What is Prince Ludwig of Bavaria (cousin of Ludwig II) known for if he isn’t King of Bavaria?
He is mostly known for his political career, and for being the both the first German Chancellor to die on the office and the first partisan Chancellor, as well as for doing so just weeks after the armistice with France.
Starting his career in politics in the upper house of the Bavarian Landtag, the Reichsrat, in 1863 (royal princes are automatically members), and later becoming a member of the Reichstag in 1872 (firstly as a member of the Bavarian Patriot Party, then as a non-partisan/independent, and later as part of the Centre Party). Outside of a period between 1890 and 1897, he remained on the Reichstag until 1909, when he was appointed the de facto
Minister President of Bavaria, and remained on the office until late 1916, when he was asked by Kaiser Wolfgang I to become German Chancellor.
In Germany he is often remembered for his sort-of-weird political stance, being conservative traditionalist but at the same time championing many liberal causes such as expansion of voting rights and better work conditions, which while some simply calk-up to him being faithful to Rerum novarum
others think was something he developed on his own, as it was already present before the encyclical was issued in the 1880s. He is also remembered for de facto
remaking the Centre Party to his image, with it to this day still keeping mostly to what he established as its principles in 1899.
During his time as a politician he also was a proponent of the technological development of the german agrarian industry, as well as for being an ardent supporter of the social welfare programs, passing during his Chancellorship both a land distribution program for veterans (to be enacted following the end of the war) and the extension of the right to vote to women (although it was still in a limited fashion)
Outside of Germany Ludwig is mostly known for his time as Chancellor, with some mentioning in special the fact he survived 18 recorded assassination attempts (including one by siccing his hunting dogs at the assassin, ironically a pair of borzois gifted to him by his daughter-in-law) and the fact that he had some real talent in making himself sound “admonishing” and “annoyed” when talking.
Is Hollywood still the film production capital of the world in TTL?
No, an I’d say there isn’t really an ITTL equal to OTL Hollywood in relation to influence over the movie industry.
Due to the much less stable, and actually quite bloody and chaotic, course of North America in the 20th century, in special during periods when the film industry was sort of establishing itself (as well as due to movie industry being less *centralized*), Hollywood, although still a major center of film production, isn’t nearly as predominant as OTL. Other major “production capitals” are:
(Iver, Buckinghamshire) and Cinelândia
(Rio de Janeiro), who are the film production capitals of Albion and Brazil respectively and together are the closest to OTL Hollywood we have on the TL’s world
(south of Rupert, Seattle’s ITTL counterpart), Oregon’s “movie capital”, known for having “Newold Village”, one of the world’s largest filming sets as it is basically a full town built for historical movies and programs (mostly Victorian)
(named after the district it is located in the Mexico City region), the Mexican “movie and television capital” and in many ways functioning like a Hollywood that never underwent the Hays Code
(Kyoto), Japan’s “movie capital”, which is known for having another of the world’s largest film sets, “Uzumasa the Village” (which is both a filming set, most famous for the large part of it replicating an Edo town, and an actual village)
(Pashran, south of Mumbai), who is Bharat’s largest singular center for film production but isn’t the “capital” of the subcontinent’s movie industry due to Canning
(just outside Calcutta) being head-to-head with it in relation to movie output
(outskirts of Moscow), which besides being the center for a large chunk of Russia’s film studios, is also known for having the third-largest “filming city” in the World, which is so large it is also often rented to foreign film studios and includes things such as one of the Great Wooden Palace of Kolomenskoye’s reconstructions, a replica of a Kievan Rus’ city, and an artificial lake used to film sea battles
Are the Presidents of Brittany related in any way to the House of Rohan?
Yes, nowadays, since the Rohan-Chabots remained in Brittany/France as a major political dynasty and have by now intermingled with them – even if political marriages aren’t really a thing, marrying within a social circle and familial expectations are –, and so the current President’s husband is the Duke of Rohan’s 1st half-cousin
What are the Grey Gardens in Oregon like?
I don’t know if I can correctly describe the image I have in my head for them, but I’ll try.
The Gray Gardens are the resting grounds of the Oregonian Monarchs and Royal Family, located where Stanley Park, Vancouver, is OTL (with the pseudo-island they are located being officially the Royal Woods of Vancouver, which are nominally a territory separate from the surrounding metropolis of Musqueam, OTL Vancouver’s counterpart).
From afar, the most noticeable feature of the Gardens is the Old Castle, on the taller northwest of the ‘island’; built in the 1860s by Tobias Cainhurst, a man who made fortune in the Fraser Gold Rush, the castle is a rather massive *mostly* neogothic structure, and even from afar one can notice the dilapidated tone of its appearance, with one side of it being marked by ivy and green and the other seems to have bits and pieces missing. This is due to how the castle came to the possession of the Oregonian Royal Family, as it was from 1864, even before completion, to 1882 Cainhurst’s residence, until a fire and gas explosion, which also killed the guy, resulted on a large part of the castle being either burn, collapsing, or being damaged. In grief and shock, the man’s surviving family simply left the castle, and neither them nor the city made moves to either restore or completely demolish it.
This is where the Gray Gardens gained their name, as during a visit to Musqueam in 1885, the royal couple ended-up taking a trip through the ruins, and by then the stone and concrete parts of the ruins had been somewhat bleached by the Sun and rain, while vegetation and animals were encroaching. Seeing the ruins, the couple, Michael in special, found it strangely beautiful, with him comparing it to ruins of castles and palaces in Europe and the Home Islands, while Helena said it resembled a “garden made of granite” – her statement served as the basis for the nickname they gave to the ruins, “gray garden”, which was made the estate’s name when the Crown bought the lands from Tobias’ family later that year.
While the stable parts of the castle were converted into a royal residence, and what wasn’t was still renovated to be in a better state, the remainder of the ruins were left as they were; to the side of the ruins, in the overground gardens of Cainhurst’s castle, a small neogothic chapel was built on Michael’s orders, to serve as the resting place for him and Helena. Following that, the castle gardens became the official burial grounds basically, although undergoing major alterations and renovations in the 1930s and 70s.
The grounds aren’t paved, being a bit maze-like with gravel trails, and are marked by most of the graves and tombs, from the simple to the extravagant, being constantly manicured to look mildly overgrown by a battalion of gardeners and groundskeepers, with the overgrowth on itself being a part of their design and meant to keep with the general style of the gardens
Is the line of succession for the Ottoman Empire/Turkey still follows agnatic seniority?
Due to the rather… chaotic, manner through which the Ottoman Empire fell, the House of Osman sort-of splintered into various branches as dynasts fled to the four corners of the Earth. Out of this mess, the two main branches who came about were those of Adakale
in Europe and Samaria
in the Middle East; one follows hereditary primogeniture, the other agnatic seniority; both claim to be the Ottoman Caliph.
While they were at eachother’s necks about the matter (with Samaria in specific claiming to be the true continuation due to keeping the old succession system) this would be simply a case of opinion and you could more easily make a point for Samaria being the “true” continuation, until the branches talked it out on 1977 in Cairo and, in the Mena Hotel Agreement, agreed to recognize one-another as Caliph, meaning that both are seen by the House of Osman as the direct official continuation of the Ottoman Empire.
And even in relation to Samaria things could be made even weirder, since they sort-of divided their rulership of Samaria from the Caliphate to make things easier, so while the Caliphate goes by agnatic seniority through all the House of Osman (although members can abdicate their right to it upon being offered, and the Adakale branch is officially kept separate from this), the de facto
rulership of Samaria passes by agnatic seniority solely through the local branch of the dynasty
Have any coronations been streamed on the internet yet?
Much how presidential inaugurations are streamed on the internet, coronations are too; admittedly, though, the number of coronations streamed live is generally-to-considerably smaller.
The first coronation to be ever streamed live, much like the first inauguration OTL, is a bit understated in that, with most people not even knowing that Fuad II of Egypt’s coronation ceremony in 1997 was not only streamed live but was the first one to do so. The one most people associate as being “the first one” is that of Kaiser Wolfgang III in 2001.
A recent major coronation to be streamed live was that of Empress Charlotte, in 2017.
How advanced is anthropogenic global warming compared to OTL?
Firstly, sorry for somehow managing to not notice your question until nearly half a year later. I apologize, emphatically and profusely.
is a rather interesting question! – at least to me
While for the 19th century and the early 1900s anthropogenic global warming and climate change happened at mostly a similar level to OTL, things differ rather considerably as changes started to pile up by the middle of the 20th century, as various ITTL events, most importantly the early development of environmentalism and petroleum never becoming the undisputed rulers of the vehicle/transport industry, even when balanced by an earlier industrialization of certain parts of the world, resulted on the overall rise of global surface temperature from human action being just
a bit smaller than it was OTL.
The major divergence from OTL happens with the continuation of the 20th century, though, as the ITTL changes continue to accumulate, both on top of the above mentioned ones and on each-other – like the various global conflicts, which affected both population growth and industrialization (often changing where it happened, how it did, and to which scale it did in comparison to OTL) and technological development (which moved in a somewhat, even if not by much, faster pace); or the earlier popularization of alternative energy sources –, resulting on anthropogenic global warming being on a better (for the world) situation compared to OTL, with the global average temperature being about 0.7 °F (just under 0,4 °C) higher than that of pre-industrial times, when we reached the 1990s.
I specify the 1990s because ITTL that is the decade where anthropogenic global warming and climate change, and their dangers and horrors, really entered the public consciousness, and where, unlike OTL, efforts to fight against it were not successfully fought against by the fossil fuel industry (with the ITTL equivalent of the Koch brothers being actually tried for treason for doing so), resulting on an active push to both reduce/contain carbon gas emissions and physically extract the excess CO2 on the atmosphere.
Because of that, anthropogenic global warming hasn’t advanced even close to the same point as OTL, and as of 2020 the global average temperature has actually managed to decrease from how it was at the end of the 20th century, being about 0.4 °F (~0.2 °C) above what it was before the industrial revolution (in comparison to our modern ~2.2 °F, or 1.2 °C)
April 13th, 1814, to June 9th, 1815
And now, for somethign completely unrelated to the answers I gave above
Some info on Elba, not in the manner of an infobox though, more like how I did the Imperial Kingdoms, and on the mess in Italy
Officially the Principality of Elba (Tuscan: Principato d’Elba; Elban French: Principauté del I’lla d’Elba; Corsican: Principatu d’Elba)
Capital in the Fraction of Lutèce, part of the larger Ferraio, the principality’s largest city at a population of 52.8 thousand inhabitants
The principality has Tuscan, French, and Corsican as its official languages, while German, Piedmontese and Hoisan-wa are recognized as ‘protected languages’
The principality has a total population of approximately 363 thousand inhabitants, with an estimated 50 thousand pseudo-citizens
Out of its population, the largest ethnic group is that of Elbans, which make an overwhelming majority at around 75%, while the largest minorities are the members of the Chinese Diaspora and Piedmonteis, who comprise most of its remaining citizens, and Italian Refugees, who make most of the population lacking citizenship
Religiously Elba is a majority Roman Catholic, with Buddhism and Chinese Folk Religions and the Cult of Reason being the principality’s main religious minorities
Officially the principality is a Bonapartist Monarchy, a kind of constitutional executive monarchy marked by being de facto more of an absolute monarchy, marked by a monarch that holds a central authority over all facets of government and can make all-encompassing decisions at their wish, although historically most Elban monarchs have delegated the use of those powers to a personally appointed Governor of Elba
The principality’s official currency is, somewhat ironically, the Tuscan Florin & Lira, as well as the European Unit
THE SOVEREIGNS OF ELBA
– Napoleon (1769-1821) – better known as the Emperor of the French, he was made Emperor at Elba
in the Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1814, and was deposed in absence by the Congress of Vienna after his Hundred Days
----The Ninth of June to the Thirteenth, 1815 – The Napoleonic Question----
June 13, 1815, to July 22nd, 1836 – Francis I Napoleon (1811-1836) – sometimes called Napoleon II, due to being the titular Emperor of the French from the 22nd of June to the 7th of July of 1815, he was the son of the above with Archduchess Maria Ludovica of Austria and was nearly not made Sovereign of Elba by the Congress of Vienna. Raised in Austria, he was there Duke of Reichstadt, and died without having ever set foot in Elba
June 22nd, 1836, to February 8th, 1877 – Francis II (1835-1877) – the son of the above with Maria Theresa of Austria-Este
February 8th, 1877, to September 30th, 1893 – Louis (1862-1919) – son of the above with Maria Christina of Tuscany, abdicated
September 30th, 1893, to May 1st, 1926 – Mariana (1855-1926) – older sister of the above, she had served as his Governor beforehand
May 1st, 1926, to August 10th, 1953 – Joseph I (1880-1961), son of the above with Count Emilie of Calamita, abdicated due to health
August 10th, 1953, to January 3rd, 1988 – Francis III (1906-1988), son of the above with Helena of Tuscany, a famous playboy
January 3rd, 1988, to March 27th, 1992 – Joseph II (1930-1992), son of the above with Paula von Fürstenberg
March 27th, 1992, to the Present – Alexander (1980), son of the above with Loredana of Tavolara
ITTL, although Standard Italian is still the same as OTL, Elba, like some of the other Italian States, recognizes its local dialect of Italo-Romance as being an official language in of itself and refers to it as either “Tuscan” or “Elbano Tuscan”
Becoming an official language of Elba in 1836, after the principality received an influx of Napoleonic Loyalists, the Elban Dialect of French (formally declared the official one in 1966) is considerably different from the language’s “Standard” variation, having been injected with a considerable amount of Tuscan, Occitan and Corsican over the past 200 years (most easily exemplified by the principality’s name in Standard/Parisian French, which is nearly completely different from how it is in Elban French)
A bit of a strange case, Corsican only became the principality’s official language in the 1860s, when attempts by Francis II to both distance from and reconnect with his family’s past resulted on the “Corsican Delegation”, the immigration of about a thousand immigrants from Corsica which permanently affected the principality’s demographics
Due to both being raised in the Imperial Court at Vienna, both Francis I and his son had the local language as their first tongue, something which was brought by Francis II to Elba, with Viennese German becoming something of a courtly language in the principality during the early 19th and a strange sort-of lingua franca
, which with time evolved into a local dialect of German unique for being both commonly spoken but also almost solely as a secondary language
Also known as “Taishanese” or “Toishanese”, Hoisan-wa is one of the various Yue Languages which spread with the Chinese Diaspora, and in Elba specifically named as such to differentiate it from the related but largely unintelligible Cantonese, which has historically been conflated with the Yue Languages in general due to being their “prestige variety”
The term used in Elba to refer to permanent inhabitants who nonetheless lack an official citizenship
Considered by some to be a “artificial identity”, the idea of “Elban” as something more than either “Inhabitant of the Principality of Elba” or “Pre-Napoleonic Inhabitants of Elba” was first officially started by Francis II, in an attempt to unite the principality’s various inhabitants through a shared cultural identity, but only came to be something of a reality under his children, who heavily pushed for the idea of it being the gestalt of the country’s various – European – ethnic groups
First appearing in Elba in the late 19th century, coming through the admission of immigrants from France’s colonial endeavors in Asia, the bulk of the principality’s Chinese Diaspora, however, only came in the 20th century, when the Conflicts and the future Francis III’s “adventures” in East Asia resulted on the coming of Elba’s large Taishanese population (the former for creating an environment that made immigration from Southern China enticing and the latter form making it from Taishan to Elba in specific both attractive and possible)
Originating in Elba in the middle 20th century, the Piedmonteis are or descend from refugees and exiles coming from the Piedmont Region of Northern Italy who came in the years of and following the Second World War, who made most of the Italian refugees to Elba in those times and are referred to as “Piedmonteis” in great part to simply differentiate from contemporary refugees (as the conflation with them tends to at least miff most Piedmonts, who are original to a different region and have generally attempted to shed most connections to a “Italian Nationality” since their coming to Elba, most easily seen in their sticking to either Piedmontese or Tuscan as their primary language instead of Standard Italian)
Mostly original to the regions of Tuscany and Liguria
The Roman Catholic Church does have
some quirks in Elba, mainly the fact that the Sovereign is officially recognized by the Papacy as His Holiness’ highest-ranking official within the principality even if said office’s powers (equivalent to an Archbishop) are de facto
nominal outside of a few instances (Elba has ironically enough had a quite friendly relationship with the Vatican since the times of Francis II)
Which often are practiced together with Roman Catholicism, reason why Elba is rather “inexact” in its religious statistics
Starting as a university club in the 1880s, the Elban Cult of Reason isn’t an actual continuation to the one that existed in Revolutionary France (although some have claimed it to be so), instead simply being a philosophical belief that identifies itself as “being based on the exercise of Reason and Reasoning as the main tenant for one’s way of living”. One of the most noticeable difference between the modern cult and the revolutionary one is its stance on religion, for example, with the Cult’s founders being rather explicit on it not
being atheistic in nature (many of them expressing the opinion that “Reason is the way through which (God’s) Plan moves”) and a large part of its modern members identifying as also being followers of Roman Catholicism together with it
The actual powers of the “Governor of Elba” have never been truly set in stone, with the closest thing to a definition being that the office’s holder is responsible for doing the Sovereign’s job when they can’t or won’t, but even then that isn’t a complete fit, since while many Governors have at many times acted as Elba’s de facto
Head-of-Government (like those of Francis I or Sovereign Mariana while serving as her brother’s Governor), at others they have acted instead as their Sovereign’s deputy (like Mariana’s Governors), resulting in most people saying that the job of the Governor of Elba is “doing what the Sovereign needs them to do”
Having been in a monetary union with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany since its founding, Elba ended-up retaining the Tuscan Florin and Lira as its currency even after the grand duchy’s demise in 1859, with the modern principality being in the unique situation where its original coin, of which the principality is its only official user, isn’t actually seen by Elba as being ‘native’ to it, with the Mint of Ferraio being officially a branch of the now defunct Mint of Florence
For a while following the final defeat of Napoleon, there was a discussion over whether Elba would immediately return to being a part of Tuscany (as it was technically planned to do upon Napoleon’s death) or if something else was to occur; in the end the Congress of Vienna somehow came to the decision of giving the Principality of Elba to Napoleon’s son, who was a toddler living in Vienna, together with a few stipulations (like a planned marriage between said young son and a Tuscan Hapsburg)
Better known as Marie Louise, Napoleon’s second wife, she was by birth the eldest surviving child and daughter of Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor (and first Austrian Emperor), and the Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla following the 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau, holding the position until her death in 1847.
The eldest daughter and child of Francis IV, Duke of Modena and Reggio, born in 1815, her and Francis I entered a relationship when he, already sick with tuberculosis, visited Italy for the first time in 1834, entering an affair that came to light when she gave birth to Francis II and they were hurriedly married at the end of 1835, it only not causing an even greater diplomatic/political crisis due to Francis I being already on his deathbed at the time while the girl he was actually meant to marry, Archduchess Carolina Auguste of Tuscany, (the travel being originally to meet her) was 13
The third daughter of Leopold II of Tuscany with his second wife, Princess Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies, she was the younger half-sister of Francis I’s original betrothed
Mariana de facto
ruled Elba since enacting the Night of the Long Knives in 1860, with Louis’ abdication in 1893 being de facto
a formality by that point and made by him as a birthday gift to his sister
The illegitimate son of Louis Emmanuel Bonaparte, Francis II’s younger brother born five months after their father’s death
The second-eldest daughter of Ferdinand IV, last sovereign Grand Duke of Tuscany
Daughter of Maximillian Egon II of Fürstenberg, she and Francis III were first half-cousins through their mothers, who were also the ones responsible for their match, and had grown up together, with their marriage being seen as more of a burden than a joy (both were crying at their marriage, and after having their sons were pretty open about never having sex with eachother again)
In great part due to their unfortunate matrimony, both of Joseph II’s parents were known for their various affairs and bastards, although while his mother preferred to have them more secretively (with her two illegitimate daughters being kept out of the limelight) his father was infamous for showing his relationships to everyone to see, having a plethora of lovers throughout the years and officially recognizing his known illegitimate children
First Cousin of Carlo II of Tavolara, she and Joseph II met in 1953 when he suffered a boat accident in the waters near Tavolara, being rescued by her brother from drowning and, due to his injuries, staying at the small kingdom while recovering
ELBA IN THE ITALIAN CONFLICT
Although for a long time it was mostly known for its tourism, colorful history, and being a major overlay of the Commonwealth and the European Community in the Mediterranean – having de facto been a member of both organizations since their beginnings due to existing as a shared protectorate of the Albish and Hapsburgs ever since the Napoleonic Wars –, in recent years the country has also come to become famous (and infamous) for its remarkable military, which entered the world’s spotlight when Elba became directly involved in the mess of the Italian Civil War.
Originally prohibited from having any organized military by the Congress of Vienna (for rather obvious reasons), the beginnings of the Elban Armed Forces came with the Risorgimento, when the principality came to be nearly encircled by an Italian State almost-openly vying to annex it (something not helped by the granting of asylum to the Grand Dukes of Tuscany) and both of its ‘protectors’ chose to grant Elba the ability to have a military as a way of having a well-defended position in Western Italy.
Comparably paranoid to Canada, Elba only became involved in two armed conflicts before present times, the World Wars, but nonetheless managed to develop a surprisingly capable and talented military, which includes the near entirety of the principality’s citizens on its troops, something which came quite in hand when the Italian Civil War begun in the late 2000s.
Although located right next to the Italian Mainland (with the Isle of Elba herself only about 10km from its shores) and in specific to the hotbed of Chaos that became Tuscany, the principality originally made an attempt at neutrality, accepting refugees as they came but staying out of direct armed interactions outside of its maritime borders.
While Elba tried to stay out of the conflict, said conflict, instead, came to it.
After a few years of Elba holding an open asylum to refugees, the principality was struck with two nigh-simultaneous terrorist attacks on the 9th of November, 2013, as a direct response to it by Tuscany’s major factions. The attacks, made right in the middle of the 18 Brumaire Festivities, resulted in over seven hundred deaths, while over 20 thousand where injured to various degrees, including a large chunk of the principality’s government.
In response to the attacks, Elba officially intervened into the conflict only a week later, when its sovereign, still stuck to a hospital bed*, ordered the Elban Marine Forces – with the backing of the Royal Navy –, to advance into ‘Italian’ waters. This was followed, in turn, by the amphibious invasion and conquest of Piombino on the 18th of November, which is somewhat erroneously remembered as the ‘opening move’ of the principality into the conflict.
Establishing Piombino and her environs as its stronghold in the continent, from there Elba, surprisingly, decided to expand indirectly, using its army to back some of the minor players in the War in Tuscany** instead of (at least openly) taking over more territories for itself and, over the past six years, managing with striking success to almost entirely overturn and remake the region’s conflict to its pleasure.
Although Etruria and Presidia*** are the only pesudostates**** to be openly under Elba’s control, the principality’s main ‘force’ on the region is the Free Tuscan Nation (Italian: Liberata Nazione Toscana), which de facto exists as the principality’s puppet after being propped by it from near annihilation in 2015, with Elba backing the LNT on a journey of defeating and conquering most of Tuscany’s factions, resulting on the region’s current state.
In its position as the LNT, Etruria and Presidia’s de facto commander, Elba is currently still at war with the ARES
*The attacks left the Sovereign of Elba with serious burning over nearly half of his body (besides other injuries, including the loss of one of his legs), and for the first days following them he was in a medically-induced coma that was followed by a short psychotic episode; similarly, to him, the then Governor of Elba was also in a coma for a while, although in his case it was due to his even more dramatic injuries, which left him without an arm and partially paralyzed below the waist
** “War in X” has become a colloquial formula to refer to the “regions” of the Civil War due to the Italian State’s geographical divisions
*** Respectively the “Uniti Comuni dell’Etruria” (something along the lines of “United Municipalities of Etruria” in English) and the “Principato dei Presidi” (“Principality of the Garrisons” in English), the former is de facto
something nearing a semi-anarchic confederacy (and whose name was adopted in 2018 after a few years as “Alliance of the Forces Centered at the lands of Pisa and Livorno”) while the latter was until recently the “State of the Garrisons”, which was de facto
led by the Sovereign of Elba’s younger brother in his post as the commander of the Elban troops stationed on it until said leadership became de jure
when the state’s 20 thousand-ish inhabitants did a surprise plebiscite and made his position official through the creation of the modern principality
**** A term coined around the 2010s to describe a faction in a multi-sided civil war that has de facto
become a state of its own, not to be confused with “Unrecognized State”, which in this context is considered a different entity