

In fact, Custine has indeed split his army yet again, evading Pigot's sight and making for the old Haldon Hill Road to the southeast of their position. Despite the full day of fighting, Custine has his 4,000 men march overnight, making a brief camp before heading north to Kennford. Custine plans to entrap Howe and secure his surrender before entrusting his rear-guard and the main French army under the Comte de Vaux to break Pigot's men on Haldon Hill. The French generals have orders to "spread to all such areas of southeastern England that can be secured swiftly before the conclusion of the autumn campaign," and Custine has no intentions of being bogged down by William Howe. The French war planners, ably led in government by the Duc d'Aiguillon believe that with a strong enough showing on the island of Great Britain, the French will be able to extract practically any demands they want out of the British to forestall any continued fighting in their territory.

By daybreak of 17 October, Howe has realized his predicament. He sends for Pigot but knows that neither he nor General Grey will arrive in Kennford in time to help him. Still he is a proud commander and refuses to surrender to Custine. Howe places two companies to guard the bridge and several more along the river as a rear-guard while the bulk of his force faces down Custine. French feints on the bridge occupy the British rear and several formations of French troops are able to ford the Kenn to the west. Battling Custine, Howe's forces are successful at savaging the French lines, but he quickly hears reports of French formations approaching his right flank. As his lines collapse he is considering a surrender when he his shot through the head. His subordinates then call a surrender and the French capture nearly 8,000 British regulars at Kennford.

Later that day city, Custine's forces enter Exeter and while city militia exact a toll on the French occupiers through irregular warfare, the French numbers overwhelm the gallant but inexperienced militiamen ahead of them. By the evening, Custine's rear-guard along with the Comte de Vaux's 25,000 strong force has swept through Pigot's men on Haldon Hill and joined Custine in Exeter. The combined French force will move on Taunton next before separating with Vaux heading north for Bristol and Custine east for Salisbury. Taunton is in French hands by 22 October, with Robert Grey's defending force quickly falling back in the face of overwhelming French numbers.
October-November, 1774
London Riots
King Louis's War: Following the French invasion of Great Britain riots breakout in London against the government of Lord North. Soldiers who are desperately needed in the west country are kept in London to quell the violence and restore order. While official numbers are considered undercounts, it is estimated that over four thousand people are killed in the riots.
25-28 October, 1774
Battle of Dunball
King Louis's War: As desperate British forces rush to cut off the French advance through the west country, the French aim to occupy key port towns. Under the Comte de Vaux, 25,000 French troops march towards Bristol. The town of Bridgewater stands as an obstacle to Vaux's progress. Nearly 20,000 British defenders under General Charles Cornwallis assemble across the River Parrett to intercept Vaux's army.

The French push the British to retreat across the river on the first day of fighting. The French spend the second day crossing the river and establishing a landing under artillery fire, while the rear guard marches around to the northeast. The third day the French main body confronts the British defenders, who gain footing pushing back the French formations until the French detachment approaches from the north, flanking the British and forcing a retreat into the town. On the fourth day, Vaux sends a surrender demand while his artillery targets storehouses around the town, highlighting their accuracy. On the night of the 28th, the British manage to retreat to Bristol under the cover of fog.
2 November, 1774
Battle of Ixelles
King Louis's War: Rochambeau's forces surge into the Austrian Netherlands in a late autumn campaign that reaches the outskirts of Brussels by November. The Austrians mount a defense with Hanoverian allies at Ixelles but French formations prove too stalwart in their arrangements and mobility. Ixelles is the final major engagement of the war on the European continent. As Hanoverians retreat to defend their homeland the Austrian forces under Lauden seek favorable surrender terms. In December Vienna and Paris dispatch diplomats to Brussels to come to a settlement. Meanwhile the French Army occupies the countryside in much of Wallonia and Flanders.
2, November, 1774
Battle of Bristol Channel
King Louis's War: A French flotilla engages British Navy ships off the Welsh coast. The battle is inconclusive but confirms that the French are devoting resources to continuing their campaign into England, contrary to British hopes that France will not fight to hold any territory. News of the engagement is the last straw leading to the total collapse of North's government and the King orders Lord Chatham form a new government and to do whatever it takes to get the French off of the island of Great Britain.
8 Nov, 1774-1 May, 1775
Siege of Kingston
King Louis's War: Spanish Admiral Lángara blockades Kingston, Jamaica with ten warships, periodically bombarding the city. Hoped for relief from Admiral Rodney's fleet never arrives, with Rodney under orders to hold at Barbados after returning to the Caribbean from the Chesapeake after Hurricane season. Able management by Governor Trelawney allows the port city to outlast the blockade and spares the British further embarrassment after the occupation of Nassau. The siege is not lifted until the signing of the Treaty of Exmouth, although Lángara provides good faith gestures to the port by sending a shipment of food from Mexico April 1775.
11 November, 1774
Bath Armistice
King Louis's War: As the French occupy much of Cornwall, Devonshire, and Somerset and enter the spa town of Bath, emissaries from King George III ride with messages for the French column commanders. French generals have clear orders from the Duc d'Aiguillon to give credence to any overtures from the British following a flurry of letters exchanged by the two monarchs in the last six weeks. The message is delivered to French advance forces in Bath and a cease-fire is honored starting on the eleventh day of November. The Duc de Choiseul is soon dispatched to England to lead negotiations with Britain on a peace treaty. The French know that they can extract many demands from the British who are desperate to get French troops out of the British Isles.
15 December, 1774
King Louis "The Victorious" of France Dies
After overseeing an incredible expansion of French power in Europe and around the globe, Louis XV dies of smallpox shortly after authorizing treaty negotiations to begin in London. The state funeral is massive and he is dubbed "le Vainqueur" for prosecuting two highly successful wars during his reign. His death at the conclusion of what becomes known as King Louis's War, solidifies his heroic status and his popularity allows his ministers to secure the legacy of his reforms after his death.
Reign of Louis XVI of France
Reign is marked by the French consolidation of their gains following the great successes of Louis XV. Political and personal scandals are frequent matters of public interest, but cause little unrest due to the prosperity of France and its colonial empire.

1 May, 1775
Treaty of Exmouth
King Louis's War: Anxious to get French troops off English soil, a disgruntled Great Britain agrees to the harsh Treaty of Exmouth, completing its humiliation at the hands of the French. Under the terms:
  • All British territory in India will be transferred to France, bringing the vast areas of Bengal under French control.
  • The governing arm of the British East India Company will be disbanded completely. The company itself is downsized to shipping and trade.
  • The Hudson Bay Company is disbanded in its entirety, with France committing to the purchase of its shares at a bargain rate.
  • The territorial limits of the British American colonies are specifically laid out vis-a-vis New France, so as to prevent any misunderstandings. The boundaries are drawn at the maximum French claims, costing the British-Americans thousands of square miles and once again requiring the return of all French fortifications captured in war including the coveted Duquesne.
  • British regular military forces are barred from North America. British-American colonies may organize militias for the purpose of defending against native attack or combating insurrections. Any introduction British regular military forces to America would be a cause for war.
  • France claims the Channel Islands Jersey and Guernsey, a devastating loss for Britain's national pride.
  • Gibraltar is returned to Spain, as the French had earlier promised their allies, ending Britain's maritime control of the Mediterranean.
  • The Bahamas are returned to Britain.
  • Perhaps most painfully, the Royal Navy is to be limited to 2/3 the number of ships as the Marine Royale.
The Comte de Vergennes, serving as Governor-General of New France, repeats his most favored quip in the Quebec press. Newspapers across Europe and North America in May and June declare–variously with triumph or dread–that God is a Frenchman.
May-September, 1775
Treaty of Exmouth Riots
King Louis's War: Despair and anger take hold across Great Britain after the ratification of the Exmouth Treaty. Contrasted with the jubilant celebrations in France, chaos takes hold in cities across Britain and several mutinies occur in the Army ranks. In Bristol the custom house is torched, and officials in Cornwall who capitulated to the French Army are run out of their posts, several being tarred-and-feathered. Financial markets roil with the downsizing of the India Company and disbandment of the Hudson Bay Company. While the situation soon stabilizes with cash infusions from France as part of the settlement, vast amounts of wealth are erased in mid-1775 and British markets take years to recover. In the north of Scotland there are open calls to replace George III with the pretender Charles Stuart, who himself smugly follows the news from Rome. Lord Chatham initially struggles with the riots, but manages to bring the country back under control by early September. The unrest across Britain is considered to be the most widespread since the English Civil War.

Frustration and anger also spills over in many British American cities, particularly Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. Over a period of five weeks in the summer violent riots are sparked that have to be suppressed by the militia and regular soldiers. In Boston, the planned evacuation of regular soldiers is halted to intervene in the destructive riots. The Governor's mansion is ransacked, though soldiers prevent it from being burned. In New York, longstanding Huguenot families are targeted with violence due to their French origins with little reaction from authorities. In Philadelphia, the captain of the ship delivering the treaty news is tarred-and-feathered and thrown into the Delaware River. Although the riots are quelled, the simmering anger directed at British officials alarms politicians on both sides of the Atlantic.
Aug, 1775-Nov, 1776
Repatriation of Acadia
After France's triumph in Acadia, British settlers in Nova Scotia find the shoe on the other foot. France offers to allow British settlers to remain if they declare allegiance to France; if not they will be transported to New England. The vast majority opt to leave and return to British territory. Meanwhile France dispatches agents to assist with the repatriation of deported French Acadians to their homelands.

The public face of this effort is the young Marquis de LaFayette who makes four trips between August, 1775 and November, 1776. At New Orleans, Cap-Française, and Baltimore LaFayette repatriates over 7,500 Acadians. His final voyage to Brest returns over 2,700. Many of the Acadians return to same towns they lived in before the expulsion in 1757. New British settlements are renamed and attract mostly new settlers. Halifax is renamed LaFayette, after both the father and son, who are deemed the "sauveurs de l'Acadie."
16 July, 1775
Treaty of Brussels
The Austrians, having been steadily pushed back by the French and now fearing to face the full strength of their enemy, hastily make their own peace with France. The Treaty of Brussels is signed on July 16.
  • Habsburg hegemony over an independent Bavaria is recognized by France.
  • The Austrian Netherlands and the Bishopric of Liége are transferred to France.
  • The Bishopric of Würzburg is secularized and transferred to direct Habsburg dominion.
In a secret corollary, France also pledges:
  • to remain neutral in any action between Austria and Poland.
  • to refrain from selling arms to the Ottomans.
Papacy of Pius VI
Papacy marked by official protection alliance between France and the Vatican and efforts to exert influence in the French court.
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Reign of Louis XVI (1776-1795)
God is a Frenchman: Reign of Louis XVI (1776-1795)
Early reign on previous post.

New York Debt Crisis
New York faces a crisis due to debt accrued from previous two decades becoming untenable. The government's obligations from King Louis's War put the province on the brink of default. Britain is unable to offer relief due to its own debt burdens and New York is forced to turn to its largest creditors. New Jersey is the only province that managed to emerge from the wars with a positive debt balance due to being a major creditor for the others, including New York. When New York seeks forgiveness of it's war debts, New Jersey drives a hard bargain, demanding Staten Island in exchange for forgiving New York's debts. New York also cedes Fishers Island to Connecticut.

New York moves its provincial capital from Albany to Brooklyn, due to sentiments that New York Harbor is easier to fortify and secure than the frontier that Albany now sits upon. Albany becomes a glorified garrison town and most subsequent growth in New York comes down the Hudson Valley. New York leads the provinces in petitioning Parliament for assistance in building the fortifications necessary on the coast and the French frontier to secure their remaining land.
Feb-Apr, 1776
"Allegheny Boys" Revolt
Pennsylvania settlers, upset with the terms of the Treaty of Exmouth and provincial policies that favor easterners, arm themselves and march to Philadelphia. Many of these men were involved in the capture of Duquesne and expeditions into the French hinterlands. Others lost their speculative land purchases made during the war.

The rogue militiamen come to be called the "Allegheny Boys" and their numbers grow as they march across Pennsylvania and rile up townspeople on the road to the capital. They are met by the provincial militia about ten miles outside Philadelphia and there is a tense standoff. Bloodshed is avoided and the uprising is calmed by the rhetorical intervention of John Dickinson, militia commander and member of the provincial legislature.

Dickinson sympathizes with the Allegheny Boys and urges them to turn their anger and frustration into motivation that will strengthen Pennsylvania. He implores them to return to their farms and townships, build strong communities centered around civic duty, and fortify their borderlands. He pledges the full support of Pennsylvania in making the region secure and prosperous in the face of a closed frontier. Dickinson's strong but soothing speech placates most of the men in the rogue militia. They make camp with Dickinson's militia for several days before departing to their homes in the west.
March, 1776
"Wealth of Nations" Published
British economist Adam Smith releases his treatise, which bolsters ideas of economic liberalism throughout the west.
June, 1776
Ville du Vainqueur Founded in Louisiana
After King Louis' War, New France seeks to develop the upper Mississippi River north of the Ohio River junction. The settlements of Kaskaskia and Cahokia near the branch of the Missouri River are seen as good models of development, with a mixture of French and native settlers. The Governor-General, the Prince of Conti, hopes to build a new regional administrative center on the western side of the Mississippi, to encourage more settlers on the west side and expand French presence.

Conti authorizes the construction of the new settlement in November 1775 and by June, 1776 a site is chosen near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The garrison and officials at Fort De Chartres are shifted to the new settlement, which includes a large fort and ample land for laying out roads and selling parcels.

The town is named Ville du Vainqueur in honor of King Louis XV's victory over the British on his deathbed in 1775. The effect of the new settlement is immediate. Several thousand settlers from Cahokia and Kaskaskia shift to Le Vainqueur, and by 1779 the town is home to nearly 5,000 settlers and garrisons 500 soldiers, as well as a fluctuating population of native peoples, mainly the Osage, Illinois, and Missouri.

Ville du Vainqueur=OTL St. Louis, MO
July, 1776
Holy Alliance Created
France and Spain cement a perpetual defensive alliance in the Treaty of Toulouse. The agreement also provides for mutual colonization support. In September, Pope Pius VI blesses the agreement and, through the Treaty of Rome, becomes a secondary member of the alliance, guaranteed protection by French troops in times of need. For France, the goal of the alliance is to isolate Austria among the Catholic countries and cement influence over the Holy See in Rome. For Spain, it provides a guaranteed powerful ally in future excursions. For the Pope, it provides the Church great leverage over policies in the most powerful Catholic country in Europe.
13 September, 1776
Long Bend Massacre
Chickasaw War: A Chickasaw war party descends on a party of settlers traveling up the Mississippi River. All two hundred adults but two Choctaw guides are killed, while nearly a dozen children are carried off. In Rosalie, French General d'Aboville organizes a war party of French regulars, militia, and Choctaw fighters to mount a response. The Long Bend Massacre severely escalates the war between the Chickasaw and the French.
November, 1776
Provincial Union of America Act in Parliament
In the summer of 1776, a Congress of the thirteen British American colonies drafts a plan of union with the primary goal of planning the common defense against New France. Parliament approves the reorganization in November with little opposition and the support of King George III. The law stipulates that each colony must maintain a militia, with requirements based on their populations. During time of war, the militias will be organized under a single command structure and headed by a Commander-in-Chief chosen by the Crown. The law also requires that representatives from each province will meet in Congress at least once a year in Philadelphia to discuss matters of mutual interest, in particular pertaining to defense.
Dec 1776-1827
Prince-Elector Friedrich August Created King of Saxony
As part of France's plan to further neuter Habsburg control over the Holy Roman Empire, France supports the creation of Saxony as a kingdom, uniting several Wettin realms in central Germany under Friedrich August. Though Wettin lands remain small compared to the Habsburg dominions, a Kingdom of Saxony adds another legitimate power base in the HRE.

Friedrich August's long reign is characterized by a strong neutrality in Britain's and Austria's wars against France. He is rewarded by being elected the Holy Roman Emperor in 1817 until his death.

24 February, 1777Death of King Jose of Portugal
Reign of Maria I of Portugal
Reign is marked by relative prosperity in Portugal as colonization of Brazil further develops and ties between the mother country and its largest colony grow. Later reign shows María only in nominal control as her mental health deteriorates and her son leads the Privy Council through most governance decisions.
March, 1777
Taxation of the Colonies Act
After continued protests in British America due to enhanced taxation and increasing anger at the mother country, Parliament passes a law abrogating all taxation laws except for the Navigation Acts, with the stipulation that the new Union Congress self-funds colonial needs and projects. This law is a major change in British colonial policy, devolving power from the British Parliament to the Provincial Union Congress.
April-Sept, 1777
Bengal Rebellions
Following the devastating famine, Bengal is in a challenging position. The French East India Company asserts its own power over the Nawab, supplanting the British and creating a financial crisis in the region. The Nawab and his leading princes opt to rebel rather than submit to French control. The French administrators in east India are able to quickly quell the uprisings with the help of native allies. The Mughal Emperor declines to assist the Bengali leaders.

The resolution of the conflict grants France exclusive trade rights and tribute from the local authorities, though France commits to preserve their autonomy over civil affairs. Bengali authorities agree to form a military alliance with the French, viewing them as a stronger ally than the distant Mughal Court.
May, 1777
Watt Engine Invented
English inventor James Watt showcases his steam engine design to the public in Bristol.
1 June, 1777
Provincial Union Congress Inaugurated
In Philadelphia, the Provincial Union Congress hold their inaugural meeting. The body makes several decisions over the summer on fortifications along the coast and the mountain west, sets up a funding mechanism for building costs, and sets standard regulations for the maintenance of provincial militias.
14 July, 1777
Investiture of British American Peerage
King George III, eager to strengthen his connection to the colonies in spite of their increasing autonomy from Parliament, invests over one hundred titles to landed provincial leaders, favorites, and heroes. The move is met with varying reactions in the colonies with the Southern elites the most receptive and the New Englanders the most resistant.
June, 1777-May, 1778
First Bienville Expedition
Chickasaw War: Captain Bienville leads a war party of French and Choctaw fighters into Chickasaw territory. Bienville's army devastates Chickasaw towns in their southern territories. The Battle of Grande Coteau Verts in July, 1777 is a devastating blow to the Chickasaw, when a large group are caught by Bienville attempting to relocate to a new village spot. The massacre at Coteau Verts is nearly total and includes a large number of women and children. That winter, Bienville's forces build Fort Bayou Rose along the Mississippi River, marking the French expansion into Chickasaw territory.

Bayou Rose=~OTL Benoit, MS
Aug-1777-Jan, 1778
War of Polish Partition
Austria and Russia invade Poland simultaneously in August. King Stanislaus, weakened from the late civil war, calls for French aid, but France (honoring its treaty agreement with Austria) declines to intervene on Poland's behalf. The Polish defenders put up an admirable defense, but are facing impossible odds. Prussia opportunistically joins the fray in October, overrunning Polish West Prussia and reclaiming Königsberg and old East Prussia. Austria captures Krakau and much of southeastern Poland. Russia takes Lithuania and overruns eastern Poland nearly reaching Warsaw. With their defenses divided on multiple fronts the Polish defenders decide to abandon the Prussian and Austrian fronts in late-October and push back the Russian lines, fearing that their entire state could be erased in this war. Austria, concerned that the Russians will breach their agreement and claim the heart of Poland calls for an armistice and treaty conference. France lends its voice to the call to give relief to the Polish Kingdom, lest the entire country be overrun.
September, 1777
Plain Truth Published
Former civil servant Thomas Paine pens Plain Truth. Returning to England after experiencing the aftermath of King Louis's War in America, Paine returns to an England riven with social divisions and inequities. Paine writes a scorching treatise against the British political system, mocking the Parliament, the gentry, and even the Royal Family. Paine demands that the people rise up to seize their rights from the entrenched landed oligarchy citing political participation as a requirement for all men, not just the landed. He also advocates for political power to be more devolved to local communities. The final section targets the King himself, and while Paine stops short of republicanism, his vicious attacks on George III lands him in jail where his health deteriorates.

After his release, Paine leaves for the Continent, first to Holland and eventually settling in Paris, where he becomes a known participant in the underground reformist press. Despite its suppression, Plain Truth is widely distributed in Britain and a small but persistent underground radical movement, known as the "Truthists", develops around Paine's ideas.

7 January, 1778
Treaty of Warsaw, 1778
The Treaty of Warsaw ends the War of Polish Partition. It codifies Austrian, Prussian, and Russian territorial conquests, requires the abdication of the Polish monarch (who goes into exile in France), and organizes a rump Commonwealth of Poland, independent in name only, with a government imposed by the imperial powers surrounding it. Post-partition Poland has no seaports and is completely dependent on the graces of Prussia, Russia, and Austria for trade.
26 February, 1778
Ramelton Massacre
Despite the official closure of the frontier in the Treaty of Exmouth, the border provisions hardly stop a small but steady flow of settlers into French and native territory from the east. The French largely give the natives a free hand to police the settlers themselves. In April, 1777 a party of Scots-Irish settlers led by Andrew Ritchie leaves Reading, Pennsylvania with a plan to cross the Susquehanna River. Ritchie had joined the Allegheny Boys several years before. The authorities saw him as a rash troublemaker looking to fight French Indians. With nearly sixty people in his party, Ritchie crosses into French territory.

They aim for a fertile valley on the West Branch of the Susquehanna River. The village, which they call Ramelton, is soon spotted by a hunting party of Lenape in late June, who do not make contact but send a runner to inform the Iroquois. And Iroquois party of Cayuga is sent to make contact in early August to make clear to Ritchie that the Iroquois require tribute if the village is to remain in their good graces. When the Cayuga return in October the men of Ramelton attack them, killing three and wounding two more. Enraged, Cayuga leaders plan a war party, but are held back by the Iroquois leadership in Onondaga until the French weigh in.

The commander at Fort Oswego opts not to get involved and the Iroquois plan a winter war party reaching Ramelton in late February. Caught completely off-guard in the snowy conditions, the Ramelton settlers are massacred. Nearly all adults are killed and over two dozen children are carried off. Three men are allowed to escape to Fort Augusta in Pennsylvania.

The militiamen in the fort have a great debate about how to respond. Some argue to incur into French territory to exact revenge against the Iroquois, others rightly worry that such an action would be cause for the French to threaten more conflict and seek further concessions from Pennsylvania. Ultimately the militia vote to turn away settlers seeking to move westward and warn any who insisted on pressing onward that the neither protection nor supplies will be provided by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Governor of Pennsylvania dispatches a strongly worded response to the French commander in Oswego for allowing such brutality to go forward, but the incident ends there.

Ramelton=OTL Elimsport, PA
March, 1778
Vergennes Delivers "Les Quatres Piliers" Speech
French Foreign Minister the Comte de Vergennes delivers his "Four Pillars" speech to the French court, excerpts of which are widely published, detailing priorities for French foreign policy in Europe. Vergennes's pillars are:
  1. France must develop and expand its colonial empire.
  2. France must prevent a resurgence of British power.
  3. France must prevent any single power from controlling Germany.
  4. France must promote and expand the Holy Alliance.
May, 1778
Treaty of Bruges
The Netherlands and France sign a mutually beneficial commercial treaty in Bruges, giving each other access to the others' colonial trade with lower tariffs and without products needing to traverse to Europe first. This alleviates some of the Dutch suspicion of France in the wake of King Louis's War. Nevertheless, the Dutch continue investing considerable resources to build up their fortifications along the new French border.
May-Sept, 1778
Second Bienville Expedition
Chickasaw War: Bienville moves against the northern bands of Chickasaw after his success the previous year. Leaving Fort Bayou Rose in May, 1778 Bienville's forces move up the Mississippi and meet another French force coming from Fort de Chartres with Illinois support. This combined force has nearly 800 French soldiers and militia and over 600 native fighters.

The Battle of Écores Chickasaw sees the French capture the high bluffs over the Mississippi that have stymied French expansion between the Arkansas and Missouri Rivers for decades. From there Bienville's forces go from town to town destroying everything in their path. Maize fields are razed and towns are burned or dismantled. While the remaining Chickasaw manage to retreat ahead of the French advance, their society is broken by Bienville's expedition. Only small raids against the column are managed by those Chickasaw fighters who are left.

By late 1778, the Chickasaw are cleared from their historical homelands and survivors are scattered around the region, invariably joining other tribes including bands of Muscogee Creek, Shawnee, and Miami peoples.

Ecore Chickasaw=~OTL Memphis, TN
August, 1778
Nouvelle-Lyons Founded in New France
New Lyons is founded in August, 1778 by Huguenots from the eponymous French city. The nearly 200 settlers are led by Gaston Boileau and arrive in Quebec City to a cool welcome in March, 1777. The Bishop of Quebec, Yves Delmas, all but expels the Huguenots, delivering a homily raging against religious deviants disrupting the harmony of New France. The Governor-General the Prince of Conti placates both the settlers and the Bishop by offering them a vague land grant deep in the Ohio Country.

Boileau then leads his party up the Saint-Laurent through Montreal to Fort Frontenac where they charter a flotilla of bateaux to carry them across Lake Ontario to Fort Niagara and again across Lake Erie from Fort Lotbiniere to Fort Presque-Isle. At Presque-Isle, the settlers hire a team of Métis and Mingo guides to the Allegheny and Fort Duquesne. The large settler party is a fresh sight on the frontier, with French traders and natives alike fascinated by them.

From Fort Duquesne the Boileau party travels down the Ohio with a group of Shawnee guides. Conti's grant authorizes Boileau's party to settle up to three towns southwest of Montcalm and east of Fort Le Coud. In July, 1778 Boileau chooses a pair of sites opposite one another on the Ohio. New Lyons is built on the south side and Auvergne on the north side. The Huguenots establish a ferry between the two towns.

In 1779 nearly 400 more Huguenots from Lyons arrive, and the numbers are expected to grow once word of the successful settlement reaches Huguenot communities in Europe.

Fort Montcalm=~OTL Cincinnati, OH
Nouvelle-Lyons=~OTL Louisville, KY
Fort Le Coud=~OTL Evansville, IN

Reign of Karl Wilhelm I of Bavaria
The Bavarian Wittelsbach line becomes extinct upon the death of Duke Maximilian III. In the Treaty of Cologne, Bavaria is transferred to the Wettin dynasty. This is mainly due to French influence and anger at the Wittelsbach rulers in Cologne siding with Austria in the recent war, whereas the Wettins expressed support through their stated neutrality. The new Wettin monarch, Karl Wilhelm of Saxe-Meiningen is made King of Bavaria by Pope Pius VI. Though the Kingdom of Bavaria remains in the Holy Roman Empire under Habsburg stewardship, its status as a kingdom creates another legitimate power base in the Holy Roman Empire distinct from the Habsburg emperor. Karl Wilhelm's reign is marked by gymnastic diplomatic maneuvering between Austria and France.
June, 1779
Treaty of Fort Denis
Chickasaw War: After the shattering of Chickasaw society in the previous years, one of the remaining chiefs Lotapaia councils with the French at Fort Denis and signs a treaty surrendering the traditional homelands of the Chickasaw to French dominion. The treaty guarantees that France will not exact punitive measures against surviving Chickasaw people provided they remain peaceable towards both France and its native allies. Following the treaty, the Chickasaw who follow Lotapaia form a town along the Wabash and gradually assimilate into Wabash culture.

Fort Denis=~OTL Memphis, TN

Apr, 1780-Aug, 1783
Voyage of the Comte de La Pérouse
King Louis XVI dispatches the Comte de La Pérouse on a voyage with six ships to the Pacific Ocean. Pérouse rounds the Horn of Africa and visits Pondicherry in India before navigating through the East Indies and entering the Pacific. By August 1780, Pérouse's expedition maps the southern coast of New Guinea. When a ship is dashed on the Great Barrier Reef, Pérouse opts to turn north, claiming a number of large archipelagos for France and establishing a relationship with natives, picking up some navigators.

Turning south, the voyage maps the coast of New Zealand from April to August of 1781, which Pérouse claims for France in spite of Cook's earlier British claim. By late September the voyage turns to the east Australian coast, which is mapped diligently and native contact is made in what Cook called Botany Bay in late November. Pérouse adopts the name and the French claim la Baie Botanique. Pérouse sails north along the coast until encountering the same reef his voyage struggled to navigate the previous year.

Needing to resupply and wanting to embark on the trans-Pacific leg of his voyage, Pérouse returns to Île du Vainqueur, which he named the previous year, to drop off his native navigators. In early 1782 the voyage charts numerous islands northeast of Australia, but only lands on Viti, making contact with the monarchy there and picking up two more navigators who will help them cross 5400 miles of ocean. The voyage charts numerous islands from afar; the last land sighted among the islands of the South Pacific before entering the open ocean is Tungaru, which Pérouse names after himself.

Two months later they reach the Baja California coast coming to port in San Diego to great fanfare from the local magistrate and the expedition resupplies. Pérouse sails up the coast with Spanish charts and makes his own. The expedition trades with natives for furs around San Juan island before embarking for the long voyage across the ocean to China. Pérouse is detoured at the Îles Ouaië, which Pérouse records after hearing the native name. The expedition spends a week in the court of King Quiwalëou trading offerings. The expedition sails for Canton, arriving in February of 1783 where he is largely turned away from trade.

Pérouse departs China before March and sails for Pondicherry, where he and his crew convalesce over April. Storms at the Horn of Africa requires a prolonged stay in Dutch Cape Town. The Pérouse expedition sails into Cherbourg in late August to masses of celebrants awaiting them. The voyage is an unparalleled success and upstages the earlier British voyage of Cook.

Viti=OTL Fiji
île du Vainqueur=OTL New Caledonia
îles Ouaië= OTL Hawaii
September, 1780
Treaty of Sheffield
Wary of French power, Britain and the Netherlands sign a defensive treaty of alliance in Sheffield. France has concerns of Britain building a counter alliance against them, but keeps their misgivings private.
29 November, 1780Death of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria
Reign of Josef II of Austria
Josef's solo reign after his mother's death is marked by peaceful relations in Europe and much needed reforms to modernize Austrian society.
Andean Sierra Uprising
Peruvian natives vs Spanish colonial authority. The government in Lima is eventually able to pacify the mountainous interior.

26 March, 1781
Birth of Louis-Joseph Dauphin of France
After several years of failed pregnancies that are much discussed in the French press, Queen Marie Amelie gives birth to a boy in late March 1781. The infant Dauphin is celebrated throughout the French realm.
23 April, 1781
King George of Great Britain Created King of Hanover
France's diplomatic overtures in Germany continue, with the elevation of Hanover to a Kingdom under the rule of the British dynasty. While little changes in reality, the perception is greatly felt and France's approbation of their long-time enemy enthroned on the Continent in a protestant monarchy is heralded as a victory in Britain. For France, the creation of different power bases in Germany accomplishes the goal of weakening Habsburg influence in the region and preventing Germany from uniting under one leader. Having a kingdom in northern Germany also serves as a buffer between any future resurgence of Prussian power into western Germany.
October, 1781
Kaiser Josef Reforms
Josef II of Austria liberalizes key aspects of life in the Habsburg Realm. Serfdom is formally abolished and freedom of worship is guaranteed for all Christian sects.

June, 1782
Hamilton-Fox Commercial Agreement
Parliament and Congress arrange a commercial and taxation agreement that eliminates domestic tariffs on goods traversing between Britain and its American and Caribbean colonies. Duties on French goods are raised to prohibitive levels. The Navigation Acts restrictions on industrial development in the colonies are lifted provided that a quota of British manufacture set by Parliament is imported into the colonies on an annual basis.
Aug, 1782-Jan, 1783
New England Farmer Rebellion
British restrictions on colonial currency combined with steep war debt leads to a political crisis in New England, where many farmers find themselves unable to pay their creditors or their provincial tax bills. Many are at risk of losing their property, livelihoods, and political rights. Mobs form to close courts that confiscate property. Others protest local lords who are much resented in meritocratic New England and are accused of charging high rents and hoarding valuable land resources. Local militias, called up to disperse the mobs are ineffective, largely because many militiamen are supportive of the mobs.

Ultimately militia from New York and New Jersey are brought in to secure the New England backcountry, which creates much resentment across British America. Congress petitions Parliament to relax currency restrictions and tax remittances, which gradually improves the economic conditions in America. Many of the new gentry class in New England recognize the bad optics of their ennoblement and rent their lands at low rates, or open them as commons.
Great Tenmei Famine

Jun, 1783-Feb, 1784
Laki Volcanic Eruption
4 October, 1783
First Piloted Hot-Air Balloon Ride
After years of experiments and tests the Montgolfier brothers demonstrate their hot-air balloon to King Louis XVI on a tether outside of Paris.
Oct, 1783-Jun, 1784
Appalachian Whiskey Rebellion
After the Farmers Rebellion in New England, Congress seeks new sources of revenue for the tax remittances America owes to Parliament and other funding needs. Rather than relying solely on the provinces to contribute revenues, Congress attempts to levy a direct excise tax on the production of whiskey. The law dispatches tax collectors to identify, inventory, and collect from distilleries. The law pointedly does not similarly tax the production of rum, meaning that tax directly targets settlers in the backcountry, rather than coastal elites.

Resistance to the tax is immediate as collectors are turned away, threatened, or even assaulted. Armed uprisings occur in Pennsylvania and Virginia and no tax is able to be collected. Attempts to bring in militias to suppress the rebellion mostly fail due to a combination of resistance among the militias themselves, and refusal from provincial governments to authorize their use. Congress repeals the law in 1784 and replaces it with an amended Excise Tax law that levies low "sin taxes" on the sale of a number of products including whiskey, rum, and tobacco. These taxes also prove unpopular, but do not inspire any uprisings.

May, 1784-1787
Pérouse China Expedition
After Pérouse's earlier frustration gaining access to the China Trade at Canton, Louis XVI dispatches the famed adventurer on another voyage to the east with the goal of establishing positive trade relations between the Qing Emperor and the King of France. Pérouse arrives in Canton in the winter of 1784 after spending some time in French India. While the French expedition does make headway with local officials in Canton, they are stymied in their goal of an audience with the Emperor until the summer of 1785. Despite their adherence to protocols and ample offerings, the Qing Emperor is unmoved by their overtures.

By 1786 Pérouse is able to secure only the same agreement made by the British East India Company decades earlier; access to trade at Canton in exchange for hard currency of silver or gold. Pérouse's disappointment is strong but he accepts the offer. In Canton representatives of the French East India Company conspire with local officials to enter into a smuggling operation alongside the official business.
May, 1784-1786
Bougainville Voyage
King Louis XVI sends another mission of exploration and botanical discovery to Oceania. Admiral Bougainville is to take his squadron and expand on Pérouse's success. The two naturalists who attend the expeditions are Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the keeper of the Jardin du Roi in Paris and the young German Casimir von Storm of Oldenburg. For over three years, Bougainville's expedition of four ships trolls the Indian and Pacific oceans. Encountering pirates off of Madagascar's east coast in early July of 1784, Bougainville successfully fights off the pirates and opts to send a landing party of marines to Île Sainte-Marie, the pirate stronghold. The marines drive off the pirates and Lamarck and Storm spend a week collecting specimens of plant and animal life, including several species of orchid, a cuckoo bird, and two types of lemur. The marines burn the pirate town before the expedition departs for Australia.

The expedition arrives on the southeast coast of Australia in mid-September, exploring two well sheltered deepwater harbors that Bougainville names for the Comte de Vergennes and the Comte de la Pérouse respectively and claims them for France. At Baie la Pérouse Casimir von Storm discovers a fascinating creature with a duck-like bill and feed with a beaver-like body. He calls it ornithorynque or "bird nose" and it becomes a sensation back in Europe, with many decrying the beast as a hoax. Lamarck marvels at the variety of marsupials, which he had read of in reports on Cook's and Pérouse's expeditions. He catalogues more than a dozen species in Australia and Tasmania, which Bougainville renames Corse du Sud.

They spend the southern summer at la Baie Botanique and set up a small settlement, which is planned to be permanently populated by colonists from the Compagnie de l'Australie française in 1787. By April of 1785, the holds of the ships are filling with all sorts of biological specimens and oddities. Their next stop is New Zealand, when they spend most of the winter exploring the coasts and coves of both the north and south islands. By October of 1785, the squadron heads for Viti (Fiji), re-establishing relations with the the kingdom there and picking up navigators before moving to chart more of Polynesia for King Louis XVI. Numerous islands and archipelagos are mapped and visited before the long journey to Lima in Spanish Perú.

They layover in Lima for several months, time which Lamarck and Storm use to more closely examine and catalogue their wide array of specimens. Lamarck is astonished to find that an animal local to Perú features the same marsupial traits as those in Australia, a finding that both intrigues and baffles his scientific sensibilities. His writings on the converging traits will be important sources for later thinkers in the fields of geology and biology. Storm, meanwhile, produces innumerable sketches and detailed descriptions of more than 800 plant specimens, which will eventually be published in his 1791 Kompendium der Pflanzen Australiens und der Pazifischen Inseln, published in German and French.

In June of 1786, Bougainville departs Líma and sails south, laden with valable alpaca woolens and other Peruvian specialties. They stop at Valdivia in late-June before making the run for the Strait of Magellan, rounding South America and heading for Dutch Cape Town. Upon their arrival in early-September, they resupply and trade several hanks of alpaca wool before moving up the Africa coast, stopping at Gorée in Senegal and then making for France. The expedition is wildly successful not just for its national and political implications, but the great scientific importance of Lamarck's and Storm's discoveries. Lamarck would go on to theorize on the development of biology over time, while Storm travels throughout Europe and influences a number of major names in the next generation of science. Bougainville is held up with Pérouse as a man of discovery of great importance for the pride and glory of France.

April, 1785-????
D'Entrecasteaux Voyage
Part of Louis XVI's program of exploration, the expedition of Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux is celebrated as it sets sail from Le Havre in April 1785. D'Entrecasteaux is tasked with finding the Northwest Passage north of Hudson Bay with two frigates, the Esperance and the Resolution. After laying over in Louisbourg in June, d'Entrecasteaux embarks north. On 29 June, the frigates exchange signals with a fishing trawler southeast of Terre-Neuve; it is the last known outside record of the d'Entrecasteaux expedition. As 1786 closes out with no contact of any kind from the expedition, three ships under the command of Pierre Martin are dispatched from Louisbourg to scour the North American coast. Martin returns in November, 1787 empty handed. D'Entrecasteaux's expedition is lost and no evidence is found of them for over a hundred and fifty years.
1 June, 1785
Baxter Mill Begins Operation in Rhode Island
With the end of British commercial and industrial restrictions against British-America, businessmen in the provinces begin to entice British factory operators and managers to travel to America and assist with setting up similar industry practices there. Rhode Island businessman Moses Brown hires Geoffrey Baxter, an emigré from the English Midlands who recently managed a state-of-the-art cotton mill outside of Manchester. With Brown's funding and business acumen, Baxter designs and implements a factory on the Pawtucket River. A new era in America is sparked as several similar factories are built throughout New England over the next decade and then spreading into other provinces. These factories remain small and minor to the overall economy until the turn of the century, but the impact of mills like Baxter's changes the economic course of British-America forever.
September, 1785
Treaty of Sorrento
Foreign Minister Vergennes scores a major success by bringing both Naples and Parma into the Holy Alliance with France and Spain. This move makes Austria uneasy. The Habsburgs hold dynastic control over much of northern Italy, and French moves to unite non-Habsburg states in an alliance is threatening to Austrian interests. For now, Austria keeps its protests quiet from France, though Franz II directs his envoys in Amsterdam, London, and Moscow to feel out potential for a defensive alliance against the French bloc.
2 November, 1785
"The Bourbon Threat" Speech Delivered in Parliament
Young member of Parliament William Grenville showcases his rising star delivering a speech on the threat posed by France continuing to bring other European realms into its Holy Alliance. The addition of Naples, he warns, unifies the Bourbon kingdoms and may "tend towards a superstate that will tip the scales of power in the world into the Mediterranean." The speech is well-received by his peers and showcases that Britain remains eager to pose as a rival to French power, despite their humiliation in the 1770s.
December, 1785
Treaty of Delhi
The French colonial government in Pondicherry signs an agreement with the Mughal Emperor in Delhi pledging continued positive trade relations. A French permanent envoy will be installed in the Mughal court who will have the ear of the Emperor.

May, 1786-Feb, 1789
Bligh Voyage
British exploration expedition to the southern seas commanded by William Bligh. Bligh is dispatched to survey the western coast of Australia in fine detail, collect biological specimens of interest, and troll the southern seas for lands unknown.
July, 1786-May, 1787
Manteau Bleu's War
Splinter groups of Shawnee, Chickasaw remnants and other native peoples disgruntled with French expansion in the Ohio Valley mount a resistance, led by a Shawnee war-chief known to the French as Manteau Bleu (Blue Jacket) for the Virginia militia officer jacket he wears. A religious cult forms around the concept of Pure Land unspoiled by Europeans. Attacks are particularly against so-called "Betrayer Towns" -- native towns closely allied with the French -- which proves to be a grave strategic error by Manteau Bleu. Most natives unite with the French against the violence, which is quelled by late winter 1787. Manteau Bleu is killed in Ohio and his cult is largely stamped out, though strains of its ideology survive into the 19th century.
August, 1786
Canton Accord
After months in the court of the Chinese emperor the Count of LaPerouse is able to secure only trading rights in Canton, a similar deal that was offered to the British twenty years earlier. French and Cantonese officials quickly initiate a vast smuggling operation that operates parallel to the officially allowed trade under the agreement.
Reign of Emperor Oyokoko of Japan
Early reign marked by retrenchment of the Tokugawa shōgunate with conservative reforms. Increasing unrest later in his reign led the emperor to agitate for more power as faith in the longstanding shōgun system weakened.

16-22 August, 1787
Conway Slave Revolt
Enslaved field hands in and around Conway, South Carolina revolt on several plantations, killing nearly 80 whites. The revolt is allegedly organized on the plantation of Lord Pinckney by recently arrived men who had been enslaved in Africa. Lord Pinckney himself is killed in the revolt and more than a half-dozen plantations are affected before the militia arrive in the region and restore order.

Massive retaliation is imposed on the revolters including publicly displayed mutilation. More than 300 enslaved people are killed in the retaliatory actions. While South Carolina imposes stricter measures on its enslaved population as a result of the Conway Revolt, other provinces in British America view it as a cautionary tale, which strengthens anti-slavery movements.

May, 1788
Kensington Gardens Treaty
In 1786, King Louis XVI dispatches rising diplomatic star Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord to London as French envoy to the Court of St. James. Talleyrand's social exploits become legendary in Great Britain and invitations to his lavish parties are highly coveted. Despite enjoying the high-society debauchery himself, Talleyrand's moves are calculated to maintain the status quo of peace under the terms of the Treaty of Exmouth for as long as possible.

Driven by this aggressively genteel diplomatic outreach, Talleyrand engineers the the Kensington Gardens Treaty, which is centered around both France and Britain refraining from trading weapons to natives in each other's North American territory. While the optics of the treaty are important for diplomacy and politics, in reality it accomplishes little to settle long standing disputes between New France and British America. Talleyrand knows this but basks in the adoring press coverage he receives on both sides of the Channel.

While the British Foreign Secretary Lord Sydney sees through the performance, Talleyrand's demeanor makes it difficult to break his captivating hold on the narrative. Talleyrand's instincts impress both the more conservative Foreign Minister Vergennes as well as King Louis XVI, who finds the man's extravagant style to be "trés Bourbon."
July, 1788
Steamboat Invented
French steam engine designer Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot tests his latest design alongside Scottish inventor William Murdoch. Their engine powers a boat through Paris along the Seine witnessed by King Louis XVI and a throng of onlookers.
Reign of Carlos IV of Spain
Reign marked by prosperity in Spain driven by its strong alliance with France. Unrest in the new world colonies is successfully put down and ties between them and mother country are strengthened under Carlos's rule. The marriage of Carlos's only daughter to the King of France creates the potential to one day unite the thrones of the two powers.

15 February, 1789
Mutiny on the Triton
Sailors on William Bligh's southern expedition mutiny after being pushed to brink by Bligh's tyrannical command, freezing temperatures, and dwindling food supplies. Bligh is kept under guard and the Triton makes its way to Buenos Aires before returning to Britain later in 1789. While the holds are full of specimens from Australia, the mission to discover a southern continent is unsuccessful. One of the mutiny's leaders is hanged, while the other manages to escape to Europe.
Reign of Selim III of the Ottoman Empire
Reign marked by devastating wars in the Balkans with Austria and Russia. Intrigue in the military and court plots against Selim and he is deposed in favor of his younger brother.
May, 1789
Treaty of Cuddalore
The French East India Company signs another agreement of friendship with Tipu Sultan of Mysore. The treaty extends the military alliance and trade agreement and adds terms favorable to Mysore. French soldiers will not enter Mysore without permission. Mysore will receive fair payment for its military contributions elsewhere in India for the support of French actions. Mysorean boys will be welcomed in French educational institutions, particularly schools of engineering and military tactics.

Reign of Leopold VII of Austria
Brief reign marked by consolidation of reforms made by his brother.
September, 1790
Treaty of Calais
Franco-Dutch Treaty. Now Foreign Minister, Talleyrand aims to isolate Britain diplomatically by pulling the Netherlands into the French orbit. The Treaty of Calais gives the Dutch much of what they've asked for since the conclusion of King Louis's War fifteen years earlier. It creates the independent Duchy of Flanders under the French monarch and removes French military forces the region, leaving only Flemish militia. It removes tariffs between French and Dutch colonies in Asia. It requires the Dutch refrain from joining any military alliances with non-French allied powers. Suddenly Britains strongest potential ally is squarely in France's orbit; a major coup for Talleyrand. Louis XVI is impressed and grants Talleyrand general free-reign in foreign policy, a matter that is of little interest to the king.

February, 1791
Arcy Proclamation on Aboriginal Associations
New France Governor-General d'Arcy proclaims that native peoples are official subjects of the French crown and should formalize this by treaty. In the forthcoming decade numerous tribes sign treaties with the French recognizing them as “Associated Tribes.” There are questions about how much the natives appreciate the implications of being an official subject to the crown, but this is not of concern of the French. The agreements require France to protect the tribes in the event of an attack by the British or another tribe. If two associated tribes come into conflict, French authorities are required to mediate the dispute. The proclamation encourages trade and respects native land, with the natives understanding that certain areas will continue to be colonized by French settlers. The agreements compel the natives to support France in any wartime needs and remain open to trade.
August, 1791
Proclamation on the Organization of New France
King Louis XVI, on advice of Foreign Minister Talleyrand and Governor-General d'Arcy, orders that Louisiana shall be sundered from Quebec, splitting New France into two governorates-general. The Marquis de Hervaults is dispatched to New Orleans as the new Governor-General of Louisiana, while the Marquis d'Arcy will continue on in Quebec.

January, 1792
"Considerations on the Nature of the French Government" Published
French lawyer Maximilien Robespierre pens a widely-distributed pamphlet entitled "Considérations sur la Nature du Gouvernement Français". While full of praise for the French nation and respectful of the monarchy, Robespierre bitterly denounces the cronyism and nepotism within the French government, bluntly stating that such corruption stifles French progress and French culture. He lays out several proposals for constitutional reforms. Conservatives accuse Robespierre of being an Anglophile for his advocacy of constitutionalism, although reforms are growing in popularity among people of all classes in France.
Reign of Franz II of Austria
Early reign marked by a return to tensions with France as Austria attempts, mostly unsuccessfully, to curb the expansion of French influence in Europe. Hapsburg control in northern Italy is lost as is Hapsburg control of the Holy Roman Empire. While his later reign is characterized by peace on the continent, he dies just after the French Succession Crisis begins in 1837.
Mar, 1792-Jun,1794
René-August Chouteau Pacific Expedition
In the early 1790s the Governor-General of New France, Marquis d'Arcy, authorizes expeditions into the vast interior of the continent to survey the land, contact potential trade partners, and identify locations for suitable postings. The vaunted Chouteau family of Vainqueur jumps at the opportunity to lead the missions. René-Auguste Chouteau is chosen to lead one such expedition up the Missouri River. His instructions are to navigate a usable trail through the Rocky Mountains and reach the Pacific Ocean. Chouteau departs Vainqueur in March, 1792 with a large party of fur traders, native guides, priests, and political hangers-on. The party reaches the Pacific in June, 1793 and returns to Vainqueur in the following year.
May, 1792-June, 1793
Jean-Pierre Chouteau Santa Fé Expedition
Jean-Pierre Chouteau is chosen to lead another expedition up the Red River and into Spanish territory to blaze a trade route to Santa Fé, the northernmost outpost in New Spain's interior. Despite some tense interactions with Kiowa and Comanche natives, Chouteau's mission successfully reaches the Spanish city by August. Choteau is unable to secure any safe-passage agreements with the Comanche for a regular trade route between Vainqueur and Santa Fé, but his efforts lead to France dispatching agents to the region to sort out an arrangement.

Feb-Aug, 1793
Polish Uprising, 1793
A number of exiled Polish nobles and military commanders return to the rump Commonwealth of Poland and inspire an uprising in the military ranks. Poznan and Warsaw quickly fall into the rebels' control and the Commonwealth government flees to Wyszkow in the country's east. Tadeusz Kościuszko, the leader of the uprising declares the Republic of Warsaw on 8 April.

By May the Russian forces are mobilized to back the Commonwealth government. Most of Poland is retaken by late June with a siege put in place around Warsaw. France and Austria intervene diplomatically in August to compel the two sides to come together, which is credited with avoiding mass casualties, political executions, and an outright annexation of Poland by Russia.
February, 1793
"Sociéte Tricolor" Established in Paris
French liberals begin meeting in cafes in Paris to discuss enlightenment thinking and ideas for reforming French political society. They call themselves the Tricolor Society and wear cockades on their hats in red, white, and blue, the traditional colors of Paris. The Gendarme allow them to hold their meetings, but observe and infiltrate the club. The Society is notable for hosting nobles and commoners on relatively equal footing.
May, 1793
Dominion of American Government Act in Parliament
After a decade of governmental struggle and two years of negotiations on two continents, the British Parliament passes a law modifying the organization of American government. The colonies will be formed into the Dominion of America governed by a President-General appointed by the King. Provincial governors devolve to appointment by provincial assemblies or election by freeholders. The Dominion Congress will control internal affairs and taxes without interference from Britain, while the body will defer to Parliament on matters of foreign relations and trade. The President-General is empowered to form a government from Congress, ratify congressional laws in place of the King, and unite provincial militias under a single command. William Pitt the Younger is dispatched to Philadelphia to serve as the first President-General of the Dominion and John Adams is elected to be the First Minister and leader of the House of Representatives.
30 June, 1793
Fort D'Arcy Founded on Pacific Coast
René-Auguste Chouteau's expedition reaches the Pacific in early June, 1793. They locate a suitable location near the mouth of the Colomb and build a palisaded trading fort, France's first on the west coast of North America. The post is named Fort D'Arcy after the Governor-General who dispatched them on the mission. A dozen men are left behind to establish trade with local natives and navigate to Spanish settlements in California, while Chouteau leads the bulk of the expedition back to Vainqueur to report on their success.

Fort D'Arcy=~OTL Astoria, OR
28 August, 1793
Treaty of Warsaw, 1793
Polish Uprising: The treaty has a surprisingly large number of parties considering the officially internal nature of the uprising. The Polish Commonwealth, the Republic of Warsaw, Russia, Austria, France, Prussia, Saxony, and the Vatican are all participants at the treaty negotiations.

The Commonwealth government is affirmed by all parties, while the leaders of the uprising are to receive full pardons and the ability to participate in the Commonwealth. It is determined that any neighboring nation delivering soldiers into Poland may be taken as an act of aggression by other signatories.
Gorkhas War
Nepalis invade the northern Mughal territories in India. An alliance with France helps lead to a negotiated end to the conflict. For France, the war extends French diplomatic and economic reach into India's northern interior.

April, 1794
"On the Sin of Slavery" Published
In "Le Péché de l’Esclavage" French Bishop François de Rennes excoriates the institution of slavery, especially as promoted by the triangular trade. De Rennes had spent time in New Orleans and Saint-Domingue, as well as visited French factories on the West African coast. The pamphlet, published in four languages, is read widely in Europe. The work is widely credited with strengthening the resolve of abolitionists against the Atlantic trade, particularly in the mind of the young Dauphin.
Aleut Revolt
Alaska natives fight back against systematic abuse by Russian venture-seekers. The Tsarina sends an envoy to establish more formal relations making the natives subjects to the Russian Empire and protected. The revolt attracts more attention from Catherine to North America, particularly after receiving word that the French have established a trading post on the Pacific Coast. When Russia queries Spain on the French action Spain replies that France has permission to build trade posts in Spanish territory. Russia does not escalate the matter but quietly plans for more colonization and future confrontation over the colonization of western North America .

May, 1795-March, 1800
Balkan Wars
Austria battles the Ottomans in southeastern Europe under the pretext of persecution of Christians in the Ottoman realm. Russia soon joins with its own campaign. The wars are not prosecuted in a coordinated way and long periods of time pass with no fighting at all. The war alters the landscape of southeastern Europe.
11 September, 1795
King Louis of France Dies
Two months after a hunting accident leaves Louis riddled with birdshot in his right leg and foot, he succumbs to infection that doctors are unable to stop. It is believed that a case of consumption further exacerbated the King's health crisis in his final weeks.
Reign of Louis XVII of France
The fourteen-year-old son of Louis XVI becomes king upon his father's untimely death. Premier Talleyrand is made head of a regency council that will govern until the young king's majority in 1799. Queen Marie Amelie and minister Talleyrand ensure that the young Louis XVII receives an enlightened education and is well prepared for his reign. His rule is marked by consolidation of French power in the early-19th century as well as significant reforms of French government. His death will set the stage for the turmoil of the mid-century.
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Building Tensions (1796-1799)
God is a Frenchman: Building Tensions (1796-1799)
Jan, 1796-Feb, 1797
King Louis XVII's Europe Tour
While Talleyrand manages affairs in France, the new King is sent on a year-long tour of Europe with his mother and an entourage of tutors and courtesans. During his travels he follows a rigorous course of study in politics, economics, agriculture, law, science, and philosophy. The fourteen-year-old displays a natural aptitude for academic pursuits, much to the joy of his mother, though confusing to some of his adolescent travel companions.

Louis is greeted throughout Europe with adulation, even from France's strongest rivals. The tour begins in the north of France and Flanders before sailing for London. Louis marvels at the impressive reception he receives from King George III, a man with whom he gets on surprisingly well. In the Netherlands, he learns about the complex engineering that manages the Dutch relationship with the sea.

Moving into Germany, he sees the unfinished Kölner Dom and then visits with his kin in Dresden before entering Prussia. Friedrich Wilhelm shows Louis his father's storied art collection as well as an impressive ceremonial demonstration by the Prussian Army. Louis is highly intimidated by the wizened Tsarina Catherine in St Petersburg, though he enjoys meeting with Tsarevich Paul with whom he shoots clay targets and discusses the growing reform movements in both countries, a topic both find pressing.

In Vienna, Louis marvels at the musical and artistic performances he is shown. While Louis is awed by the art and architecture in Rome, he is less impressed with the Church officials. In Madrid, he meets Princess María Joaquina at a grand Christmas banquet hosted by Carlos VI. He is immediately smitten with the young princess and asks for permission to write her. Returning to France, Louis travels up to the Loire Valley before returning to Paris. On his return, Louis remarks to Talleyrand that "Europe all looks and sounds different, but we all face the same burdens."
May-Oct, 1796
Barbary War
In a naval action against the Barbary pirates of North Africa, British Royal Navy captain Horatio Nelson sinks or captures several enemy corsairs and secures punitive treaties with Algiers and Tunis. He is hailed as a hero in Britain upon his return and is a rising star in the Royal Navy.
May, 1796
Smallpox Vaccinations Begin
Dr. Edward Jenner releases his findings for using cowpox to induce an immune response for smallpox. He calls the procedure vaccination and over the next several years the British realm begins vaccinating residents in high-risk areas on a large scale. Within a decade, vaccinations are being used for smallpox across Europe and its colonies. While this is a boon for people across the globe, it is particularly important in French America, which successfully vaccinates thousands of natives in Quebec and Louisiana by 1805.
18 September, 1796The Quianlong Emperor of China Dies
Reign of the Liqing Emperor of China
Reign marked by increasing challenges with foreign involvement especially in the south as strict controls fail to manage the economy to the empire's liking.
25 October, 1796
Battle of Neusatz
Balkan Wars: Austrian forces score a stunning victory over the Ottomans at Neusatz, pushing south of the Danube liberating Serbian towns.
Nov, 1796
Treaty of San Marco
With Austria preoccupied with its expansion in the Balkans, Talleyrand takes the opportunity to direct envoys in Venice to offer membership in the Holy Alliance. With Austria a frequent threat looming over the maritime republic, the Venetians eagerly sign on. The Austrians protest, but do not press the matter.
Reign of Paul I of Russia
Short reign marked by attempts at far-reaching reforms and displeasure among the nobility.

Feb-Jun, 1797
First Saint-Domingue Revolt
Enslaved laborers in Saint-Domingue rise up against French plantation elites. Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines lead the uprising and successfully kill hundreds of French colonial authorities and civilians, including Governor Thomassin in an attack on the fortress at Cap Française. French troops under General d'Aboville are brought in from Louisiana to crush the revolt. Louverture and Dessalines are executed along with nearly 400 alleged co-conspirators.

Paris appoints d'Aboville the new governor and Saint-Domingue carries on under military occupation. Reforms are put into place to give colored men and some slaves agency and responsibility over the sugar plantations. Additionally priests from the new Marianist Order arrive, led by Father Guillaume-Joseph Chaminade. They preach education and piety as nourishment for enslaved workers and strongly push back against the exhaustive chattel system of Caribbean slavery. The Marianists are instrumental in changing the slavery system in the French Caribbean to be less harsh and punitive. By the 1820s, replacement labor to the French Caribbean via the Africa trade has declined over 75%.
Apr, 1797-May, 1800
Serbian Rebellion
Balkan Wars: Inspired by Austrian victories in the war, Serbians revolt against Turkish rule throughout Ottoman Rumelia.
13 June, 1797
Battle of Split
Balkan Wars: The Austrian Navy bombards fortifications at Split as an Austrian army marches out of Triest to sweep the Dalmatian Coast.
November, 1797
Proclamation on the Conditions of Bondage in America
The sixteen-year-old Louis XVII is appalled by what he learns about slave conditions in French colonies. Through his regent, Talleyrand, he commands his colonial governors and bishops to implement strict controls on the treatment and status of enslaved workers in French America.
  • Conversion and delivery of the sacraments is required.
  • Matrilineal status is outlawed. Manumission is encouraged.
  • Marianist Priests are dispatched to plantations across Saint-Domingue, Louisiana, and elsewhere to provide religious education.
Reign of Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia
Early reign characterized by a period of reform modernizing Prussian society. Moves towards remilitarization and attempts to reassert Prussian power in the region. Later reign marked by the War of French Succession and the formation of the German Confederation.
December, 1797
American Shipyard Crisis
France discovers from sources in America that the British are constructing warships in shipyards up the Hudson River and in Chesapeake Bay. Talleyrand formally lodges a complaint, but the British demure. Prime Minister Fitzwilliam cites the Treaty of Exmouth's clear language regarding the British Royal Navy and provides legal analysis that ships built in America are not part of the Royal Navy, but rather auxiliaries and not covered under the treaty's terms. For the moment, France declines to pursue the matter any further, but tensions between the two powers steadily increases behind the scenes.

April, 1798
Embargo Act in Parliament
In response to increased tariffs erected in Flanders, the British Parliament places an embargo on France and Flanders. Directed by Fitzwilliam, Britain begins dumping large quantities of manufactured goods for cheap prices in ports across northern Europe, a move meant to hurt French exports and industrial sector. Merchants in France and Flanders are outraged by the move.
6 April, 1798
Battle of Khadjibey
Balkans Wars: A Russian army drives Turkish forces out of the Black Sea town of Khadjibey.
22 June, 1798
Battle of Temeswar
Balkan Wars: The Austrians rout a Turkish and Wallachian army at Temeswar and plan to drive the Turks east of the Carpathian Mountains.
July, 1798
American Houses of Congress Completed
Designed by Virginian Thomas Jefferson, the Houses of Congress building opens for use in Philadelphia in 1798. The building is neo-classical and lauded by contemporaries for its smart design choices and numerous hidden delights.
6 October, 1798
Paris Petition Massacre
Members of the Tricolor Society petition the French Crown asking for a number of radical changes to the French political system including a representative assembly, and taxation of the aristocracy. When low-class mobs of sans-culottes protest in support of the Petition, the conservative backlash is strong. In October, Parisian authorities fire into a crowd of demonstrators, killing nine. Talleyrand successfully navigates the situation without it becoming a bigger crisis, mainly by promising and delivering a fair trial for the officers and men involved in the shooting. He also meets with leading members of the Tricolor Society at an uncharacteristically demure private party in which he states his desire to work towards their goals, but asks for their aid in rhetorically staving off counterproductive unrest. In addition, the young King publicly voices his intent to bring reforms to France. The protests settle down by the winter.
Apr, 1798-Feb, 1800
First Maratha War
The confederation of Maratha invades the northern marches of Mysore. France supports its ally Mysore, mainly with material and military advisors. In addition, France occupies restive interior regions of Odisha, a Maratha tributary state. Mysore, under Tipu Sultan, is able to conduct itself well, given decades of trade and military alliance with France. The Mysorean army successfully halts the Maratha advance on Bangalore and pushes north into Maratha territory. French Pondicherry, wary of allowing its ally to claim too much of Maratha land for itself, helps negotiate a peace in early-1800 confirming broader understanding of Mysore's borders. France also manages to extract its own economic concessions from the Maratha, gaining further influence in India's interior. France now has a presence in the Sardar of Nagpur's court, de facto control of all of Odisha, and control of the trading post at Bombay in India's west, on the doorstep Maratha's core lands.

Mar-Nov, 1799
Jacobite Rising of 1799
In 1798 Jacobean pretender to the British throne Charlotte Stuart and her husband James Drummond arrive in Scotland with tacit French backing. They take advantage of increasing discontent against London's policies and rally Scottish Highlanders against the Hanoverian Crown. Their son Charles, 28 at the time, leads a loyal force of Jacobites and discontented Scots southward. While a number of urban uprisings also occur throughout England and Wales due to general discontent with the government, the rebellion is successfully contained to Scotland. The Rising becomes a window for the French to declare war on Britain in January the following year. Britain is able to use the Rising to purge a number of unrelated critics and agitants and inspires a sense of patriotism in the coming war against France. It proves to be the final Jacobite Rising in the history of Great Britain.
April, 1799
Cotton Thresher Invented
Élie Louyar, an engineer from Baton Rouge, invents the batteuse de coton, or cotton thresher, which greatly simplifies the process of separating cotton fibers from the chaff. By the 1820s use of the batteuse is standard and has helped cotton's price fall dramatically and become a major competitor with wool in the textile factories of North America and Europe.
Jun-Dec, 1799
American Standing Army Crisis
The Dominion Congress in Philadelphia authorizes the creation of a small standing force called the Continental Army. It's purpose is ostensibly to better manage conflict with the natives and to put down tax and slave rebellions. The move is controversial in the Dominion Provinces, which disdains surrendering power to Congress and also fears provoking France. When word reaches Paris there is outrage at the supposed violation of the Treaty of Exmouth, which dictated that no regular soldiers may be stationed in British America.

The British deny that any standing army in the Dominion can be considered British regular forces, as the Dominion is governed by a separate body from Britain, but the French balk at such an explanation. The 'faucon de guerre' faction in the French council sees no legal distinction between America and Britain. Tension, already high from the ongoing Jacobite Rising in Britain, raises to a peak by the New Year. Now reigning in his own right, King Louis XVII faces increasing pressure to go to war.
1 July, 1799
Battle of Sucleia
Balkan Wars: Russian forces under Marshal Suvorov decimate an Ottoman army west of the River Nistria.
Oct, 1799-Mar, 1804
Dominion Indian Wars
British American militia battle the Cherokee and Muscogee in the Carolinas and Georgia. The conflict is sparked by the murder of a white settler in the Cherokee town of Stecoah in the Great Smoky Mountains. Rumors about the nature of the killing spread like wildfire through North Carolina and Georgia. The Cherokee and Muscogee-Creek people are already distrusted and despised by the Anglo-Americans, often suspected of being French agents and spies. The killing in Stecoah gives officials in Savannah, Charleston, and New Bern the excuse to mount punitive expeditions against the natives. The fighting, particularly in Georgia, is brutal on both sides. The conflict is quickly caught up in the 1800 War against France. The Cherokee and Muscogee are ultimately granted land and protection in French territory beyond the Appalachian Mountains. By the conflict's end, few organized groups of native peoples remain in British America.
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War of 1800 (1800-1804)
God is a Frenchman: War of 1800 (1800-1804)
Jan, 1800-Feb, 1804
War of 1800
As tensions with Great Britain rise, Talleyrand pushes young King Louis VII to issue an ultimatum to Britain over the matters of contention. Talleyrand convinces young King Louis XVII that France can replicate the success of King Louis's War in the 1770s. He also reminds the liberal king of a lesson he's told him before; to make reforms in France the conservatives must be placated. A successful military adventure, Talleyrand advises, will be useful cover for testing the waters on government reforms. For its part, Britain welcomes the conflict. The Whig government hopes to reassert itself as a global power and break France's hold on Europe and colonial adventurism.
22 January, 1800
Battle of Guernsey
War of 1800: A British fleet under Admiral Bertie hopes to clear French Navy from the waters around the Channel Islands, clearing the way for the British land marines and reclaim them. Winds benefit the French and the British have to withdraw. Neither fleet suffers significant damage.
7 April, 1800
Battle of Fort Thompson
War of 1800: French victory. French Acadian militia under Captain Fleuret raid up the Penobscot River and attack Fort Thompson. Colonel MacTaggart of the Massachusetts militia surrenders after the French successfully bluff them into thinking their force is larger than it truly is.
30 April, 1800
Raid on Île Mont Desert
War of 1800: American victory. British-American militia from Massachusetts sail to the large island of Île Mont Desert and overrun the island. Most of the settlements on the island are raided and burned and the Americans, led by Captain Luke Libby, are able to evacuate the island before the arrival of French warships and marines. The French Acadians quickly rebuild.
May-Nov, 1800
Fanning Raids
War of 1800: British-American Captain Nathaniel Fanning of the frigate Surprise is tasked with "raining fire" on French Acadia. Fanning departs from Connecticut with the memories of Absalon Grosjean's harrowing raids of the 1770s fresh in his mind. From the Surprise, Fanning also directs two sloops and embarks to sow discord in Acadian port towns. He hits Machias and Tebouque before mounting a daring raid on the city of Leloutre on the northern coast of the Bay of Fundy, which gained him much notoriety. While he wisely bypasses the naval strongholds at Lafayette and Louisbourg, he resolves to continue sailing around Acadia and hit targets deeper in French territory. Suffren, Canso, Choiseul are all raided by October. By now, a French squadron has been dispatched from Louisbourg specifically to end Fanning's expedition and he is finally pinned down off the coast of Saint-Jean Island.
Jun, 1800-Aug, 1803
McDowell Uprising
War of 1800: Illegal Anglo-American settlers on the Allegheny Plateau form a militia and, with the support of Pennsylvania and Virginia, spread discord in French territory. Led by Captain Chester McDowell, the militia attack native towns and villages and harass French military positions. The successes of the McDowellites lead American authorities to hope for a territorial expansion into Ohio after treaty negotiations, but at the Battle of Clarksburg the French and their allies are able to wreck McDowell militia. The uprising leads the French to commit more resources to fortifying the passes and valleys through the Appalachians between British America and New France.
Jul, 1800-Aug, 1802
Robinson Raids
War of 1800: British Australian merchant Abraham Robinson leads privateer raids from West Australia against French shipping in Indian Ocean. His sloop, the Misty, manages to wreak havoc on French merchant ships, capturing or sinking 22 vessels in two years. In late summer of 1802, the Misty is cornered near Bali and is captured by a French squadron under Captain Baudin. Robinson dies in the boarding.
29 August, 1800
Leloutre Raid
War of 1800: American victory. In 1800 Leloutre is the largest French settlement on mainland Acadia, hosting formidable fortifications and anchoring a number of warships at any given time. British-American Captain Fanning mounts a daring raid on a breezy night. Dousing the lanterns and relying on the skill of his pilots, Fanning slips into the harbor and opens fire. In the darkness and without incendiary ordinance, the damage is not severe, but Fanning manages to create much chaos and also cripples two French warships. The Surprise and the Newburyport successfully navigate out of Leloutre Harbor, but the sloop Yarmouth is dashed on the rocks and abandoned. The notoriety gained by Fanning for the raid makes him a primary target for the French Navy.
9-12 September, 1800
Battle of Contrecœr
War of 1800: American victory. American forces embark on their ever elusive quest to capture and take hold the Ohio Country from France. Since King Louis's War, France has spent considerable resources building numerous fortifications in the Allegheny Mountains and effectively staffed and stocked them. These forts make reaching Duquesne much more difficult to reach, let alone Montcalm or Detroit.

Continental Army General Josiah Harmar spends over a week arguing with his officers about strategy, eventually pushing through their dissent and deciding to focus his troops an a single attack at Fort Contrecœr, nestled in a pass between the ridge-and-valley mountains. With over 5,000 soldiers and Pennsylvania militia under his command, Harmar is successful at capturing the 700 Frenchmen in Controcœr after three days. Harmar is triumphant and writes to other Continental Army commanders that France is far weaker than anticipated.

What Harmar doesn't know is that the French commander, Vicomte de Beauharnais, has left several frontier forts understaffed, consolidating French forces at key locations and hoping to draw the Americans deeper into their territory with longer supply lines. Beauharnais believes that decisive engagements will be more lasting if the Americans are further from their home territory.
30 September, 1800
Battle of Jumonville
War of 1800: French victory. 4,000 Virginia and Maryland militiamen depart Maryland led by 400 Continental Army men under the command of General Harry Lee. Their goal is to support the mission to capture Duquesne by pressuring the French at Fort Jumonville (formerly Fort Cumberland). As the expedition gets underway scouts from Harman's army bring word of the successful attack on Contrecœr. General Lee takes heart that the Americans may have overestimated French strength in the borderlands.

This complacency proves to be misplaced as the 3,400 troops garrisoning Jumonville are heavily armed and prepared to hold out against a large assault. Lee mistakes the French formations facing him before the fort to be the entire enemy force. At his charge the French break and retreat towards the fort. The Americans pursue only to fall squarely under the fort's guns. Breaking for stands of trees provides little respite as French and native fighters are waiting in the meadows beyond flanking Lee's forces. The battle becomes a rout and Lee is killed. Nearly the entire American force is killed or captured, proving devastating to American offensives west of the Appalachian Mountains.
10 October, 1800
Battle of the Canamaugh
War of 1800: French victory. Harmar leaves a force of 1300 men at Fort Contrecœr and embarks northwest to bypass Fort Beaujeu with the bulk of his army and head towards Duquesne. Lenape scouts allied with the French shadow Harmar's army and send runners to the French at Fort Beaujeu and Duquesne. Based on the scout reports, General Beauharnais predicts the American path and dispatches a force of 4,500 of French regulars, militia, and native allies to intercept. By October 5, the leading French columns from Fort Beaujeu make camp at the western mouth of a gorge along the Canamaugh River.

On the morning of October 10, Harmar's scouts sight a small party of natives at the eastern mouth of the gorge, who hastily retreat down the river. The Americans cautiously navigate the gorge, the surest unfortified path through the ridge mountains to get to Duquesne. They emerge suddenly facing a division of French troops in formation. The Americans struggle for form up as they exit the tight confines of the gorge in the face of the French advance. As American forward elements attempt to effectively engage the French ahead of them, the American rear finds itself under fire from irregular native forces in the gorge behind them. When General Harmar is shot and wounded the Americans attempt a retreat up the Canamaugh. Over 1800 men are killed, wounded, or captured by the French. The devastating outcome of the expedition is compared to Braddock's defeat in 1755, barely twenty miles away. The Americans do not attempt another significant expedition against Fort Duquesne for the remainder of the war.
18 November, 1800
Battle of Souris
War of 1800: Captain Fanning's raiding brings him to the shores of Île Saint-Jean, deep in French-controlled waters. He successfully raids Pointe-Prime and Pictou before making for the open waters of the Saint-Lawrence Gulf. His two ships are intercepted three miles off of Souris, a fishing town on Île Saint-Jean. The Surprise and the Yarmouth face a squadron of three French frigates and two sloops. The battle takes place on a bright November day with a steady breeze from the west. For nearly two hours the warships trade fire. The Yarmouth is sunk at a loss of nearly all hands, as the Surprise is unable to come to aid.

When Fanning is short on of ordinance for his cannons, he rams the French frigate Foudre, entangling their riggings. The wind helpfully positions the Foudre between the Surprise and the rest of the French squadron, and Fanning orders one last salvo directly into the hold of the French frigate. The volley fails to detonate the powder store, and the Foudre begins to founder. Fanning and his crew prepare for the damaged Surprise to be taken down alongside when the French sloop Var sidles alongside the embracing doomed warships and announces their arrest. As his ship sinks to the sea floor, Fanning is made a prisoner of the French until 1804. His return to Connecticut that year is marked by jubilation, and he is knighted by President-General Lygon.

28 March, 1801
Battle of Hamelin
War of 1800: British/Hanoverian victory. The Comte de Graimberg leads the French Army and allied forces from Westphalia and Hessia mobilize and cross into British-Hanover. Well-drilled Hanoverian formations under the Duke of Brunswick, supported by British columns, successfully break the French-allied force, which retreats back across the Weser.
22 April, 1801
Battle of Barntrup
War of 1800: Westphalian/French victory. The Duke of Brunswick pushes into Westphalia hoping to continue momentum after the success at Hamelin. This time, the French defenders succeed at halting the progress of the invading force. The campaign in Germany remains at a stalemate for most of the conflict.
18-22 May, 1801
Battle of Guadaloupe
War of 1800: British victory. A British fleet under Admiral Horatio Nelson succeeds at besting a French flotilla guarding the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. Marines land and successfully capture the island's governor and commandeer sugar plantations. Nelson is celebrated in Britain and feared in France as news of his exploits arrive in Europe. France dispatches additional ships to the Caribbean under Acadian Pierre Martin to engage Nelson and end his successes against the French islands. Guadeloupe is held by the British until 1803.
6 June, 1801
Battle of Malartic
War of 1800: American victory. A large force of New England and New York militia led by Col. Peter Pyncheon thrust into Iroquois territory out of Albany. The militia are well-prepared for irregular attacks by Iroquois fighters and have their own contingent of friendly Mohawk warriors serving as scouts. Pyncheon's forces reach Fort Malartic, on the old site of Fort Stanwix. French soldiers in the fort expect significant fire support from the Iroquois, which doesn't materialize in part due to diplomatic efforts by British-allied Mohawk leader Peter Johnson. Pyncheon and Johnson plan to capitalize on their victory by moving on the French forts at Dieskau and Oswego.
June-Sept, 1801
Williston Expedition
Dominion Indian War/War of 1800: The Continental Army and militias from Virginia and North Carolina incur into French territory beyond the Cumberland Gap to pursue Cherokee raiders and harrass French positions. The Americans are led by Colonel James Williston of Virginia. The expedition is effective at driving back the Cherokee until French reinforcements arrive in the region from Montcalm and Nouvelle-Lyons. Williston, unprepared for a major engagement with the French, pulls back to British territory.
Aug-Dec, 1801
Dearborn Expedition
War of 1800: As the Continental Army mobilizes and takes control of military operations from the provincial militias, miscommunication and competing goals leads to counterproductive outcomes for the Americans. When a force of 800 Continental Regulars arrives at the rechristened Fort Stanwix in the late summer of 1801, the commander General Henry Dearborn usurps militia commanders Pyncheon and Johnson.

Dearborn argues that continuing west to take other French fortifications is a fool's errand if the Iroquois are not dealt with first. He dismisses arguments by Johnson that the Iroquois can be pacified through diplomacy, raging that the "French Indian savages" will ambush any large column pushing further west. Dearborn directs his officers to plan a scorched earth campaign against the Iroquois people, a position strongly opposed by the militiamen in Stanwix. Dearborn gives Pyncheon and Johnson leave to do as they will, but rejects their counsel.

The Continental brigade embarks on its mission against the Iroquois in August burning many fields of crops and wrecking longhouse settlements, but he is frustrated to find that the towns have been cleared out. Some of Johnson's Mohawk fighters have delivered grave warnings to their French-allied brethren to evacuate and plan for a long winter. Most Iroquois people consolidate around French fortresses along the Great Lakes, while fighters join the French on raids of Dearborn's supply lines to Stanwix. While officials in Philadelphia credit Dearborn with dispersing the Iroquois and express satisfaction that a favorable treaty could grant the land to the American Dominion, the general himself is angry and disheartened by the incomplete nature of his victory. He spends much of the 1800s on a campaign against Pyncheon and Johnson, accusing them of treason, creating much ugliness in American military circles for years.
15 September, 1801
Battle of Lippstadt
War of 1800: Hessian/French victory. Again a British-Hanoverian force pushes into French-allied Westphalia, under the command of General Ralph Abercromby. German General von Wangenheim and French Marshal Cassan successfully halt the advance at Lippstadt, capturing 2500 British and Hanoverian men and killing General Abercromby. The victory temporarily halts British operations in Germany while they reassess.
19 September, 1801
Battle of Île Grande Manan
War of 1800: French victory. Off the coast of Île Grand Manan, a small British-American fleet under Admiral George is intercepted by the 28 ship-of-the-line French force commanded by Admiral Martin. George's attempt to flee fails and eight of his twelve ships are captured by Martin. George is most remembered for blowing up his flagship the HMS Pluto and taking down the French frigate Aréthuse as it prepared boarding operations. The loss of so many British ships made it more difficult for the British Navy to effectively cover and defend the Dominion coast.
2 October, 1801
Battle of Dieskau
War of 1800: French victory. Abandoning the efforts of General Dearborn, the militiamen under Colonel Pyncheon press onward from Stanwix to the French base at Dieskau. In September they build row boats and gradually cross Lake Oneida under cover of night. Unfortunately for Pyncheon's regiment, the Iroquois are no longer sanguine to his advance due to the efforts of Dearborn further south. To the Iroquois leadership, Pyncheon and Williams are merely another arm of Dearborn's violent force. A mass of over 700 Iroquois fighters join the 300 French soldiers at Dieskau. Pyncheon's force is surrounded soon after he begins his attack and after several minutes of unadulterated slaughter, the militiamen are allowed to surrender.
26 Dec, 1801-April, 1802
Dublin Riots
War of 1800: Discontented Irish in Dublin and other cities riot. The British are rationing, as foodstuffs are shipped out of Ireland bound for the Army. In addition, the freedom of movement for Catholics is greatly restricted as a security measure. The ferocity of the anti-British sentiment in Ireland helps to convince the French that an invasion of Ireland is feasible.

15 March, 1802
Ottoman Sultan Selim Deposed
The Sultan is blamed for his interference in the military during the Balkan Wars. Elements of the military, including the Janissaries, plot with members of the court who favor Selim's younger brother Mahmud, only 20 years old. In March of 1802, Selim is arrested and imprisoned in an imperial residence on the Dardanelles.
Reign of Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire
Long reign marked by internal improvements and reforms, the rebellions in Egypt, the independence of peloponnese Greece, and cementing control over the rim of the Red Sea in Arabia and Africa.
12 April, 1802
Battle of Hat Island
War of 1800: British victory. After Admiral Nelson successfully avoids engaging the massive fleet of Admiral Martin near Guadaloupe. Led by his flagship HMS Victory, Nelson's fleet of 19 ships-of-the-line encounters the fleet of Admiral Violette, numbering 16 warships, off of Anguilla. Despite unfavorable winds, Nelson is successfully outmaneuvers Violette and the Battle of Hat Island results in the near total loss of the French flotilla. Violette goes down with his flagship the Jean Bart. The loss is a severe blow to the French Navy in the Caribbean. Admiral Nelson becomes the most celebrated military commander since the English Civil War as parades are held throughout Britain at news of the victory. In France, there are riots in Paris and impressment gangs prowl port towns to replace sailors in service.
8 May-15 July, 1802
Battle of New Edinburgh
War of 1800: French victory. A fleet under Admiral Bougainville successfully blockades and invades the main British settlement in Western Australia. While the town is placed under military occupation, Bougainville is noted for his generous treatment of the settlers.
May-July, 1802
Nelson's Caribbean Raids
War of 1800. Following his astounding victory off Hat Island, Admiral Nelson takes an unorthodox tack. Splitting his fleet up into small squadrons, he dispatches them around the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. Unlike his success capturing Guadeloupe, Nelson's aim is to sow discord and terror in French and Spanish settlements. His vessels hit-and-fade with precision in the Antilles, Saint-Domingue, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Pensacola, New Orleans, and Santo Domingo. French and Spanish trade is severely disrupted and their fleets are wary of splitting up to go after French vessels. The British press declares Admiral Nelson "Viceroy of the Caribbean."
Papacy of Pius VII
Papacy marked by diplomatic challenges navigating the Catholic realm in the face of wars between France and Austria, as well as periodic unrest in Italy.
3-5 June, 1802
Battle of Abenaki
War of 1800: French victory. American Regulars and militia from New England mount an invasion towards Montreal in the spring of 1802. Leaving from Fort Sullivan in the Green Mountains, General Robinson leads a small but nimble force of 600 men through the narrow river valleys in the mountains by foot and canoe aiming for the French fortress of Abenaki. Robinson's plan bypasses the powerful fortifications at the southern end of Lake Champlain and he believes that Fort Abenaki, built primarily to guard against an attack from the water, will be more easily taken than its vanguards to the south. The Americans lose the element of surprise when a Pennacook foraging party spots their progress deep in the mountains. Notified of the American advance, French Captain Cloutier dispatches messengers up and down the lake to notify other postings to be on alert and warn Montreal of potential American attack.

As Robinson's brigade approaches Abenaki he is unaware that French reinforcements arrived just the night before. Artillery barrage thrashes Robinson's men in their first attempt to approach the fort. At nightfall a company of men manages to breach the fort and disable a section of artillery, creating an opening for another assault. Cloutier surprises Robinson by marching his troops out of the fort and forming up with a force of 450 men. As the Americans charge, the French regulars hold their ground and fire once the Americans close to within ten yards. Well-disguised anti-personnel cannon deliver grape-shot into the charging Americans just before they reach the French lines. Despite some fierce bayonet combat, the Americans are bloodied and suffer significant losses. A wounded Robinson offers surrender ending another attempt by Americans to break into French territory.
July 2-22, 1802
Second Siege of Savannah
War of 1800: Strategic American victory. French and Spanish forces attempt to force the city of Savannah to surrender with a blockade and siege. Now far larger than in the 1770s, Savannah is less able to outlast a long-term siege, a point that the allied forces hope to capitalize on. The logistics of the siege go poorly, with poor communication between the French and Spanish. The lines around Savannah are almost never secured, leading to intelligence and supplies getting in and out of the city. The siege is aborted after three weeks.
17 July, 1802
Battle of Morris Island
War of 1800: Strategic American victory. In a simultaneous action with the siege of Savannah, elements of Admiral Martin's fleet blockade Charleston, South Carolina. As French forces establish a beachhead on Morris Island, south of the city, French Admiral Cosmao receives two communiques from a courier. First, Admiral Martin's fleet has been directed to Brittany in anticipation of an invasion of Ireland. Second, French actions in the south have successfully drawn Admiral Nelson's fleet from its raiding in the Caribbean and that Nelson seeks a decisive engagement. Cosmao breaks off the attack on Charleston, sparing it the fate of Savannah. The French fleet reconvenes off of Hilton Head and Cosmao is ordered to remain in American waters with his squadron while Martin sails for Europe.
22 July, 1802
Burning of Savannah
War of 1800: French victory. A combined French/Spanish operation to take Savannah fails due to poor management by General Carteaux and his Spanish counterpart, as well as sudden orders from Paris for Admiral Martin to make haste for Brittany. After evacuating French and Spanish troops from the mainland, the French fleet bombards Savannah before departing. Incendiary ordinance sparks fires that spread quickly due to a strong westerly wind. The flames nearly level the city.
12 Aug-2 Sep, 1802
Battle of Göttingen
War of 1800: French allied army under General Pérignon captures the Hanoverian city of Göttingen. Three weeks later the Duke of Brunswick reclaims it.
Sep, 1802-Sep, 1803
Manteau Blanc Raids
War of 1800: The Iroquois retaliate for the Dearborn Expedition. The Iroquois are led by Seneca leader White Jacket, so-called because of the French officer's jacket he wears. The Iroquois raids against the Dominion last for a year. In New York and western Massachusetts, the war parties kidnap over 100 children. Over 500 Americans are killed and nine frontier towns are totally burned. Americans find themselves unable to track White Jacket's forces and referred to them as "Red Phantoms". The few Iroquois raiders who are killed are posthumously mutilated and their bodies publicly displayed outside of American towns. As with King Philip's War more than a century prior, some of these remains are still being displayed decades later. White Jacket achieves legendary status in New France and the Dominion, becoming a standing feature of New England stories intended to frighten children from disobeying their parents.
14 October, 1802
Battle of Hunter
War of 1800: Strategic American victory. After American forces are forced to withdraw from Fort Stanwix in the summer of 1802, French and Iroquois forces converge on Fort Hunter, merely 30 miles from Albany. Continental Army Colonel John Rosencrans ably leads his men to ward off the French assault. The French withdraw from Fort Hunter and begin to build up fortifications at the site of Canajoharie, a major Mohawk town before Dearborn's Expedition.
24 December, 1802
Schenectady Raid
War of 1800: French victory. French and Iroquois forces successfully torch the outlying settlements of Schenectady on Christmas Eve and vanish into the night before the militia can respond. While not fatal, the raid contributes to the atmosphere of terror experienced by Americans on the northern frontier during the War of 1800.

May, 1803
Treaty of Belgrade
Balkan Wars: Austria and the Ottoman Empire officially close the dragged-out war between them in the Balkans at a treaty conference in Belgrade. The Sava and Danube rivers are marked as the border between the Austrian and Ottoman realms, granting substantial territory to the Hapsburg Empire. The Christian Serbs and Romanians of these lands celebrate when Emperor Franz tours them in late 1803, organizing them into the marches of Vojvodina and Banat. Additionally, Austria claims the mainland Dalmatian Coast, including the cities of Agram, Split, and Dubrovnik.

Serbs remaining in Ottoman territory stand frustrated by Austria's unwillingness to press the advantage, leaving most Serbians to remain under the Sultan's control. While the treaty stipulates that the Turks must respect the rights of Christians, many Serbs emigrate to Habsburg dominions, while those remaining behind become embittered against Austria.
May-August, 1803Jameson Expedition
Dominion Indian Wars/War of 1800: Following the burning of Savannah, Georgians are eager to exact revenge against their foes. Governor Irwin tasks militia commander Aaron Jameson with following up on his success against the Muscogee-Creek in Spanish Florida and claim the land for Georgia. Jameson writes to his brother that his campaign will be "one of extermination" against the Creek and that their allies "the Spanish Papists will be brought to judgement on their knees." Jameson makes good on his promises as his militia sweeps through northern Florida torching and pillaging Creek towns, foraging off their crops and then burning the fields. The Georgia fighters successfully beat back counterattacks by the Creek. Several minor Spanish trade positions are also taken. The Creek make the decision to begin withdrawing into French territory west of the Chattahoochee River by the end of August. Rather than pursue the natives, Jameson aims his militia south towards Pensacola. He attacks the fortified port city without attempts to coordinate with any Royal Navy elements in the Caribbean and the action ends in failure. Nevertheless, Jameson has successfully driven the Creek and the Spanish out of northern interior reaches of Florida.
14 Jun, 1803-20 Aug, 1803
Siege of Bridgetown
War of 1800: British strategic victory. With British and French forces amassing around the Channel, the French hope to draw some of the British forces back to other theaters of war. A Spanish fleet under Admiral Lángara blockades Bridgetown, Barbados for two months. Periodically bombarding the down and trading fire with the fortresses above it, Lángara makes life for Bridgetown hellish. Despite the effectiveness of the Spanish siege, Bridgetown waits out the action, knowing that hurricane season will drive the Spanish fleet to harbor. The British don't take the bait to send relief to one of their most profitable overseas colonies, keeping their focus on the Channel.
9 July, 1803
Boston Raid
War of 1800: French victory. As part of the French strategy to draw British resources back toward other theaters of war, French Admiral Cosmao sails from Lafayette, Acadia for New England. He leads a small fleet of eight warships to Boston, evading harbor fortifications and bombarding the shore. American batteries on the coastline prevents the French ships from getting close enough for incendiary ordinance to be effective. This preparedness undoubtedly saves Boston from Savannah's fate.

While nearly three dozen merchant ships are destroyed along with three British-American frigates and a host of docks, wharves, and warehouses, the city itself survives the attack with little significant damage. The most damaged landmark is the Boston Townhouse, home of the Provincial Assembly, with several cannon balls smashing its tower and brick façade.

While effective at spreading discord, the raid does not distract Britain from preparing for a French attack in the British Isles. For the Americans the raid is another sign of the low prioritization with which Britain views the Dominion of America, which has spent most of the war left to its own devices.
18 July, 1803
Treaty of Bucharest
Balkan Wars: Russia and the Ottoman Empire officially close the dragged-out war between them in the Balkans at a conference in Bucharest. Russia affirms its control of the lands north of the Black Sea, including Crimea, which the Turks had tried to reclaim. Russia also gains regions of Moldavia east of the River Prut as well as the right to trade with Moldavia and Wallachia. Significantly, Russia claims the right to navigate the Bosphorus and Dardanelles freely during peacetime.
4 August, 1803
Battle of Clarksburg
War of 1800: French victory. The French at Duquesne receive intelligence from the Shawnee of the McDowell militia massing at the illegal settlement of Clarksburg. Captain Broulard is tasked with ending the chaotic campaign of the American outlaws. Broulard leads a force of 1100 regulars, militia, and native allies from Duquesne and marches into the vast back country south of the Monongahela River. Broulard devises a scheme to entrap McDowell's militia by sending a Shawnee raiding party ahead of his column. The outnumbered Shawnee are meant to draw out McDowell's forces from the relative safety of their fortified town.

The bluff works and McDowell's militia stumbles into Broulard's forces. The meadows outside of Clarksburg become a killing field, as at least 250 militiamen are killed. McDowell himself is captured and brought to Duquesne to stand trial. The remaining hundreds of militiamen disperse without organization. Many make their way into Dominion territory and are saved. Others are tracked down by the Shawnee over the next several months. McDowell is hanged in Duquesne in December. His last words are purportedly, "my destiny was the west and it is here in the west that fate has seen fit to end me!"
6 Aug-8 Oct, 1803
Siege of Albany
War of 1800: American strategic victory. Bypassing Fort Hunter, the French forces enter New York and surround Albany. For nearly two months periodic artillery barrages plague the town. Three relief missions by the American troops in Fort Hunter and elsewhere are beaten back as French reinforcements continue to arrive. Albany seems close to capitulation when word arrives of the British victory in Cork and the declared armistice. The French immediately end their siege, packing up their camp while weary Americans mill around the soldiers, variably attempting to buy rations or sell wares after the two-month siege.
16 August, 1803
Battle of Bünde
War of 1800: French/Westfalian victory. Knowing that the French have imminent plans to invade the British Isles, British-Hanover hopes to force the French to reconsider their troop deployments by again pushing into Westphalia. Britain's pleas to Austria, Holland, Prussia, and Russia are left hanging as the other powers opt to stand back from the conflict. The Hanoverian-British force is led by generals Hely-Hutchinson and von Sydow, while the French-German allied force is commanded by General von Werneck and French Brigadier Bonaparte. The two forces meet at Bünde and there's a fierce battle but the aggressors are unable to break through von Werneck's formations and are left scrambling by the well-directed French cavalry movements of Bonaparte. The British goal of opening a broader front in Europe that threatens France itself withers after the engagement.
20 August, 1803
Tsar Paul of Russia Assassinated
Tsar Paul I makes attempts to expand his mother's reforms, an effort that alienates him from the nobility. When Paul discovers vast corruption in the Russian Treasury he moves to punish those he perceives as having deceived and plotted against him. His opponents move first and the Tsar is assassinated in late-August.
Reign of Alexander I of Russia
Reign marked by efforts to assert Russian influence in Europe by partnering with France, both economically and militarily. Unlike his father, Alexander does not push the issue of reforms, a decision that keeps him secure in his position, but continues to ignore societal problems for the common people.
28 August, 1803
Cork Landing
War of 1800: A French armada with dozens of troop transports and over 40 ships-of-the-line, manages to evade the British fleet and crosses the Celtic Sea, not the Channel as the British anticipate. The successful secrecy of the action is a major coup for the French. France lands a vanguard of 5,000 soldiers near Cork, but harsh seas halt the landing of further forces, leaving over 2,500 soldiers below decks. The French hope that this corps of experienced soldiers will inspire and lead a Catholic rebellion among the Irish that wrests the island from British control.
7 September, 1803
Battle of Roches Point
War of 1800: British victory. Admiral Nelson's fleet of 34 ships-of-the-line confronts French fleet of 40 off of Roches Point. As with Hat Island, Nelson surgically cuts through the French fleet. The battle is a total disaster for France as 26 ships-of-the-line are sunk or captured, a sixth of the entire French Navy, a devastating loss. Because of the Battle of Roches Point, French ambitions for Ireland and a second invasion of Great Britain are sunk alongside their ships. Riotous celebration breaks out across Britain, while the pall of anger and despair is cast over France.
17 September, 1803
Battle of Cork
War of 1800: British victory. The expected support from Irish rebels evaporates in the face of lost naval support and strong British response. Much of the fault lies in the efforts of France to keep the operation a secret, causing potential Irish allies to be left in the dark of much of the planning. As 18,000 British regulars bear down on Cork, the 5,000 strong French army in Ireland forced to surrender. Talleyrand immediately sues for a peace conference, hoping to salvage an outcome before events worsen. Cork the last significant battle of the War of 1800.
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@George_Apley Beautiful formatting. I admit it is much more readable on my phone.
Thanks! You mean that the timeline format is more readable on the phone, or the chart format? To avoid sharing updates twice, going forward I want to go with which of the two options get the most likes based on the first threadmark for each format. So far the chart format is winning.
Treaty of Portsmouth (1804)
God is a Frenchman: 1800s War - Treaty of Portsmouth (1804)

26 February, 1804War of 1800: The young King Louis XVII, devastated by France's failure in Ireland, dispatches Talleyrand to England to negotiate an end to the war. Talleyrand promises the King that he will avoid causing any further embarrassment to the French Crown and, remarkably, he largely delivers on that promise. The French Foreign Minister captivates the treaty conference with his diplomatic wiles, leveraging every instance of French strength to his advantage in the face of British demands. Talleyrand's confident bluffs help him hold his ground and ultimately he is satisfied with the outcome.

According to the Treaty of Portsmouth:
  • Unless otherwise noted, all captured territory and personnel are to be returned.
  • The British reclaim the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey.
  • Dominion of America gains small westward border shifts in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia from Quebec.
  • Spain cedes northern Florida to Georgia. New border in an east-west line from the forks of the Satilla River.
  • Restrictions on British military growth from the Treaty of Exmouth are lifted, as are restrictions on British-American military development.
  • The British embargo against France is lifted, though tariffs may remain in place.
  • France avoids taking responsibility for the Jacobite Rising of 1799 and for any alleged atrocities against British-Americans by native attacks.
  • France accepts a pledge that their navy shall never be more than 10% larger than Britain's, a much more lenient provision than Britain had wanted.
When news of the treaty's terms reach the British public, adulation morphs into outrage. The government of Whig Prime Minister Cavendish collapses and elections are called. A furious George III threatens to withhold his assent from the treaty, and is alleged to have declared that "these rascals force us into humiliation even in our moment of triumph!" The treaty is blamed for a six month withdrawal of George III from public life in 1804.

Despite all of this, the treaty is accepted due to no desire to prosecute the war any further. Britain's financial situation is dire and Talleyrand has taken full advantage. While he privately considers the Treaty of Portsmouth his masterpiece, he accepts that he will be the scapegoat in France for the embarrassing outcome of a war he initiated. In the interest of protecting the young King and the stability of France, Talleyrand submits to being sacked by King Louis and retires to the countryside.
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Thanks! You mean that the timeline format is more readable on the phone, or the chart format? To avoid sharing updates twice, going forward I want to go with which of the two options get the most likes based on the first threadmark for each format. So far the chart format is winning.
The posts you're putting into the thread, right here, is what is far more readable - it's gorgeous to see on both mobile and laptop vs the link you initially provided. I see the strength of the linked format, but the format in these posts is incredible.

Incidentally, fantastic work with the entries and justifications themselves - I remember discussing much of Gallic America in the old thread and the details given to all the various colonial French settlers and provinces, seeing them all come back from the brink to a solid foundation, is a joy.
The posts you're putting into the thread, right here, is what is far more readable - it's gorgeous to see on both mobile and laptop vs the link you initially provided. I see the strength of the linked format, but the format in these posts is incredible.

Got it! I'll stick with the charts then.

Incidentally, fantastic work with the entries and justifications themselves - I remember discussing much of Gallic America in the old thread and the details given to all the various colonial French settlers and provinces, seeing them all come back from the brink to a solid foundation, is a joy.

Thanks! I've become quite invested in my weird French world haha. All the stranger being someone who never formally studied French.
This is great (and easy to read on my phone in class). Would love to see a map or something that shows all the changes.
Glad you like it! I don't have a good Europe map for this early in the TL (HRE is too daunting...), but enjoy eastern North America circa 1775 and circa 1805!

Red=British, Blue=French, Yellow=Spanish -
1776 1805
GIAF - North America 1779.png
GIAF - North America c. 1809.png

Note also some location name changes. Most mentioned so far are:
TL Duquesne=OTL Pittsburgh
TL Montcalm=OTL Cincinnati
TL Vainqueur=OTL St. Louis
TL Nouvelle-Lyons=OTL Louisville (roughly)
TL Lafayette=OTL Halifax
TL Leloutre=OTL St. John
TL Carillon=OTL Ticonderoga
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Brief addition to King Louis's War; entries on Ethan Allen's Expedition to Quebec and the Battle of Pointe-Lévy. When I add events within existing posts I'll add then to the narrative, but will also share them separately for those who've already read.

Sep, 1771-20 Nov, 1771Allen Quebec ExpeditionKing Louis's War: After the declaration of war the militia commanders of New England meet at a council in Worcester, Massachusetts and plan an expedition to Quebec that bypasses the heavily fortified corridor from Lake Champlain to Montreal. Firebrand New Hampshire militia colonel Ethan Allen is chosen to lead the dangerous mission and he enlists 1400 men selected from militia units across New England led by a cohort of colorful officers of Allen's own unit.

In September, Allen's army embarks from Brunswick, Massachusetts and paddles up the Kennebec River in over 120 bateaux and canoes. After leaving Fort Halifax, the expedition finds itself deep in the wilderness. Wary of Abenaki attacks and navigating poorly mapped landscape, progress slows. Portages are longer than expected and marshy conditions make night encampments miserable. By late-October the force reaches Moosehead Lake on the borderlands of the Quebec frontier. Over the course of the expedition thus far, gangrene has developed among some of the men and over 250 have deserted, their bateaux disappearing in the night. A full platoon of 14 men is executed by Allen and his officers when they're caught preparing to abandon the force at night. Before navigating Moosehead Lake, a detachment chases after a party of Norridgewock Indians without success, raising concerns of French discovery.

Allen determines to accelerate and two days later the American militia descend from the mountainous highlands into the Saint-Lawrence Valley. Under no pretense of having the element of surprise, the Americans brutally forage among the farms and villages south of Quebec. Many homes are torched and livestock killed as Allen's militia makes its way towards the river. When they arrive at the village of Pointe-Lévy they face the formations of the garrison of the Citadel of Quebec led by the Marquis de Montcalm himself...
20 November, 1771Battle of Pointe-Lévy
King Louis's War: Concluding the harrowing expedition through the Maine backwoods, Col. Ethan Allen and his force stand beyond the town of Pointe-Lévy, just across the Saint-Lawrence River from New France’s capital of Quebec. They prepare to face the crack troops of the Quebec garrison led by the Marquis de Montcalm himself. Allen delivers a rousing speech to his men as they form up into ranks to face the French formations. Survivors of the battle corroborate that his words are,

“I see in your eyes the same fear that would dare to seize my own heart. But take comfort! A day may come when our courage fails, and we forsake our country and break all bonds of fellowship, but it is not this day. An hour of wolves and bayonets when our great civilization comes crashing down under the feet of Papists, but it is not this day! This day we fight! By all that you hold dear on this good earth, I bid you to stand your ground! Do not break, men of New England!”

As the French lines close distance they exchange several volleys with the militia before charging. Allen's men refuse to break and the armies clash in close combat for nearly ten minutes before a French cavalry unit storms the battlefield and breaks up the fighting.

Nearly 800 Americans are captured and nearly 300 are killed to about 150 French deaths. Allen himself is brought down after personally making casualties of a dozen Frenchmen, including a cavalryman. The failed expedition becomes the stuff of legends in both New England and Quebec. General Montcalm himself marvels at the American tenacity writing, "these men simultaneously fought as disciplined soldiers and deranged savages! Rarely have I ever seen such passion inspired in an assembly of farmers and country boys."

I hope that LotR reference isn’t too cheeky 🙃
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I remember the original God is a Frenchman!
Great to see that this idea is still popular and that you've expanded on it. I agree with others that it's much easier to read in the chart format rather than those slides. I've always loved the idea of France winning the 7 Years War and having France be the dominant imperial power rather than Britain.

Looking VERY forward to what comes next!
I remember the original God is a Frenchman!
Great to see that this idea is still popular and that you've expanded on it. I agree with others that it's much easier to read in the chart format rather than those slides. I've always loved the idea of France winning the 7 Years War and having France be the dominant imperial power rather than Britain.

Looking VERY forward to what comes next!

Aha! A fellow traveler. I was so engaged by the original that I couldn’t stop my mind from swirling once it was abandoned right at a major inflection point in the timeline. I hope I’ve done it justice and made it my own.

I also hope that I’ve added enough details to make these early updates unique enough for readers of the original! There are plenty of angles that the original alluded to that I’ve tried to flesh out in more detail or changed to suit my own purposes.

I’m looking forward to your thoughts once we reach my completely original work, that’s not underpinned by the old TL. though we’re a little ways away from it. Thanks for commenting and I hope you continue to enjoy!
Monarchs POD-1805
For those who like dynastic stuff, enjoy this info dump listing the monarchs of countries mentioned thus far from the POD through 1805.

God is a Frenchman: Monarchs (POD-1805)

House of Bourbon
Louis XV (1715 - 1774)
Louis XVI (1774 - 1795)
Louis XVII (1795 -)
Great Britain
House of Hanover
George II (1727 - 1760)
George III (1760 - )
House of Habsburg-Lothringen
Maria Theresa (1740 - 1780)[HRE Co-rule w/ husband bef 1765; son aft 1765]
Franz I (1745 - 1765)[HRE Co-rule w/ wife]
Josef II (1765 - 1790)[HRE Co-rule w/ mother bef 1780]
Leopold VII (1790 - 1792)[HRE]
Franz II (1792 - )[HRE]
House of Romanov
Elizabeta I (1741 - 1762)
Pyotr III (1762)*/**[Deposed in coup and assassinated]
Yekaterina II (1762 - 1796)
Pavel I (1796 - 1803)*[Assassinated]
Aleksandr I (1803 - )
House of Borbón-Anjou
Fernando IV (1746 - 1759)
Carlos III (1759 - 1788)
Carlos IV (1788 - )
House of Bourbon-Sicilia
Ferdinando IV (1759-)
House of Bragança
Jose I (1750 - 1777)
María I (1777 -)
House of Hohenzollern
Friedrich II (1740 - 1767)
Friedrich Wilhelm II (1767 - 1797)
Friedrich Wilhelm III (1797 - )
Netherlands (Dutch Republic)
House of Oranje-Nassau
Willem V (1751- )[Stadtholder]
House of Wettin
August III (1734 - 1763)[Also Friedrich August II of Saxony]
Stanisław August II (1763 - 1777)[Monarchy suppressed 1777]
House of Wettin
Friedrich August II (1734 - 1763)[Prince-Elector]
Friedrich Christian (1763)[Prince-Elector]
Friedrich August III/I (1763 - )[King in 1776]
House of Oldenburg
Frederik V (1746 - 1766)
Christian VII (1766 - )
House of Holstein-Gottorp
Adolf Fredrik (1751 - 1771)
Gustaf III (1771 - )
House of Wittelsbach
Maximilian III (1745 - 1779)[Duke of Bavaria]
House of Saxe-Meiningen
Karl Wilhelm I (1779 - )[King of Bavaria]
Clemens XIII (1758 - 1769)
Clemens XIV (1769 - 1774)
Pius VI (1775 - 1801)
Pius VII (1802 - )
Ottoman Empire
House of Osman
Mustafa III (1757-1774)
Abdul Hamid I (1774-1789)
Selim III (1789-1802)*/**[Deposed and assassinated]
Mahmud II (1802- )
Presidents-General of the British Dominion of America
William Pitt the Younger (1793 - 1803)
William Lygon, 1st Earl Beauchamp (1803 - )
Governors-General of New France & Québec
Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal (1755 - 1769)
Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes (1769 - 1776)
Louis François, Prince de Conti (1776 - 1785)
Pierre de Valadoux, Marquis d’Arcy (1785 - 1794)[New France Sundered 1791]
Robert Léon, Marquis de la Paluelle (1794 - 1804)
François, Vicomte de Beauharnois (1804 - )
Governors-General of Louisiana
Gabriel-Joseph Duchilleau, Marquis de Hervault (1791 - 1804)
Maximilien de Manneville, Marquis de Charlemesnil (1804 - )

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