Albion, where the Sun never set

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Are there any similar "monarch in-training" roles for the heir apparent besides Stadholder of Friesland for the Dutch?
Most definitively yes, most monarchies either have the custom of placing the heir apparent in some sort of administrative/government position (like the Prince of Wales normally being sent as a Viceroy) or have a specific office meant to train them for the throne (which might come either on it being enshrined as such by law or being the custom). Examples of where the position/role involves a specific territory are:
- In Denmark (and "technically" the Nordic Federation), the Crown Prince is the official ruler of the Danish Virgin Islands as Prince of the Indies and Duke of Saints Thomas, Jan and Croix. The role has been vacant more than once, either due to age or the Crown Prince being on Denmark, with the islands being administered by a "representative" of the Crown Prince appointed by them or the Crown (sometimes the second-in-line to the throne), but it is officially meant as a training for when they become a monarch
- Continuing with the Nordics, in Sweden the heir apparent, while set to inherit an almost entirely ceremonial throne, is traditionally made Governor of Gottland (the country's largest island) for training, with their Deputy serving as what basically amounts to their own "mini prime minister"
- In Greece, the positions of General Secretary of Attica and General Secretary of the Aegean are traditionally tied to the Royal Family, and although not officially meant to be so, either one or both of them are held by the heir apparent (or their own heir) when they are of age as training for when they get the throne
- and in Thailand, one of the Crown Prince's offices is that of Viceroy of Tambralinga, which although technically not connected to an administrative division, means that they serve as an overarching authority over the provinces of Southern Thailand, a task that is considered something of a "trial-by-fire" for the monarch-to-be
Which monarch was opened the most Olympics?
Empress Jessamine of Albion, who opened a total of 7 Olympic Games throughout her life, although more than once it was a together with someone else (1964 London Summer Olympics, 1968 Melbourne Summer Olympics, 1974 Lake Placid Winter Olympics, 1982 Winnipeg Winter Olympics, 1996 Sydney Summer Olympics, 2006 Detroit Summer Olympics, and 2012 London Summer Olympics)
What's the most watched coronation?
As of 2020 the most watched coronation in the world was actually that of Empress Charlotte of Albion ion 2nd March 2017, which had between 1,5 and 3,2 billion people watching it (numbers vary wildly)
Are there any fiefdoms in Australia?
Yes, although this time I'll keep the answer to be in relation to princely state-like subdivisions.
Generally speaking, there are two ways that one could "categorize" Australia's "princely states"; of those ways, the less common of the two is by geography, which on itself is basically separating which states are located on or near Australia's northern coast from the rest, which are basically a spread of dots (with a single semi-rectangular blob) from there until Tasmania, where once again the states reappear in larger numbers.

The other (and much more common) way, is by separating the states by "origin", and only then going over location, which results on a few "categories":
1) The Old Native States, an admittedly rather small group, they are the few "princely states" who, essentially, were "already there" when the British arrived, being considered by them as being aboriginal petty kingdoms existing as extensions of the "world" of the Malay Archipelago* and made into protectorates, entering the Australian Commonwealth separately from the Provinces
2) The Young Native States (sometimes called Gunpowder States), a much larger group compared to the above, they are the "princely states" whose existence is, in one way or the other, a result of British or Albish interference during the late 18th and early 17th century, mainly through backing native chiefs and warlords in creating de facto vassal states or through recognizing allied native tribes but not directly annexing their territories
3) The Aboriginal States, not the same as "Native States" but often times confused with, unlike them the Aboriginal States were created by Australia out of aboriginal reserves or recognized territories, and are often contrasted from the Native States by their administration, as while most "princely states" have hereditary rulers most Aboriginal States are de facto republics (a majority being led by variations of a "ruling council")
4) The "Creole" States, a small group restricted to Western Australia, they are technically similar to the Native States, being petty states made protectorates or vassals of the British/Albish, but unlike them have origins directly tied to Europe from before the British came, originating from European (mostly Dutch) outposts, attempts at settlement, plantations and adventurers who resulted on small (often city-)states of mixed European, Malay and Aboriginal culture
5) and the Settler States, possibly the "strangest" out of the group (and in great part caused by me discovering the principalities of Hutt River and Snake Hill), they are a rather small collection of "princely states" of British origin, being the result of white settlers/colonists carving their own petty states on mostly isolated corners of the continent who due to a reason or another continued to exist long enough to be recognized by Australia

(* In a small pre-Victorian POD, inspired by this map, Northern Australia entered a bit into the trade networks of the Malay Archipelago and the Indian Ocean but didn't become a major player on it, but the greater interactions with them resulted on the presence of a few native kingdoms on the region by colonial times, with cultural influences from Pre&Post-Islamic Indonesia and West Africa)

Technically, there are also a few "sub-categories" within these five, like the "Coolie States", settler states whose origins are similar to those of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, having been established by a white settler/colonist who claimed a piece of land but having a majority of their population descended from South Asian workers brought to it; and the "Tasmanian States", the young native states in Tasmania who have a mostly mixed-race population, and are often greatly integrated into the Province of Tasmania
Did Adolphus and Francis II share the title of Duke of Teck together?
No, Adolphus died with 3 of his 4 sons in a house fire in 1924, and that son died without legitimate male heirs, so Francis II inherited the title
Have any members of the Swedish branch of the House of Holstein-Gottorp marry into the modern day Swedish royal family?
Yes, although the Swedish Holstein-Gottorps are in modern time known mostly as the rulers of Lebanon, they also had a branch who lived first in Germany and then in Finland, and whose current "head" is the Queen consort of Sweden
When was the title of Grand Prince of the Rus’ created?
The title was created by Ivan VII for the future Vasily V in 1940 as a title for the "heir apparent of the heir apparent"
 
  1. Are there any Protestant Hapsburg branches?
  2. Who were the Miguelist claimants until the creation of the Kingdom of Galicia in 1959?
  3. What are the Orleanist Princes of Joinville known for?
  4. What's the oldest intact Albish royal dukedom?
  5. Did any monarchs go to Albion in exile to escape capture by the Allies during WW2?
  6. How can Pedro VIII of Portugal's first son be Prince of Beira if he was born after 1970 (when Pedro became king)?
  7. Does Greece have any offical or unoffical sub-national monarchies?
  8. When did the last living monarch that reigned during WW1 die?
 
Are there any Protestant Hapsburg branches?
Yes, although almost all of them are of the minor variety and a majority live outside the UHI.

The only branch of the Hapsburgs that’s protestant in any way that is considered really “of note” is that of the rulers of Kreichsland (AKA Crişana AKA Körösvidék, the German name being used when one doesn’t want to choose between the Hungarian and Romanian ones), who did so due to the influence of their “domain” being majority Protestant (with its capital, Debrecen, being known as “the Calvinist Rome”)
Who were the Miguelist claimants until the creation of the Kingdom of Galicia in 1959?
They were:
1. Miguel I (1802-1866) - Lawful* King from 1828 to 1834, claimant from 1834 onwards - started this thing
2. Miguel Januário, Duke of Braganza (1853-1916) - Miguelist Miguel II from 1866 to 1916 - son
3. Miguel, Duke of Viseu (1878-1921) - Miguelist Miguel III from 1916 to 1921 - son
4. João Miguel, Duke of Braganza (1912-1943) - Miguelist João VII from 1921 to 1953 - son, “Braganza Rapprochement”
5. Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza (1935-XXXX) - Miguelist Duarte II from 1953 - son, married Princess Isabel of Couto Misto

* He did ascend to the throne by deposing his niece (and fiancée, let's not forget that) Maria II, whom he had been serving as Regent for four months, so while we do recognize him as being officially the King of Portugal I'm not sure how "lawful" his reign technically was
Since I’m talking about them and why not, here is a bonus of the branches of the Miguelist House of Braganza from before they ascended in Galicia

Descended from Miguel I
None, much like OTL he only had 1 son out of seven children, although his daughters married many important royal houses
Descended from “Miguel II” from his first marriage
- Started by his second son, Francisco José, is the branch of the Australian Braganzas, which started in great part by accident (with Francisco being forced to marry his lover’s sister after she was caught serving as a “lookout” for the two by their family) with the birth of his son, José Antônio, in 1903. José Antônio gave the branch its location by, as an adult, moving to Australia, becoming an “adventurer” for a while before marrying a ranching heiress
- Started by his eldest daughter, Maria Teresa, is the House of Braganza and Thurn und Taxis, a unique Frankenstein of a family born from her marriage to Prince Karl Ludwig of Thurn und Taxis, a very minor member of that house’s Czech branch (being the grandson of the fourth son of the branch’s founder). The couple had only one son, Maximillian, in 1913, who, during the “Braganza Rapprochement”, married to a Portuguese princess (granddaughter of Infanta Maria Amália, Carlotta I’s sister) and received the right to use the name “Braganza”
Descended from “Miguel II” from his second marriage
- Started by his fourth and last son, Duarte Nuno, is the branch of the Brazilian Miguelists, as he married a Bolivian princess, Maria Francisca de Orléans e Bragança, and moved permanently to Brazil after that (becoming a politician and being later made “Duke of Viseu dos Búzios”)
Descended from “Miguel III”
- Started by his younger son, Miguel, is the branch of the North American Braganzas, a more unknown branch of the clan mainly due to Miguel’s preference for staying out of the limelight, serving on the IAF during the Second World War and opening a hotel in the Bahamas with his maternal inheritance
What are the Orleanist Princes of Joinville known for?
Who?
What's the oldest intact Albish royal dukedom?
For some reason I laughed when I read this question.

Technically the oldest royal dukedom in Albion, and also the oldest to still remain in a solely male line, is the title of Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, created in 23 April 1799 for Prince Ernest Augustus, who later would become King of Hanover. The title remained a part of the titles of the Hanoverian monarchs (making them the sole foreign monarchs in Albion to have a peerage) until the early 20th century, when, in the years following WWI, a morganatic marriage recognized by the Royal Marriages Act, an untimely death, and some surprisingly-pleasant family meetings resulted on the dukedom finally becoming separate from the Hanoverian throne.

Now onto royal dukedoms created when Albion was an actual official thing, the oldest overall, although not the oldest having all its holders be the same sex, is actually that of the Duke of Albany, which was created for Princess Beatrice by her mother a week before her marriage to Prince Henry of Battenberg in 4 June 1880. Since all of Beatrice’s brothers who married before her relinquished their peerages after becoming monarchs in their own rights, her title is both the only Victorian royal dukedom still in existence and the oldest Albish royal dukedom.

Now, the matter of which is the oldest male-only royal dukedom is a bit contentious, as one could give three possible answers:
1- The Dukedom of Evergreen, which has been held solely by males since Prince Henry Alfred, Emperor Henry’s fourth son, but the title isn’t quite considered as being a “royal dukedom” due to the fact that it was held until then by the Empress consort, Mary of Teck, and although it was “created” by Emperor Henry for his younger son, the traditional view is that it was passed to the prince by his mother, meaning that the dukedom actually started with her and not him
2- The Dukedom of Kent, created for Prince Henry’s third son in 1948, the main reason behind any kind of discussion over the title being the oldest male-only royal dukedom is that, although created for a Windsor specifically by the Albish Crown, it was created for the grandson of an Emperor, and for some reason there is something of a popular disagreement if a “royal dukedom” is only a dukedom created for the child of a monarch or if it counts for any Albish princes who aren’t from the imperial kingdoms’ branches
3- and the Dukedom of Yeovil, which is customarily seen as the “actual one”, which was created for the disowned eldest son of Emperor Leonard, Prince Richard, in 27th February 1951, and has been held by the prince, his eldest son, and his eldest son

As a note, the oldest ITTL existing dukedom created for someone of royal blood is actually the Dukedom of Ramsgate, which was created in 1864 for Augustus Frederick d’Este III, who was the ITTL grandson of Sir Augustus d’Este I, son of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, with Lady Augusta Murray. Since the marriage of the first Augustus’ parents was not given consent by George III, and as such was seen as legally null and void for going against the Royal Marriages Act 1772, the title isn’t considered a royal dukedom
Did any monarchs go to Albion in exile to escape capture by the Allies during WW2?
Yes, generally speaking, monarchs during WW2 whose nations were occupied by the Allies did one of five things:

1- Become prisoners after choosing to stay
2- Become “collaborators” after choosing to stay (and probably becoming prisoners later on)
3- Lead a resistance/fight guerilla style after choosing to stay
4- Retreat to unoccupied ultramarine holdings/colonies
5- or seek refuge in one of the main Axis powers, often times making their embassies or residences into “wartime capitals”

Of those possible choices, each has some “famous examples” by which they are known for.

- of the first, the German Imperial Family and many of the monarchs of the country’s member-states are the main ones, mostly due to the high amount of deaths that would come from it and due to the fact that those deaths would become symbols for the German Resistance and Rebellion
- of the second, the most famous (or infamous, as it the case) examples have always been two: Emperor Ai of Korea (“Ai” being a shortening of his temple name, “Aijong”, meaning “Lamentable Ancestor”, with him being one of only three Korean Emperors to not be better known by their courtesy name), whose action of standing by the side of the Kuomintang after their conquest of the country resulted on Korea’s “Silent Civil War”; and King Ferdinand IV of the Two Sicilies, who surrendered to Militant France after their invasion in 1952 instead of retreating to Croumier, causing a break in the Sicilian Government and Royal Family as the Sicilian First Minister led the retreat accompanied by Ferdinand’s second son (Ferdinand IV being remembered somewhat like OTL’s Leopold III of Belgium)
- of the third, Philip I of Pontus is considered the choice’s “poster boy”, with another famous example being that of Fernando II and III of El Salvador, father and son who died fighting during the Mexican occupation of the country, the former in battle in 1955 while the latter passed from injuries in 1957 (the last monarch of El Salvador during WW2 was Fernando III’s younger brother, Henrique, who ruled until 2011)
- of the fourth, the most well-known monarch to do so is Manuel II of Portugal, who after the fall of the Portuguese mainland in Europe retreated with his government to the Azores, who became the country’s de facto center of command until the end of the war
- and, of the fifth, which started this whole things, the most famous is probably Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, who escaped to Albion and basically made a court on her in-laws’ townhouse (Queen Juliana’s husband being an Albish aristocrat) from where her government basically commanded the remaining Dutch Empire, using the proximity of the Home Islands to the Netherlands to heavily support resistance efforts against the Allies. Besides her, another one I feel the need to mention is the Hồng-Long Emperor of Champa, who escaped to Australia in 1953, married twice, and then relocated to Japan in 1955, where his daughter and heir (and future successor) would meet and fall in love with one of Emperor Hirohito’s sons, the two marrying after the war

(Interestingly, Belgium was a mix of options 3, 4 and 5, as Queen Stephanie II stayed in Albion following her country's fall with her heir while her second set-up shop in Gabon, and her third said screw it and became a spy/assassin for the Axis in Allied territory)
How can Pedro VIII of Portugal's first son be Prince of Beira if he was born after 1970 (when Pedro became king)?
Mainly through me messing it up with numbers when writing infoboxes, Pedro VIII’s marriage should’ve been a few years before he became king, in 1968, with Joaquin being born and dying the same year as (but before) his grandfather
Does Greece have any offical or unoffical sub-national monarchies?
No, the closest thing to it Greece could say to have would be Samos and the Dodecanese, which although heavily intertwined with Greece in relation to economy and military are still both independent nations of their own and not official parts of it.
The only "state within a state" in Greece is Mount Athos, which is an autonomous but mostly independent part of the country, while the closest thing to unnoficial "sub-national monarchies" is "towns with an influential local/noble family"

EDIT: Well, I've nearly crapped myself with this answer, in the sense of almost doing a crap. Greece actually has two "states within a state", the other being the Mani Peninsula in the Peloponnese, but that one isn't a monarchy either (at least officially), its instead something of a mix between a aristocratic oligarchy and a direct democracy (with a few hereditary priestly families of note)
When did the last living monarch that reigned during WW1 die?
Of the countries who were involved in the war, the last monarch to die was Manuel III, Manikongo of Kongo, who ascended to the throne at the age of 11 in 1910, whose country entered a co-belligerence treaty with the Allies in 1912 and was forced into peace by 1915, with Manuel III going on “vacation” in Lisbon until the end of the war (as although Portugal was officially neutral it was quite openly pro-imperial), during which he would meet and marry Infanta Maria, Cedric I’s youngest daughter (and 2 years his senior). Living to 103 (while Maria would reach 106), Manuel III far surpassed any of his contemporaries (most of whom were far older than him) in time between the end of WW1 and death, but funnily enough isn’t the longest-reigning monarch in history though, as he abdicated during the Kongolese Civil War after just over 20 years on the throne

Of the “main” players of the war (those appearing on the infobox), the last monarch to die was the Xuantong Emperor of China, who died in 1970 and lived just a few months’ shy of a decade longer than Victoria of Brazil, who was the last monarch of the great powers of the war to die (and the last one to have been an adult at the time of the conflict). Interestingly, much like with Manuel III of Kongo the Xuantong Emperor (normally known by his personal name of Yuyue) also didn’t have an extremely long reign due to not dying on the throne, as he abdicated (or was forced to) in the 1930s and spent the rest of his life as a socialite in North America (even gaining dual Californian and Alyaskan citizenship later on).
 
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The descendants of François D'Orleans, Prince of Joinville.
Oh (the "Princes" part threw me on a doozy since the last Prince of Joinville was François and I got myself confused if I had commented somewhere about a Prince of Joinville without remembering)

Well, much like OTL François had three children:
- The eldest (and only girl) Françoise, who still married her cousin, Robert d'Orléans, Duke of Chartres, but unlike OTL didn't become mother to an Orleanist pretender (although that son's counterpart did become the founder of the Orleans branch who reigns in Melilla)
- The middle child, Pierre, Duke of Penthièvre, like his sister followed OTL and didn't marry one of his Brazilian cousins (his mother being one of Pedro II's sisters), instead starting a career in the navy and having a son and a daughter with a married woman. The daughter, Jeanne, married a French nobleman, while the son, Pierre, ended-up moving to Norway, where he would settle down and start a family (the Bourbon-Lebesgues, with his descendants being considered minor nobility)
- and the youngest child (who in OTL was a stillborn on 30 October 1849), Jean Marie, who is the more "interesting" of the three.
Like his brother, JM entered a military career, but unlike Pierre did so on their mother's home country of Brazil, where he settled down in the town of Joinville, SC (which was born from François' decision, after the fall of the Orleanist monarchy in 1848, to develop his wife's dowry, a parcel of land 25 square leagues in area, which Jean later inherited). As a part of the Army, JM served on the Civil War on the Loyalist side (losing his right leg and nearly losing his right arm in the Siege of Joinville) and was made Prince of Joinville within the Brazilian Nobility in the aftermath, a title which his descendants still retain.

Outside of how they started in Brazil, the Princes of Joinville are probably mainly known for the fact that they have been Jewish since the 1940s and have made a fortune out of Chocolate (both of those facts related to the 4th prince's mother). Outside of the main family, some members of the Joinvilles are also known for their personal lives, like Jean Marie's second son (who married a freed black woman after being crippled by a shell during WW1, her being a nurse who treated him) and one of the current prince's cousins (who is famous as both an actor and a escort)
 
Animals of North America
So, Hi! After quite a while where my only additions to this TL were answering @TheBeanieBaron's questions or being on radio-silence, here's an update! Sorry for the lower quality (in my opinion) and out-of-the-blue subject, this is an idea that has been floating around in my head for a while and is also an attempt of mine at doing "lower-effort" or "smaller" updates to see if I can manage to post them more frequently.
(also, sorry for the less scientifically-sound instances, much of this was written or the ideas created in a fugue state after watching videos about rapid evolutionary changes)
Animals of North America
Although the introduction of animals from the Old World and the extinction of animals indigenous to the New has been a tale as old as humanity's entrance into the continent, during the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries of the Common Era ITTL, those factors have been both extremely present and surprisingly absent, and while many species still have come to extinction like OTL, many others have survived against the odds, and many species which became invasive behemoths were never done so, while at the same time many others were introduced and did not.
On the matter of foreign species introduced to North America during the last few centuries, a difference needs to often be made between "invasive" and "naturalized", as although many of them, in special among animals, have the potential to be destructive invaders, luck of the draw, different relationships with humans, different lucks by indigenous animals, and the many introductions and survivals ITTL have resulted on many of them becoming new components of a "stable" ecosystem, and sometimes even adding stability to animals that beforehand were a danger of becoming invasive or problematic, being "naturalized" (or "rewilded") in the North American biosphere
Most of this isn't meant as a comprehensive or semi-full list, and is more of a "compilation of most memorable"
SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES NATIVE TO NORTH AMERICA, WHICH PERSEVERE FROM OTL
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The Tecopa Pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae) is a quite unique subspecies of the Amargosa Pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis) original to the Mojave Desert of California, being native to the outflows of a pair of hot springs within it, most famously known for its unique resistance to heat, being fish only 2.5 to 4 centimeters in length but capable of living in temperatures above those of a hot tub (surviving in waters above of and above 43 °C).
Although originally an isolated endemic species only discovered in the 1920s, the Tecopa Pupfish came to be more well-known in 1936, Ieyasu, Prince Consort of Oregon, gained one of them while visiting California, giving it to his grandson, Michael, who, in 1947, now as Prince of Vancouver, acquired for himself an entire school of them. The fish, who were officially recognized as distinct subspecies after the prince assigned and entire squadron of scientists and caregivers to them due to their “finicky” needs, became over the course of the Second World War both adored pets of the Oregonian Royal Family and “comedic sources of inspiration” for Oregon, exemplified by the “Boiling Won’t Kill Them, and it Won’t Kill Us” slogan of 1955.
With the death of the pupfish on their natural waters in 1977, only weeks before the Prince of Vancouver’s own unexpected death, the "Royal Pupfish of Oregon" became the subspecies only population, and although now reintroduced to their Hot Springs (with the Tecopa Onsen’s acquisition by Oregon in 2003) most of their numbers, no matter how large, still reside on the Vancouver Aquarium and on other royal properties in Oregon (with there being only 5 populations outside of the country, 1 on London, 1 in Tecopa, 1 in Antarctica and 2 in Tokyo)
[1] although officially set as “Domesticated”, the conservation status of the Tecopa Pupfish is seen as something of a conundrum and a source of discussion, as the subspecies was only categorized as “domesticated” due to no-one agreeing on the other options (as while extinct on the wild for decades, it was reintroduced in 2003, and while mostly living in aquariums, its numbers are anything but small, and include populations in self-sustaining habitats)​

The Dryland Elk (Cervus canadensis merriami) known in OTL as Merriam’s elk, the Dryland Elk is one of the many subspecies of the elk found in North America, being native to the arid regions on the subcontinent’s Southwest. Known for having a considerably stormy history with humans, having nearly become extinct due to uncontrolled hunting and cattle grazing, the subspecies nearly became extinct during the early 20th century, reaching a low of only a few hundred individuals in 1906, but managed to regain numbers over the following decades, being considered “Vulnerable” due to the persistent danger of habitat destruction and human overhunting and poaching

The Eastern Elk (Cervus canadensis canadensis) sometimes also known as the Laurentian elk, the Eastern Elk is another one of the various subspecies of the elk found in North America, originally inhabiting Southern Canada and the North-Eastern USSA, and, much like it’s above relative, nearly became extinct during the 19th and early 20th century. Although surviving, the Eastern Elk in modern times has most of its population living in wildlife parks, animal parks and zoos, with its largest herd in the wild being actually located in Aotearoa and descending from much crossbreeding with other elk and deer species, while in North America wild herds can only be found in the northern Appalachian Mountains and scattered around the Great Lakes

The Eastern Cougar (Puma concolor couguar) a subspecies of the North American Cougar, the Eastern cougar is seen as being a small dying remnant of the cougars native to the American Northwest, having dwindled in numbers by centuries of human encroachment and by being dissolved into cougar populations originated from the west. Surviving longer than most expected, as of 2020 the species is considered “Critically Endangered”, having de facto lost its range to “colonization” by cougars from the West and with only 15 “pure” mostly elderly specimens living on the wild, and most expect it to soon become extinct on it, surviving only by its captive, albeit larger, population

The Florida Wolf (Canis floridanus) a species[2] of wolf endemic to Florida, first officially named in 1912, the Florida Wolf is mostly known for being the only wolf species to mainly inhabit the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, extending across Florida to Louisiana (where it mixed with the Mississippi Valley wolf before that subspecies’ extinction), and for its coloring, as the species has two subspecies, Black and Red, which are famous for their respective coats nearly uniformly-covered by jet-black and deep-red fur respectively (while their builds are a variety depending on the location, going from extremely similar to those of red wolves on the East to even more small and slender on the West)
[1] Surprisingly resilient, the Florida Wolf, although nearly becoming extinct due to human encroaching, managed to make a revival during the early 20th century, becoming the only wolf subspecies in Southern North America to have a large range​
[2] genetically, the Florida Wolf is a subspecies of Canis lupus

The Sea Mink (Neogale madidus) the largest of the minks, being favored by fur traders due to that, the Sea Mink was nearly made extinct during the 19th century due to the unregulated fur trade in North America, becoming as such in the wild between 1890 and 1920, and only survived due to an effort to capture them instead of killing made by a fur farm in New Brunswick during the 1850s, which resulted on the species surviving in captivity. Unlike many species which survived in captivity, the Sea Mink wasn’t simply later reintroduced to the wild, as the farm which almost-accidentally saved the species also made efforts to domesticate them, resulting on modern Sea Minks being pets (as due to their small gene pool the species is considered as too-fragile to be used on fur farming by the Canadian government, and is even protected from neutering) with attempts to “rewild” them being still ongoing

The Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) a small species of neotropical parrots (in looks marked by possessing a green body, bright-yellow head, reddish-orange face and a pale beak, and for being one of the few parrot species native to North America), the Carolina Parakeet is most well-known for its status as one among the very few species of birds to be poisonous, being as such due to their diet, with the species being known for its animals considering cockleburs (a toxic plant) a favorite food. Nearly made extinct by human action during the 19th century, with its population rapidly declining with the settlement and clearing of deciduous forests, in modern times the Carolina Parakeet can only be found in the wild in Florida, although the species possesses a considerable population in captivity, being considered surprisingly good pets due to their long lifespan (living to upwards of 35 years), although their gregarious nature makes the species preferable to have in pairs or groups, or with highly-involved owners (in the wild the parakeet is often seen in flocks with as many as 300 birds)

The Dusky Seaside Sparrow (Ammospiza maritima nigrescens) a subspecies of the seaside sparrow endemic to a single group of salt marshes in a peninsula in Florida, the Dusky Seaside Sparrow is mainly known for that single reason, as the animal has had a decades-long history of having its existence threatened by human action in and around it’s isolated habitat, which finally resulted on the habitat’s surrounding area being turned into a restricted Wildlife Refuge in 1985 by the US’ (after what the USSA government called “one too many annoyances”). As of 2020 the subspecies is considered “Vulnerable”, as although protected its small habitat still makes it vulnerable to things like natural disasters or malicious actions

The Heath Hen (Tympanuchus cupido cupido) a subspecies of the greater prairie chicken, being historically native to the coastal areas of the Eastern Seashell from New Hampshire to Virginia, the Heath Hen in modern times is an animal known as being “cozily threatened”, as although intense hunting by humans during the 19th century resulted on the subspecies being restricted solely to the island of Martha’s Vineyard since 1870, human attempts to preserve the subspecies have resulted on it being a common sight on the island, with the subspecies being considered “Critically Endangered” more due to the smallness of its range and high levels of inbreeding (as its population reached a low of 70 individuals in 1908)[1] than active threats against its existence, with bird watching of the Heath Hen’s traditional lekking grounds being a tourist attraction in the island while many people keep them as pets
[1] Due to the matter of inbreeding, the Massachusetts’s government does periodical checkups of the Head Hen’s genetic variety due to fears of inbreeding causing the animals to go extinct, with Martha’s Vineyard keeping both stud books and breeding locations for the birds and having an entire association whose job is to analyze individuals kept as pets and decide whether or not they can breed​

The Ivory-Billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) a species of woodpecker originally native to Southeastern North America and Cuba, and being of particular focus among birdwatchers, the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker is, in modern times, a species whose existence is restrict to captivity, as although some claim the species to still exist in the wild, hunting and logging by humans resulted on the specie’s only known populations to be on aviaries and zoos since the 1940s, with attempts to reintroduce them to the wild failing time and time again due to a variety of factors.

The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) in the past the most abundant bird in North America, but driven to near extinction by humans through massive overhunting and widespread deforestation, the species only survived by luck, as by 1901 only a single, if large, flock survived, having been captured in 1897 by a stroke of luck by a Bahamian naturalist. Although managed to be kept alive through almost any means necessary over the decades, becoming one of the first animal species to undergo artificial insemination, and in modern times numbering on the millions, the Passenger Pigeon remains an animal species whose existence is always feared for, with even its conservation status being disagreed upon, as although seen once more in the wilds of North America, the bird’s unique needs for reproduction in the wild (needing large breeding populations to have sustainable levels) have meant that for over a century the species has been raised by and around humans, a situation which has permanently changed in certain ways the birds’ behaviors, and even now, with populations finally at “passable” levels, most of the species’ reproduction occurs in “captivity”
SUBSPECIES "NATIVE" TO NORTH AMERICA BUT ORIGINATED FROM ANIMALS INTRODUCED BY HUMANS
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The American Lake Cow (Hippopotamus amphibius taurinus) considered one of the poster children of human-introduced animals, the American Lake Cow is a subspecies of the African Common Hippopotamus, whose origins date to 1889 with the “American Hippo Bill”, a piece of legislature that saw the government of the United States of America sponsor the importation of dozens of hippopotamuses from Africa to the bayous of Louisiana, to both eat the invasive water hyacinth and to be farmed for their meat.
A ambitious project, the Hippo Bill soon saw incredible disasters, as many of the animals brought to Louisiana, remarkable in their lack of docility, soon escaped their enclosures and went into the wilderness, beginning the colonization of Louisiana’s wilderness by the hippopotamus as well as the infamous Hippo Wars, which would mar the decades to follow[1]. An animal often prone to anger, the Lake Cow was also a source of chaos during the wars of the 20th century, with violence by individuals or even herds being a, while not common, frequent occurrence through the years.
Spreading across the Mississippi’s reach and the South the Lake Cow is in modern times another staple figure of the North American fauna, marked for having a worse relationship with humans than with the environment it has “invaded” upon, being the source of death and destruction every year… as well as the source of game meat, for ironically more of the animal’s meat is acquired through hunting than through them being kept as livestock
[1] the Hippo Wars of the 1890s and 1900s would see the death of thousands and widespread low-level destruction across the US South, and is to this day remembered for the fact that although the American military was an active participant of it, the hippos still won​

The Domesticated Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius amicus) a unique subspecies of the Common Hippopotamus, descended from the American Lake Cow, the Domesticated Hippo has its origins rather recently when compared to many, being born with a single male hippopotamus named Frederick, who was rescued as a calf in 1946 by a traveler and brought with them to California. Unlike most cases of such situation, “Fred” was born with an uncommon level of docility when compared to others of its species (which some theorize might mean he was the unknowingly-successful result of an attempted artificial breeding of docile Lake Cows) even as an adult, a trait which he passed to its offspring, resulting on a subspecies of hippopotamus about as friendly as cows.
Although compared to cows and descended from “Lake Cows”, the subspecies has never been actually used as livestock, with Old Man Fred (he died at the age of 59)’s descendants instead existing in zoos, parks and on the residences of individuals capable of keeping them as pets (most live on the San Francisco Zoo, where Fred lived almost his entire life)

The Woolly Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius americanus) another subspecies of the American Lake Cow, and a unique and astonishing case of “rapid evolution”, the Woolly Hippopotamus is an animal native to the northern reaches of the Mississippi and its watershed, being mostly seen on colder and mountainous areas.
As a case of rapid evolution, having developed a fur coating over the course of a few decades at most, the Woolly Hippo is believed to descend from a group of the early populations of Lake Cows who, somehow, managed to migrate northwards and, over the course of a few generations (most probably) heavy with inbreeding, developed a full fur covering across its body instead of dying-out due to being unprepared to the cold environment, living unknown to humans until a specimen was first seen in 1965 in Canada.
[1] Due to its harsher environment, rather small numbers, and small gene pool, the Woolly Hippopotamus is only not considered Threatened due to a lack of real predators and human intervention, as all known members of the subspecies live on a government-run wildlife park in Canada and are monitored 24/7 by a staff (including park rangers and veterinarians)​

The American Woolly Ass (Equus africanus asinus) less of a subspecies and more of a feral donkey from a specific breed, the American Woolly Ass descends from a herd of Poitou Donkeys in Ohio during the early 20th century, whose farm was abandoned during the Second Civil War with its livestock being set free by the fleeing inhabitants, with the local herd managed to prosper on the region even with the presence of humans and predators.
Much like their non-feral relatives, which now exist mainly as “show donkeys” after falling out of use for machines or other breeds (in special as the breed was developed for the sole purpose of being mated to produce mules), the Woolly Ass is marked by its distinctive coat, a long and shaggy one that hangs in long and thick locks from the ass’ back, which at times can reach down to the ground, resulting on the animal’s now distinct “jumping run” made so as to not trip over itself; the Woolly Ass is also known much for its size, with members of the subspecies often reaching 1.5 meters in height, and having ears heavy enough for them to not hold them upright.
Although commonly known as “feral donkeys”, and seen as especially vicious in nature, the Woolly Ass is in actuality extremely easy to tame, having retained many of its behavioral traits from when the subspecies was still a domesticated one, and captured and “re-domesticated” specimens are often seen in farms and ranches in North America as pets and guards.

The American Ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes americanus) a subspecies of the Somali (or Blue-Necked) Ostrich, first brought to North America in 1905 to establish a “hunting ranch” in Texas, the business’ failure only a few years later resulted on the leaving of the animals to deal with themselves on the wild, which in turn resulted on, due to the large-scale depopulation of the Great Plains of most native megafauna, their spread across the emptier expanses of North America over the course of the 20th century.
Considered in modern times a relatively-common sight in the North American plains, in special on their south, and sometimes hunted by humans for their meat and feathers, the American Ostrich is also known for its “rivalry” with wild horses, both using the other as occasional sources of meat

The American Lion (Panthera leo peregrinator) a subspecies of the African Lion, brought to North America in 1909 in an attempt to use them as living weapons against the Lake Cow during the Hippo Wars, which both did and didn’t work, in modern times the American Lion is one of the largest predators of the North American continent, being basically the only thing keeping the populations of grazing animals in check within the Great Plains (in special wild hogs, ostriches, sometimes hippos, and wild horses)

The American Peafowl (Pavo cristatus americanus) and the Prairie Peafowl (Pavo cristatus fuscus) both subspecies of the Indian Peafowl of Southeast Asia descended from peafowl kept in captivity at “feather farms” during the late 19th and early 20th century. Uniquely different from one-another, the two peafowl subspecies are known mostly for their coloring, with the American Peafowl (also known as the Arizona, Desert or Blood Peafowl) being, through a unique set of circumstances, bred to possess red feathers before returning to the wild during the conflicts of the 1920s and ‘30s, managing to survive against all circumstances (mainly through developing personalities similar to those of badgers); while the Prairie Peafowl came to be through normally-colored peafowls which escaped into the wild, with the pressures of its environment causing the species to lose much of its distinctive colors by forcing its females to continuously choose dimmer-colored males which were more capable of hiding, resulting on a subspecies whose main colors are brown, beige and yellow

The Northern Peafowl (Pavo cristatus nivalis) a subspecies of the Green Peafowl, whose origins date to a “feather farm” in Minnesota during the 1890s, when a leucistic peacock was born and bred by said farm due to its “snowy-white feathers"; nearly two decades later, with the First World War, said farm was abandoned and much of its animals, after escaping, died, including most of the peafowl incapable of hiding in the snow, by sheer random luck, and a bit of intelligence, the leucistic population managed to survive, using their white coloring to camouflage in snowy landscapes and hiding away during warmer months.
Also known as the “Winter Peacock”, and in modern times protected by the Canadian government, the Northern Peafowl has a much different preference on its females in relation to their mate’s appearance, having a keen eyesight and considering cocks with fuller feathers as being more attractive than those without (in part due to seeing it as better capable of hiding away chicks underneath, as males are often responsible for incubating and watching over the chicks while the females forage)
SPECIES WHICH EXIST IN NORTH AMERICA IOTL, BUT WHICH ARE *CHANGED* IN RELATION TO IT ITTL
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The Devils Hole Pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) is probably the most unique species known to be a relatively-common pet, being a species of fish whose native range equates to a single rock shelf about 18m2 in area located within a water-filled cavern in the middle of the Amargosa Desert of California, which makes it be seen as the most isolated species of vertebrates known in nature (when not counting those kept by humans outside their native habitat).
An animal whose origins are a mystery (with time ranges going from a thousand to sixty thousand years into the past), the Devil’s Hole pupfish is a species marked by its fragility (as well as by its baffling strengths), made of individuals of maximum lengths of half a centimeter whose features make them resemble infants from other species, possess an incredible lack of defenses or even resistance to outside threats, and although capable of breeding with neighboring species of pupfish are so isolated in origins that their genes are too recessive to “survive” said breeding most times; said fragility extends even to their habitat, with the pet industry needing to make versions of almost all fish-related parts of itself specifically for the pupfish.
Believed to have been unknown for millennia, the first sight of a Devils Hole pupfish was recorded only in 1930, but it was only a few decades later, in 1953, that the first (at least known) attempt to keep them outside of the Hole occurred, when a group of Mexican scientists captured a few of them. That attempt, however unlikely and untimely, was successful after much trial and error, being inherited by the restored Californian government who continued it, resulting in the expansion of the specie’s artificial habitats over the following decades (in great part due to their looks’ and the “free advertising” of the legal battles over Devils Hole during the 1960s and ‘70s), with the first instance of them being kept as “high maintenance pets” occurring in 1982. Their popularity as pets skyrocketed as the cost lowered over the 1990s and 2000s, resulting on the pupfish’s modern status as “bit costly, but not that much” exotic fish pets.
Ironically, although on the wild they have remained a single and isolated population (although sightings of possible deeper populations in the Devils Hole exist, they are as of 2020 considered only theories and speculation), the pupfish has developed a number of subspecies from its captive population, often times caused by human attempts at either creating colonies of them on other bodies of water or artificially “buffing” the fish through selective breeding and genetic editing, with them being:
- Cyprinodon diabolis amargosae, the Amargosa Devil, is a subspecies born of the semi-successful breeding in captivity of the original pupfish with the “nearby” Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae)[2], as a mix of the two, it possesses the general shape and features of the latter with the colors of the former, while having a wide range of sizes, with males being closer to the former while females are closer to the latter​
- Cyprinodon diabolis sapphiricus, the Sapphire Pupfish, is a subspecies born of the selective breeding of pupfishes[3], being marked by both sexes possessing a “metallic blue” color which resembles that of Sapphires (in special in juveniles) and by being “bulkier” than the “baseline” Devils Hole pupfish, having shapes varying from oval to teardrop​
- Cyprinodon diabolis desmonianus, the Desmond or the Banshee Pupfish, is a subspecies born of the selective breeding of pupfishes by the Princes of Desmond in Oregon, being marked by its females’ being greyish in color and having red-tinted eyes and fins, and also being capable of emitting squeal-like sounds (while making faces that “resemble someone screaming”)​
- Cyprinodon diabolis lupus, the Grey Pupfish, is a subspecies born of the selective breeding of pupfishes, resulting on a group marked by being grey-tinged in color and slightly-more proactive than others of the species, forming close family groups during mating season and possessing longer lifespans compared to the “baseline”​
- Cyprinodon diabolis salinus, the Devils Child Pupfish, is a subspecies born of the selective breeding in captivity of the original pupfish with the Death Valley Pupfish (Cyprinodon salinus), being marked by its “high success” on that, surprisingly retaining much of the former’s appearance while also inheriting much of the latter’s hardiness, being capable of surviving in waters four times saltier than the sea and in temperatures between 0 and 46 °C​
- Cyprinodon diabolis amorlaboris, nicknamed Lovecraft’s Pupfish, is a subspecies born from the selective breeding of pupfishes both among themselves and with other close species, marked by originally being described as “misshapen” but since then becoming one of the closest living things known to man to resemble H.P. Lovecraft’s Deep Ones, possessing permanently-existing pelvic fins[4] as well as stronger and larger pectoral ones, thorny growths on their sides (in females), occasional greenish colorings, and “teethed” down-turned mouths​
- Cyprinodon diabolis asmodei, nicknamed Hells Hole Pupfish, is a subspecies born through, as of 2020, unknown measures, first revealed at the 2009 World’s Fair, being marked by having scales with deep-red to purple colors with a white tail fin, as well as similarly colored eyes and “horn-like” structures on their gills. The subspecies, only proved as such after lab tests, is the source of many conspiracy theories​
[1] while incredibly large in numbers, being seen by many as a famous pet species and with various subspecies of its own, the Devil’s Hole Pupfish is a species which is best-described as “exigent”, with their variety of unique needs and threats making their existence one that depends heavily on direct and diligent human work; for that reason, the species is overall seen as “Vulnerable” (with its endemic population being seen as “Somehow Not Extinct”), a result of their high numbers counterbalancing their environmental weaknesses just enough to place them outside of the “Endangered” or “Critically Endangered” categories​
[2] strangely, when attempts at crossbreeding were made in the wild, by placing a small number of Devils Hole pupfishes on the Amargosa’s habitat, it simply resulted on the offspring of the two being Amargosa River pupfishes in one or two generations​
[3] the selective breeding the Devils Hole pupfish is something rather complicated overall, as not only it involves having to catch and isolate from the original population the individuals selected for breeding but those not selected aren’t simply discarded, but instead are bred either amongst themselves or returned to the original population​
[4] although the normal Devils Hole pupfish lacks pelvic fins, they are still capable of growing them, doing so when raised in lower temperatures than those of the Devils Hole itself​

The Floridian Monkey (Macaca mulatta florisiensis), one of the many Old World Species introduced to North America by humans, it is a subspecies of a species native to South Asia. The history of the Floridian Monkey begins in 1898, when a colony of Rhesus monkeys was brought to a private zoo in Florida. Said colony only existed in captivity for a few years, being so only until 1907, when it was released into the wild by the zoo’s end during the events of the Tooey Massacre, following which the monkey’s population grew in the zoo’s ruins.
Over the following decades, the Floridian Monkey’s population only grew, bolstered by individuals from zoos, parks and a farm[2] (which either escaped, were released by humans or were accidentally released during the wars), reaching numbers estimated to be on the mid-thousands by 1996, when they were first catalogued as a subspecies.
As of 2020, the Floridian Monkey is seen as both a “naturalized species” of North America and a public nuisance, in special on the countryside (although the animal has also been seen in abandoned urban environments), and its population, which is estimated to number on the tens of thousands, is believed to now spread across a range going from Tampa to Charleston from North to South mainly across the northern Floridian Peninsula and along the shore (having a particularly large population on Morgan Island)
[1] although often times involved in conflict with humans, being even hunted for meat in certain places, the Floridian Monkey is considered to be of Least Concern due to both its wide habitat range, its large numbers, and Morgan Island’s status as a reservation specifically focused on the animals (with the island being nearly uninhabited by humans while having over 4000 monkeys living on it)​
[2] Elbowgrease Furry Ranch, an unfortunately named fur farm, and, as their brochure stated "the only in North America to officially have primates!"​

The Mississippian Swamp Rat (Myocastor coypus hyperboris) also known as Nutria, it is another species introduced by humans, being native to South America and first appearing on North America in fur farms in California in the 1890s, being soon brought to Louisiana for the fur industry. Rapidly spreading across the Mississippi River Delta and mostly the western coasts of the Gulf of Mexico during the 1920s and 1930s, being freed mainly by the destruction of enclosures by natural disasters (such as hurricanes) and then permitted to expand by the open warfare of the First World War and the Second Civil War, which disrupted trapping by fur traders (which would manage to lower the animal’s population), the Swamp Rat soon became an entrenched species on those regions, and by the 1960s was considered just another animal of the USSA’s south.
Although large in numbers and considered a possible threat to wetland environments, being only declared an official subspecies and not an invasive species only in 2014, the Mississippian Swamp Rat has its population and reproduction kept in check by a variety of factors and individuals, as although of acceptable temperatures and environment, the subspecies’ habitat is home to both natural predators large enough to take them on and humans, who see them as sources of fur and food, which together keep the animal’s population below unmanageable levels

The Parrot Seal (Phoca vitulina psittacusimilis) a unique among this list, it isn’t a separate species or even a genetically-unique subspecies of the Harbor Seal, but instead a literal “clan” of seals descended from a single seal named Hoover adopted by a pair of New England fishermen in the 1940s, who learned to make human words and sounds to an extreme level and passed that, together with an extremely high level of intelligence (even above that of the already-elevated one possessed by normal seals), to his offspring

The Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) considered by many the “national animal” of Mexico, being indigenous to the Anahuac[1] and being the animal most often connected with the country’s capital (and historically tied with its local cuisine), the Axolotl is an amphibian, being closely related to the tiger salamanders of North America, and is considered unique amongst them, as its members don’t undergo metamorphosis when maturing into adults, instead remaining aquatic and gilled. The species, even more than that, is also known as an exotic pet, and even more for the incredible regenerative abilities it presents, being capable of growing back limbs, gills, and parts of their eyes and brains.
Considered Near Threatened mainly due to its native habitat, as although heavily protected the Anahuac is still a single endorheic lake with a metropolis of millions within and around it, the Axolotl’s native population also possesses a few noticeable subspecies within it (which although often considered just different-colored members of the main species are scientifically seen as separate subspecies due to their colors being caused by unique genes found solely in them), which are:
- Ambystoma mexicanum xiuhnacochtli, the Blue Axolotl, which appear in a variety of blues (darker ones being most common in the wild)​
- Ambystoma mexicanum mayananachtli, the Green Axolotl, which appear in a variety of greens (but mainly lime-esque color)​
[1] The endorheic lake at the bottom of the Valley of Mexico basin, which although colloquially divided between five smaller lakes (the brackish Zumpango and Xaltocan, the greatest Texcoco, divided between Salty and Fresh, and the fresh Xochimilco and Chalco) is at the end of the day a single body of water with only dikes separating it’s brackish and sweet parts, the Anahuac was nearly destroyed due to actions made during the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs, with only luck managing to save the flood protections systems built by the latter and even larger luck over the following centuries preventing the lakes from being simply drained for use to expand Mexico City​

The Nanulak Bear (Ursus ombratan) a species born from the surprisingly successful hybridization between Polar and Grizzly Bears in the wild itself, resulting on an offspring which was capable of reproducing even if only among its own kind[1], the Nanulak Bear is a relatively young species, being only officially considered as such and not simply cases of hybrids in 1977, but is a memorable one, having looks and behaviors that are the mixing between its forefathers (being sometimes compared to pandas due to their coats being often brown on the hindquarters and lower sides and white on their front and back) and being considered one of Alyaska’s National Animals[2]
[1] while born from the crossing between two bear species, a Nanulak can only breed successfully (producing fertile offspring) with another Nanulak and not with either of its “parent species”, which has meant that the species possesses a rather high level of inbreeding amongst its members, only offset by the fact that “first generation” bears” are capable of mating amongst eachother without them needing to be from the same Polar/Grizzly coupling​
[2] a title shared with the Alaskan Moose and King Salmon (as living symbols) and the Three-Headed Crow (as a heraldic symbol)​
 
  1. What are the Dukes of Urach known for?
  2. Did any descendents of Vlad the Impaler marry into the Transylvanian royal family?
  3. What's the smallest country?
  4. What’s the most watched non-Albish royal funeral?
  5. Why didn't Michael of Oregon make his son Albert Prince of Vancouver?
 
What are the Dukes of Urach known for?
ITTL, the Dukes of Urach are mainly known either for being the filthy rich - and possibly (probably) involved with some form of organized crime - cousins/members of the Monegasque Princely Family, or for having separated into two main lines after marrying into the Filipino "Royal Family"
Did any descendents of Vlad the Impaler marry into the Transylvanian royal family?
Yes, the Transylvanian Hapsburgs not only have married Vlad the Impaler's, but are, in fact, his male-line descendants ever since Walburga of Transylvania took as her consort Prince Grigori Stefanesti, who was the head of the Stefanesti (also called "Schopulesti" or "Drakwyla") family, a romanian-austrian noble family descended from the son of Peter the Lame of Moldavia, great-grandson of Vlad the Impaler.
Although the Transylvanians are male-line Basarabians (as far as it is known), the Romanian Royal Family, which does use the name "Basarab", also descends from them through Maria I's consort, Prince Michael Brâncoveanu, Great Ban of Craiova, who traced his descent to the Impaler's great-uncle
What's the smallest country?
Although the Vatican is pretty small (if slightly larger, comprising ITTL of the Leonine City), the smallest recognized country in the world is the Republic of Senarica, which has an area of 4 hectares (or 0.04 square kilometers)
What’s the most watched non-Albish royal funeral?
Kaiser Friederike IV's in 1990, her funeral had about as many people watching it as Princess Diana's in OTL
Why didn't Michael of Oregon make his son Albert Prince of Vancouver?
The title hadn't been officially created yet when Albert died
 
  1. Are there any Protestant Braganza branches?
  2. Did Irene of Greece or her husband George get assassinated?
  3. Did California host any Olympics?
  4. Does the Vietnamese Emperor have any French ancestors?
  5. What was the first coronation of an Imperial Kingdom monarch to be filmed/televised?
 
Are there any Protestant Braganza branches?
Yes, the Australian Braganzas, who although still retaining some Catholic customs have been officially Anglicans ever since their founder converted for his marriage.

Outside of them there are no other officially protestant branches, but at the same time there are quite a few branches of the family who are officially Catholic but can be placed on the category of “but with an additional religion”, mainly through being followers of Spiritism and/or Syncretic Religions together with Catholicism, and one of said branches, the Dukes of Vassouras (descended from the Kings of Acre), is in specific a periodic appearance at a protestant church (due to the current duke’s mother being a Pentecostal)
Did Irene of Greece or her husband George get assassinated?
Irene was indeed assassinated in 1907 by a radical republican while in a visit to Thebes – an interesting tale in-of-itself, seeing as how Irene wasn’t killed right away by the shots she received (two on her stomach and one in her chest, which didn’t manage to puncture her heart or lungs) and instead died from bleeding out while beating her killer to near death (Irene wasn’t alone in her visit, and one of her shots was from protecting one of her grandsons from getting a bullet in the neck). George on the other hand died of natural causes in the 1910s (he was with Irene when she died, and did get a bullet through one of his knees while wrestling a gun from his attacker, which he proceeded to use with mild capacity on said attacker’s companions)
Did California host any Olympics?
Yes, they hosted the 1940 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles and the 1986 Winter Olympics in Truckee
Does the Vietnamese Emperor have any French ancestors?
Yes, the Vietnamese Imperial Family has had French blood on its main line ever since Emperor Duy Tân married Queen Marie II of Sedang – whose father, Marie I de Mayréna (a French Adventurer and former Banker and Government Official), managed to somehow establish a unrecognized but mostly successful state (whose territory would become a semi-autonomous part of Vietnam following Marie II’s marriage) – has since then at times married Franco-Vietnamese women, with the current Emperor’s grandmother being half-French
What was the first coronation of an Imperial Kingdom monarch to be filmed/televised?
The first monarch of an Imperial Kingdom to have their coronation filmed in any way was probably Muhammad of Aden in 1903, although only snippets of it were recorded. After that, the first to be filmed from start to finish was that of Elizabeth III of Bengal in 1935, and the first to be televised was the coronation of Victoria II of Sierra Leone in 1952

------------------------------------------------
IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT
Unrelated to the answers above, I'd like to declare that, after months, I have finally updated for the final time the TL's maps, and not plan on doing any more changes to them ever again

I known that for some (or many) this may be a bit annoying, but I'd like to tell that much of why I did it was either due to feeling like things could be polished a bit or due to, during the process of revising the map, falling into a research hole and coming to the realization that something on was either dumb or could be better

I haven't actually finished the maps 100%, but by that I mean that in my revision of the dynasties/governments maps I saw how confusing it could be and decided to divide the information present into a bundle of maps instead of a single one, and have chosen to instead of making everyone wait by doing all of them before adding them at the same time (and probably have a burnout) doing the maps over time and adding them to the post over a while​
 
Your maps are awesome. I agree that the original dynastic map could be a bit overwhelming with the number of colours on it - I look forwards to the remaining maps being posted.
 
Your maps are awesome. I agree that the original dynastic map could be a bit overwhelming with the number of colours on it - I look forwards to the remaining maps being posted.
Agree with this as the maps in this timeline (along with the ones for The Cold-Hearted Swot) are some of the most detailed and amazing maps I've seen. Can't wait to see the rest of the maps showcasing the dynasties and governments of this world.
 
  1. Who is the oldest living monarch that has abdicated (excluding Mary Jayamma)?
  2. Did Joaquin remarry after Maria Carmelita died?
  3. Why are the ruling houses of Assam, the Marianas, and Kiribati considered to be agantic royal branches of the House of Windsor and not enatic ones?
  4. What’s going on with Switzerland’s two new subnational entities?
  5. How did a branch of the House of Windsor come to rule Tigilsky?
  6. Does South Africa have any exclaves?
 
Who is the oldest living monarch that has abdicated (excluding Mary Jayamma)?
The oldest living monarch of a sovereign nation to have abdicated/retired is the King Emeritus of Samoa, Tanumafili II, who was born in 1915. The oldest overall is Grand King Faisal III of Sinai, who was born in 1913.

While Tanumafili abdicated due to the system of the Samoan kingship in the 70s, Faisal abdicated due to having been de facto a titular monarch while his wife, Nayfa, was the actual ruler (having been the daughter and only child of Faisal's predecessor and uncle) and having zero interest in actually ruling after she passed away in the 90s
Did Joaquin remarry after Maria Carmelita died?
Not officially, but his relationship with his "mistress" is seen as being almost an "unnoficial marriage" in Mexico (the two have been together for the past decade almost, and only haven't married due to personal reasons)
Why are the ruling houses of Assam, the Marianas, and Kiribati considered to be agantic royal branches of the House of Windsor and not enatic ones?
They are considered agnatic branches due to the system I created in my head to differentiate them, where branches are considered Enatic when they were either started by a woman or have passed in the female-line at least once and are still considered agnatic even if their head is a woman as long as before her the line had gone through males (so the woman is still considered an agnate, and if her offspring inherit her then the branch will be considered Enatic. The only royal branch of the Windsors where this doesn't apply is the Straits', since Elizabeth II is considered as having de facto made a new branch of the family)
What’s going on with Switzerland’s two new subnational entities?
In general terms, a lot.

- The first one (in pale purple) is the "Associate States", throwbacks to the Prenapoleonic Swiss Confederacy which are a collection of small autonomous states that aren't Cantons (and include quite a few petty states with hereditary rulers).
- And the second (in pale circled by dark purple) is Raethia/Graubünden/Grisons, an ITTL follower to the Three Leagues which is both a canton and a patchwork of petty states
How did a branch of the House of Windsor come to rule Tigilsky?
By the marriage of a bastard son of Donald VI of Aotearoa to the Grand Princess of Luar (Following the collapse of the Old Russian Empire with the First World War, much of the country's territory fragmented into a hundred petty states and started a decades-long Warring States Period, and although many of them would be completely dismantled with the country's reunification, others were permitted to continue existing in some form as autonomous states, with Luar (an ITTL name created in the 1930s for what would OTL be the Tigilsky and Bystrinsky Districts) being an example of them, having started as a breakaway-state of the Kamchatkan Union)
Does South Africa have any exclaves?
Yes, the two most important being the larger exclaves of Mesopotamia (located in between Botswana and Mpumaland and named after the fact that it is mainly in-between the Limpopo and its tributary the Notwane) and Tatia/Swimburnland (located in between Botswana, Mashonaland and Cecilia)
 
  1. Did Victoria have twins and triplets for grandchildren or great-grandchildren?
  2. Who was the first monarch to come out as LBGT (excluding Brunhilde/Ludwig II of Heese-Homburg)?
  3. What was the first funeral of an Imperial Kingdom monarch to be filmed/televised?
  4. Do any monarchies have unique rules for the naming of their rulers (besides the Bahamas)?
  5. What is Prince Otto of Bavaria (brother of Ludwig II) known for if he isn’t King of Bavaria?
  6. What’s the situation with the red microstate that’s between France and Navarre?
  7. What did Princess Emma of the Netherlands (aunt of Wilhelmina of the Netherlands) become known for as she got older?
  8. Are there any members of the Albish royal family that became centenarians (besides Olivia, the Empress Dowager)?
 
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George V of Bengal and Bihar
King George V[1] of Bengal (and Bihar), originally titled “Duke of York and Albany”, he was known before his enthronement mostly as a charming playboy infamous for his fondness for luxury[2] and hedonism[3] as much as for his stormy relationship with his wife[4], the latter of them something that would get only stormier with George’s “harem” of mistresses[5].

A liberal man for all his trappings of an autocratic monarch[6], during his reign George V introduced a parliament to Bengal[7] and extended the freedoms and rights of his subjects[8], helped steer the Bengali economy[9] and supported de development of local cultures and the arts[10]. Deeply affected by Hinduism after being introduced to it by one of his mistresses[11], although he never converted, by the time of his death George was almost openly a practicing Hindu-Anglican[12] and even had himself cremated upon his death[13].

A lover of animals[14], George became known for establishing the Royal Zoo of Bengal[15] in the 1890s after years already becoming famous for his large menagerie.​

[1] As by the laws established by the Statute of Westminster, 1878, the line of kings of any and all imperial kingdoms is to consider as if all British monarchs that came before then had ruled over the region
[2] During his reign George V’s court at Victoria Palace (originally the residence of the Governor General of Bengal, having been built in 1803. OTL it housed the Viceroy fo India until 1911 and is nowadays the residence of the governor of West Bengal) was known for its lavish banquets and balls (as well as for its large renovation project, which would only be completely paid by George’s great-grandson), with some going as far as comparing it to the Romanov’s opulence in Saint Petersburg (interestingly one are were he wasn’t known for his spending was in his mistresses, as instead of taking from his privy purse he traditionally provided them with sources of money, like, for example, helping their husband’s find good jobs or granting them lands or shares in companies)
[3] One of the great gossips of the 19th century was the fact that George V was such a common sight on high class brothels on Albion and France that he was considered special clientele by them, with one going as far as, in his later years, ordering a chair for him so he could have an easier time with the workers
[4] The Princess Dagmar of Denmark (and Tsesarevna Dowager of Russia), the two of them married in 1868 after she moved in with her sister in Albion to forget about her deceased first husband (her daughter, the Grand Duchess Ekatherina, also coming with her and, later on, marrying her first-cousin, Kirill I of Bulgaria) and although the two most certainly liked each other, they constantly butted heads and were constantly at odds due to George’s infidelities, which Dagmar took years to become somewhat accepting of. They nonetheless were devoted to each other, and, when he died, Dagmar took 8 days to permit people to take his body out of their rooms
[5] Although many of the tales spread over said “harem” were exaggerated and made to get people’s attention, it was true that George, over the course of his life, had over 22 mistresses, and, from 1880 to 1910, had a total of 15 of them, many at the same time, coming from various backgrounds (many of his later mistresses being Anglo-Indians or even Indian princesses and noblewomen). With them, he had a total of 11 illegitimate children, 9 of them after 1880. Granted the name of “FitzRoy-Windsor” by George in 1903, they were:
- Lavinia Marie LeBreton, Countess consort of Rangat (b.1876:d.1902)
- George Albert LeBreton, Viscount of Bishmuri (b.1879:d.1890)
- Christopher FitzRoy-Windsor, 1st Maharaja of Madaripur (b.1883:d.1919)
- Margaret FitzRoy-Windsor, Begum of Murshidabad (b.1885:d.1972)
- Elizabeth FitzRoy-Windsor, Duchess of Buccleuch and Queensberry (b.1887:d.1921)
- Anne FitzRoy-Windsor, Maharani of Manipur (b.1889:d.1940)
- Henry FitzRoy-Windsor, 1st Duke Kipling of Madaripur (b.1891:d.1966)
- Lord Reginald FitzRoy-Windsor (b.1893:d.1899)
- Katherine FitzRoy-Windsor, Countess consort of Fife (b.1895:d.1937)
- Arthur FitzRoy-Windsor, 1st Rajah of Patna (b.1895:d.1940)
- Mary Evangeline FitzRoy-Windsor (b.1899:d.2005)
[6] Besides his lavish spending and the way his court worked, the act that created the Bengali Parliament explicitly says that it was created and remains by the grace and gentleness of the king, and George’s powers would more frankly be on the level of those held by the Tudors than even his own mother
[7] Established in 1895, the Parliament of Bengal is the highest legislative house of the kingdom. Following the Westminster System, the organ is made of the Commons (originally made of 670 MPs, nowadays it has nearly two thousand) and the Lords (originally comprehending 244 noblemen, mostly taken from the Zamindars and Bengal’s large Anglo-Indian population, nowadays it has 418 members, and has the trait of using more native titles than European ones)
[8] He granted the right of suffrage to nearly 80% of the population, expanded the rights for religion and minority languages on the government and education, besides, even if only slightly, he also diminished the power of the nobility through the establishment of the Parliament
[9] George believed that the wisest way to enrich Bengal was to return the region’s lost textile industry, and by the time of his death while the countryside was a breadbasket Calcutta and it’s metropolitan area were already in route to becoming the “London of the East” (as an Albish journalist once said), even though it would also result on high levels of pollution on the western Ganges delta, which would take decades to be solved
[10] A lover of the culture, besides the already mentioned textile industry, George invested on government subsidies, scholarships and awards to incentivize Bengal’s literature and arts, which would reach a golden age in the early 20th century
[11] The Princess Deeptimayee Singh of Gidhaur, his mistress from 1884 to 1910 (considered almost like his secondary wife), a fervently devout Hindu who was also extremely convincing, she ended up partially converting both George, his wife, and a chunk of his court that was of European origin
[12] One of the reasons believed to be behind George never converting and very rarely openly showing his Hindu leanings was the royal family’s belief that remaining Christian served as a middle ground between the kingdom’s two main religions, and although they have over time absorbed traits from both, the main branch of the Windsors of Bengal remains Anglican
[13] Although he originally wished to be cremated at Manikarnika Ghat, he was convinced on his later years against it, and in the end his funeral pyre drifted down the Hooghly River, which was what occurred
[14] He was vegetarian since the age of 17 and forbade hunting on his presence
[15] One of the largest zoos in the world (being the third largest in total area), the Royal Zoo of Bengal (located on the open lands north of Calcutta where the old Royal Ranch was located) is home to over 300 different animal species, including about a third of the world’s population of the Quagga and some of the last living specimens of the Algerian Red Gazelle, the Lesser Mascarene Flying Fox, the Falkland Islands Wolf and three different lion subspecies (the Cape, Mesopotamian and Iranian groups, which while existing in other zoological parks, have most of their surviving population in Bengal)

Victor I of Bombay and Kafiristan
King Victor I of Bombay (and Lord of Kafiristan). Originally titled as the “Duke of Connaught and Strathearn” before his enthronement over Bombay, he was one of the three sons of Empress Victoria to serve on the military, entering the Army when he was 16 and having a career of 14 years on it, during which he was majorly deployed to India[1], where he headed the Bombay Army[2] and served on the Second Anglo-Afghan War[3]. Although mostly remembered with his royal title over Bombay, he was also the first child of an Albish monarch to become by himself the ruler of another country[4] since Richard, King of the Romans.
An extremely serious and no-nonsense person[5], who when not on the presence of his family spent almost all of his time either on work or in some sort of public event[6], Victor’s rule over Bombay was one marked by a level of autocracy not dissimilar from those of Louis XIV[7] through most of its run, and it was only in 1928 that he gave Bombay a Parliament[8], abdicating from his thrones in 1932 in the name of his grandson[9].
A Hindu-Anglican[10] like his brother[11], his own wife[12] and some others of his relatives, Victor is greatly remembered both of his realms for his support of religious freedom as well as for his investment on education, establishing compulsory schooling in 1903[13]​

[1] Ever since the Imperial Tour Victor had become infatuated with the subcontinent and of all his time in the military only his first year was served outside of it (being, instead, on Canada)
[2] Although the position was mostly nominal, he was made the commander of the Bombay Army in 1878, and would hold the position until 1880 when the division was changed into the Royal Army of Bombay, to which, as the kingdom’s ruler, Victor was automatically its commander-in-chief
[3] During it Victor ended up serving as a member of the Albish embassy to Kabul in August of 1880 for the Early Treaty of Gandamak, and, on September 3rd of that year, he nearly died when the Afghan forces attacked the Albish residency, only surviving due to a similar-looking officer dying on his place and being confused for him. Deeply injured (his leg was gored by a bullet during the siege), he somehow managed to escape through Kafiristan, where he was brought back to health (although in the process his leg was amputated and he placed a hard iron prosthetic on its place) and through a series of events united the Kafiristani clans into a small army, which he commanded as a ragtag army until the war’s end in 1882
[4] During the Treaty of Gandamak, Victor strongly advocated for Kafiristani independence (which would end up leading to the British safeguarding the independence of most of the northeastern states of the region) and in the end was given the title of “Lord of Kafiristan” by a council made of his main lieutenants and the leaders of most of the region’s settlements and clans. He traditionally spent his summers on the region
[5] An enemy of small talk whose main hobbies where piano and dactylography, Victor’s nickname on the press and even among his court as “the Cold One” due to his tendency to lack any visible emotion (the only time he is recorded smiling was at his youngest daughter’s wedding, and it was such a garish grin that the groom’s mother fainted)
[6] He once nonchalantly pulled out a stack of papers at his son’s 15th birthday and started doing late paperwork, which resulted on his wife nearly caving his head in with a candelabra
[7] During most of Victor’s time as a monarch (at least in Bombay, as his rule on Kafiristan was more of a mediator and military protector than a direct ruler) he was basically the center of all bureaucracy and the government was known for being made of the fewest possibly, but extremely overworked, civil servants
[8] Similar to other parliaments on the subcontinent, many believe that Victor only agreed to it due to a mix of being tired after decades of overworking and the death of his wife, who most agree took something out of him that left him incapable of continuing with his old ways
[9] King Albert Edward of Bombay (later of Maharashtra) (b.1916:d.1969), his son’s only son (Crown Prince Arthur having died on a car accident in Monte Carlo in the 1920s), he was markedly more liberal than his grandfather
[10] Although his beliefs also absorbed traits from his Kafir subjects’ faith
[11] The two of them had only their rough beliefs as a similarity, as Victor personally though George was a foolhardy spender, calling his investments on the arts as “frivolities” when, in a letter to his sister Beatrice, he said their brother ought to use his money on something other than them
[12] The Princess Louise of Prussia, she openly stated to praying both to God and a myriad of Hindu deities and asked to be cremated after her death, Victor was of a similar leaning to her, and their urns are together within the Royal Catacombs of Bombay
[13] With all children between the ages of 7 to 14 being obligated to go to school (under the threat of a hefty fine for their parents) between the hours of 9 AM and 3 PM. This would be changed in the 40s when the age and hours would be expanded (nowadays it is all children between 13 and 18, from 7 to 5

Cedric I of Portugal and the Algarve
King Cedric I of Portugal and the Algarve[1], he was the only one among his siblings to enter the Royal Navy[2] and was the only son of Empress Victoria to marry a catholic as well as the only one to marry twice[3].
A lover of the sea and water since childhood[4], during his youth Cedric spent most of his time in the Mediterranean as a sailor[5] while being, sometimes without knowing, considered a contender for a variety of thrones, firstly as a jure uxoris monarch of Greece[6], then as the heir to Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[7], and finally as a jure uxoris monarch of Portugal[8], which would be the one to occur.
Although originally a monarch in name only[9], focusing his time as a developer of the Portuguese Navy[10] and as the unofficial middleman between his home country and his country by marriage[11], this when not getting involved with Portugal’s colonial empire[12], his involvement with governance would permanently change in 1909 with the Lisbon Regicide[13], which, besides taking his wife and eldest son, forced him to enact what was basically an internal coup[14], dealing not only the fallout of the assassinations but also having to fight a series of republican uprisings[15] and failed coups[16] while as a regent for his grandson[17].
A de facto absolute monarch[18] from 1909 to 1923, he finally abdicated that year as Pedro VI reached his majority[19], dying the following year from tuberculosis[20] and leaving behind the world’s largest collection of glass and ceramic objects[21].​

[1] The laws of Portugal specify that the husband of a reigning queen is to become a jure uxoris “King of Portugal and the Algarve” upon the birth of their first child, with Cedric (which although being the only Portuguese monarch of that name still is counted as being a “first”) being beforehand the “Prince Consort” only
[2] Cedric would serve for nearly 20 years on it, reaching the rank of Vice-Admiral and, at the time of his marriage, holding the command over the Channel Fleet
[3] Married in 1874 to the Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (the only surviving daughter of Alexander II, she was his sister’s sister-in-law already. The two of them would be married to a total of 5 years and had 4 daughters together before Maria’s untimely death from eclampsia after giving birth to a stillborn son
[4] He seems to have been enraptured by the sea during the Imperial Tour as a child, being remembered for deciding to swim with dolphins during its stop in Hawaii, and from there he didn’t change much
[5] Most of his daughters with his first wife were born in Malta, and the only one who didn’t, Beatrice, was born during a short stay in Athens
[6] During the early 1860s the most eligible bachelorette of Europe was probably Irene (born in 1848), Queen of the Hellenes, whose father, King Otto of the Hellenes, died under mysterious circumstances in 1863. Although in the end she would marry a Danish prince (who in OTL became King George I of the Hellenes), Irene and Alfred became friends in the 1870s during a visit to Greece, with his youngest daughter by his first marriage being born during one of his visits
[7] His paternal uncle, Duke Ernest II of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was childless until the age of 66 and, as his older brother’s either got separate thrones or declined to inherit his, Cedric ended up as the heir presumptive to the duchy. It was only in 1884 that Ernest would have his first and only son and child, as after the death of his first wife, Alexandrine of Baden, in a carriage accident in 1883 he remarried to Grand Duchess Olga Konstantinovna of Russia (niece of Alexander II and OTL wife of George I of the Hellene)
[8] Following the death of Pedro V in 1865, his two young daughter, Carlotta and Maria Amalia, became the queen and heiress presumptive of Portugal (their eldest uncle, the Duke of Porto, serving as regent), and, like Irene of the Hellenes, were some of the most sought-after bachelorettes of the continent, and Empress Victoria was especially keen on the idea of seeing a marriage between the royal houses of Albion and Portugal
[9] The title of King was purely ceremonial for him (as it had been for the two previous kings consort of Portugal)
[10] Given command of the Portuguese Navy in 1887 following the birth of Luis, Prince Royal, Cedric worked tirelessly to bring it up to par with the Royal Navy he had been accustomed to
[11] Being, for example, responsible for the “Pink Map Compromise”, which saw the Albish recognizing Portugal’s right to the region as a connection between its main African colonies (as well as its overlordship of the Chokwe and Lozi states) while the Portuguese recognized Albion’s already existing control over the region, with the Zambezi being made a condominium of the two countries together with Germany
[12] Cedric is credited with saving the existence of the Kingdom of Kongo (even if it lost some ancient territories to the North to the Congo Free State), which had its suzerainty and independence guaranteed by Portugal in the 1890s and even had, later on, a royal marriage with the Braganzas
[13] Occurring on February 1st, 1909, the Regicide happened when, during their return from a country retreat, the royal family was attacked by two assailants, Manuel Buíça and Alfredo Luís da Costa, who shot and threw a grenade at them, killing both Queen Carlotta and the Prince Royal (who survived in a coma for some hours after his mother’s death and was posthumously recognized as “King Luís I of Portugal”). Outside of them, the Duke of Barcelos was shot in the shoulder, permanently damaging his nerves on the right arm, while the infantas Alexandra, Beatrice and Maria suffered various injuries from the explosion, the first losing a chunk of her left leg. In the aftermath, Cedric ordered the assassin’s bodies (the two having died in the crossfire) cremated and their ashes used as litter for his wife’s cats, in a posthumous punishment
[14] Using his power over the navy and knowing of the republican presence on government, he took power from the prime-minister (who remained nominally in power but was de facto deposed) and established martial law on Portugal’s major cities
[15] Although there would be many small uprisings and plots during Cedric’s time in power, the main one occurred in May of 1909 when republican elements on the government and political class, emboldened by the regicide, tried to overthrow the monarchy. A brutal affair that saw fighting on the streets of Portugal’s major cities and on parliament, the uprising ended with the defeat of the republicans, which suffered harsh crackdowns on the following years
[16] The July Coup of 1913 being the most infamous, as, supported by the French, an underground republican faction tried to depose Cedric I. It ended with the houses of parliament in flames and the death of over a hundred people
[17] Officially Cedric’s co-monarch (but de facto his heir), Pedro VI was only 3 at the time of his father’s death in 1909, having been born as Luís illegitimate son with his mistress, Joana Amelia dos Santos Marrocos, and only becoming legitimate in 1908 when his grandparents discovered of his existence, forcing his parents’ to marry and having the church legitimize him in the same way that the Grimaldi Dynasty did with their illegitimate offspring
[18] As mentioned above, he held control of the military and, following the uprisings and coups, had completely crippled much of the country’s political class, where he focused much of his anger and distrust
[19] He had already been groomed by his grandfather for years by that point, and his short reign would mark the return of Portugal to some sense of democracy
[20] He had been fighting the disease for years at that time, and it had, by the time of his death, spread to his bones
[21] Cedric made collecting bibelots, vases and china his way to cope with his position, and by the time of his death it amounted to over thirty thousand artifacts totaling millions of pounds in total value

Leopold of the Carnatic
King Leopold of the Carnatic, the last of Empress Victoria’s sons’ to gain a kingdom[1] as well as one of the most colorful characters of the era, he was never a man greatly interested in politics or the military like most of his siblings, and, instead, was deeply interested in the arts[2] and the bohemian lifestyle, being infamous on high society as a “hooligan”[3] and “hedonist”[4] who openly had lovers of both sexes[5] and shocked even the more liberal members of the nobility, although in a way his children managed to outshine him on said matter[6].
Made king almost out of spite[7] and married to Empress Victoria’s only Bharati daughter-in-law[8], his time ruling over the Carnatic was marked by his frequent lack of involvement, with the government being often delegated to his private secretary[9] and parliament while the king, highly popular among his subjects[10] spent his time either in public events, his private life, or in traveling through the subcontinent and southeast Asia[11], which served as a great source of inspiration for his paintings[12].
Surprisingly religious, in his later years Leopold became known for his open conversion to Hinduism, being cremated at Manikarnika Ghat upon his death[13].​

[1] Although he was the fourth oldest, he was the sixth among his brothers to gain his own crown (Arthur was already set to inherit the Albish throne, while of the others only Henry wouldn’t be made a king)
[2] A talented painter, he had a style extremely similar to his friend and lover, the American émigré, John Singer Sargent
[3] Compared to his older sister, he loved pranks and mischief, and had the gall of frequently going under disguise to the East End and get involved in street fights and pub brawls
[4] His residence, Clarence House, was called a “den of vice and sin” by the Marquess of Shrewsbury, and it was said that although he never held a single ball on its halls, he had guests coming in every night that only left the following day
[5] Involved for some year in a threesome with his friends, John Singer Sargent and Albert de Belleroche (whom he met in Paris in the early 1880s), that ended amicably around 1891; Leopold’s most famous lovers were Lillie Le Breton (1853-1929), previously his brother’s lover, with whom he had a 14-years-long affair lasting from 1880 to 1894, and Julio Pastrana (1860-1918), a Mexican-American performer whose mother (another famous performer due to her hypertrichosis, which he inherited), Julia, was a member of the court of Leopold’s mother, the two of them had an affair lasting from 1875, when Julio was 15, all the way to Leopold’s death in 1914
[6] While Elizabeth managed to cause a scandal by sleeping with her first cousin at his brother’s wedding (and later marrying him), Rajna married two congenital twins that had been washerwomen before meeting him, Vincent married at the age of 5 (as part of the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Burmese War he married the country’s new queen, whose father had started the conflict and lost badly on it), Indira slept more with her sister-in-law than with her own husband and Frederick took from his father and had a literal harem on his court, where many believe he probably slept with even his ministers if the tales are correct
[7] Known for his rivalry with his twin brother, Cedric. Following the latter’s acclamation in 1888 Leonard was filled to the brim with envy, and, in a move that his mother had planned for (Victoria was looking to make him the ruler of the Carnatic for years, to which he had until then declined), he asked her to finally accept the offer of a kingship, being made “King of the Carnatic” less than two weeks after Cedric’s acclamation
[8] The eldest daughter and child of Queen Victoria I of Coorg (whose father had been deposed by the East India Company, she was a goddaughter of Empress Victoria, who, during the Imperial Tour, basically returned Coorg to her as a sort-of-present as much as it was a political move to attract the goodwill of the subcontinent’s elites), she and Leopold had met in 1870s when their mothers started pushing them to be together in a match that was luckily successful. Accepting of Leopold’s affairs, Charlotte herself had many lovers over the years, the most famous of them being writer Violet Paget
[9] To this day the Private Secretary to the Sovereign of the Carnatic has powers akin to those of pre-1878 Albish prime ministers
[10] Although much of his personal life was scandalous for the era and for many should have destroyed his image, Leopold was one charming bastard who regularly saw a high level of respect and approval among his subjects
[11] Of his 26 years on the throne of the Carnatic, about a tenth of it was spent traveling
[12] A lover of painting views instead of people (although some of his most known paintings are portraits), of his over 800 works (mostly housed on the Royal Museum of Madras) nearly 80% of them were of either views and buildings of his travels or of random people he met during them
[13] A particularly devout follower of Shiva and Khali, when he felt death was coming Leopold abdicated in the name of his son and moved to a small (if comfortable) residence in Varanasi, and spent his last months going from it to the temples to meditate with his wife (who committed Sati in his funeral pyre)

Michael of Oregon
King Michael I of Oregon and Columbia, he was the first child of Empress Victoria to perish[1], having been born prematurely during the Imperial Tour[2] and being, of her sons, the only one who actually suffered from hemophilia[3].

Known as “the baby” among his relatives due to his frail health and body[4] as well as his naivete during his youth[5], Michael was an incredibly intelligent man, who, before becoming a monarch, became known as a dedicated student and intellectual, which left Oxford with an honorary doctorate in civil law[5].
Made king of Oregon and Columbia[6] in 1881 after a year spent convincing his mother to go through it[7] and moving to Victoria[8] following his marriage[9], Michael’s reign, marked by his popularity among both the peasantry[10] and the nobility[11], was a successful one, being marked by both the growth of population[12] and the growth of local industries[13], although, unlike his brothers, he remained an “absolute” monarch through it all[14].
Dying of his disease in 1891 while visiting the Prince of Desmond[15], although he remains a highly commemorated and remembered figure in Oregon as the father of the nation, his children have undoubtedly outshined him[16].​

[1] He died at the age of 32 less than two years before the Empress of the French after tripping on his own feet and bashing his head on a table, dying of expressive brain hemorrhage a day later
[2] The HMS Britannia had left Japan some three days before Michael’s birth
[3] The disease was discovered shortly after the tour left Australia, during the remainder of the trip his crib was held by a contraption of cables and pulleys made so he would never have the danger of smashing into something (it was also basically a padded box)
[4] Born with weak lungs due to his premature deliver, Michael lived with asthma and nearly died dozens of times during his lifetime, including 15 serious colds, three of which resulted on survived pneumonias
[5] He was also known for being a heavy drinker in Oxford, once challenging one of his professors to a drunken battle of limericks revolving on the laws of England
[6] Acquired on its totality by the British in the Oregon Treaty of 1846 (after they completely overwhelmed the American pioneers on the region by helping the migration of over 50.000 Irishmen to the region during the Great Famine), the colony was originally known only as Columbia on official texts (only American loyalists, much of whom were expelled en masse following the Willamette, called the region “Oregon” for much of its early history), the name of Oregon (or “Orejon”) started to gain a following the 1870s, and when the empire was established in 1878 the colony was renamed to “Oregon & Columbia”, which remains the country’s official name even if “Oregon” is colloquially used for it on its entirety (Columbia is mostly used nowadays to refer to the northern lands of the kingdom)
[7] Victoria originally didn’t plan on actually having Michael become a king in light of his health problems, and it was only through his insistence and buttering her up that the empress finally relented to it, using the excuse that the region would be good for his health to convince herself (during the Imperial Tour’s stop on the colony Michael’s health was, surprisingly, decidedly better)
[8] Although Oregon has no official capital, Victoria (not exactly the ITTL one, as it’s center is in San Juan Island) has been, over the years, its political center and second-largest city, housing both Parliament, the Houses of Justice and the royal family, whose main residence is located where the old Fort Victoria (ITTL military building made on the 1840s around Ten Mile Point) was. In general the whole area of the Salish Sea is considered the heart of the country with it’s housing of both Victoria, Musqueam (OTL Vancouver) and Rupert (OTL Seattle)
[9] The Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont, who later served as one of their daughter’s regents, her sister, Emma, married his nephew three years later, the two having met during Michael’s marriage
[10] A charming couple of philanthropes, Michael and Helena became known for their social works, like the establishment of the Royal Food Banks and the Impoverished Workers Program, which directed the unemployed and the homeless to large government farms (although in the latter was also a genius move to supply cheap workers for the government in light of the state’s semi-feudal (if not outright feudal) administration
[11] Michael’s influence over the nobility was especially necessary due to Oregon’s unique nature, as (unlike his brother’s domains were the nobility was mostly defanged and administration was already centralized) due to the crown’s own lack of oversights for much of its rule in the region much of the state had, by the time of Michael’s coming, developed into something akin to Medieval France as for decades settlers, native peoples and the Tokugawa had established a patchwork of fiefdoms and states across much of the territory. During his reign one of Michael’s jobs was, in fact, bringing all those powers (the Tokugawa being the only ones that had already been de jure recognized by Victoria due to their land grant) into the fold of the royal administration, recognizing various petty republics and noble fiefs (over 1500 letters of nobility were granted by him between 1882 and 1891) across much of the territory, as overall only the lands around the Salish Sea and the Willamette were really under direct royal control.
[12] Although much of it was due to natural growth (in special after the 1870s and 1880s inoculation campaigns), another reason for the growth was immigration, as while Oregon was already a multiethnic region (besides the Irish, Japanese and First Nations there were also Anglo-Scottish settlers and even some Spanish from old missions in Oregon and Vancouver Island, as well as the remnants of the American pioneers) during Michael’s reign (as well as the early period of his daughter’s) the region saw a massive number of immigrants come in both from Europe (mostly in the way of Eastern Slavs and Jews, with Michael’s court painter being, in fact, Polish by birth) and from Oregon’s southern/eastern neighbor, as the United States’ expulsion of much of its Native American and Latino populations from the west (mostly as a “side-effect” of the “naturalist” turn the country had been seeing since their civil war) meant that while some of them went to Mexico (in special those on the southwest, which ITTL included Baja California, Sonora and Chihuahua) and Canada, the bulk moved to Oregon, rising by a fourth and a third the country’s population
[13] During Michael’s reign Oregon entered the industrial revolution, with the great development of its textile, canning, mining and armament industries
[14] Although his power wasn’t absolute by any means (seeing as much of Oregon’s land was under a system of suzerainty and vassalage), Michael de jure held all powers of government during his time on the throne, being even responsible for serving as judge on tribunals involving members of the high nobility. Oregon would only gain a Parliament during the reign of his daughter, Emma, who established it in 1924 on a style almost exactly like the one of the Tudors of old
[15] One of the more unique examples of nobility in Oregon, the first Oregonian Prince of Desmond, Samuel, was a member of the Irish MacCarthy Clan (being a nephew of the head of the Srugrena Sept of the clan, which has since 1876 been considered by the Ulster King of Arms as being the seniormost branch of the family) migrated to Oregon in the 1840s and ended up establishing control over much of the region around the lower reaches of the Columbia River Basin. Following the death of his first cousin once removed (and whose daughter was his granddaughter in law), also named Samuel, in 1885, he officially claimed the title, which was recognized by Michael I in 1886 together with the Albish government in London.
[16] Although Albert died at the age of 5 from polio, Emma I is often compared as a mix between Catherine the Great, Cleopatra, Henry VIII and Augustus due to her status as the first woman to serve on the Royal Navy, her command of the nation during the First World War and her massive expansion of the kingdom’s territory; Alice, whose husband was the Shogun of Edo and head of the Tokugawa, is remembered for her command of Fort Briggs and command of the army, holding the line and breaking the charges made by the Americans against the fort during the First World War, before attacking back against them and expanding into Utah and the Great Basin; Mary, finally, was the ace of the skies of Oregon known as one of the world’s first bombers. Of Michael’s illegitimate children (during his later years the king had two affairs, one with a member of the Quileute Tribe and another with Charlotte Suliman, a German chemist and cult leader) the one most memorable was probably Sieglinde, who is known for developing one of the world’s most terrible poisonous gases

Henry, Prince Consort of Madagascar
Henry, Prince Consort of Madagascar (sometimes also known as “Prince Henry, Duke of Kendal”[1]), he was the youngest son of the empress, as well as the only one to not have a throne, although he was the second to marry a queen regnant.
Born in a quite uncommon situation[2], Henry was a terribly melancholic man, known for his introverted nature[3] and for loving dogs more than any human[4], who, in 1892, was unexpectedly married to Queen Ranavalona III of Madagascar[5] in what was her prime-minister’s last desperate bid to save Malagasy independence[6], from then on guaranteed by the Albish[7].
The consort of a figurehead monarch stuck on a loveless marriage, he and Ranavalona rarely interacted with each other following the birth of their twin daughters in 1895[8], spending most of his time alone following it until his death in 1913 from malaria[9]​

[1] Although Henry was being married to a queen, his mother believed that he still should have a royal dukedom of his own as a species of dowry, granting him the title of “Duke of Kendal” and an annuity of 10.000 pounds
[2] Not knowing she was pregnant, Empress Victoria was at a ball in Northumberland House when she started having contractions, giving birth on a hastily made bed on the rooms of the Duchess (the story that she gave birth on the ballroom was a wild gossip spread by tabloids). Bought by the Empress in 1866, the house (which is the last of the manorial homes of Trafalgar Square) was inherited by Henry in 1908, becoming the official residence and embassy of the Malagasy monarch in London
[3] Similar to his older sister, Georgiana, suffering of selective mutism and spending his time almost as if in his own little separate world, most modern analysis believe he had a mix of both autism and depression
[4] He shared his mother’s love of Pomeranians
[5] Something that was almost the antithesis of the Malagasy government at the time, as the custom of the era was that the ruling queen of Madagascar would be married to her prime-minister (almost a king on his own right) as a way of cementing the political arrangement that had made the Malagasy government since the aristocratic revolution of 1863
[6] Although Rainilaiarivony (Ranavalona III’s first husband and prime-minister) had for years used his diplomatic skills and political acumen to try and protect the kingdom’s independence, the French were starting to become bolder in the late 1880s and early 18902, and he feared that without a strong backer Madagascar’s days as an independent nation were numbered
[7] Which Albish would need to do shortly after, as when the last Franco-Hova War occurred in 1895 the Royal Navy and the Albish Army had more men than the entire Malagasy Navy
[8] Ranavalona IV being akin to Madagascar’s version of OTL Elizabeth II while her twin sister became the co-monarch of Réunion Island (independent since 1913) with her husband, a morganatic biracial descendant of the House of Bourbon-Condé
[9] Henry’s death was a sad one, as he died with only his youngest daughter by his side while his funeral, while opulent (for one occurring in the middle of the First World War), had the presence of only one of his siblings, Leopold of the Carnatic, who had always been his favorite
I noticed that both Victor and Leopold's full name is "Arthur Vincent Charles Theodore", is this a mistake?
 
I noticed that both Victor and Leopold's full name is "Arthur Vincent Charles Theodore", is this a mistake?
Yes, it is. The system I have for making wikipedia infoboxes is making an infobox, copying it, and then pasting a copy from where I do the next one, which at times ends with me forgetting to edit one of the components of the box and suddenly having repeating information (the full name repeats, for example, are due to me using the infobox for Emperor Arthur as the basis for Victor's, not noticing my mistake, and repeating said mistake with Leopold's) - Victor and Leopold's actual names are "Victor William Patrick Edgar" and "Leopold Archibald Lewis"
 
Did Victoria have twins and triplets for grandchildren or great-grandchildren?
Of course yes, just for grandchildren she five sets of twins and two of triplets (it could have been three, since Miriam, Empress consort of Ethiopia, was meant to give birth to triplets, but Salomon IV’s brothers were born fatally underdeveloped)
Who was the first monarch to come out as LBGT (excluding Brunhilde/Ludwig II of Heese-Homburg)?
Well, that can be a bit of an open question to be frank, mainly because of OTL monarchs who were pretty uninterested in keeping their same-sex relationships secrets, a trend that was followed to this TL, with Leopold of the Carnatic, for example, quite frankly not giving a crap about hiding the fact that he had male lovers, while the Maharaja of Chhatarpur was just as if not more open about being gay as he was OTL.

If we speak of official/semi-official relationships or officially coming out, the first major example of LGBT monarchs we have is Emperor Showa, who together with being the most recent Japanese monarch to have a harem, had three male “concubines” within it, the first of them having entered it when the harem was formed in 1926 (having beforehand been the Prince Regent’s lover); while the first monarch to marry someone of the same sex was Elector Friedrich IV Philip of Hesse, who married his long-time male lover, Prince Ferdinand Donatus of Isenburg, in 1948.
What was the first funeral of an Imperial Kingdom monarch to be filmed/televised?
The first funeral of the monarch of an Imperial Kingdom to be filmed was the funeral of George V of Bengal in 1910, while the first to be televised was the funeral of James VIII of Kiribati in 1965
Do any monarchies have unique rules for the naming of their rulers (besides the Bahamas)?
Well, Mali has pulled a Reuss and de facto only permits “Napoleon” as the name of the Caliph (which shall make an interesting situation if the Duke of Timbuktu has no sons to succeed him), something which has also occurred with Bidache (they’re on Antoine number 17) and also happens in a few African and Asian monarchies (varying from using numerals in relation to their title or using a single name that has become basically a title by now), while Provence only includes the Carolingian Kings of Provence when doing their counting, something which also happens in a way in Ukraine (who counts the Rurikid Kings of Ruthenia).

Germany, on the other hand, has established the precedent that in case of a female Kaiser her name’s male equivalent must be included when counting regnal numbers (and vice-versa).

Monarchies of countries that descend from Spain and have Bourbon/Bourbon-descended royal houses also do some weird systems, with Argentina including pre-independence Spanish Monarchs while Aragon pulled a 180 and instead of using the Castilians as a basis for numerals they use the Aragonese. While in Colombia they also count royal consorts when giving regnal numbers.

And for monarchies with rules resembling those of the Bahamas, Bulgaria and Romania both have systems that include monarchs from preceding countries and/or include non-regnant ancestors when counting/give posthumous regnal numbers, and in Powo older brothers who didn’t make the cut are also counted.
What is Prince Otto of Bavaria (brother of Ludwig II) known for if he isn’t King of Bavaria?
Well, he is mainly known for his highly complicated personal life, starting with discovering he had some form of mental disorder (I don’t know what to call it, but was mainly having spells of depression and anxiety as well as of insomnia and emotional bursts) that was misdiagnosed as having a much worse condition by his crappy physician, resulting in him being de facto imprisoned at Schleisseim Palace, where he suffered from physical abuse and was often kept drugged to make dealing with him easier. He escaped from there in 1876 and after wandering for a bit he ended-up being introduced to a romani caravan, and lived with them for the next decade or so, marrying in 1880.

Due to a series of convoluted events worthy of a dramedy movie (there have been about 26 biopics about him as of 2020, half of those involve said events), Otto’s identity was revealed in 1889, and he came back to the Bavarian Royal Family married to a woman so far below his social class it wasn’t even funny and with three children, in what was probably the biggest scandal to occur in Germany at the time.

Being known mainly for giving absolutely zero fucks about anyone after his return, Otto ended-up moving to Canada in 1895 after one-too-many attacks against his family, and lived there until dying in 1910.

With his son and elder daughter having children, his descendants are in modern times members of the Quebecois aristocracy, with his son having been made Duke of Rimouski in 1908, and are also relatively well-known members of the Romani community of Quebec
What’s the situation with the red microstate that’s between France and Navarre?
That is the Principality of Bidache, a small microstate born out of a feudal state that existed from 1570 to 1793 and was known for being a bit of a haven for people wishing to escape the authority of the kingdoms of France and Navarre due to being ruled by the Dukes of Gramont, who were also Viceroys of Navarre and Governors of Béarn (being a haven for smugglers and for Jews escaping persecution in Spain.

Occupied and annexed by the First French Republic in 1793, the principality was in a bit of a surprise reestablished by the Congress of Vienna in 1814, and somehow survived without being annexed by France over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries.

A bit of an oddball, the principality is in modern times mainly known for being a mainly rural microstate who makes most of its money out of health tourism and banking and for having a majority Jewish population, with the main branch of the Gramonts themselves converting to Judaism with the marriage of the Prince of Bidache to a Rothschild in the late 19th century (the how of the principality surviving the Second World War is a bit of a wild tale, involving the Princes nearly bankrupting themselves to evacuate their subjects to Albion and using a small number of volunteers to stop any attempts by Militant France to settle it with Frenchmen)
What did Princess Emma of the Netherlands (aunt of Wilhelmina of the Netherlands) become known for as she got older?
Princess Emma is well-known for her career as a fashion designer and stylist, being a major player in the European fashion scene of the early 20th century, and is also known for her connection to Coastal Guinea, where she is remembered as being a “Mother of the Nation”.

How that came to be is due to her marriage, as in a wild turn of events Emma married Louis Alexis de Nassau-Corroy, her distant cousin from an Illegitimate Catholic Belgian branch of the House of Nassau (descending from a legitimized son of Henry III of Nassau-Breda) whose father, a younger son, had moved to the Netherlands and “converted”, and Louis became in turn known for serving as Governor of the Dutch Golden Coast for the better part of 20 years, with Emma and the family alternating between there and Europe constantly and her and her children being known for both approaching the Dutch Royal Family to the local population and for their charity/humanitarian works, and being followed in the position soon after by their son, who would end-up becoming the monarch of the now-renamed “Guineakust” (also called Coastal Guinea or even Equatorial Guinea at times)
Are there any members of the Albish royal family that became centenarians (besides Olivia, the Empress Dowager)?
Well, yes. There have been a few other members of the family to reach over 100 years of age:

- Elizabeth, Queen Mother of the Straits, who died at the age of 100 years and 77 days
- Prince Reginald of the Carnatic, who is 101 years old as of 2020
- Princess Georgiana, Duchess Evergreen, who died at the age of 102 years and 240 days
- Princess Olivia, Maharani of Gwalior, who died at the age of 104 years and 36 days
- Princess Margaret, Duchess of Leeds, who died at the age of 105 years and 53 days as the oldest member of the family by blood
- Wallis, Queen consort of Lower Burma, who died at the age of 107 years and 189 days
- and Princess Mother/Crown Princess Elizabeth of Kafiristan, who died at the age of 111 years and 125 days
 
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