Trivoli: A Complete Alternate History

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by greenbay2014, Dec 21, 2014.

  1. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
    This alternate history has everything to offer, action, drama, strategy, motives, intriguing characters, all eras of history. This story was meant to be a history of a people, particularly the Italian people and hence it’s Italian-centric. It’s an essential rewrite of history of itself but with parallels to the one we know. Due to history taking a complete different course than what we know actually happened, technological progress doesn’t correspond with the date or year it does in this reality. Expect lots of images as well, so you've been warned. Questions, comments, and constructive criticism are welcomed and encouraged. Enjoy!

    The completed sections of this history has been organized into 12 sections:

    • 1400 B.C. – 73 B.C.: [3,725 words]
      #1: Easier to rule a kingdom than a child (For those who fancy pre-history, mythology, ancient-warfare and philosophy)
    • 73 B.C. – C.E. 410: [5,081 words]
      #2: Starting with a city of bricks to leaving with a city of marble (For those who fancy classical culture, war, and an ancient empire; from aqueducts flowing with water to battlefields flowing with blood)
    • 410 – 1376: [7,230 words]
      #3: “The sun has not yet set forever!” (For those who fancy castles, crusades, and religion)
    • 1376-1408 overlaps into two simultaneous parts:
      #4: “A nation out of despair.” (For those who fancy War & Politics: Italy’s evolution into a nation-state) [5,195 words]
      #5: “Progress, tis the heretic you accuse and decay you hold orthodox!” (For those who fancy Culture & Society: Italy’s Cultural Revolution) [3,930 words]
    • 1408-1571: [8,514 words]
      #6: “As west as the horizon” (For those who fancy colonialism, monarchism, and religious wars in Europe leaving with a bang).
    • 1571-1659 [5,776 words]
      #7: “A monarchy’s power doesn’t come from the monarch; the monarch’s power comes from the people! An absolute monarch’s greatest fear is this truth.” (For those who fancy piracy, troubles of imperialism, and enlightened absolutism).
    • 1659-1671 [5,068 words]
      #8: “Tis absurd for one individual to represent the masses of an entire realm.” (For those who fancy revolution, civil war, and the age of liberty)
    • 1671-1729 [4,203 words]
      #9: “Nom nom nom this pasta is good” (For those who fancy cultural and social change)
      “A man that of a formal savage, a diner that speaks while eating but crosses his fork and knife when finished, a host that flatters his guests but applies profanity with compliments, and a socialite that has the wardrobe of an emperor but the diction of a sailor. That said, Gaspari is truly a formal savage. Truly, a soldier deemed for politics.”
    • 1729-1790 [5,161 words]
      #10: “The role of government is not to benefit individuals but only to benefit the grouping of its society as a whole.” (For those who fancy Industrialization, Robber Barons, Imperialism and the Escalation of a World War)
    • 1790-1802 [13,490 words]
      #11: “The European War can only last as long as a man can endure hunger.” (For those who fancy total war, trench conflict, unrestricted submarine warfare, and an inevitable collapse of notable European powers).
    • 1802-1821 [9,152 words]
      #12: “Abundance, the maker of greed.” (For those who fancy dictatorships, totalitarianism, the rise of extremists, communism, fascism, and the developments of interwar periods)



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    #1
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    1400 B.C. – 73 B.C.
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    The history of Italy can be all traced to the actions and influence of once city, Trivoli. At the mouth of the Tiber River and middle of the peninsula, Trivoli held a key location to lead Italy. Rich in culture, ethical in wealth, the city’s historical importance cannot be fully comprehended. The city would emerge the well for power among an ever-expanding garden. A garden growing warriors and politicians, some good, some evil; plowing up irons and silver; feeding an abundant quantity of livestock.

    The region was first inhabited by Umbrian settlers migrating down the Tiber River. The settlers proved their land to be more valuable than their native lands, the mouth of the Tiber River held key growth advantages. Not only did the surrounding farmland benefit from very fertile soil and flexible water sources, but the city was founded downstream from where fish laid eggs and hatched, allowing much greater amount of seafood consumption. And as the city grew rapidly, its trade did to. The city’s wide and long river was used to ship resources such as grain and fruit from as far as 75 miles upriver, eventually the river was used to ship stone and timber as well.

    According to Trivolin legend, the city's people originally lived many forests northwards. A neighboring king believed the city's people were foolish and weak for living in an unfortified city of free peoples. He sought to conquer this defenseless jewel and set off his armies. The Trivolin people are a fierce, proud, strong people who this jealous neighboring king found immensely insubordinate to his authority. After ravaging it's wealth, the king razed the city. Its civilians fled south. Their pilgrimage prolonged weeks, months even. Until the will of the gods brought them to the most ideal habitat for any civilization: the mouth of the Tiber.

    By the time of the Iron Age, around 1400 B.C., the Trivoli settlement had become an important center and influential city state on the Italian peninsula. Traces of Trivolish mythology originates from the north, from the Bellatora city-state. The Bellatorans held many gods in their beliefs, honoring them with temples, shrines, and celebrations. Their beliefs, which would travel down to other city states, would come to be known as Trivolish Mythology as Trivoli expanded the religion simultaneously as it expanded its borders.

    Trivolish Mythology believed that the god Liris, the god of the sky, once came down from the Agora Divinum, in where they believed was deep in the Alps, and created a child with beast. From this man was created. This holds a key belief in Trivoli mythology, in that man is above beast for it bares the traits and lineage of the gods, yet man is below the gods because it is mortal just like the beasts that roam the earth. Liris was extremely proud of his creation and he held a large ceremony to celebrate the birth of man. At the celebration, Liris asked each of the ten primary gods (excluding himself) to give man a gift. Note that in Italian culture at these times, a gift was something given that could be reclaimed by its sender if felt justified or betrayed. At this fundamental myth in Trivolish mythology, the mythological Trivolish deities became the “gods of” whatever they gifted to Liris or man in addition to whatever they ruled.
    • Pyropus, first to present, knew man must uphold his place above beast, so Pyropus gave man his own sword and shield to defend himself from other creatures. Because of this gift, Pyropus is the god of fighting and eventually the god of war as well.
    • Aprocius gave man seeds - among these grains, olives, and grapes - so he could live off the land and not just the beasts. Thus, Aprocius is worshipped as the god of farming and crops.
    • To help man farm, Ceraris, literally meaning the “candle maker” of the gods, created the sun by dividing night and day. Thus Ceraris is the god of the sun and harvest.
    • Vechino, a keenly organized god, decided to give man his very own tool for measurement of time, Vechino gifted the moon to man to keep track of harvest and day, for this Vechino is regarded as god of moon, calendar, and time.
    • So man wouldn’t grow lonely on earth, the goddess Evora gave man woman, in the form of herself. Evora is regarded as the goddess of love, family, and fertility.
    • Faebrius - Liris’ personal architect of the Agora Divinum and Pryopus’ dependable craftsman of swords - presented man with the hammer, ax, and dagger, so man could build his own structures and shelters. Faebrius is thus the god of construction, blacksmith, craftsmen, marvels, and the forge.
    • Next, Adiger, the messenger of the gods, gave man the horse. Adiger claimed that with the horse man could send his words to each corner of earth. Adiger thus becomes the god of travel, information, and expansion. The Trivolish Republic would hold its elections on the first Adige, the eight day of the week on the Vechino Calendar, in January in hopes than honoring Adiger would preserve the increasing expansion of the Trivolin civilization.
    • Avina told the other gods that a celebration isn’t whole without wine so she filled all their chalices with wine and her own chalice to man. Avina is worshipped as the goddess of wine and celebrations.
    • Lastly, Teyevius was called upon to give a gift. Teyevius told Liris that all these gifts would spoil man and man might overpower the gods. Teyevius, an angry god, turned his anger into lightning and thunder, and gave it to Liris for when he must punish man making Liris god of thunder and lightning in addition to the sky. Grateful for Teyevius’ wise addition, Lirius rewarded Teyevius with the Underworld, a place for Teyevius to rule for himself. But in the underworld, Teyevius was responsible for the punishment of men after death.
    Trivolish mythology carried many myths to explain principles of nature that weren’t understood yet. Many more gods were added to the primary nine Trivolian gods. While multitudes of gods were adopted by the Trovli Empire as it conquered other civilizations, some were created often as the offspring of existing gods in the stories of new myths. The goddess Maiellis was the most discussed of all the gods by the classical Trivoli philosophers. Because man was without organized rule, often fighting amongst himself in the early generations, Maiellis supposedly drafted a code of laws on marble tablets and sent Adiger with these laws to man. Those teaching the Tale of Maiellis often change the context and the laws themselves. This folktale greatly influenced how the Italians governed their people up to the fall of the Trivoli Empire. Classical Italian philosophers loved to debate the laws, notably Vuraetus. Because of her contribution, Maiellis is worshiped as the goddess of law, morality, and justice.

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    Modern geopolitical map of the Italian peninsula.​

    By the late Iron Age, Trivoli and its surrounding territories adopted its own evolved language completed with a Phoenician alphabet. Italy at this time was divided between many self-governing city-states, the largest being Trivoli, Torchello, Bellatora, Regalis, and Stagna. Stagna gained reputation for its cavalry in an 11 year war against Torchello 353 B.C. to 342 B.C., and Favilla carried a large navy used from its lumber economy.

    Trivoli and Bellatora would be obligated to ally against the largest external threat that ancient Italy would ever see. Mermarius II of the Turkish Empire, after the completion of the Turkish conquest of the Balkans successfully, Mermarius began his attempt to subjugate Italy. His invasion in 296 B.C. capsized the Favilla City State but his army was defeated by an allied Trivoil and Bellatora just 40 miles north of Torchello at the Battle of Cattolica.

    Sabbatius I of Turkey, Marmarius II’s nephew and successor, attempted an invasion of his own a dozen years later. Sabbatius sent ambassadors to all the city states of Italy, warning the states of his plans for invasion and demanding their submission. Almost all the city states gave in to Sabbatius, with the exceptions of Trivoli and Bellatora who executed the Turkish ambassadors. Sabbatius ordered a military campaign into Italy to crush the defiant Trivoli and Bellatora.

    Trivoli requested assistance from King Piroxidamus of Bellatora to organized his army and to begin a campaign against the large and powerful Turkish army. Bellatora’s council forbid fighting near a full moon in their calendar’s month of Vechino. Piroxidamus claimed he was of a direct lineage to Pyropus, he argued the Gods would side with Piroxidamus regardless. Tactically, Piroxidamus claimed his 1,000 finest soldiers as his personal body guard and informed the town’s elected council of his body guard being obligated to follow the king wherever he might go, and that he's strolling east. The Bellatoran army was left to defend the city and Piroxidamus led his force of a thousand Bellatorans east, towards the Turkish army.

    Supportive of Piroxidamus, Avins sent 700 soldiers to fight alongside with the Bellatorans. While Bellatorans were known to be fierce soldiers trained from childhood, Avins was a city of craftsmen and wine makers. As Piroxidamus travelled east, he was joined by multiple Italian tribes and city-states, together known as the Italian Coniurandi, creating a sum of around 5,000 to 6,000 soldiers. Piroxidamus sent Avins cavalry, a group known at the time as “Tricksters of Teyevius”, to taunt the Turkish army and lead them to Lake Garda. The Turks fell for the Italian trap, send its vast army to chase what they perceived to be spies and sabotagers, the Turkish army general believed the Tricksters of Teyevius to be assassins hoping to kill or scare him.

    The Italians had already marched north next to the lake, fortified to block the pass. Here, at Caprinio Pass, Sabbatius’ army of 90,000 held no numerous advantages at the pass’ most narrow location. The Turks attacked the Italians with archers, affecting little against their heavy shields. When infantry attacked, the Bellatorans used Piroxidamus’ tactic of feigning retreat, where they Italians would step back as if vulnerable, placing the attacking Turks in a lured vulnerable state. With no Turkish success, the Italians held. The Turks failed again on the second day of their assault and third day. Exhausted and injured, most of the Italians retreated to what they felt was already a victory. Honoring their laws, the Bellatorans refused to retreat. With just 1,200 Italian soldiers remaining at the pass, Sabinus sent 13,000 Turks running at the Bellatorans, whom were still accompanied with soldiers from both Torchello and Avins. While the patriotic Italians inflicted heavy casualties against the Turks, they were overrun. Every last Bellatoran was killed, including Piroxidamus himself, with just ten dozen Torchellons and Avins surviving in retreat.

    The Battle of Caprinio rallied the Italian City-States against the Turks with such a powerful blow to the Turks, glimpse of sunlight in military defense, and proven stronger defiance with Italian cooperation. Bellatora was eventually conquered by the Turks 283 B.C., but Trivoli would push the Turks out of the peninsula in 279 B.C., liberating Bellatora and Favilla. Trivoli’s success and large conquest placed the city, already the largest by far city-state in Italy, as the governing state of Italy, forming the Italian Republic.

    The Turkish Empire would eventually collapse after the death of a heirless Emperor Mermarius III, leaving it to a feud between Mermarius’ younger brother and his half-sister’s oldest son. Vureatus was born in Trivoli in 262 B.C. just after the fall of the Turkish Empire. Trivoli had already become a center for new ideas from its many trade routes and well fed population. Vureatus brought philosophy into morals, Trivolish mythology, and politics. Vureatus believed that rulers must exercise three tools to govern successfully.

    The first tool being law. The code of laws must be written clearly, specifically, and publicly. Again, an influence of the Tale of Maiellis on Trivolin culture. While laws must value citizens equally, Vureatus argued, they should reward those obedient to it and punish those who aren't. Vureatus argued that a government needs a strong system of laws more than a strong leader, because laws ran the state. Thus if the code of laws is strongly enforced, even a weak ruler could be strong. Another tool of governing being technique. A ruler must use skillful tactics to preserve his control over the state and prevent others from taking it. Thus a ruler’s motivation must remain secret. The third tool for a working governor is position of power. Vureatus emphasized that a position of influence must hold the power, not just the individual ruling himself for a government to withstand time.

    Bassius, on the other hand, argued against Vureatus’ support for strict obedience to the law. Bassius argued that it’s the subjects’ right to overthrow or even assassinate a governor that rules harshly and ignores the necessities of the people. In his inscriptions, Bassius held the belief that a perfect government must be governed by a ruler who works alongside the common man, wielding at the blacksmith’s or tilling in the fields. By this, a ruler wouldn’t be paid by a government but by the profits of a better livelihood. Bassius’ political philosophy would be known as “commoner politics”, where a government functions not to better its leaders but the improvement of the common subject.

    During this time of philosophic debate in Trivoli, Blandus the Navigator led an extensive expedition from Regalis to the North Sea. On his voyage, Blandus the Navigator travelled through the Strait of Gibraltar, around Iberia, and to the northwestern points of Scandinavia. Blandus brought back the first description of the polar night, in which he believed he fell off the “borders of earth” after experiencing multiple ‘days’ without light but the rays of the sun visible coming from below the horizon; Blandus the Navigator was the first explorer and recorder of the harsh cold artic and its polar ice, Blandus would also bring back to Italy the concept of a relationship between the moon and ocean tides along with influencing early Ovidiast thoughts and writings.

    Sumanius was born at Austiae in 171 B.C., moving to Trivoli in 154 B.C. to study philosophy. Sumanius enrolled into Bassius’ School of Scholars and went under the teachings of Bassius himself. In the thirty years that Sumanius stayed at the School of Scholars, he wrote among many subjects, including ethics, government, linguistics, logic, military strategy, music, physics, poetry, politics, rhetoric, and theater. In 112 B.C., a dozen years after leaving the School of Scholars to find his own school at Austiae, wealthy Trivolin councilman, patrician and dear friend to Sumanius, Fulvius Valadier, requested Sumanius to tutor his first born son.

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    Cassius and Silvanus Valadier depicted in Trivolin statues​
    From 112 B.C., Sumanius tutored Cassius Valadier and Fulvius’ second born son Silvanus since his birth in 109 B.C.. Sumanius would educate the two brothers until 95 B.C. when he became ill, dying less than a year later. In their youth, Cassius and Silvanus were both heavily educated, specifically in their father’s aims to turn them both into politicians by their adulthoods. Cassius had a history of trouble-making and escalating family conflicts, while their cousin records that Silvanus was quiet in nature as a child, avoiding causing attention or problems in the family, supposedly learning from his elder brother’s mistakes.

    When Cassius was age 19, news that he was the father of a pregnant peasant woman reached his family villa. Just months after this news spread, Cassius and Silvanus’ father suddenly became ill. On his deathbed, their father instructed their mother and uncle to hand his wealth and estate to Silvanus instead of Cassius. The extremely uncommon act of ultimogeniture over primogeniture enraged Cassius, leaving him feeling betrayed by his family. Cassius told his younger brother:
    Silvanus replied:
    Angered, Cassius left his family villa and the peasant woman, riding his prized horse ‘Excidius’ into the streets of Trivoli. Without wealth and status, it was there that he joined the Trivolin army, one of the few, if not, the only way that a Trivolin citizen could rise social ranks during this era.

    Cassius, also referred to as “Valadier the Elder”, wasn't left with just his horse from his family, he still carried their name. Unaware of “Cassius’ disownment”, the Trivolin army recruited Cassius Valadier into the rank of Tribunus Cohortis, a rank that typically took many years to achieve.

    In the year 85 B.C. a slave rebellion broke out along the Mediterranean coasts of Gaul and marched towards the Italian peninsula. Cassius acted quickly without orders and moved south to crush the slaves’ rebellion. The gladiators, led by Prandicus, directly threatened the Italian heartland. The rebellion alarmed the Trivolin people because of successful slave rebellions that occurred in 88 and 86 B.C.. Cassius met up with Prandicus’ force of around 40,000 rebellion slaves, a fourth of which were trained in the arts of gladiators, at the Rhone River. The 40,000 rebel slaves charged against the 26,000 Trivolin ranks. While the rebels fought with their heads, legs, and army with great effort, and most importantly, a strong cause, but were being demolished by the Trivolin slaughter house. By the end of the battle, the rebels had suffered 33,000 casualties including Prandicus himself and 1,500 Trivolins were killed. Cassius’ landslide victory led his troops to hail him the titled Imperator.

    Around this time, Silvanus Valadier was elected into the Trivolin senate. During the Trivolin conquest of France, Valadier the Elder rose to the rank of General, specifically being in charge of the Trivolin Republic’s effort to conquer the region of France. By 79 B.C., Cassius had risen to the rank of General and won another major battle in the settlement of Salingeux, marking the end of barbaric resistance of the Trivolin army in Trivolin France.

    While Valadier the Elder was widely approved and honored among civilians for his loyalty towards the Italian homeland, the Trivolin senate was skeptical of him, believing he was a power thirsty expansionist with ambitions to achieve “more power than Liris himself”. Cassius was notably rivaled by his own brother, whom spoke out against Cassius in Trivoli and informed the senate the Elder’s threat to order in the republic.

    As a General and Governor, Cassius was not allowed to leave his territory in significant distance without the Senate's consent. Constantly declined by the Trivolin aristocracy to launch an invasion across the Rhine River against the Germanic tribes, which Cassius believed was an attempt to limit his own fame, power, and success, Cassius declared himself Dictator of France in 76 B.C.. The Trivolin Senate ordered, a decision strongly encouraged by Valadier the Lesser, General Albinus to France and to remove Cassius Valadier from power.

    Albinus engaged against Cassius and his experienced loyal army on the western edges of the Alps at the Battle of Aiguille. As General Albinus’ army approached Cassius’ on the battlefield, Cassius’ skirmishers hurled their unique light javelins, equipped with iron shanks, at the senate’s troops, then retreated through the dashed gaps along the line. After the skirmishers’ organized return among the ranks, Cassius led his army in a wedge formation against Albinus. In this formation, his army’s line was thinned to concentrate soldiers in the middle of the offensive. This successfully pushed Cassius’ force through the line, causing confusion and a lack of organization on Albinus’ side, leading to a flank. The Battle of Aiguille crushed the senate’s hopes for suppressing Cassius and rose support for the leadership qualities of Valadier the Elder.

    After defeating the senate’s force of 35,000, 4 thousand of which fleeing the site and General Albinus retreating to Trivoli only to report the loss and lose his general rank, Cassius and his surviving force of 41,000 soldiers marched towards Trivoli. The Trivolin senate was divided in their response, the majority wanting to continue their attempts to eliminate Cassius, factions of which debated on how to do so, while some senators wanted to make Cassius 'Potentate of Trivoli'. By the time Cassius’ troops, encouraged and equipped with high morale, reached Avins, news reached Trivoli’s ports that Sicily was considering a vote of no confidence in their Trivolin government.

    The Trivolin government was in crisis. The senate suspended its democracy, appointing Silvanus Valadier to Princeps. The position Princeps had only been used twice previously in Trivoli’s history, a position having successfully saved the democracy both times. Now with the republic’s resources at his ears and voice, Silvanus ordered direct military confrontation and suppression of Cassius. Greatly outnumbered, Cassius’ military was pushed east, out of Trivolin roads. The republic had now entered a civil war.

    The fighting continued over the next two and a half years. Surrendered Trivolin troops were adopted into Cassius’ forces, a large adoption taking place at Cassius’ victory in Cervari where Trivolin troops under General Uictus killed their leader and defected to Cassius’ troops. For the average soldier, service was correctly rumored to be better under the immensely charismatic Cassius Valadier, who was known to emphasize well fed troops into battle and to maneuver brilliantly in the efforts of preserving as many of his soldiers as possible. Silvanus Valadier, during the Trivolin Civil War, made legal reforms leading to his self-appointment as Emperor of Trivoli, marking the civilization’s transition from a republic into the Trivolin Empire in 74 B.C..

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    The Great Triumph​
    Finally in 73 B.C., during a moment of momentum, Cassius Valadier marched towards Trivoli itself using the road Via Facile. “Cassius’ March” entered the city without bloodshed on the second week of spring as Trivolins would rest their armies through winter and resume campaigns starting at the spring equinox. Valadier the Elder stormed the Trivolin Agora with praetorians capturing Silvanus Valadier in the Temple of Pyropus. Trivolin senators were captured by Cassius’ armies and put to a hearing just a week later. While some were punished for their actions in the senate, some deemed political threats by Valadier the Elder, some executed, and some even awarded governorship, most of the senators were simply disbanded. Cassius’ brother was not presented a trial, but instead impaled alive on Tiber Island for all who might challenge Cassius to witness.
     
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  2. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
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    #2
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    73 B.C. – C.E. 410​

    After the Trivolin Senate Trials, disbanding the senate doing so, Cassius proclaimed himself the new Emperor of Trivoli. Cassius would lead the Trivolin Empire as emperor until just before his death in 52 B.C.. In his 21 years as emperor between his ascension and death, Cassius reclaimed almost all territory lost under the Trivolin civil war, conquered even more territory from Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, created an extensive imperial palace next to the Trivolin Agora, producing a male heir with Greek king Xenobios’s half-Greek daughter, and greatly expanded Trivolin expenditure on internal improvements such as roads and aqueducts.

    Since birth, Trivoli’s heir and successor Septimus Valadier was taught in the arts of leadership, military strategy, politics, mathematics, literature, and science. Septimus was precisely raised to become emperor. Cassius gave his one-fourth Greek second born son inheritance instead of his abandoned peasant born son, ironic when compared to his furious rage from what Cassius considered abandonment from his father when he gave his younger son the Valaider familiy wealth and capital.
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    (Above, in white) the Cervari Canal, connecting the Bormida and Po Rivers which flow inversely. ​
    Cassius securely transferred the throne to his heir while suffering an illness in 52 B.C., making Septimus Valadier the third Trivolin Emperor at age 17. Under Septimus, Trivoli conquered the entire Iberian peninsula, Balkans, and expand into northern Africa. With significant expansion came the construction of irrigation canals, baths, aqueducts, roads, temples, and so on. When new civilizations were conquered, their gods and holidays were often adopted by the Trivolins. In 38 B.C., Septimus began construction of the 27 mile long Cervari Canal, which connected the port of Cervari to the Po River. The canal turned a two week trip by road into a three to four day trip by boat after its completion in 32 B.C.. Though travel through the canal would not be possible in Summer time, when water flow fell to at-most 20% at the Bormida River in comparison the rest of year and 50% on the main Po River, the Cervari Canal made sea travel to the city of Adriatia just slightly more than half the time. Not only did this make Trivolin military reinforcement and supply transport to the Balkans much faster, but improved Trivoli’s commerce and expanded trade routes northeast. No longer did merchants have to travel two weeks to Favilla and then buy or rent a transport boat there, merchants could now quickly and cheaply transport materials and resources to and from the Balkans with their own boats constructed in Trivoli.

    To entertain his own people back in Trivoli, Septimus constructed the “equum ingentem circulum”, which would be the stadium for countless horse races suitable for more than 100,000 spectators. To protect the same people of Trivoli, Septimus Valadier established Europe's first-ever fire department. Along with stadiums, celebrations, extravagant parades, Septimus established the Trivolin Empire’s own Courier System to send and delivers messages, officials, and tax revenues, Septimus stated Trivoli’s courier system was “more efficient than Adiger himself!”

    Septimus Valadier’s grandson rose to the throne after his death in 10 C.E.. Emperor Felix Valadier, as he titled himself, focused on internal improvement instead of external expansion during his thirty two years. Felix found irrigation to be of high importance for his administration's internal improvement platform. Felix Valadier added aqueducts copiously to spread irrigation to locations he found to be of strategic, let it be economically or military, importance. Thus Trivolin towns, forts, and colonies in certain locations flourished into major cities and food supplies in the more dry regions increased from expanded farmland.

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    The Amphitheatre Maximus​
    Felix was also responsible for what might arguably be Trivoli’s greatest wonder: the Amphitheatre Maximus. The absolutely humongous amphitheater, after its 11 years of construction from 24 C.E. to 35 A.D, could seat 75,000 Trivolins and present mass public entertainment free of charge for all citizens. The classical stadium was used for spectacles such as gladiator fights, public speeches, executions dramas or impersonations of famous battles and mythological tales.

    The “short emperor”, as Felix would be called standing at a stature of five foot two, favored the god Faebrius above all others. Not far from the Trivolin agora Emperor Felix constructed a new temple for the god Faebrius. The new moved and rebuilt Temple of Faebrius held a fifty foot tall statue of Faebrius within it. Faebrius is of course Liris’ architect of the Agora Divinum and Pryopus’ craftsman of swords, presented man with the hammer, ax, and dagger, so man could build his own structures and shelters. Faebrius is thus the god of construction, blacksmith, craftsmen, marvels, and the forge.

    In the year of twenty anno domini, Felix Valadier reformed the classical “Vechino Calendar” into what would become the “Imperial Calendar.” The old, traditional Vechino Calendar held a ten day week going in the order: Liridie, Pyrodie, Aprocidie, Solemdie, Vechidie, Evoradie, Faebridie, Adige, Avinadie, and Teyevidie. On the day of Vechidie, “fast mail” was always sold (versus only sometimes on other days for middle and low class Trivolins) which provided messages on horses and mules, much faster than normal mail which transported messages and tax revenues by oxen. Trivolins offered gifts and celebrations to the gods on Teyevidie, the day of Teyevius, in hopes their obedience would keep themselves safe from the harsh punishment of the gods. On Evoradie, husbands were to complement their wives and value their female companions. In the Short Emperor’s new Imperial Calendar consisted of seven days, believing shorter weeks would lead to more leisure days thus a happier empire.

    Felix was one of the most popular emperors through the empire’s history, he himself even wrote multiple plays. While he was loved by his subjects, audiences were bored by Felix’s long, exhausting, and slow plays. Felix ‘generously spared’ one of his spectators whom was one of many forced to watch one of Felix’s plays after the subject stated “Majesty, art is for you as an emperor but a playwright not!”, which could be better translated to:
    During the reign of Felix did an important philosophy, belief, or religion arise. Possibly the invention of the Valadier Dynasty for an easier grasp on the empire’s culture and method to calm foreign religious groups constantly seen as threats to Trivolin provinces, Ovidiasm was created in the first century by Italian & Greek writers in Corsica.

    Descending from ancient Corsican pagan beliefs, Ovidians believed in two deities, one male (Creator) and one female (Creatix), who were created after time and matter collided. After the birth of their two gods from the Big Bang, the “Two Creators” made a world in which to live. The creators ruled their world, Earth, as King and Queen. After generations of children, their descendants rejected their creators and rulers. Angered over this upset, the Two Creators felt humanity was unworthy of immortality, now man and woman must work on soil simply to survive. The Two Creators abandoned their world and children and created a more divine paradise. After millenniums of living separately, the Two Creators came back to Earth, realizing that humanity had become civilized once again, progressing their morals, scientific understanding, and obedience to their rulers. Because of this, Creator and Creatix confronted a Trivolin merchant named Ovidius. The Creators chose Ovidius having previously followed him, witnessing several acts ascertaining their confidence in Ovidius. The first of these acts was Ovidius landing with his merchant goods from Trivoli in northeastern Corsica. The Trivolin guard at the port of Capraia insisted that Ovidius pay twice the taxes amount for using the port being from wealthy Trivoli, stating that those who come from wealth have the responsibility to spread it. Being an obedient citizen, Ovidius agreed to pay the doubled tax. Later, on the same Evoradie (the day which even emphasized appreciation of wives) a lovely young fruitful woman, referred to as the “Seductress of Corsica”, attempted to seduce Ovidius. Ovidius rejected the Seductress of Corsica on the thoughts of his wife at home in Trivoli, respecting the pact between man and woman. The second day, a Faebridie, Ovidius bought two apples for his breakfast. Walking by the farms of Capraia, Ovidius encountered a starving peasant farmer unable to feed himself and his Giara horse. Instead of continue walking, Ovidius gave his apples to the man and his Giara which not only stopped them from starving but allowed them to work through the Faebridie, the end of the Trivolin week and “payday”. The Creators were impressed by this as well, Ovidius proved man’s care for not just other men, but all of Earth’s creatures. The two large apples gave the farmer and his horse energy to plow the fields and receive pay for a full weeks pay from the landlord (whom were plentiful under Trivolin seignorialism, peasants bound to the land and dependent on their landlords). While Ovidius continue to ramble away from Capraia and into the hills of Corsica, the Creator and Creatix revealed themselves to Ovidius, the first divine intervention in millenniums. The Creators told Ovidius they would manifest the “greatest revelation humanity must know” if he answered their question. They asked: “What is the meaning of being?” In less than two minutes, Ovidius replied: “To seek peace.” Satisfactory with Ovidius’ response, the Creators revealed to Ovidius how man can achieve this. Ovidius had proved to the Creators that humanity was worth the Creators now. To unite humanity and the creators once more, the Creators told Ovidius on how they must be to achieve peace. For the next two months, Ovidius wrote what the Creators told them, creating Ovidiasm’s holy book “Ultima Vox Eius”. Within the Ultima Vox Eius, humanity can learn individually how they must achieve salvation and join the Creators in their divine paradise. Thus salvation filters the obedient and worthy from the chaotic and unworthy.

    The Creators left Earth to return to divine paradise, leaving Ovidius responsible to spread the Magna Manifestation. Ovidiasm features a common occurrence of the symbolic number two, such as two deities, two worlds, two tests for Ovidius in each of the two days, two chapters of Ultima Vox Eius. In the first half of Ultima Vox Eius it is explained on how humans can achieve peace and the Creators reasons for doing so. Not only does the first half, titled “Fons”, trace the actions of the Creators since the big bang and humanity’s creation, but it elaborates on the path to peace. In Ultima Vox Eius, obedience to the Creators is emphasized, salvation is only offered once submission to both Creators is obeyed. Ovidians are to carry themselves with piety and humility. Ultima Vox Eius also commands Ovidians to: obey and honor thy parents and their parents (thereby the Creators).

    The second half of Ultima Vox Eius, titled Ecficio, labels specific on acts as sins. Such acts against the Creators include murdering any human being unless it is in the service of Ovidiasm and search for peace, enslavement of another human being, and wastefulness of good fortune. Ecficio also describes the story of Malpoen, in which it discusses the figure of Malpoen as the evil, deceptive, and persuasive grandchild of the Creators who convinced man to attempt a coup against the Creators. To achieve the power and authority that came with the Creators’ level of creativity, Malpoen deceived humanity into rebelling & disobeying their makers with Malpoen as their leader. Before the Creators left humanity to live without immortality, they created a “prison at the bottom of earth” in which all disobedient and evil humans will be sent when they bear breathe no longer. In this prison, Malpoen must suffer mortality. In the prison, referred to as Abaddon, the more Malpoen makes man and woman suffer the less he does. Once there are no more people for Malpoen to ‘eat’, then he himself is destroyed. Thus total peace will only be achieved once all of humanity has committed their submission to the Creators. At that time, the Creators will return to Earth and all of humanity, connecting Divine Paradise and Humanity forever.

    Scholars have suggested that the authors of Ovidiasm attempted to align themselves with logical reasoning and the scientific understanding of the world at the time. The discoveries and explorations by Blandus the Navigator three centuries earlier were widely discussed throughout the Trivolin Empire. Maps at this time placed the south at the top and north at the bottom, Blandus the Navigator’s recording that the Geographic North Pole was harshly cold, icy beyond travel, and absent of heat, most likely led the writers of Ultima Vox Eius to locate Abaddon there. After Arabs introduced Europe to the compass many centuries later, flipping north to the upward direction, Ovidians would further believe that Abaddon was located below the South Pole and Antarctica. Almost all Ovidians believed this concept later on entering the modern age.

    The reign of Felix Valadier was followed by his first born son, Ortho Valadier, in the year 42. Ortho was in his 30s when he was ascended the throne and already married to his third wife Saturnina. Within four short years bearing his imperial title, Ortho was found dead in the Emperor’s Palace. Trivolin records write Ortho’s death as poison, most likely by his third wife who favored her eldest son instead of Ortho who was known as a brutal, disgusting, and well-overweight (especially for ancient times) man who randomly stopped to insult any others around him. Though his four years of rule were did notgo without improvement, Ortho Valadier did revalue Trivoli’s coins, strengthening the economy.

    The poisoning of Ortho Valadier and the crowning of his stepson Aurelius marked the end of the Valadier dynasty and the beginning of the Amatus Dynasty. Significantly more aggressive than Felix Valadier, Aurelius Amatus focused his energy expanding the empire. After years of preparing, Aurelius launched a Trivolin invasion of Britain in 52 C.E.. After ten years of conquering, Aurelius’ generals claimed the territory north of the River Clyde and River Carron was useless; this marked the halt of Trivolin expansion in Britain along with the construction of a 30 mile long stone wall to protect the Trivolin colony from both barbaric tribes and Scandinavian attacks.

    After acquiring almost the entire British isle, Aurelius turned to Trivoli’s eastern borders, expanding it to as far as the Persian Gulf by 60 C.E.. While sending troops to conquer the livable eastern coasts of the Red Sea, Aurelius began construction of a canal that would travel from the Red Sea to the Nile River. After three years of construction, Aurelius abandoned these plans after great concern that sea water would mix with the fertile Nile River that was absolutely feudal for life around the region.

    Afraid that some of his subordinate and vassal kings were planning on overthrowing him, the Emperor imprisoned around three dozen Trivolin politicians, including his uncle. During his reign, Aurelius would expand over the Danube River, Northern Africa, Britain, and the Middle East, gaining the third most land out of all the Trivolin emperors. Aurelius Amatus was succeeded by his second born son Quintillus Amatus in 81 C.E., Aurelius possibly have killed his first born son believing he was too weak to be a ruler. Quintillus, like his father, was a charismatic military leader eager to expand the “gem of empires.” During his reign, an Irish tribal leader named Lóegaire convinced surrounding tribes of Eastern Ireland to discontinue the Trivolin demands of gold that was being transported onto Trivolin vessels and to Britain. No longer a vassal, Ireland was taking a major risk refusing Trivoli’s demands. To secure its tin and gold supply, Trivoli authorized a legion into Ireland. Superior technology and military strategy provided a much stronger success against the resisting fearless Irish tribes than the Trivolins had against the strong and numerous German tribes. Back at home, Emperor Quintillus combined the five major markets of Trivoli, that being the Forum Boarium for cattle commerce, the Forum Holitorium for farming commerce, Forum Piscarium for seafood commerce, the Forum Suarium for beef commerce, and lastly the Forum Vanarium which was for the purpose for wine.

    Quintillus retired his throne in 102 C.E. to his eldest and only surviving son, Cicero. After just one year as emperor, Cicero’s uncle and Quintillus’ brother Claudius hired an assassin by the name Iovitus the Insidiatori to murder the young emperor which would crown Claudius to hold the most powerful position in the ancient world. In the autumn of 103 C.E. young and petite Emperor Cicero was sitting on his gold throne wearing a purple toga, with the throne being carried on a cart and pulled by white horses during the Autumn Equinox Parade in celebration of the Ceraris, the god of the sun. As the parade carried the Trivolin imperial guard and Emperor Cicero crossed the Tibus River, the crowd cheering for their empire, most Trivolins’ holding purple candles - Ceraris translates to Candle Maker - Iovitus the Insidiatori climbed onto the rooftop of a merchant trading house in Trivoli. Spine straight, eyes narrow, Iovitus the Insidiatori shot an arrow straight towards the emperor, quickly the arrow stabbed Cicero through the chest, leading to his death with minutes.

    The assassination led to the province governors voting to reinstate Quintillus Amatus as emperor in fear a coup d’état was taking place, rightfully guessing. Quintillus, suspicious of others for arranging the assassination of his son, including his brother whom Quintillus imagined was attempting to do to Cicero what Quintillus did to his own elder brother, he crowned his prized general as emperor. General Saturnus (de Sicilia) had been a close friend of Quintillus, often treated like a son or student, and gained fame from suppressing Germanic and Slavic tribes at multiple key tactical geographic places. It was in Spurius Saturnus that Quintillus saw a strong leader, capable of maintaining a loyal and organized empire.

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    The Trivolin Empire's Furthest Extent​

    Now in its third dynasty, Trivoli’s military was as powerful as ever. Stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf, from the Red Sea to the Irish Sea, the size of the Trivolin Empire was unprecedented. Sparius Saturnus would lead Trivolins across the Danube, stretching Trivoli’s tax revenues against the southwestern edges of the Carpathian Mountains. By the time of Spurius Saturnus’ death in the year one twenty four, the Trivolin Empire was as its peak. The size of the empire was approximately two million and seven hundred fifty square miles, the equivalent size of three forth of the Sahara Desert.

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    Emperor Spurius’ greatest monumental achievement was undoubtedly the Temple of the Gods. The Temple of the Gods was completed around 121 after two decades of construction, it carries a 44 meter-in-diameter concrete dome with an 8 meter wide oculus for light. It was one of the few Trivolin temples that wasn’t dedicated to just one god but all the gods.Much less organized and persuasive than his father,

    Faustus failed to expand borders in a single successful campaign as emperor from his ascension in 124 and death in 170. His disastrous regime even lost territory. Between 130 and 142, Faustus Saturnus focused Trivoli’s finances, energy, and military on the Red Sea Faith Rebellions in Iraq. Worried that the local religious groups like those in Iraq and even Italy itself threatened the Trivolin Empire, belief systems such as the Red Sea Faith were banned by Emperor Faustus throughout the empire.

    While the Red Sea Church was spreading almost exponentially throughout the Iraq province, the military focus allowed opportunities by Trivoli’s enemies to attack the other unprotected provinces. Scandinavian tribes began raiding the island of Britain in the year 152, requiring a further stretch of Faustus’ resources. Faustus created a squad of assassins in which he and his successors would call the “Insidiatoris” to quash their opposition. The Insidiatoris would become infamous for extremely precise and stealth assassinations; they set up their own training camp in the Island of Sardinia which eventually evolved into their headquarters, far away from where they could be detected.

    The latter of the Saturnus Dynasty sparked the engines of surrounding civilizations, establishing the decline of Trivoli. Under the Emperor Aetius Saturnus Ireland rebelled and succeeded from the empire. Not believing a recapturing effort & risk was worth the island, Ireland was left to rule itself. Aetius was succeeded by his third eldest son Thracius Saturnus. Thracius, in effort to save Trivoli from its debts, which continued to grow from a deficit and excessive expenditure, he abandoned Britain and the province of Carpathius (which lay north of the Danube River but below the Carpathian Mountains), both of which were under constant pressure from raids, assaults, and guerrillas from Germanic tribes. The abandonment of Britain eliminated the expensive shipping cost from Trivoli’s northern expenditure.

    Emperor Thracius was obligated to apply policies of tolerance towards religious groups such as Ovidians and followers of the Red Sea Faith. Under Thracius, Ovidiasm spread through notable missionaries like Saint Thales throughout the Trivolin Empire. While the religion was already spreading rapidly due to the extensive Trivolin road system and a decline of belief and activity in Trivolin mythology, Saint Thales started the first organized Ovidiasm church in the city of Trivoli. Trivoli was the ideal choice throughout Eurasia for a religious holy city, it's located at the center of political, cultural, and military influence in the Western World. More importantly, Trivoli fit Ovidiast philosophy and beliefs, of course the Creators would center their teachings in the most civilized center in the world (at the time), the very top of the pyramid in terms of control, technology, and civilization. All trade routes, roads, and ships were indeed in some way connected to the great city. Saint Thales claimed that by heading the Ovidiast Church in Trivoli he “gave blood a heart”. Ovidiasm already carried many driving factors for exponential growth, more than just from roads and declining mythology, but Ovidiasm was the only missionary religion in the Trivolin Empire, it primarily spread into urban areas, the equal status of women in Ovidiasm brought 40% more female converts than male, the great number of single female Ovidians which required male Ovidians for husband also converted a great deal of Ovidians, no individual could discredit Ovidiasm at the state of technological progress in the Trivolin Empire, Ovidiasm was text based which unified and preserved their religious teachings, Ultima Vox Eius taught that Ovidians were the chosen people, Ultima Vox Eius was written in Latin (a language almost universally understood in the Trivolin Empire, compared to Hebrew or Iraqi), the religion fared oppressed groups like women, slaves, and ethnic minorities, if not equal, social status, and most importantly: the reign of Cornelius the Great.

    Cornelius acquired the throne from his uncle at the young age of fifteen, a throne which was on decline. The advisers Cornelius inherited spoke of civil disobedience, threats of foreign influence, and an increasingly divided empire. After two decades of searching for solutions to the Trivolin Empire’s troubles, Cornelius was introduced to the Ultima Vox Eius by a female merchant named “Helena” selling the Emperor the wine in which he adored. Not only was Cornelius fascinated of a “woman in a man’s role”, but the Ultima Vox Eius was supposedly his great solvent. Ovidiasm was the ideal religion to rule with, emphasizing obedience and cultural unity it is increasingly evident that it was invented by the Valadier Dynasty.

    Cornelius already maintained a tolerance policy towards Ovidians like his predecessor, the same year Cornelius named himself a Ovidian he previously legalized public Ovidian worship at the Edict of Regalis in 257. In 259 Cornelius commissioned the first Ovidian church in Trivoli, naming it “St. Helena’s Abbey” after the female merchant introducing him to such an ideology. After the adoption of Ovidiasm by Cornelius the Great, Ovidiasm saw a period of growth of 550% over the next four decades, a rise to an average of 137.5% per decade compared to the previous growth rate of 40% a decade. By the fourth century, the Trivolin Empire was completely dominated by Ovidaism.

    Without a male heir, Cornelius nominated his only child and daughter Octovia for empress. An acceptance and empowerment of a female empress symbolically signified a new Ovidiast Europe. Octovia won her wreath as the better between her second cousin. If an empress had been discussed a century earlier, an outraged population and military would refuse to take orders from what they might have felt not only disregarded the relationship between man and woman but Avina’s action as gifting women as property and obedient to men. But no, Ovidaism was flourishing and equality was profuse.

    However, transition from a mythological empire into a religiously organized society was not free from obstacles as one shouldn't suspect. By the time Ovidaism had been adopted as the state religion, between 15% and 20% of the empire's populace was chained in slavery. To overcome this obstacle, Octovia ‘compromised’ with wealthy estate owners by declaring that no Ovidian can be enslaved, despite the Ultima Vox Eius clearly stating that no human whatsoever can be enslaved, even if they aren't of the Ovidaist faith. Through this compromise, Edict of Amata (296 C.E.), the slavery percentage in the Trivolin Empire fell to just 10% in the year 310 AD. While many slave owners avoided spreading Ovidaism to their slaves, oral conversions further drove down the number of slaves allowing Emperor Refunis to finally abolish all slavery throughout the Trivolin Empire with just 5% remaining in bondage in 325 C.E.. The end of slavery helped unify the empire socially as a Ovidaist state even further as Cornelius, Octovia, and Refunis had hoped, the social reform of abolitionism caused major economic and financial decline in the early fourth century, unemployment caused starvation and starvation caused riots.

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    Trivoli in the year 310​

    Trivoli entered its fourth and last dynasty when Octovia’s husband Refunis Calvus acquired the throne when she fell ill. His short six and a half years of rule marked with one of the earliest records of the abolishing slavery in the ancient world. Vitus Calvus in 328 succeeded the throne and just as he began to undergo as emperor, Greece - the main trading port for slaves and one which still held 15% of its population in bondage just a decade earlier - was on the threats of revolt. Greece suffered from both a financial crisis and agricultural one; even Trivoli’s exportation of its food storage wasn’t enough to calm the revolt. Emperor Vitus would narrowly keep his power intact by using the elite Insidiatoris to assassinate the leaders of the Greek revolt and others that disobeyed the Emperor and Ovidiasm. This holds key importance, that the head of state was the leader of Ovidiasm and thereby justified murders in the name of the “Representative of the Creators” because they're killing in defense of Ovidiasm. This idea would carry such justification all the way towards the nineteenth century.

    The end of slavery made finding gladiators and similar occupations difficult. In addition to forcing soldiers to fight at amphitheaters and stadiums, such as the Amphitheatre Maximus in Trivoli, Emperor Caelius Calvus added Insidiatoris to the mass entertainment spectacles. Under the same emperor, ruling from 355 to 378, Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine, the Trivolin Military suffered defeats in major battles as the Persian Empire grew steadily, and Anglo-Saxons assaulted the coasts of northern Iberia.

    At a time of political instability, Caelius gave the throne to his second born child, a son, over his first born, a daughter. Caelius was criticized for his un-Ovidian-like decision. Porcius Calvus, “postremo imperatori” (the Last Emperor), adopted his imperial name in 378. A plague in 384-385 cost the Trivolin Empire almost all of North African and sub-Mediterranean territory. While Turkey had been mostly retreated from Persia and Arabia’s strong cavalry, Gaul had been the main focus of the Trivolin military's attention. Germanic, Scandinavian, and Anglo-Saxon tribes had been raiding Trivoli’s settlements and colonies for all the wealth they could milk. Such financial costs caused new taxes to be placed for increased revenue which never goes over well with an empire's home citizenry. Emperor Porcius laid ticket prices for the first time for the Amphitheatre Maximus as he forced his Insidiatoris to be the main show, forcing them to fight against themselves. This action, along with multiple raids by Algerian nomads of Sardinia (the Insidiatori homeland) that were responded by little reinforcement and reconstruction, led to the Sack of Trivoli.

    When the Algerians were raiding Sardinia for a fourth time in 410, Insidiatori Cicerofelis (highest Insidiatori position, seven total making up the Venalici Council) Lucretius Arrolli created plans with the Algerians for a raid of Trivoli. In this raid, in which the approach strategy and treasure locations were to be taught, the Algerians would keep all the wealth raided and the Insidiatoris were given the honor of destroying the Emperor. The Algerians and Insidiatoris shipped towards Trivoli along the Italian coast, attacking Trivoli from its ports. This left Trivoli’s city walls redundant and emperor’s palace vulnerable. While the Algerians captured all the wealth they could obtain, including gold, silver, and jewelry along the city’s ports (unable to fight the Trivoli guard elsewhere), the Insidiatoris approached the Emperor’s Palace. To distract the Trivolin Guard, the Insidiatoris inflamed the palace’s southern drapes which lay far away from the Insidiatori point of entry. The Sardinian assassins sneaked through multiple passages that only a few knew of, including Lucretius Arrolli and the Emperor himself. The Inssidiatoris continued to the Emperor’s bedroom where they, after killing all the guards, captured Emperor Porcius and his wife. After ruthlessly killing all the emperor’s family, that being his wife, two sons, daughter, and brother, Lucretius Arrolli was given the honor of killing the Emperor. Arrolli’s right hand man supposedly asked Arroli on how about they should execute the last Emperor of Trivoli, Lucretius replied: “How else do you go about destroying an Empire? You take out its head!” and then proceeded to decapitate Porcius Calvus by crossing two swords from each side of the neck.

    The Insidiatoris, at the same time of the assassination, liberated their brothers just a half a mile away in the Amphitheatre Maximus’ living quarters. The Insidiatoris would not join their accomplices back to Algeria but travel on merchant ships back to Sardinia.

    The Empire was without an Emperor. Without an heir, the Trivolin Empire had finally met its inevitable collapse.
     
  3. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
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    Seattle
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    410 - 1376​

    While most of the empire fell into an enduring period of anarchy and struggle for order & control, a few regions under united governments emerged in formerly controlled Turkey, Rhineland, and western Iberia.

    The Universale Abbey in Trivoli, claiming that its teachings derive from the students of Ovidius himself, finally emerged from a collection of various properties to a sovereign authority and the spiritual leader of all Ovidiasts in Trivoli then Italy itself. While other organized Ovidiast abbeys disputed over who should lead their organized churches and hold the power of the abbey. With lineage to Ovidius itself, the “Universale Abbey” adopted an individual position that could clear the disputed meetings of its highest council (simply the “Universale Council” or “Universale Consilium”) in 518. Before the council’s decision at the Diet of Calabria, the Universale Council was the executive power of the abbey, but large disagreements and disputes over the Ultima Vox Eius, decision making, and how their young church was to be ran, all led to the creation of a Pontifex.

    They intended for the Pontifex to be the wisest person in the church. They created the position with the responsibility of representing Ovidius’ teachings and thereby holding the sovereign interpretation of the Ultima Vox Eius. To choose the Pontifex the Universale Consilium elects an individual with 70.5% of the overall votes. This provides fitting elects as the council will always be filled with students of the predecessors and therefore carry Ovidius’ teachings directly. The Edict of Calabria chose 70.5% as the midpoint between the arguments for 66% and 75%.

    By the 7th century the Universale Abbey had obtained theocratic control over Trivoli, Corsica, and various other territories. While much of Italy fought a Bohemian invasion in the late 700s, the Abbey City-States were offered protection by almost all sides and powers of the war, virtually everyone at this time believed they were fighting rightfully and defending Ovidiasm (the most common reason for this is common claim of divine right by kings and queens).
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    Above: the Torchello Palace after undergoing renovations under King Giorgio I in the 1300s​

    The Bohemian Empire collapsed in 811 after the death of Boriv II, dividing territories among his grandchildren and creating an even more powerful Italian city-state: Imperial Po. Imperial Po centralized around the Po River and capitalized in Torchello once the royal and famous Torchello Palace was completed. With Torchello, Avins, Favilla, Adriatia and considerable economic control over Cervari, Imperial Po sums in logic in its naval supremacy for centuries (though Cervari would never in history be under political control Imperial Po). Its powerful ship building industry allowed innovation and improved maritime technology. Long distance sea-worth ships were rare, but Cervari produced designs of the Balæna Model sometime in the 10th century. The Balæna Model, sixteen meters long, four and a half meters wide, and two meters from keel to the gunwale, was designed for suitable and comfortable travel over the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas.

    Attempting to establish a trading post with West and Sub-Saharan Africa to gain resources such as cocoa beans, Po Imperials settled then colonized the Canary Islands after their arrival in 988. The islands were uninhabited but showed evidence of a pre-existing civilization. At the same time of this colonization, Italian language evolved with the help of foreign (notably the nearby Greeks) influence, sundered peninsula, illiterate peasantry, and Anselm di Copertino. Anselm wrote an epic poem named “Racconto di Mare”, which was written simply and easily understood. This widely read poem helped expand and tie Italian literature across Italy. Since all educated Italians understood poems written in Italian, phrases and grammar rules emerged with Racconto di Mare as their origin. Phrases like “I must take leave of you”, “With every win comes a loss”, and “How is your way?” all originated and spread from this epic, the latter phrase developing from Ovidiasm.

    Captain Savino da Renato, who gained fame among sailors in Northern Italy for his actions in the Tuscan Wars of 1012, famously spread the word that he would explore the waters even farther than the Italian Canary Islands. Renato attained financing by the Imperial Po government (which was known to give small loans to encourage technological growth) and led 35 men west into the Atlantic in 1014. Savino da Renato travelled just north of the Ascension Fracture Zone after stopping at Er Rif and Senegal.

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    Savino da Renato and his crew became the first Europeans to discover the Americas after months of travel. The Italians settled their ship at the mouth of the Timonha River. While little is known about what the Europeans experienced at their settlement, they were wiped out mostly likely due to starvation. Ruins and bones of the settlement remain, while some suggest that the colony died out due to starvation because so many skeletons are buried in graves, others argue that a conflict between Native Americans or themselves broke out as many skeletons strongly show battle injuries.
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    The first European discovery, exploration, and settlement in the Americas wasn't known in Europe for centuries as the colonialists never returned to report their occurrences. Imperial Po and other Italians back in the homeland assumed Savino da Renato merely died at sea, Imperial Po even charged Renato’s family for the loan he took - with interest.

    Even though this time period experienced some maritime innovation, the “dark ages” was a time of technological oppression and cainotophobia. The borders of an increasingly influential religion called Melekism had reached the borders with Ovidiasm by the 9th century. Melekism, was ‘enlightened’ in the 6th century at Gelemhad. Meleksim spread quickly, offering a much more intense, cultural, and involved religion than the pagan beliefs it overcame. Melekism, founded upon Persian pagan beliefs, adopted multiple stories from the pagans of western India, Iraq, and around the Caspian Sea.

    Melekism was originally an unwritten oral belief system but would become the second major monotheistic religion in the world after the Red Sea Faith. Melekism believed in a system of prophets by God. Melekists believed that God feared mortality, so He moved to his ‘divinity’ into assets. First, God created matter, giving the form of Earth. Matter was without evidence, so God created infinite light, giving the form of the Sun. Finally, God created life to serve Him. Life completed this pyramid and achieved immortality with it. God took matter from earth in the shape of Himself and fled life through it. Then God put his free-will and part of himself into his creation. God had combined earth, life, and his divine power and created man. Man was His ultimate servant; all He asked for was man’s obedience. Because part of God lived within man, the two were now in forever coexistence. God required man to exist as a sum; man required God to exist with a soul, to be self-aware and carry out free will. At death, man would be judged by god. If man wasn’t obedient to God, they weren’t deserving of free-will and God would strip them of it at death and man would continue in the afterlife without thought, just blankly wandering absence of matter without his memories or happiness. If man carried out the commandments and laws on what to live by, he would be rewarded at judgment and live with God in paradise. But free will made man greedy, and too many failed to follow God’s guidance. So God cut off all his direct contact with the rebellious humans and He created a second grand design. This time, He combined life, light, his powers, and without freewill. His creations, angels, were his obedient soldiers and messengers yet because they had no freewill they had not God within them. With angels God now communicated with man, with countless angels He could spread His word and help man achieve paradise.

    The first prophet in Melekism was Medhi, son of King Samir. His father’s kingdom was sinful, its capital Pakhadid, was full of prostitutes, thieves, mobs, and con artists. This came with an immense drought during crop planting season. When peasants revolted against their king, an angel named Khashayar descended from the heavens to Medhi. Khashayar informed the prince on how he could bring about order, happiness, and prosperity to his people: the word of God. Medhi sprinted to his father, compelled him to share the rich’s food and water storages with the poor. While the starving poor gathered around Pakhadid’s granaries, Medhi spoke Khashayar’s words deeply, loudly, and boldly, His voice reigned throughout Pakhadid, even the deaf could hear him. Medhi taught the words of God, prosperity would be achieved once others give and share to their lesser, men and women confessed their sins to others so more than God could hear, and pledged their submission to God. With divine charisma, the people of Pakhadid did as Medhi preached. Within seconds of the confessions, the white clouds above the city turned gray. Rain fell onto the farms, bringing an end to the drought. The people of Pakhadid were now revealed, convinced, and pledged to the powers of God. The Angel Khashayar ordered King Samir to abdicate the throne to his son Medhi, Samir did “as God commanded” and gave the throne to his son. God’s reward, the crown of Pakhadid, was used by Medhi for the rest of his life to serve and expand the teachings of God.

    Another prophet in Melekism is Reza. Reza was a shepherd from the outskirts of Pakhadid during the Barbarian Conquests of Iran. At this time, Pakhadid was one of but a few cities of the Melekist faith. Angry against the kingdoms that refused capitulation, Indian barbarians razed all cities in their paths to spike fear and punishment. Melekists refer to these Indians as ‘barbarians’ because they were without the one characteristic that makes one civilized: morals. In Melekism this is why man is the only creature to be civilized; unlike animals man can exercise morals. A “figure like man but made of light” came to Reza while he feasted in celebration of the Winter Solstice, the last day of harvest. The figure, which Reza identified with Melekist teachings as an angel, warned Reza of an impending attack by the barbarians. Even if the Pakhadi people resisted and fought well enough against the Indian Barbarians, it wouldn’t save the Pakhadi people as the Indians brought with them liquid fire. Pakhadid would be burnt to the ground. Reza was commanded by the angel Gelem to “shepherd the Pakhadi people away from the Indian wolves” and to lead them north where the providence of God would find a new city before the barbarians began their assault just three weeks later. Reza told all, as he went, of the prophecy brought forward before him. Many doubted him, many believed him. The King of Pakhadid was a descendent of Medhi and a very caring ruler. The king trusted Reza and ordered his citizens to pack what they can carry to prepare for emigration. Multitudes of his people didn’t believe in "such foolish magic”, refusing to leave their homes. On the eve of the barbarian attack when they could wait no longer, the King of Pakhadid ordered the city’s evacuation and declared Reza the settler’s navigator. About one third of the city stayed in disbelief. After three days of travel, the King ordered a dozen of the some that owned horses to return south to check Pakhadid. The scouts returned to the settlers in just under a week and informing the Pakhadi people that their city had been indeed burned and destroyed. The nonbelievers of the word of God had been killed by antagonizing deaths. After sacrificing their fattest pig in thanks to God, Medhi led the survivors north “not by the direction of the stars but the will given by providence.” After more than a week of travel, the tens of thousands of people led by Reza had reached the fertile valley of the Kashaf River. The people settled in land much superior than what they previously lived on.

    Reza had rescued the Pakhadi people and Melekist faith. Their new city was named “Gelemhad” in honor of the divine messenger that warned Reza. Because Melekists believe the city was essential to Melekism’s survival and founded by the providence of God, it is the Holy City of Melekism. Gelemhad’s fresh waters and other benefits from its proximity to mountains such as cool winters, mild summers, and fantastic farm land, the Melekists were able to reproduce in great numbers that would allow their beliefs to expand, or “be shared”, exponentially for many centuries.

    Arguably the most important prophet of Melekism would be Sraosha. While he is the only Melekist prophet to show evidence of existence, Melekists believed that Sraosha was confronted by an Angel while on a diplomatic mission in Iraq. Sraosha was the translator in this diplomatic mission when the King of the Persian Empire, Atash II, was giving his eldest daughter to the Prince of Tharthar in exchange for an alliance against the Arabian military campaigns. An argument emerged between the two sides over the story of the Marriage of Medhi, the both sides knowing two different stories on how his marriage with a commoner woman was taken out. An Angel named Shahyar confronted Sraosha in his bedroom while all but him were awake. To prevent the religion from dividing amoung itself and to clarify all matters, Shahyar commanded Sraosha by God’s will to write all of God’s words into one holy document which shall carry the true and correct information. Through the entire night and following morning, Sraosha wrote what the Angel said. By exactly noon the next day, Sraosha had written what God told him through his angel; Melekism’s Holy Book had been created. The true words of God had now been written and saved the important marriage from collapsing and the war against Melekism, at the time, from winning. Not only does this story mark the last prophet of Melekism but the religion was now written, causing its largest and most significant period of exponential growth in the Middle East and India.
    Melekism was now bordering Ovidiasm in the Middle East and African Mediterranean. While only a few minor conflicts broke out between the two major religions before the 13th century, tension had only been increased. In effort to calm these tensions, the Ovidiast Queen of Turkey Elisaveta I and Melekist Prince of Al Assad Gulzar married in 1251 in hopes that these two neighboring empires and religions would prevent conflict. While Ovidiasm had already been exposed to female monarchs and empowerment almost since its creation, Melekism held more traditional, masculine leadership and suppression of gender egalitarianism. The united empires suffered from conflicted orders by their two monarchs. The Ovidiast and Melekist monarchs did, however, compromise a policy that the two religions disputed on: corporal punishment. Melekism beliefs justify corporal punishment and torture if an individual has sinned against codes described by God, while the Ovidiasts policy prohibits corporal punishment on any individual registered within the church but isn’t discouraged for ‘heathens’. Elisaveta I and Gulzar I decided that each policy would be instated under lords that carry a 2/3 majority or more of the affecting religion, if neither religion carries a majority then both religious followers may be tortured by the other. At the time of this ruling it appeared as if Melekism and Ovidiasm could coexist.

    But just after 6 years of marriage, conflict broke out. Elisaveta, an empowered, strong and strictly religious leader, dreaded her husband that constantly attempted to rule over her often to impose the mentality that he was the supreme - not equal - ruler. In 1257, King Gulzar led a united army of Al Assadian Melekists and Turkish Ovidaists into battle against Macedonians. Convinced that Gulzar had crossed too many paces over the line, Elisaveta I repudiated Gulzar’s throne. Gulzar returned to the Marmara Palace in Maltepez and declared a divorce between the king and queen along with the two empires. Elisaveta was a heavily devoted Ovidiast and couldn’t divorce as the Ultima Vox Eius strictly forbids such in Ecficio, Article XVI, Specifics 11-14: “Once man and woman have chosen and consented another with vowed marriage, they are forever together into Divine Paradise identically to that of the Creators. If vowed marriage is broken, each shall be sent to Abaddon alone and in suffering identically to that of Malpoen.” Divorce was clearly not an option for Elisaveta. The Queen messaged the infamous Insidiatoris to “the Abbey’s Service” in defense. The Insidiatoris agreed to help the Queen to protect conflict to break out between Ovidiasts and Melekists and assassinated King Gulzar in the baths of the Marmara Palace just weeks later.

    By holy book interpretations, Elisaveta I was safe from damnation. From the Melekists Lords of Al Assad perspective, the united empires were vacant of a monarch. Elisaveta sent countless messengers to these lords informing them that they already had a monarch (herself) which they swore oaths to. In 1258 the Al Assadian lords demanded that Elisaveta I married Gulzar’s nephew Akram of Graihb. She refused. As a result, the Turkish-Al Assadian Empire broke into a civil war that quickly evolved from a Al Assad versus the imperial Queen conflict to one between Ovidiasts and Melekists.

    The Al Assadian lords, who placed Akram of Graihb as their leader despite a youthful age of 16, brought in aid from the Palestine Empire against the Ovidiasts. Queen Elisaveta I, known to be reliant on foreign diplomacy for supprt, communicated with Pontifex Donato X in her plea for
    The Pontifex had historically never taken policy in any war other than that of neutrality. But now the enemy was, in a larger view, an increasingly powerful and influential force threatening the powers of the Universale Abbey. Donato X returned to Trivoli to formally declare that the church is in a struggle. Donato would further go on to manifesto that the Universale Abbey must defend itself against all threats to the faithful, along with expanding the church to better the Creators.

    The Holy Wars was upon Europe. Donato called for support from “all of humanity”. The King of Aquitaine Alexandre II was the first to “take upon shield and sword” for the Creators. Around 125,000 Europeans marched into Turkey, clashing against Al Assadians and Palestinians. The Europeans were extremely successful, pushing the Melekists out of the hills of turkey and into the desert. By 1261, the Al Assad Empire’s military had been depleted, a notable force being starved into surrender at the Siege of Telskuf. Al Assad divided into new shires of lords, Elisaveta continued to rule a much larger empire and the Palestine Empire declared peace. Soldiers in the First Holy War were treated as heroes when they returned home and the ties between monarchs and the church were greatly heightened.
    Trivoli, being the headquarters of the Universale Abbey and Pontifex, gained new wealth, population, and trade routes due to the First Holy War.

    Algeria was conquered by Melekists forces in 1273, resulting a collapse in it the (Ovidiast) Guelta Kingdom. The Melekist Expansion near Western Europe, with daily contact with Iberia and Italy, pressured Europeans fearfully. In fear of the rapid expansion of Melekism and what it might lead to potentially, the Pontifex Omicidi II called for a second Holy War in Northern Africa at the Council of Maiella. Members of the Universale Council loudly claimed attacking would be un-Ovidiast. Omicidi II cited the Ultima Vox Eius in that killing is only justified if it is in the defense of Ovidiasm or the Creators. Thus with this passage, the Universale Abbey called for reclaiming of “brethren land back from the heathens” and defense of the Creators’ mission. The Universale Abbey further claimed that those who participated in this Holy War would surely be granted paradise, even those who have sinned as the Creators always reward their most faithful and loyal servants. From knights to criminals, hundreds of thousands of Europeans pledged military assistance for the Universale Church. In 1276, the Abbiests (Ovidiasts under the allegiance of the Universale Church and Pontifex) crusaded their forces to Algeria and Tunisia. Imperial Po rose to service to the Universale Abbey with great assistance due to the need for a large sea force for the operation.

    The Ovidiasts successfully recaptured territory extending from the shores from the Gulf of Gabes to Alger Canyons. The Melekists counter attacked with a huge victory at the Siege of Setif. It was there at the Siege of Setif the Ovidiasts were surrounded and outnumbered, they focused on maintaining their stronghold as they fortified in the city’s citadel. The castle’s walls held enough to prevent holes from opening in the fortifications’ curtain walls. Melekist catapults destroyed enough of the citadel’s tower’s support for the observation tower to collapse onto the keep. Without the 150 feet tall tower, the numerous Ovidiasts forces starving and injured were unable to see their reinforcements just 13 miles out. The Abbiests surrendered to the Melekists not knowing of the incoming relievers. The Ovidiasts were now ready to negotiate with the Melekists Algerians for peace. Some land had been recaptured in this second crusade, but a large success hadn’t been made.
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    Many returned from the Holy Wars with memories of Arab castle designs and methods. King Alberico IV returned to his kingdom of Calabria in 1279 and built the Accardo Castle, which evolved through modifications and add-ons, survive two battles and remains intact today. (Accardo Castle Seen Above).

    Just outside Castelchio, a long rival of the nearby city Favilla, Queen Soderina Pagani built the Pagani Castle (see below) in the 1280s to exemplify her kingdom’s strength and defense towards Favilla which was under Imperial Po’s control.
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    In 1328, Pontifex Giovanni III launched an inquisition throughout the Abbey States, that is, nobles under the higher theocratic control of the Universale Church. The “Pontifex Inquisition” killed all Melekists and followers of the Red Sea if they did not renounce their heresy and swear oath to the Creators and the Abbey without second questioning. The largest city under control of the Pontifex was, of course, Trivoli, which held many sea trade routes throughout the Mediterranean. Melekist and Red Sea traders brought gruesome stories of the public executions they witnessed, massacres of both faiths, back to North Africa and even more stories with Palestine and Egypt (in which many Reds and Melekists were the middlemen between Europe and the East).

    The High Priest of Kusra and Prince of the Palestine Empire Khalil the Avenger was furious against the Ovidiasts from the stories brought back by merchants. His father - the King of Palestine - already established impressment and raiding policies towards Ovidiasts sailors and ships by the time his prince demanded such actions. Melekists place their left arm towards light, typically the sun or the moon, when praising God and His angels. So when Khalil the Avenger heard a story of an Ovidiast Bishop in the streets of Trivoli removing Melekists left arms with a battle axe, leaving them without an arm to praise God but the other to swear oath to the Abbey and Creators, he launched the “Sacrifice of Khalil”. Inspired by the story of Piroxidamus and the Bellatorans, Khalil set off to sail with his father’s navy. Khalil knew almost nothing of fighting but everything of avenging. The High Priest of Kusra navigated to the ports of Al Mar on the coast of Libya. “Emperor Mar II”, whose palace overlooked the city named after his father, watched as Khalil’s navy approached from the horizon, panicked in the belief that he was being invaded. Khalil preached a holy war against the Ovidiast that was bestowed upon him as the High Priest of Kusra and the will of God. Mar II and Palestine and almost no contact or diplomacy before the encounter but by the common allegiance of God they were eternal allies, as they believed. Mar II agreed much of his navy (but not himself) to join the suicide mission given a few days preparedness. He fed Khalil’s sailors well and spent nearby granaries’ food storages for the assault. Mar II even declared the week an annual holiday to be completed with celebration which suggest that Emperor Mar II viewed the new alliance as a symbol of Melekists unity and brotherhood unlike Khalil who viewed it as a symbol of revenge and the hand of God. Late August, 1329, Khalil led his task force into the Mediterranean for four days. The Melekists arrived on Hulks and Cogs to the grand city of Trivoli, the holy city of Ovidaism and headquarters of the Universale Abbey, at high noon with clear skies.

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    They began their assault first with the merchant ships, unleashing Greek fire onto the Trivolin ships. The Melekists continued their assault towards the docks of Trivoli as the city rushed its navy. With some of the larger docks inflamed, a weakened Trivoli fleet counterattack applied their ships to the sides of their enemies. While many of the Melekists fought on the gunwales against the less advanced but more numerous Europeans with scimitars and falchions, the faction of the Melekists’ fleet launched projectiles with the few ballista catapults their resources could assemble. Instead of targeting religious buildings, monuments, and strong Imperial Trivoli ruins, Khalil sought to destroy the weaker buildings where Ovidiast civilians held strong probability to be seeking refuge from the siege. When the Ovidiasts had finally brought out catapults of their own by land, firing them past the ports to Khalil’s Cogs, the Melekists began a retreat. Just as any sailor could have predicted, the Trivolins followed Khalil into the high seas. Fighting there was much more difficult but the Ovidiasts emerged victorious with heavy casualties. High sea travel was almost as suicidal as Khalil’s offensive with most of the ships Trivoli followed with; ships meant to protect the shallower calm ports not for attacking in the deeper rough sea.

    The Melekists had launched an attack on the very heart of Ovidiasm and Western European authority. The attack was over and Khalil with it. Khalil the Avenger was named by Melekists a Wali and a martyr. But his influence on the course of events that followed weren’t known at the time of his remembrance.

    Pontifex Giovanni III declared the sail of Khalil “an act against the Universale Abbey” and bellowed a Third Holy War. The Pontifex called upon everyone, the Pos, the Franks, the Aquitaines, the Bavarians, the Cambrians, but foolishly the Insidiatoris as well. The Insidiatoris refused to be used as soldiers for a war, that their fight is always “against the men which bestow other men to carry out their fight”, even though the Insidiatoris held a very hypocritical history with such a statement. The Insidiatoris lost many of their own in the previous two Holy Wars and for such an elite group that trains warriors since childhood, replacing such a number of assassins takes literally generations because of the Insidiatoris strict teaching method of one apprentice per assassin at a time. After the Insidiatoris destroyed the Pontifex’s Corsica Villa and the Bishop Basilio di Corsica (who was heavy recruiter for the Third Holy War) with the use of early thermal weapons in defiance of the pontifex, which the Insidiatoris propagandized that he (Giovanni) falsely extended political authority to a religious position, Giovanni III declared the Insidiatoris enemies of the church.

    To rid the Insidiatoris and to obtain skilled assassins under the same function but under the pontifex’s direct control, Giovanni III established the Monastics Ordine. The Monastics Ordine would be applied within a few years, obtaining trainers and recruits from the Bellatoran guard and prized heroes from the Third Holy War.

    The Third Holy War (1329-1333) saw further Ovidiast expansion in northern Africa, notably in Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya, but significant Melekists recapturing of territory in Turkey. By 1338, the Monastic Ordine had developed a strong, elite group “for the defense of the Creator’s church”. Led by the well-known Sicilian war hero Carlo di Gozo, the Monastics launched an attack on the Insidiatoris at their base in the Gennargentu mountains. Insidiatoris were not completely off guard by the attack as the Monastics marched up the hills toward the ancient Insidiatori fortress in 1338. First of the warnings came from the nearby town Strisalli when the two Insidiatoris residing in the town’s watch tower.

    As the Monastics marched up the hills towards the ancient Insidiatori fortress, the defenders prepared as s result of its defensive scouts warning them first of an incoming attack by Strisalli’ forty meter tall bell and watch tower, ranging the heavy, loud bell three times. More Monastics approached from the northwest, these ones completed with horseback. Six Insidiatoris hunting within view of the incoming Monastics by the Sangue Creek warned their Insidiatori fortress by quickly starting a fire away from the trees using damp grass, causing a column of white smoke to rise. The six Insidiatoris took the grass off as it dried an applied another bundle onto the fire. The Insidiatoris closed their gates and grabbed arms against the much more numerous Monastics.
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    Above: depiction of the Old Insidiatori Fortress.​

    The Monastics swarmed the castle after reaching the flat top of the hill. The Insidiatoris held extreme effectiveness by their archers, known to be the most accurate in all of Europe. With casualties mounting, the Monastics brought one of their three battering rams, all being pulled by horses. Before the battering ram could be moved onto the castle’s bridge, Insidiatori archers terminated two of the pulling horses. A second battering ram was attempted, this one also being pushed from inside its triangular roof but not pulled by horses like the previous. The Insidiatoris shot enflamed arrows at the Monastic siege weapon after pouring hot oil on the battering ram. Without entrance to the castle by its stone bridge, the Monastics launched siege hooks to pull stones from the fortress’s walls while they distracted the archers with their third battering ram. Monastics jumped onto the ramparts, many making it into the walkways of the defensive walls. The siege hooks allowed the Monastics to remove stones that make climbing much easier and access to enter the castle quicker. Arrows stopped coming from the embrasures as most archers turned to protect the inside threat. Now with an opportunity, Monastics ran into the deep, dry moat. They placed clay pots of burning charcoal at the base of the castle walls, moistened with vinegar and urine. The castle was made of stone which is susceptible to intense heat. The castle’s westward walls cracked and collapsed, opening a rough path to inside the castle and its courtyard. The Monastics stormed inside the castle. The Insidiatoris’ martial arts was utilized successfully in defeating the Monastics soldiers until a triumvirate of Monastics opened the castle’s gate and allowing cavalry into the fortress. The mounted Monastic knights mostly carried crossbows, rendering close hand combat too risky. The outnumbered and outgunned Insidiatoris moved backwards towards the castle’s large keep. The Insidiatoris brought back close combat in the Great Hall with the Monastic Ordine unable to bring cavalry, the main entrance to the Great Hall was through the tight cloister that separates it from the courtyard. While some Insidiatoris fought hand to hand, the archers deceived the knights seeking room to fight. Four Insidiatoris fired arrows towards the knights, grabbing their attentions, and ran down a sloping ramp. This narrow ramp was followed by two walls, one being six meters tall the other four meters with an overlook. After all the knights were in the Insidiatoris’ murder hole, they closed the pathway with a portcullis behind them. The Monastic knights fooled themselves in a trap. Knights carry shields with their left hands and the Monastic knights were in a long walkway where Insidiatori archers shot them from the only overlooking edges – on their right sides. The Monastics had again brought out clay pots of burning charcoal, this time at the base of the Insidiatori’s highest tower. This caused the stone tower to fall onto the barracks and blacksmith rooms.

    Between 90 and 125 Insidiatoris of the initial 400 were still alive and not seriously injured. The Monastics also carried high casualties, an estimated 800 of the 1,019 Monastics were dead or injured, one half of that death toll dying before the castle was even breached. At this time in casualties, the town militia had reached the castle, surrounding the fortress. Realizing their probability of annihilation, the Monastics held shouts of retreat, the concentrated Abbeists ran towards the destroyed ramparts.

    The Insidiatoris chased the Monastics downhill. Archers used what arrows they still had and some even took Monastic horses down the hill after the retreaters. The Insidiatoris had survived but at huge costs. Just a year later in 1339 the wealthy Fenicio family, which ruled the Oligarchy of Cervari & Tuscany with it, formed the Sardinia Progetto. The Sardinia Progetto was essentially a trade between the Insidiatoris and Michele di Fenicio. The Insidiatoris would force the states of Sardinia to submit to Tuscany in exchange for the Fenicio family financing the Insidiatoris endlessly. The two signed their allegiance in blood that the armies of Tuscany to protect the Insidiatoris on another direct attack and the Insidiatoris would be called upon favors for the Fenicios on occasion. After the Insidiatoris assassinated the prince of the Grand Duchy of Stagna - the longtime rival and competitor of Tuscany - the Fenicios in exchange began construction of a grand castle, the Castello Verticia (as seen below). The castle was built nearby of the old Insidiatori Castle but more expensively and costly at the summit of Perdas Carpìas. At 6,017 ft, Perdas Carpìas is the highest peak in Sardinia and situated just east of the approximate center of Sardinia, the summit offers great views of the entire island. On a clear day most of the coastline and all the surrounding peaks are visible.

    The Castello Verticia was positioned where artillery would only be able to reach the castle by its sole road, guarded by fortified gates as it zigzags up the mountain. The castle was completed with talus’ to prevent the explosive actions that the Insidiatoris witnessed from the Monastics from reoccurring. The castle's well fortified, the Insidiatoris were now safe at home. The castle cost the Fenicios an estimated 16,000 Argentos, the equivalent to 10,000 English pounds or 13,350 Norman livres (at the time). Even with being the richest family in Europe, the castle consumed 30% of their incomes over the 10 year construction period even with tax incomes from the entire island of Sardinia.

    To rival the threats from Oligarchical Tuscany, which had allied itself with the Insidiatoris, Pontifex Omicidi III established a new stronghold for the Monastic Ordine just south of the re-emerging city of Stagna. Not only would this fortress, Sapere Aude, was the training grounds and headquarters of the Monastic Ordine, much like how the Insidiatoris ran themselves in Sardinia, but it became an enormous monastery for the Universale Church used till this day.
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    In 1368, Queen Sofia of Covasna began the Unification of Rumania. The Rumanian speaking region had been dividing in culture through the 14th century due to differences between the occupying Universale Abbey and the Oriental Ovidiast Church. Until the 13th century, Eastern Ovidiasts were simply Ovidiasts not belong to any bureaucratic sect. The ever increasing power of the Universale Abbey, multiple invasions by Melekists and the Huns, and barbaric attacks from Siberians all were considered threats by Orientalists. By the 1200s Orientalists had become a profusion of organized religious regions, some holding religious interpretation difference, some cultural, many political. In March 1261, in wake of the first Holy War, Orientalists formed the “Ovidiasts Confederation” at the Treat of Velekov. Many Orientalists, especially those near the Caucasus Mountains, were in panic and struggle against the attacking Melekists whom, in their view, were at war with Ovidiasm as a whole though it was waged by the Universale Church. The Ovidiasts Confederation (referred more commonly in the west as Orientalists due to their geographic direction) sent their soldiers south and east purely in defense of Ovidiasts and their Orientalists unity.

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    Above: the extent of religious faiths in 1365 in rough the measurement of most numerous followers​

    Orientalists separate themselves from western Abbeists with distinct belief characteristics. Orientalist value the city of Capraia as the holy city of Ovidiasm - the location that the Creators confronted Ovidius. The Universale Abbey treats Trivoli as the holy city - the birth place of Ovidius, center of civilization, and seat of the ‘true’ church of Ovidiasm. Abbeists focus on the civilizing of men, imperialistically believing they must civilize others. Orientalists believe in the spirituality of man, showing points of history in which they favor continuing tradition and the rejection of inventions which is later a contributing factor in the lagged technological advances in comparison with western and southern Europe after the Rotundi period. But the most defining difference is angels. Primary an influence from Melekism, Orientalists believe in servants of the Creators after the abandonment of humanity to be humans made of light. Abbeists believe Malpoen to be essentially a human but Orientalists view him as one of the original angels.

    Queen Sofia’s unification of Rumania efforts primarily aimed to remove Orientalists from the divided region to remove cultural difference and unite the people under one faith. The result was the Queen Sofia Inquisition, one of the bloodiest inquisitions in Ovidiast history. The Ovidiast Confederacy respected its primary function as a coalition of defensive pacts and launched counter armies from Eastern Europe. Pontifex Giovanni IV, the first Spanish Pontifex, declared a fourth Holy War in 1370 against the Orientalists.

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    Pontifex Giovanni IV​

    Giovanni IV used “the defense of true Ovidiasm”, the rescue and assistance of brothers and sisters in struggle, and the “unification of Ovidiasts” as pretexts for his holy war. The more probable reason behind this fourth holy war was the failure of Abbeist expansion and influence into Eastern Europe over the last two centuries and the possible threats of Orientalists if Sofia of Covasna failed. The Universale Abbey managed to gain soldiers from the Italian regions of the Abbey States, Imperial Po, Castelchio, Vallis, Giordano, Gorizia, and Calabria. Yet the largest sources of manpower came from outside Italy, 110,000 Germans, 80,000 Frenchmen, and 38,000 Englishmen joined the fourth Holy War. The Spanish had major contributions but their estimates range from 50,000 to 125,000. This was the largest “Holy War” yet.

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    The Holy War waged for six years. For the first 18 months the Abbeists witnessed successful advances towards the Carpathian Mountains but in early 1372 the Universale Church experienced major setbacks. The Hunnic Kingdom joined the Ovidiast Confederacy to prove their upbuilding navy that they wished to exemplify against its rivaling powers: Turkey, the Lesser Caucasus Melekists, and the Ukrainians (which they would fight alongside in the Fourth Holy War). Important Generals were lost, such as Carlo di Bisagno and Rogelio of Castile. The English left Rumania that same moon-cycle after the death of heirless King Thomas II (of Wight) and England divided over factions (Frederick, Duke of Winechester, would assume control over the English armies returning from Rumania and crowned himself King of England, marking the House of Winechester). The Universale Abbey only continued their campaign against the Orientalist. Between February 1372 and August 1374 the fronts were mostly stagnant between the only major Ovidiast groups. On October 4-6 in 1373 the Orientalist enflamed the largest city in Rumania, a once wealthy city merchants once relied on when travelling from Maltepez through the Transylvanian Mountains to Northern Europe.

    Finally in August 1374, Prince Giorgio da Avins (representing his Imperial Po troops) led a decisive assault on the Orientalists at Ciucarges where the Oriental claimer to the Rumanian crown, Nicolescu, resided. Giorgio da Avins, the future Emperor of Po, had been in charge of inquisition, torture camps of Orientalists until 1372, now was the most import Abbeist general and asset in the Holy War. Avins’ army contained about 4,000 cavalrymen and 13,000 infantrymen, armed with arming swords, longbows, and crossbows. The Church attempted to add soldiers under Avins’ authority but the prince refused under his father Emperor Basilio I’s policy that Imperial Po maintains independence in most forms to protect the authority of Po’s monarchy. Basilio I wrote to Giorgio in 1372, weeks after the death of Imperial Po’s first Holy War general Carlo di Bisagno and then replacement with Giorgio da Avins, stating: “If the church imposed foreign soldiers into the ranks of the Emperor’s army, ties between Po and the foreign bureaucracy of Trivoli would be forced and such as action would strongly suggest Pontifexal authority over our Empire.” Thus Giorgio launched his small but all-Po army against the Orientalists without the needed foreign assistance. The Orientalists held numerical superiority and a defense only penetrable by a frontal assault. The first Po rain of arrows failed against Orientalist’s large 90 centimeter-in-diameter shields which they easily angled towards the arrows. Giorgio da Avins ordered his archers to fire at a high angle rather in a direct line in order to reach behind the Orientalist’s shields. The Orientalist left their defenses to pursue the inflicting Abbeist archers but the Italians responded with cavalry-led infantry. When the Oriental Rumanian leader Nicolescu was struck by an arrow in the collarbone then in the chest, the leaderless Orientals began to flee the valley.

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    The Coronation of Sofia of Covasna​

    Rumania fell into Abbeist control and, on March 2, 1375, Sofia was made queen of all of Rumania with her coronation by Pontifex Giovanni IV. Rumania was unified but the Holy War went on. Most French nobles returned home with what they believe to be the war’s cause, the defense and assistance of Ovidiast brothers & sisters, already accomplished, along with many German, Spanish, and Italian rulers. Giovanni IV argued that the war was over united Ovidiasm and must continue.

    In 1376 the Orientalists had been propelled to the Prut River. Though they were geographically on decline they continued adding to the huge death toll, almost summed to a million total (including civilian casualties). Spain and Germany called their armies home, nothing was left for them to gain. They fought for the Universale Abbey with huge cost and gained favoring by the Pontifex. Yet Giovanni IV insisted on continuing the war, specifically to expand the Universale Church’s rule more East of Germany. Emperor Basilio I of Imperial Po declared the war over, disobeying direct commands from the Abbey itself. Giovanni IV claimed divine ruling that Basilio be stripped of his throne in May, 1376 and urged the nobles of Imperial Po to repudiate Basilio’s claims. Thus Emperor Basilio repudiated the church’s claim for sovereignty over the Abbeist States, by insult declaring war against the Pontifex in summer 1376.

    Giovanni IV had declining support for the Holy War, many leaving after Basilio’s challenge to Pontifexal power. The Cardinals in Trivoli insisted he ended the Fourth Holy War with a claimed victory to prevent appearing as an ineffective, weak leader. Giovanni did so and the Fourth Holy War was over in November 1376. The Fenicios found an ally in Po with the mutual antagonist of the Universale Abbey and joined Po in the “Italian Wars” (1376-1382).
     
  4. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
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    #4
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    1376-1408​

    Historians mark this point in time a major turning point in Europe. The Fourth and Last Holy War (1370-1376) had changed Western Europe politically, socially, and economically. Before the Fourth Holy War, Western Europe greatly unified Ovidiasts under the power and influence of the Pontifex in Trivoli. But the Holy War and waged war against fellow Ovidiasts unlike the Melekists, Red Sea, and Pagans it fought against previously. The effect of this was internal Ovidiast wars, challenge to the Pontifex’s power (politically and socially), and the rise of nation-states with the decline of the church’s power.

    Pontifex Giovanni IV failed to exercise his authority over the monarchs of Europe and mistakenly made an attempt to exert Imperial Po’s nobles to repudiate Emperor Basilio’s claims to Po’s throne. The Fenicios, oligarchs of Tuscany, seized the opportunity to damage their Abbeist antagonist and joined Imperial Po. Now with open war, the infamous Insidiatoris revealed their actions from sabotage and stealth to direct assaults. The Insidiatoris sought to eliminate a resurgent rival, the Monastic Ordine, while Tuscany wished to eliminate their rival and adversary the Universale Church, which was in a vulnerable time with an unassertive Pontifex, exhausted armies and economies of Europe due to the Fourth Holy War, and other challenges to Abbeist authority.
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    The Abbeist States had no military; it carried guards and sailors but none to fight a war. The Tuscans and Pos were already marching into Abbeist territory south of Tuscany and West of Stagna in which the small armies of the local lords were crushed. Few castles and fortresses existed in the “Challengers” paths, the only large one being the Adiger Castle. Giovanni IV sent couriers across Italy to literally “defend the Church”. Only the Italians that called to the Pontifex - many still exhausted and angry over the Fourth Holy War - was Duchess Angelina of Giordano and the small, but well-trained, army of Vallis. The Monastic Ordine was headquartered at the Sapere Aude, some miles south of Stagna, which allowed the Abbeist to exert the Stagnan government. The Pontifex’s Military Order marched soldiers to the Trono Palace in Stagna (pictured below).
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    Trono Palace, Stagna, built in 1284 after Italian returned from the First Holy War

    The Monastics compelled the Duke of Stagna, Tommaso di Siena, to fight. Di Siena was a persuasive and devoted religious man who spent two years studying with Ovidiast monks in Capraia. The Duke argued he “could only attack which [he] couldn't defend”, that fighting both Tuscany and Po would be improbable. Tommaso continued his argument, stating:
    The persuasive duke, knowing if he didn't refused the Monastics’ demands he’d lose more than just his head of government, mirrored the negotiating Monastic knight. By acting as his listen did, he created a sense of empathy in him. Finally, the two sides agreed Stagna would declare war against Tuscany, the long rival of Tuscany and Fenicios who were responsible for the assassination of their beloved Prince Enrico 1339, and not Po.
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    Tommaso signing Stagna into war and swearing defense for the Church and Trivoli as ruler of Stagna​
    Basilio I was leading his forces towards Trivoli when couriers arrived on Lipizzan horses, the symbolic horse of Italians, informing the Emperor of Stagna’s declaration of war on Tuscany. Even though Stagna had only declared war on Tuscany, Basilio I promised the Tuscans an end to Stagna. Basilio is quoted with:
    Consequently, Tuscany and Imperial Po turned east to assault Stagna before the Monastics and Stagna take advantage of Tuscany and Po without its best soldiers. In the meantime, Giordano rushed to defend Trivoli, the nerve center of the Universale Abbey.

    Late in the day (estimated to be past seven in the afternoon, summertime when the sunsets), when Basilio reached the point where Stagna’s army was arrayed, he deployed the Challenger’s forces and commenced the attack. The Emperor chose to do some on the reason of clouds. 3 August 1376 was a clear day, little clouds in sight. Basilio decided to attack at the time of day when the sun would be setting west, angled brightly towards the eyes any soldier with his back to defend eastward. The Stagnans were poised with cavalry on both flanks, their center comprising infantry with cavalry among or before them in equal intervals. Historically the greatest cavalry in the peninsula, the Stagnan horse archers caused much harm to the Challenger heavy pikemen but were eventually repulsed by the dense pikes used by Tuscany, scaring the horses in reverse and wreaking much havoc upon their own lines. The Stagnans were positioned to defend in front of the hill leading to the city of Stagna, they were begirded on their left flank by the Topino River so their right flank was the only way feasible means of retreat. The retreating Stagnans were outmaneuvered, with Basilio I pursuing them East and longbows still battering, Tommaso di Siena surrendered. Tommaso’s decision to surrender also weighed the thoughts that if he continued to retreat and Stagna was captured he would have to accept unconditional surrender. But by surrendering now he was, in some way, able to negotiate a treaty or agreement with a standing army (more like limping), reserve units, and “soil and flesh still to defend”. Tommaso confronted Basilio I under the shades of a pear tree, again negotiating his army and throne. Basilio laughed at the duke, aware of his oath he made to the Pontifex. But Tommaso specified that the oath was “to swear defense for the Church and Trivoli as ruler of Stagna”, but seeing it as Basilio having conquered Stagna’s army he was the ruler not him. ‘Tommaso the Negotiator’ plead to continue his father’s royal lineage, for Stagna to become a vassal of Basilio. The duke reminded that the Monastic Ordine resided within Stagna, whom Tommaso called the Church’s most valuable weapon. He knew of their exact location and (as one would expect a duke to know his land) its most vulnerable spot: the aqueduct’s opening to the fortress. The Po Emperor, aware of the century long rivalry between Tuscany and Stagna, understood the emotional value of the land. Basilio I decreed the land as a gift to Tuscany, mandating that it be annexed only was Tommaso as its first Duke. The Tuscans sent messengers to Cervari with the news.
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    The Fenicio Bank in Cervari, the first and oldest bank in Italy​
    The Fenicios accepted the treaty with confusion. Tuscany wasn’t an empire or kingdom. It had not any dukes. With the Stagna Treaty, Tuscany witnessed a further step of the Fenicios from self-ruling oligarchs to political expansionists. The Fenicios sought economic interests for their bank in Cervari through politics (they financed elections to lead the collection of city states’ councils). Their increasing involvement in politics led to Edoardo di Montero (self-titled) finally solving the family’s controversy with declaring himself Archduke of Tuscany in January 1377. Much of the Fenicio family opposed his decision; Placido Fenicio was the half-brother of Edoardo, uptaker of the family bank, and patriarch of the Fenicio family. Placido repeatedly remarked that the rise in political authority was a magnificent opportunity for the Fenicio bank.

    Meanwhile, Basilio I sought out the Sapere Aude to eliminate the Monastics with Tommaso as his guide. Little did he know that dozens of Insidiatori spies followed the Challengers. Alost three days was spent locating the Monastic Ordine’s fortress. Basilio I, unknowing till now that it was also a monastery, doubted if an attack would desecrate the Creators. The Insidiatoris revealed themselves to Basilio, bedazzling him of their stealth. The 60 or so Insidiatoris offered to infiltrate the compound at night after a few days siege, when the Monastics will be weak, starved, and less aware. Emperor Basilio agreed to the mutually beneficial battle plan. After three days measurement, the Insidiatoris infiltrated the Sapere Aude when the moon its apogee, its farthest distance from the horizon. The Insidiatoris entered through the aqueduct, the point of entry was told by Basilio, and went through the castle silently. If any guard saw one of the assassins he or she was killed quickly to prevent the entire Ordine from awaking and/or confronting the Insidiatoris. They caused multiple fires, the first starting near the barracks. With its insides burning and support collapsing, the Monastics fled their fortifications outward. However they didn’t surrender as the exited their headquarters, they fought the Challengers for hours until the last death. The Monastics, the Church’s army, the Insidiatoris adversaries, the Knights of the Creators, were no more.

    The Challengers headed south towards Lake Bracciano. As the Abbeist expected the Challengers turned southwest to march around Lake Bracciano to avoid the continuous streams and rivers flowing northwest nearby Monte Soratte, which would slow down the armies and possibly damage the Challengers’ catapults and trebuchets. Basilio’s cavalry already carried a shortage of horseshoes and replacement was needed after maneuvers on the rock surfaces near Stagna. Thus the Challengers would have to target where the Abbeists were prepared to defend, Adiger Castle.
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    Adiger Castle today​
    Adiger Castle located between the next to the sea, three miles away from the forested hills, and 9 miles southwest of Lake Bracciano. It was built aside an important river crossing the road Via, a wide busy road maintained since its construction in ancient Trivolin times. Without any hills and a strong, wide, flat stone surfaces, the road was by far the easiest route going north from Trivoli, even used by Cassius Valadier on his infamous “Cassius’ March”. Adiger Castle was built not to protect Trivoli but to dominate the trade route and control who and what went through. The castle was known to plunder travelling merchants passing through the city on occasion and commonly did it during times of conflict.
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    Adiger Castle as it may have looked in 1376. The castle is now located two miles away from the sea due to due to silting and land filing for town expansion. ​
    Basilio I arrived with his Tuscan and Po armies to the castle under the Pontifex’s flag. If he turned upstream towards the wide gap in the river where his soldiers might be able to cross, his artillery and probably cavalry wouldn’t be able to follow, nonetheless the ammo for the artillery and weapons in merchant wagons. Attacking the castle by sea would be too difficult, the waters were too shallow making the only part of the fortress possible to enter with siege towers on a Tuscan or Pon ship would be the East Barbican and that didn’t give ungated pathway to the rest of the castle, possibly resulting as a murderhole. Basilio massed his armies around the castle & city walls and dug into the ground for protection. They waited till nightfall to launch an infiltration attempt. Then, their black painted battering rams were pushed across the rivercrossing. Even when the Abbeists (many of them Giordanon) identified the battering ram, the Challengers were protected by a triangular wooden roofs. The same design that the Monastics used against the Insidiatoris in 1338, adopted by the Tuscans after their forming of alliance with the Insidiatoris. A replica of the Italian Battering Ram is displaced below. The Abbeists poured hot oil onto the battering ram, the injured Challengers retreated back across the river with arrows following them and leaving the battering ram covered in oil at the wooden gates to the fortified village.
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    Emperor Basilio I consequently ordered some of his expendable soldiers to the gate. The Pos ignited the oil by striking flint. The oil did burn up quickly but it caused the wooden battering ram to enflame which spread to the wooden gate. This led an entry into the fortified city and the Challengers stormed across the rivercrossing.
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    The further castle’s fortification was surrounded by ditch and a rock-support draw bridge that crossed it. The sieging army used the rock bridge as cover while they dug a tunnel that breached the wall. This breaching of the final wall brought fighting into the castle in which the Challengers emerged victorious.
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    After the Siege of Adiger, no soldier stood between Trivoli and the armies of Po and Tuscany. The Tuscan and Po armies entered Trivoli, with Basilio riding his white Lipizzan horse named “Lepus” in front of the forces. Basilio’s forces encircled Ovidii Cathedral, the seat of the Pontifex and the Universale Consilium. A priest wearing all black ran out of the cathedral towards the army, crying “Pax tibi! Pax tibi!” Basilio rode his white horse to the priest with Michele di Marxani (representing the Insidiatoris) and Giocomo Attrezzo (representing Tuscany). The pleading priest explained “The Universale Abbey has no soldiers! We are but pacifists! Surely you don’t intend to sack the armless!” The Emperor laughed his face into the skies then turned back towards the priest. “Pacifists, you say? You Abbeists are as pacifists as the emperors who once resided in this city! The emperors that killed not, yet ordered another to.”
    Marxani spoke up: “It isn’t the church without soldiers we possess quarrels, the tyrant with soldiers we scuffle. The tyrant which deploys soldiers even against his own bishops!”
    “The High Bishop of Trivoli that falsely claims political sovereignty in a position given for spiritual guidance and service.” Stated Basilio.
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    Depiction of The Ovidii Cathedral, ordered and completed under Pontifex Agatho in 1221, construction began just after the Tuscan Wars of 1212​
    As Pontifex Giovanni exited the Ovidii Cathedral, one field marshal remarked:
    Historians agree that the Challengers were only capable to captured the governing body of the Universale Church because of the fatigued allies of the church in Europe, the devastated results of the Fourth Holy War prevent willing military and economies emerging to campaign against the Italian peninsula. Giovanni IV was another factor, who was unable to persuade a significant number of allies to fight Imperial Po and Tuscany in the short three months of war due to his historic record of false pretexts for war. The “Pontifex who cried wolf” was ultimately attacked by the wolf.

    The next fortnight was marked by the Diet of Trivoli (1376) where leaders from many Italian regions, mostly Tuscany and Po, assembled and debated on what action to conduct on Giovanni IV and the Abbey. Prince Giorgio (da Avins), son of Basilio I, suggested that the Pontifex and the governing Universale Abbey be relocated to Capraia on the island of Corsica. Historians hold no doubts that Giorgio obtained the idea of the center of the church (and in mentality, ‘holy city’) being located in Capraia through the influence of the Orientalists when he was the Inquisitor General in Rumania during the Fourth Holy War (1370-1776). At the meeting, Vallis and Giordano both signed submission to Imperial Po after Basilio’s threats and continuous claims to “conquer the peninsula like Cassius Valadier” and “siege the armies like Mermarius II” along with persuasive reasoning by Tommaso the Negotiator who promised the two city-states continuing self-government but with “occasion compensation for their provided protection”, thus Imperial Po gained two new dukes and dominance over land trade attempting to journey up the Italian peninsula. Despite being disconnected geographically from Imperial Po, the maritime region would be able to control Vallis and Giordano via its strong navy. The Diet of Trivoli proclaimed the island of Corsica, already agreed upon as the new center of the Universale Abbey which they believed would keep the church out of Italian affairs, to be jointly occupied by Imperial Po and Tuscany. By doing so, the Fenicios planned to open a second bank (the fourth bank ever in Italy) in Capraia, which would be hugely profitable due to its religious pilgrimage and Ovidiast immigrants eager to establish themselves in the holy Ovidiast city. Imperial Po would make less with taxes from the lords and tariffs from the ports, but still a surplus of the island’s maintenance and protection.

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    Above: the result of the Diet of Trivoli. Red territories fall under Imperial Po, Blue under Tuscany. The Island of Corsica being jointly occupied, the two powers now controlled half of Italy. ​

    The submission of Vallis and Giordano spawned the revitalizing of an ancient city due to its strategic and economic importance: Austiae. The city was the birthplace of the philosopher and tutor to the Valadier brothers, Sumanius. Eighteen months after the Diet of Trivoli, Tuscany took further steps its evolving feudalism. Archduke Edoardo di Montero named his three children Infantes, with his first born child Maria as his heiress. Infantes were at the responsibility of dukes but hold authority over others due to their closer line to the throne. Under Montero’s system, which would expand into other Italian political systems, the line to the throne under the dukes went as follows: percentage of royal blood, if equal percentage then ranked by eldest, then dukes ranked by measurement of land. To be an infante, a duke must have royal blood. Tuscany, at this time, wasn’t ruled by a king because the Pontifex hadn’t coronated Montero and refused to after the 1376 Italian War.

    In Corsica, the Universale Council approved a vote of no confidence towards Giovanni IV on April 8 1377. The council elected Carlo di Regalis, a non-noble born monk from Regalis so as not to be connected to the sovereignty of Imperial Po or Tuscany. Note that Regalis was an independently self-governing city-state at this time. Carlo took upon the pontifexal name “Niccolo I” to display disconnection to his predecessor, stating that “the name Giovanni has come to mean ‘weak’ in this generation”.
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    Capraia Cathedral, the Universale Abbey’s motherchurch during its residence in Corsica

    After years of war, Italy was at peace. But Pontifexal action was inevitable. In 1381, Pontifex Niccolo I plead to the powerful King Bernard of France (a loyal Abbeist) to recapture Trivoli and return it to the church’s hands. This plea resulted in the Second Italian War (1381-1382). The motives divided respectfully in the French invasion of Italy. Pontifex Niccolo wished to retake the church’s influence by eliminating Tuscany and Imperial Po as powers, the only Western Ovidiasts that challenged the Universale Abbey directly; Niccolo also sought to retake Trivoli which was vital to the bureaucracy of the church. By 1381, France’s armies had fully recovered and regained troops from the Fourth Holy War and it’s royal treasury flowed once again after most soldiers returned to farming or guilds that the kingdom’s nobles were financial dependent on. Bernard I of France’s respective motive, as encouraged by his advisors, was to force a Italian defeat, then create puppet governments that followed French interest; Bernard assumed that ‘when’ he crushed the Italian city-states, the church would be in debt of favors to him and he could call upon the Pontifex if Spain and England teamed against France (the French gained such fears after the English King Frederick of Winechester married the second daughter of Spanish Queen Elena V, tying the two houses diplomatically).

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    Above: (In orange) the Kingdom of France under the rule of Bernard I​
    Many rulers in Italy felt need for increased protection after the First Italian War (1376), in which the invading armies of Imperial Po and Tuscany conquered and defeated the soldiers of Vallis, Giordano, and the Pontifexal States. The effect was a massive wave of castles across Italy, 80% of which were at least halfway constructed by Bernard’s invasion in 1381. Beautiful castles emerged such as these:

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    King Bernard was known for swift, quick warfare, sometimes covering over 50 miles in just once single day. Bernard utilized the multitude horses in France by each soldier bringing two horses, either carrying all supplies with a saddle on one horse then eventually switching to the other horse to avoid tiring the creatures, or the soldier would keep all the supplies on one horse while riding the other so the mounts would equally endure a long distance without as much fatigue.

    The French delayed their invasion until the end of autumn that year, when the mass number of rivers formed by the Alps would be frozen over and could act like bridges for Bernard’s quick army. This would also give Bernard sufficient time to move Pontifex Niccolo into France, out of Italy’s hands, and prepare his army with supplies.

    On 16 December 1381, Bernard led half of his total army across the Var River into the city-state of Amata. Because Bernard chose to invade in the winter, crossing the alps would be a difficult task which would fatigue and demoralize his 40,000 troops. Thus he invaded by following the warmer Mediterranean beaches East, making the City-State of Amata his first victim. The small government fell without words but its sailors fled with plenty. News of the French invasion arrived within days to Cervari and within weeks: all of Italy. The Tuscans panicked; half the entire French army was more than twice of that of Tuscany’s! The Fenicios retreated their assets to Avins, Lorenzo Galvani took sails to Corsica, and Archduke Edoardo rushed to Torchello, the capital of Imperial Po.
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    Bernard sacked Cervari on 26 December, looting the city for everything, “from metals to silvers to gold to art!” As the French marched southeast they plundered farms for eating and vineyards for drinks. By doing so, the French king’s army marched well-fed by living off the land while devastating the local economies. Fighting back only seemed to improve French morale further, with victories at Grifoni (8 January, 1382), Elba Straits (14 January), Stagna (25 January), Gorzano (2 February), and most devastating to the Italians: Trivoli (9 February). Each of these had major impacts.

    The defeat of Elba Straits and the losses of Cervari, Grifoni, and Stagna convinced the Fenicios that they were without capability of maintaining such large territory. They were well off when simply the bankers and oligarchs of Cervari, but their expansionism put quantities of responsibilities, citizens, and bloods under their de facto rule of Tuscany. Placido Fenicio wrote that “only an Emperor could administer an Empire.” Of course, Placido was the family’s elder and banker, his point-of-view at this time most likely wishing to stick to what the Fenicios knew best: banking. Hence the Edoardo Fenicio, inhabiting Po’s famous Imperial Palace since escaping Cervari, signed the annexation of Tuscany and its vassals on 18 February, 1382, signing after writing “We are dependent on each other, shouldn’t we rule together?”. Edoardo continued to contain the title of Archduke but with much of the executive power transferring to the Emperor, Basilio I. Basilio saw the annexation as an opportunity to expand imperial power and doubling his military’s strength and size (Tuscany’s smaller population would allow Po’s military to increase by 2/3 in numeral measurement within 10 years).

    The Apennine City-States was nearly destroyed in terms of governing after the French attack on Gorzano, its 3,250 sized army couldn’t protect the city government from being captured and imprisoned. The Apennine City-States were even divided further. Bernard hoped that by taking the Italian governments aside, a new puppet government or France would be its only options for reconstruction.

    Trivoli’s fall to France and the ~7,500 defending warriors with it, the Kingdom of Calabria launched a counter-effort to Bernard’s nomadic army. Queen Lisabetta’s advisors feared Bernard’s scorched-earth like strategies would advance into Calabria. Lisabetta deployed her army to Regalis where she estimated Bernard would target after destroying Po control in Vallis. She was partially wrong, Bernard saw no value in Vallis and didn’t view the land’s value nor considered the effort to make it a vassal of France. But Bernard did head straight to the rich and populous city of Regalis next, storming his army straight from Trivoli on 16 February (with one week’s rest) to Regalis.
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    Bernard’s intended plan to cripple Italy, notably targeting capital cities in effort to force/create puppet governments that would serve French interests. ​
    “Barbaric Bernard”, as the Italians began to call him, was surprised at his arrival at Regalis on 22 February to find a strong, fortified resisting army. 29,000 armed Frenchman (slightly depleted and many left to fortify gained territory) stumbled upon 25,000 Calabrians prepared to defend their kingdom. Regalis’ bay was filled with Calabrian ships, armed with ballista and archers, guarded the coastline. French King Bernard emphasized his formations of heavy cavalry; a Dutch prince once asserted “no peasant ever loved his oxen as much as this king loves his cavalry.” Therefore the Calabrians avoided direct confrontation against the French cavalry and instead used their bows to destroy French mounts at medium distances. A multitude of Bernard’s robust knights’ armors withstood the Calabrian arrows. The defending Italians then targeted and killed the knights’ horses, leaving many heavily armored men on feet, each isolated. The plan was extremely effective and lost Bernard his most principal units. Calabrian infantry charged towards the French’s, angled forty-five degrees to push the French towards the seas. The French were now trapped between two directions requiring attention. Yells of retreat unanimously broke through the ranks, pulling themselves out of Regalis.

    Bernard’s army was just gifted their first defeat in the campaign, at last inflicting on the French morale. Casualties were high; the injured unable to walk were left on the battlefield. Bernard’s Constables’ collected a head count falling to just 18,420 and an unknown number of that injured. 46% of his original offensive power’s number was enough to discourage further raids into Italy. Bernard I of France also feared the number was at risk from being shut off from a retreating land route. The constables worried another defeat would jeopardize a previously evident French victory in the power struggle over Trivoli.

    Basilio I of Imperial Po utilized the opportunity of the French rapid advancement, thereby too quick to fortify well, to retake Italian locations. Grifoni was barely fortified, easily taken by Basilio; Stagna and Cervari were decisively taken by the increasingly-powerful king.

    Couriers delivered the report of the Calabrian victory to Emperor Basilio on 25 February. French troops weary, in retreat, and without heavy cavalry, the great general logistically felt confident in confronting Bernard. Basilio sent three couriers towards Queen Lisabetta to ensure delivery, compelling her to meet Po-Tuscan troops against a defending French force and Bernard at Trivoli on 10 March. Basilio made hurried efforts to capture the French-held town of Gorzano, then positioned his land force north and east of Trivoli on 7 March. Barbaric Bernard’s retreating army re-entered Trivoli on 8 March, unluckily after Basilio. Basilio sieged Bernard there until Calabrian forces arrived to the Emperor’s trusts. Together, the Italians purged the French military from the most nationalistically symbolic city of Italy.

    Outnumbered overwhelmingly, the French king strived to force a hole to the north for an exit of Trivoli to be possible. Italian gaps didn’t widen, leaving Barbarian Bernard to ultimately being defeated. The French strategy of going deep behind enemy lines proved to be a blunder. Bernard agreed to the Treaty of Ravello (1382), which demanded the king to return all captured Italian land and people, including the Pontifex, be had over to the Calabrian and Pon governments and pay war reparations in return to “keep his body’s blood and his house’s blood” (meaning to keep his life and throne). Not only the rest of Bernard’s kingship but the general military strategy in Europe changed partly due to the Second Italian War from a swift, targeted focus to a more enduring, front line focused strategy.

    In 1389, the same year the Insidiatoris introduced gunpowder to Europe from the Middle East, Castelchio’s naval fleet conquered Gibraltar from Spain in efforts to open the Strait of Gibraltar and gain access to the Canary Islands. Castelchio was seeking a part of the spice trade that the rest of Italy profited from but Castelchio was geographically missing such revenue. Castelchio quickly established a settlement in the Canary Islands as a port and trading posts that they greatly profited from trading with Western and Southern Africa. The Canary Islands paved the way for maritime technological advancement for Castelchio, along with riches to continue as an important power in Italy which was being dwarfed by the 1376 unification.

    The Pontifex’s attempt to recapture the city of Trivoli, end the rule of Tuscany and Imperial Po, France’s attempt to create Italian puppet states serving in their interest, King Bernard’s deep stretched-behind-the-lines invasion, and the team-work of defeating a foreign army were all factors that united Italians after the Second Italian War (1381-1382). Just two years after the war, in 1384, Po-Tuscan Emperor Basilio I handed his only son, Prince Giorgio da Avins, the imperial crown on the agreement that he married young (age 24) Queen Lisabetta as the new equal King of Italy. King Giorgio I and Lisabetta I would co-rule the unified kingdom from three different capitals: Arccado, Torchello, Trivoli; their first born child, Giorgio di Torchello would become the sole ruler of the crown. City-states and duchies, such as Giordano and Regalis, carry huge war debts and economic recession from Bernard’s invasion and his scorched earth policy. Defensive measures was now obviously needed by Italians leaders as exemplified by the Second Italian War, many city-states couldn’t afford suitable militaries as medieval warfare’s costs of armor, fortifications, horses, and weapons was great. The rich, banking family of Fenicio themselves made multiple loads to nobles in need to pay off rushed expenditures to defend or repair their regions in awake of “Barbaric Bernard”. The recently created dual-monarchy held a fair income for the next ten years as war reparations from France, which encouraged the expansive King Giorgio I to hold the Edict of Recludet. The monarch promised at the Edict of Recludet to pay for three-fourths dukes’ and other regional governors’ debts in exchange for sovereignty. Regalis, Recludet, and Cantiero agreed to the Edict; Amata and Vallis were transferred to Italian control as part of France’s surrender by the Treaty of Ravello (1382). The Apennine City-States, without control, eventually declined without reconstruction from Bernard’s warfare for too long and was annexed by Giorgio and Lisabetta in exchange for its repair and restructuring. External threats directly caused a more united the Italian peninsula needed to protect and defend Italian interests.

    With centralization on a strong national monarchy and strong Tuscan influences on the governing, Italy sees the inevitable decline in feudalism and rise of the bourgeois as Italy’s cities begin to focus more on commerce like those in Tuscany. The organized economic concentration that made possible such expansion derived from the protective self-organization into guilds, which became increasingly necessary when individual businessmen, for example: craftsmen, artisans, merchants, conflicted with their rent-seeking feudal landlords who demanded greater-than-agreed for rents. The Fenicios are given high-end positions in the Royal Treasury in recompense for the annexation of Tuscany during the Second Italian War.
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    Italy in 1400 after Imperial Po and Calabria’s unification​
     
  5. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
    [size=+5]
    #5
    [/size]

    1376 - 1408

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    Above: Albericus Fabbro, who invented the mechanical movable type printing press in Arccado around the time of the Pontifexal Inquistion, 1328. The invention introduced mass communication within Europe which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information, including revolutionary ideas, transcended borders, captured the masses in the Rotundi and threatened the power of political and religious authorities.​

    The Fourth Holy War (1370-1376) consequently drifted trade routes coming from the east to the Italian peninsula, making the merchants in Italy the ‘middlemen’ of Europe. The bourgeois rose in Italian cities, such as the Fenicio family in Cervari or the Marchetti family Austiae, because of the new trade routes generated by the Holy Wars and Italian Wars, which together killed half a million Italians (out of the 6.6 million total), devastating but leaving the survivors better off financially and socially with the same wealth spread among fewer people. The Italian Wars, bourgeois and the middle class effectively ‘killed’ feudalism; the Holy Wars and Italian Wars sparked a major need for Italian defenses and these middle classes provided kings and queens the money necessary for the maintenance of armies thereby enabled them to reduce their dependence on the feudal lords.

    The Church which dominated the medieval society suffered large setbacks in the 14th century with the rejection by most Europe leaders to continue the Fourth Holy, direct Pontifexal challenging by Tuscany and Imperial Po in the first Italian War (1376) and Pontifex Giovanni’s arrest and relocation to Capraia, in the church’s view as a prisoner. This gave a serious blow to the power and prestige of the Pontifex. Even the common people lost faith in Church due to rise of numerous rituals. They preferred to pay greater attention to the present life rather than the life after death. Thus secularism rises in Europe but moreso in Tuscany and Po where the church was stripped of such grand influences.

    The key event that defines the start of the Rotundi Period was the founding of Marchetti University in Austiae. Marco Marchetti, the richest banker in Italy after the Fenicios, founded the university in honor of the great ancient philosopher Bassius who established the School of Scholars there a millennium and half years earlier, whom Marchetti was fascinated with. The university was the center of early humanist research; Marchetti encouraged the researching of the ancient Trivolins and philosophers at his university. Marco Marchetti hoped his establishment and financing of the school would help his personal establishment as a dominant banker in Italy and boast his social status.
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    The university’s founding in 1385 sparked curiosity on the classicalism of ancient Trivoli outside Marchetti’s interests and into other Rotundis. Marchetti is the first university in the sense of a higher-learning, degree-awarding institute, in the world.

    The Rotundi changes in the style of art, as well as the outlook of artists, needed wealthy patrons to support it, and mercantile Italy was especially fertile ground. Political and economic changes in the ruling class of Italy shortly before this period had led to a national government and the rise of influential bankers in need legitimize themselves. Marchetti was the first of these Retundis attempting to legitimize himself with conspicuous display, with ostentation, including all forms of art and creativity.
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    Further interest was generated for classicalism with the construction of the Avins Cathedral. The nave, or main body, of the cathedral was completed in 1386 after three decades of on and off construction. The designs derived its influence almost completed from ancient Trivolin architecture, the nave facades admires the Trivolin Agora (also referred to as a forum) while its dome used the same Trivolin techniques used to construction the Temple of the Gods under Emperor Sparius in C.E. 121. The Spanish architect of the dome, Amado de Edificio, experienced the Fire of Hispanis where the huge, wood Basilica Hispanis collapsed. Amado knew the devastating results wood support could bring, thus the top of his dome used lead as wood is light but flammable and stone is fireproof but much heavier for such an unreinforced dome.

    Classicalism collided with art during the same time that religious reformation collided with philosophy. In 1382, (female) Pastor Beatrix Heel published “Essays over Ordinatie en de Kerk”, or in English: Essays on Ordination and the Church. In her writings, Beatrix Heel listed criticisms of the Universale Abbey on many key issues. Widely published, the Essays on Ordination and the Church criticized:
    • Article I, criticizes the long, historic male biases of the church.
      o “The leader and represented of organized Ovidiasm, the position of Pontifex, has been held but only by men. If this position represents all Ovidiast, wherefore does it elect women not?”
      o “Fons, Article IX, Specifics 6-7: ‘The Creator and Creatix equal in power, compassion, rule, and value just as their offspring.’ Our very creed commands us so, man and woman to exist equal. To rule equally is to be represented equally!”
    • Article II, criticizes the bureaucracy of the church.
      o “The church was fared to be in the streets of slums for the poor and at the help for poor, it was fared to be on the edges of religious spheres converting heathens, not in the luxuries of Trivoli!”
      o “Ovidius had been of the merchant’s craft. How now as the Universale Abbey taken merchants’ wealth more than given!”
    • Article III, criticizes the concept of a ‘holy city’ and the recent relocation affairs.
      o “Such one holy city exist, not one of mortals but the Divine Paradise that awaits us!”
      o “Fight war not, tis bearing men from the real holy city that’s reserves to us sinless.”
    • Article IV, criticizes the church’s involvement in politics.
      o “Designed not to govern governors but to congregate congregation. Tis spirits we must lead, not the eternal sea of politics which tides frequently reverse, created armies on opposing shores, and their affairs remain controversial. The abbey must reserve sovereignty to spiritual leadership.”
    • Article V, criticizes the Holy Wars.
      o “The act of slaying another well-being is towards the forbidden. If killing is only justified in the service of Ovidiasm, then service must be a struggle or else the service was needn’t. Therefore, murdering another can only be in the defense of Ovidiasm and shouldn’t be acted as the aggressor.”
      o “Poor little Rumania, so far from the Creators and so close to the Church.”
    • Article VI, criticizes the selling of offices.
      o “The hawking of offices is of most corruption of all the church’s wrongdoings.”
    • Article VII, criticizes various Abbeist policies and holy writ interpretations. By far the most controversial of all the articles.
      o “Pontifex Giovanni IV’s advocating the wrong interpretation that the Ultima Vox Eius encourages concealing faith for self-protection is hypocritical. Giovanni claimed concealing one’s faith for self-protection is lawful because otherwise would be suicide. Yet killing thine own life at the time of thou’s faith revelation tis one of the few points when killing is justifiable.”
    • Article VIII, criticizes Ultima Vox Eius writings only in Latin.
      o “Salvation is for more than just the educated.”
    • Article IX, criticizes the act of excommunication.
      o “Excommunicate not, for the Creators emphasized the civilized ways of humanity. Society ought to be judged by wherefore it treats its worst-off citizens.”
    • Article X, criticizes the Monastic Ordine
      o “The rules of salvation and sin needn’t police.”
    The publication ended with the infamous words:
    Heel’s Essays over Ordinatie en de Kerk spread fast through Western Europe in result of Albericus Fabbro’s movable printing press. Fabbro’s invention permitted Heel’s ideas to circulate and allowed the democratization of knowledge. If such protests of the church’s policies existed a century earlier, which they possibly could in fact have, the church would’ve crushed such ideas without difficulty or traces. But Heel’s ideas spread across Europe, notably into northern Germany, Normandy, and England. The printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of new ideas.
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    Depiction of Beatrix Heel​
    Many vernacular Ultima Vox Eius begin to appear, often with Heel’s essays translated at the beginning or end of the holy book. These copies were typically labeled “Heel’s Gospel”. Many Northern Europeans adopted Heel’s ideas, mainly French and German nobles already unattached from the church since the Fourth Holy War and began to call themselves: “Gospelists”. The Fourth Holy War is traditionally as the primary cause of the Gospel Movement. Europeans lost confidence in the Pontifexal position due to the ineffectiveness and hypocritical reign of Giovanni IV; challenging the Pontifexal position and bureaucratic church arose from the extension of the Fourth Holy War with an already high death toll, with European leaders unable to continue the conflict; rebelling the church’s authority proved possible with the Italian Wars; the political involvement of the church seemed inevitable to backfire; the printing press produced a rise of unified cultural languages and nationalism, distancing themselves from the pan-European Latin tongues and need for the Universale Abbey’s adaption; the decline of feudalism saw less attachment and need of the church by nobles.

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    The resulting attitude towards Gospelist was extremely hostile. The Pontifex declared heresy by Heel, refusing to accept or reform according to the Essays. King Bernard I of France panicked as he struggled to unify the state, already existing with more power in its nobles than the monarch himself. King Bernard I lost significant power after his defeat and surrender in Trivoli in 1382; to gather a majority of his nobles’ support, the French monarch renounced the nobility of 13 individual families in Northeastern France that adopted, agreed, supported, or even mentioned Heel’s Gospel. To prevent his land from being divided and risk revolt of the neighboring lands of the Dutch, Bernard sought out Beatrix Heel. In October 1385, Beatrix Heel was captured by French soldiers 25 miles away from the French border, heavily risking a spark of war. Heel was taken back to Chapiteaux, the capital city of the French Kingdom, and temporarily imprisoned at Cachot Castle (pictured above). Heel was trialed upon King Bernard’s return from Corsica, the accusations on Beatrix Heel being heresy, apostate, blasphemy, act of recusant, and treason of the church, all convictions of capital punishment. The trial was strategically held far from where any Gospelists could attend the trial in Chapiteaux. There, Heel declared that only the Creators could convict her of blasphemy not any government. She vowed an oath of silence with her last words being:
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    Heel was burned at the stake in outer Chapiteaux. The execution of Beatrix Heel didn’t cause revolt, only 20% of the Dutch and 3% of the French had adopted Heel’s secular ideas by the timing of her death. Her writings were only been in print for the three years prior to her execution. But nonetheless, a Dutch blacksmith by the name Bas Kuipers began printing about the terrible death the church imposed on an inspired individual attempting to reform it. With increased attention and her ideas already being spread exponentially, the Gospelists made up of 20% of Europe by 1390.

    The Gospel Movement would be a large concern and attention of Europe in the north, while Italy was experiencing time of rigorous cultural change itself. Thus this period is often referred to as “the Cultural Revolution”, Lorenzo Galvani being the first major figure attached to this social movement.

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    Lorenzo Galvani (above) was born near Grifoni in 1352​

    Galvani gained public attention in spring, 1378 when Cervari held its annual Festival di Abbracci when the wealthy merchant patrons of Cervari would ‘show-off’ their social status or legitimacy through their artists. The wealthy oligarchs of Cervari associated winning the Festival di Abbracci and their prized painters with their own prestige and culture. As intended, the wealthiest Cervarins typically could afford the best artists and consequently won regularly. However in 1378, Lorenzo Galvani stunned the wealthiest patrons in Cervari, the Fenicios, the Montolivos, and the Bellonis, with his painting Temptations of Pontifex Donato (pictured below).
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    The Temptations of Pontifex Donato impressed the merchants of Cervari. Chola Fenicio, the wife of Fenicio patriarch Placido Fenicio, demanded the young Lorenzo Galvani paint for the Fenicios in the Magnolia Gardens, also known as Piazza di Fenicio. The Fenicios were indeed the richest family in Europe, rich from banking and the spice trade, and Lorenzo would be fully funded to test his radical paintings and inventions. Galvani joined the Fenicios and quickly became one of the most influential Rotundi artists, brilliantly creating such famous paintings such as:

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    (Above) Madre (1379)

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    Above: Shores of Cervari (1382), painted after Lorenzo Galvani temporarily fled Cervari during the French Invasion in the Second Italian War (1381-1382). Galvani was a devote Abbeist and probably only fled Cervari to protect his art. Modern interpreters claim the picture itself depicts the innocent women of Cervari being rescued by a French knight, guided by the light from the clouds. This symbolizes the Creators’ divine guidance as Bernard invaded Italy for the Pontifex. The innocent Italian is being rescued by a sea monster, representing the Italian maritime republics, which as claimed victims amongst its internal wars already. This is the only panting by Galvani to be completed in the Ovidiast Holy Land of Corsica.

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    Divine Origins (1385), depicting the Creator as an ancient hunter without civilizations.

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    Ovidius’ Return to Trivoli (1389)

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    Pontifex the First (1393) is perhaps Lorenzo’s most famous work. The painting depicts Ovidius like previous the Pontifex. The reason behind its fame is the artwork is repudiating Gospelist beliefs, making Galvani one of the few people in Italy to even converse ab out such a controversial figure.

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    Sofia di Marxani (1395) complexed audiences for centuries with her eyes.

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    A rival sprang from Bisagno in 1392 when Ezio Mazzagatti completed the interior of the Stagna Cathedral (pictured above). Cervarin-born Mazzagatti combined secular painting with divine worship. Mazzagatti’s artworks rarely sowed religious connections. Like the soon literature of the era, Mazzagatti painted the adventures and wonders of this life, spawning more interests in the nature of life than the life to come.

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    Ezio Mazzagatti Philosopher (1393)

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    Signora (1394) led many to claim Mazzagatti to be the better painter between him and Galvani, especially in comparison with the Sofia di Marxani.

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    Basilio the Warrior (1394) suggest the Universale Abbey to be the black dragon, the knight being Emperor Basilio I of Imperial Po. ​

    Lorenzo Galvani died of ergotism in 1395 just as Giocomo Betriolli gained influence in Cervari. Giocomo Betriolli was born in Austiae and studied at Marchetti University until the age of 17. Marchetti University focused on the study of ancient Trivoli which significantly influenced Giocomo and his works for his entire life. Betriolli idealized the form of the human body and gained a large reputation for his beyond-compare sculptures. Giocomo Betriolli’s most famous sculptures produced being:

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    Pagana (1395)

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    Sovrano di Serpenti (1398)

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    Rovi (1402) ​

    Giocomo Betriolli later was appointed as the architect to construct the Basilica of Trivoli in 1422. Ancient Trivolin architecture, sculpture, and other art forms are all revived in Betriolli’s art, more than a theme but less of an obsession.

    “Northern Italy experienced painting, sculpture, and architecture, but Southern Italy experiences the tales of these arts.” – Queen Lisabetta I. Lisabetta became the most famous fan of playwright Michele Teatralio. Teatralio had already become a well-established playwright in Arccado when aged 28 years in 1395, achieving the position of playwright for the Green Lion Theatre. Queen Lisabetta was known to enthusiastically attend Michele Teatralio’s plays. Teatralio was undoubtedly a literary genius, writing 20 plays in 14 years of fame, his most adored and influential being:
    • The Knights of Yester, 1394, Tragedy
      o Memorable quote:
    • The Gentleman From Laconio, 1395, Tragedy
      o Giovanni Gorlami returns from Laconio to Sardinia, his honor carries such reputation that all the men in the village beg Giovanni to marry their daughters. Laconio doesn’t grant begs nor marry without consent in name of his honor. Women faint over the honorable gentlemen. Jealous, one woman’s husband poisons Giovanni Gorlami with bad grappa. Giovanni loses his ability to think straight, he lays with other men’s wives and unmarried women. The next morning, he does not realize his actions the previous night, refusing to talk with other men’s wives. Women mistake his actions and their love for him, taking their lives one by one. Once the gentleman discovers his unhonorable actions, he writes a death poem and slits his throat. The rest of the village’s women can’t bear the loss of the gentlemen and their love, begin sacrificing themselves over the gentleman. The honor of the gentleman cost him his life, the women of the village their life, and the husbands their wives.
      o Memorable quote:
    • Peasant King, 1395, Comedy
      o A peasant is hilariously mistaken for the king of France, but quickly forgets the suffering of the poor and rules cruelly like his predecessor.
      o Memorable quote:
    • Evora, 1396, Tragedy and History
      o Faebrius (the Ancient Trivolin God of Creativity and Building) and Pyropus (God of War and Destruction) compete over the affection of Evora (Goddess of Women and Love). Faebrius endeavors to construct a structure that can’t be destroyed, Pyropus gloats with destruction. Faebrius finally constructs a red-painted steel cage full of angered bulls. Pyropus destroys the cage but is chased by the bulls. Pyropus, knowing he will soon lose his fight against the beasts and die, throws a hammer and kills Faebrius. Evora is given a gift to return one other from the afterlife from the God Liris, but choses to gift it to another that could use it. Faebrius and Pyropus’ vendetta only made them just what they were fighting, thus they fought themselves to death.
      o Memorable quote:
    • Traveler’s Guide West, 1398, Comedy
      o The two main characters, traveling from Austiae to Capraia on their pilgrimage to the Holy City. The play, while written in a comical style, was written as a traveler's guide to the Borroway Road. It details famous landmarks at each of the 23 post towns along the road, where the characters (called Adamo and Petrus), frequently find themselves in hilarious situations. They travel from station to station, predominantly interested in food, gin, and women. As Austiae men, they view the world through an Austiae lens, deeming themselves more cultured and savvy in comparison to the countrymen they meet.
      o Memorable quote:
    • Privateer, 1400, Comedy
      o Captain Alfonso is commissioned to pirate other pirates by his queen. His adventures as a pirate of pirates was highly amusing and one of Teatralio’s most entertaining play. On one occasion, he fights another pirate ship off the coast of Adriatia. While his pirates loot the other ship, the other pirates loot theirs. It becomes a competition in the battle to out-pirate the other, both attempting to convey the other into becoming a victim. Another development in ‘Privateer’ is while Captain Alfonso raids another pirate ship, his pirate ship is raided by a third pirate ship. The third ship loots Alfanso’s loot obtained from the first pirate ship’s loot.
      o Memorable quote:
    • Cassius and Silvanus, 1402, History
      o Portrays the life and rivalries between Cassius and Silvanus Valdier, the first two ancient Trivolin Emperors. The play begins with Silvanus’ inheritance of the family fortune and ends with Cassius’ crowning as emperor.
      o For the story, CTRL+F “Cassius Valadier”.
      o Memorable quote:
    • Heroics of Manfredini, 1403, Tragedy
      o Manfredini is a courageous soldier fighting to impress the beautiful Princess Abele. Abele claims she can only love an immortal name; Manfredini seeks glory throughout the countryside for glory and fame. The loved ones, friends, families of Manfredini’s victims begin seeking Manfredini. Being such a magnificent soldier, nobody can defeat Manfredini. Because of this, his plentiful enemies murder Manfredini’s love Princess Abele. Our protagonist loses such a great will and fearlessness to fight, and is finally defeated by the enemies he created in name of love.
      o Memorable quote:
    • Munities of Prince Carlo, 1403, Tragedy and Musical
      o Prince Carlo was kidnapped by activists wanting to save the theatre building from demolition. Teatralio’s sister played the girl who falls in love with Prince Carlo and his courier played an inept bodyguard.
      o Many of Teatralio’s plays included masques, but this play can be marked as the first musical by Teatralio. This play is also known include actors that were close loved ones of Teatralio.
      o Memorable quote:
    • The Plagues of Comedy, 1405, Comedy
      o The plot follows a clever peasant, tricking his lord who comes to believe that he, the lord, is being commanded by the Gods to perform social taboos, which includes taboos such as cannibalism and homosexuality. For obvious reasons, this was the only major play Queen Lisabetta wasn’t formally invited to.
      o Memorable quote:
    • Siege of Regalis, 1406, Tragedy
      o A prince just a moon cycle away from coronation falls in love with a poor weaver girl in the streets of Regalis while on a diplomatic mission from Spain. But when his father learns he will marry the commoner instead of a woman of royalty, thus making the prince not legitimate to be king, he demands the weaver girl be imprisoned. The prince flees his father’s wrath and abdicates his title. His father had raised and loved his son for twenty years and was overwhelmed with anger and disappointment. His navy sieged the city of Regalis in hopes his son would return to him away from the dangers of battle. The prince would rather live a life of love and hard work than one with ease. The Spanish king discovers his son dead, killed while trying to protect his love.
      o Memorable quote:
    • The Last Insidiatori, 1407, History
      o An extensive civil war amongst the infamous Insidiatoris, the longest of all Teatralio’s plays.
      o Memorable quote:
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    Michele Teatralio’s portrait, 1495, undoubtedly the greatest playwright of his era ​
    Michele Teatralio’s works expanded the dramatic potential of characterization, plot, language, and genre. Soliloquies had been used mainly to convey information about characters or events; but Teatralio used them to explore characters' minds. His work heavily influenced later poetry and Italian literature. Michele Teatralio wrote secular plays, rarely speaking of the life to come. His impact on literature sparked heavy curiosity on the current life and travel to foreign places, leading to less focus on the afterlife and salvation. Teatralio contracted a fever in 1408 from drinking Sicilian wine and died, leaving the play Jasmine Flowers in Red only one third completed.
     
  6. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
    [size=+5]
    #6
    [/size]

    1408 - 1571​

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    The extent of European maps and exploration at the beginning of the 15th century
    • 1389
      - Insidiatoris introduce gunpowder to Europe from the Middle East
      - Castelchio’s naval fleet conquered Gibraltar from Spain in efforts to open the Strait of Gibraltar and gain access to the Canary Islands. Castelchio was seeking a part of the spice trade that the rest of Italy profited from but Castelchio was geographically missing such revenue. Castelchio quickly established a settlement in the Canary Islands as a port and trading posts that they greatly profited from trading with Western and Southern Africa. The Canary Islands paved the way for maritime technological advancement for Castelchio, along with riches to continue as an important power in Italy which was being dwarfed by the 1376 unification.
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      Above: the Carrack was developed in the 14th century by the Spanish for use in the Atlantic Ocean and became widely used by Europe's maritime powers. These were ocean-going ships: large enough to be stable in heavy seas, and equipped with enough space to carry provisions for long voyages. With more storage room than the caravel, it became much more common with the exception of explorers.
      o King Tommaso V of Castelchio (ruled 1382-1414) regularly ordered prisoners of the state to be sent to the Canary Islands.
    • 1391
      o Sugarcane is discovered by the Castelchians, the Canary Islands emerge into more than just a trading post for Castelchio and West Africa but an even more ideal prison and sugar cane farmland. Only a few prisoners were sent to the islands between 1389 and 1391 for the labor of constructing roads, ports, towns and the main city of Paganicittà. But the discovery for the rich crop of sugarcane led the Canary Islands to be invested by the royal crown King Tommaso V (ruled Castelchio 1382-1414) himself and for prisoners of the state to be forced into laboring the fields.
      - Note that the Castelchian colony didn’t use ‘slaves’ but instead ‘prisoners and forced labor’ because slavery of any other human being, regardless of faith, is emphasized as a sin in Ovidiasm.
    • 1402
      o Giorgio I establishes the new office of intendant, which employs individuals to collect taxes on behalf of the monarchs. The system isn’t without corruption, as was the practice of buying and selling royal offices to satisfy the short-term financial needs of the monarch.
    • 1408
      o A fleet of four ships had been sent from Castelchio with supplies to improve the stronghold Fort of Paganicittà in the Canary Islands with around 100 sailors, colonists, and prisoners. A storm west of Morocco pushed the Castelchian fleet hundreds of miles past the Canary Islands, with the largest one of these ships (and the fleet’s Commodore with it) were either sunk by the storm or separated and lost forever.
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      o The Castelchian fleet was lost at sea while strong trade winds and powerful waves from the storm pushed the three surviving ships west. The sailors were lost for exactly a week until they caught on to freshened waters and the sights of birds. The ships followed the birds towards the coast, able to sea land by spyglass on the 9th day since the storm. Not knowing it, the Europeans had discovered South America; they landed about 200 miles up the coastline from the mouth of the Amazon River.
      o The stranded Castelchians used their supplies meant to develop their Canary Islands settlements to establish a temporary settlement in the Americas until they stored enough food to ship home. The European settlement was quickly discovered by the Wayana people, of whom the Italians were off their fishing waters. The Native Americans thought they were dealing with the spirits of the sea. The Europeans spent “an entire lunar phase” (about 30 days) in their settlement, in which they traded their last three farm animals (the rest eaten by the starving Europeans while lost at sea), domesticated pigs, to the Wayanas for breeding in exchange for food supplies. The Wayana people were a simple (manioc) farming society which allowed an adoption of farm animals into their society easier than that of a hunter-gatherer Native American society. Chief Om’irkah (Wayanan for Wild Smoke) generously fed the Europeans, mainly with corn, fish, and beans and supplied them for a return voyage. The Wayana people used silver and stone axes and hardwood machetes. The Europeans gifted the Native Americans with axes and machetes of iron, displaying that they are much more durable and cut much better. The Wayana had little use of the soft metal of silver, which was almost useless in metal working, while the Europeans valued it highly because of its rarity. Silver became the most non-eatable resources traded for by the Europeans.
      o The Castelchian fleet returned towards Europe in early July, eating dried beans last which don’t go bad quickly like the corn and fish. The sailors and colonists had to promise the survived prisoners their freedom upon return in Europe to cure their labor deficit, as many sailors had fallen overboard during the storm or died of dehydration on the voyage.
    • 1408-1417
      o The once stranded Castelchians’ stories spread across Europe, a chronicle “The Adventures of Ameraca” (Italian spelling of Om’irkah) was written by one of the captains speaking about godless peaceful barbarians capable of language, trade, and farming, birds with beaks of orange and others with rainbow feathers and words like that of man, colorful spotted frogs, forests stretching along the entire land mass, undomesticated humongous spotted cats, giant fish that spit water high into the surface, and most influentially: silver.
      - The stories of their travels quickly spread across Europe; copies of A Chronicle of the Adventures of Ameraca were printed in Latin in Trivoli, the common second language in Western Europe. While commoners found the strange peoples and species intriguing, monarchs inquired about the wealth.
    • 1411
      o The first English translation of the Adventures of Ameraca were printed in Thamesmouth England, changing the spelling from “Ameraca” to “America”.
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      The Castelchian route in orange and English route in red. ​
    • 1416
      o To confirm not just the lands west but the riches it might offer, English King Frederick II financed a voyage under Captain Simon Cannon. In November 1416, Simon Cannon set off with two carracks from the English capital of Thamesmouth, up the east coast of Britain, northwest to Iceland, curving into the east side of Greenland, and then southwest. Cannon confirmed the discovery of the Americas with “Newfoundland”, landing at Cape Bauld then Cape Bonavista where Native Americans were finally found. After contact with the sparsely populated Native Newfoundlandians, silver was known but the locals did exercise metallurgy with materials such as copper. Cape Bonavista was also extremely plentiful in fish.
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    • 1417
      o Cannon’s return to Europe brought pleasant news of confirmation in January 1417.
      o Italian Queen Lisabetta I died in 1417, the seven years after the death of King Giorgio I and thus the end of co-ruling the Italian throne. Lisabetta was titled “Lisabetta I the Patroness” after her death and her first born son, Giorgio di Lipari, Archduke of Calabria, was given the crown choosing the name “Giorgio II”.
    • 1418
      o Recently crowned king Giorgio II is informed by his advisors that "piracy has become an increasing problem, merchant communities are resorting to self-help, arming and equipping ships at their own expense to protect commerce!” This was found evident in many Italian ports like Lipari, Austiae, and Arccado. Giorgio establishes a privateer policy. These privately owned merchant ships, licensed by the crown, could legitimately take vessels that were deemed pirates. This constituted a "revolution in naval strategy" and helped fill the need for protection that the current administration was unable to provide as it "lacked an institutional structure and coordinated finance.”
    • 1419
      o King Frederick II financed a second voyage to the “New World” in 1419 with four ships – of that being three carracks and one caravel – to establish a permanent settlement and map the coastline. Cannon founded “Winechester” (after the House of Winechester) at the mouth of the Ottawa River, at a fork. This is the first surviving European settlement in the Americas.
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    • 1422
      o Cannon’s last voyage traveled with 15 ships. This expedition when through the English Channel and vast North Atlantic Ocean, instead of passing by Iceland and Greenland like before. 1,000 men and supplies were brought to establish permanent colonies in the New World. The passengers included “farmers to feed, priest to convert, and soldiers to protect” who would be the new English colonists. The English colonies were all successful with the exception of the three settlements on the island of Cuba, whom were overran by unfriendly and threatened Natives.
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      o French noble Jean de Vachenoir sails and maps the Atlantic coasts of North America in 1427. It was on Long Island the French set up their first settlement, only to collapse in winter from starvation and lack of labor.
    • 1429
      o Spanish Civil War begins after the death of Queen Elena VI. Eastern Spaniards supporting Elena’s nephew Eduardo de Serrano (Infante of Catalonia, son of Elena VI’s blood brother), and western Spaniards in support of English born and converted Gospelist Gabriel de Alentejo (Duke of Alentejo, cousin-in-law of Elena VI)
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    • 1432
      o Katharina II, the Queen and supreme monarch of Germany, was in desperate need and economic desire for spices due to Germany’s geographic location and lack of access to the Mediterranean. She sent an expedition to travel “as west as the horizon” in hopes they might find an opening to connect with Asia or even the “Asian islands which they upon the opposing coast”. The German plan was to send a small army there and force the people into Katharina’s plans, to trade spices with German and no other. The German expedition kept traveling west, past the Azores, past the Caribbean islands, until the horizon formed into hills. In 1432, the German soldiers along the western most coasts of the Gulf of Mexico. At the coast, the most advanced indigenous people in the Americas, the Aztecs “recognizes us as divine saviors brought forth from the Sea God to cure them of the Mayan Plague”. European diseases had been spread along the Americas, the Mayans most likely got it from trading with other indigenous tribes. After the Aztecs gifted gold to the Germans, the European arrivals conquered the great city of Aztecia; the Aztec Empire was successfully conquered by Germany.
      o The same German ships that returned to Europe with proof of an abundance of gold in the Americas returned with the legend of Ballux. The Germans adopted the Aztec legend and spread it throughout Europe. Ballux is described as an enchanted city prosperous and rich, filled with gold, silver and diamonds. Those who stumble upon the city by chance in their travels forget the encounter. Hunters of the city walk away with mountains of fortune and treasure but instantly forget of the city and its location.
    • 1435
      o Italian king Giorgio II granted rights to the Valentian banking families of Marchetti and Fenicio in 1435 to claim and colonize the east coast of South America
    • 1437
      o The Marchettis set up a colonization scheme and sent Bruno Vitali as governor to the claimed territory of “Amazon”, Bruno Vitali left Seville with the Spaniard Juan de Aragon and 289 settlers and they heading towards the Eastern South American coast, where arrived on February 24, 1437. Vitali traveled down the coast until they found the mouth of the Amazon River. From there, he explored the interior looking the city Ballux, one legendary golden city, whose myth had been developed by the Germans.
    • 1438
      o Mayans are ‘discovered’ and contacted by Europeans for the first time with Giovanni Brezzia’s exploration and mapping of the Caribbean for Italy.
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    • 1439
      o On September 8, 1439 Vitali settled the colony of Saltusora after months exploring the dangerous Amazon River. Because the mouth of the Amazon would be too shallow for large merchant ships and the sandy water undrinkable, Bruno Vitali established his new city just southeast of the Amazon River’s drainage into the Atlantic. Not only was Saltusora a strategically wealthy port, but being on the coast of the Amazon it served increasingly as the trading location for Amazon rainforest lumber. Wood was heavily needed for Rotundi Italy and the Amazon Rainforest offered an abundance of it.
    • 1440
      o Tobacco is introduced to Italy through the few merchants coming from the Americas, Giorgio II sought how what he correctly predicted as “the new incense of the age” and that “tobacco ought to be the next spice in the King’s market” (rough translation).
    • 1441
      o Anthony di Montalcini, Archduke of Calabria, Prince of Italy, and heir to the Italian throne marries Italian-born Reta da Sironi instead of Princess Joan of France, whom his father urged.
    • 1442
      o The Fenicios solely control the privilege and finance for colonization.
    • 1443
      o The Spanish Civil War finally ends with the Eduardo de Serrano recognition as King of Spain by its nobles in late January. Reconstruction of Spain begins and tighter strings with the Universale Abbey are formed to rid the Gospelists.
    • 1444
      o No tobacco was found nor cultivated in Amazon; an expedition seeking tobacco was sent by King Giorgio II with Aldo Balducci leading it. Balducci contacted the Mayans, yet no tobacco was found. He contacted the German-controlled Aztecs, no tobacco found. Balducci confronted the Indigenous Floridans, but still no tobacco. Finally, Balducci met the Creek Natives (also called the Muscogee Tribe). After sailing up the Ogeechee River, he held a meeting with Chief Two Crows of a sub-Mascogee Tribe. The Chief shared tobacco in an exchanging of gifts. Thus Balducci founded “Ocizzia” at the mouth of the Ogeechee River, just down one of the few free flowing rivers in the region and fair distance from his befriended Chief Two Crows. Being at the mouth of the Ogeechee River, it was fantastic for inland farms to trade with merchants travelling from the Atlantic. Ocizzia starts off much better compared to other European settlements with great assistance owed to Chief Two Crows’ tribe.
      o King Giorgio II dies from natural causes in Trivoli before Aldo Balducci could return with the first shipment of the throne’s tobacco investment. Giorgio is titled “Giorgio II the Ambitious” at his funeral in Torchello.
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      o Anthony I, the first member of Italian royalty to be born in Trivoli, is crowned King of Italy. His given name was Giorgio (House of) Montalcini, but took upon the name Anthony I in symbolic independence of his father.
    • 1445
      o Over 2,000 Frenchmen settle in various locations east of the Hudson River.
    • 1447
      o King Anthony makes an early attempt to prove himself as a strong leader and invaded the much smaller Kingdom of Castelchio. Anthony defeats Castelchio by storming the ports of the city Castelchio itself instead of launching a direct attack onto Pagani Castle (built in the 1280s). Without their prized city to fight for, little chance to regain lost territory, the Italian-speaking Castelchians surrender to Anthony.
    • 1448
      o Coffee beans are discovered by Italian colonist near Ocizzia. The demand for coffee becomes strong in Europe in 1460, pricing at around 125 Argentos a pound.
    • 1449
      o King Anthony I declares Trivoli the sole capital of the Italian Kingdom to centralize the monarchy while symbolizing Italian nationalism and royal power with the Ancient Trivolin symbols abundant in the city of Trivoli.
    • 1450
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      o Above: the current map of the Kingdom of Italy (dark red).
    • 1451
      o Edict of Capraia
      - King Anthony I consolidates his power even further, with Pontifex Donato XII’s agreement, by relocating the Universale Abbey back to Trivoli. Both factions holding mutual benefits in their motives respectively. The King’s motives being to strengthen the monarchy and nation through religion while making the crown’s relationship with the Pontifex closer metaphorically and physically. Anthony was seeking a more permanent and centralized monarchy, he had already declared Trivoli the sole capital of the Italian Kingdom two years earlier. By locating the Universale Abbey in Trivoli he brought the wealth, trade, and immigration the city required to flourish and further increased the city’s importance and symbolic power. The Pontifex position was gladly re-located in Trivoli; the church struggled in Capraia due to its isolation and distance with the rest of Europe, this along with a degraded position of authority, led to the unbalance of the church’s control in Europe and the rise of the Gospelist Movement.
      - The funding for the Trivoli Basilica came mostly from the Italian monarchy, a minority of coming from private donations. Anthony I gifted the cathedral ‘officially’ to the Universale Abbey upon its completion in 1485 after 34 years of construction. The church bureaucracy would temporarily reside in the (Trivolin) Emperor’s Palace.
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      - The Basilica of Trivoli was built with emphasize on Ancient Trivolin architecture (symbolizing the Rotundi period and humanism) along with magnitude, that the church and religion were larger than life.
    • 1452
      o The infamous Insidiatoris break from Fenicio financing due to their closer connections with the monarchy and thus Pontifex.
      o Anthony experiences an epiphany while under the influence of salvia divinorum, a plant brought back from the German-ruled Aztecs. The hallucinating Anthony I believed to have witnessed was visions of a carnation of Ovidius stating: “Gram'rcy, mineth dear king. Thoust return'd the church; anon thy commitment is thy responsibility. With it, thou wilt conqu'r!”
      - The Aztec shamans used salvia divinorum to channel the spiritual world during rituals.
      - Since this date, Anthony I believed himself to be the “difensore della abbesimo nella Europa”, or “defender of Abbeism in Europe”.
    • 1454
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      o After centuries of territory dispute between the Germans and Frenchmen, Pontifex Donato XII grants Rhineland (orange and grey in picture above) to France.
    • 1454
      o German Queen Katharina II adopts Gospelism with mutual heavy disagreement in Pontifexal political sovereignty. By this year, 40% of Germans call themselves Gospelists. To maintain organized Ovidiasm, Katharina breaks from the Pontifexacy and creates the Saxon Church with the ruling monarch of Germany as the default leader of the church. Katharina encouraged publication of the German Ultima Vox Eius, or the Ovidiast Religious Texts. The German translations are titled “Die Letzten Worte”, the German bible and organized church are a significant advancement in unifying German culture which held factions in many German regions.
      o Katharina II, House of Boldman, is declared a heretic by Pontifex Donato XII.
      o Italian ships begin impressment of German soldiers and confiscating German cargo in the Caribbean
    • 1455
      o Thousands of Abbeist missionaries begin immigration to the New World to convert Natives.
      o The German Royal Treasury hikes in revenue resulting in modernization of the German army. By 1460, one out of every three German soldiers were equipped with arquebus muskets.
      o The Insidiatoris refuse a contract to overthrow Katharina II of Germany.
      - The contract is believed to have indirectly come from the Italian crown.
      o Germans begin a medium-sized blockade of Italian colonies in South America.
    • 1456
      o Due to their failure, limited success, and the German blockade , the Captaincy Colonies of Amazon were united into the “Governorate of Brazilwood” (or simply: “Brazil”). The captaincy colonies are reorganized as provincial districts to the Governorate. The captaincies continued to be ruled by their hereditary captain-majors but they now reported to the Governor of Brazil. The new system was implemented so that Italian South America could be managed correctly and provide a steady and wealthy income for the Italian Kingdom. The capital of the new governorate established its capital at Fortezza and the first Abbeist missionaries arrived the same year.
    • 1457
      o Reborgo, literally “King’s Borough”, is founded in the Italian colony of Brazil. The city’s purpose is to be the seat of the Governorate. Built on a high cliff overlooking Anthony I Bay and given early financial growth as the first colonial capital of colonial Brazil, Reborgo quickly became its main sea port and an important center of the sugar industry.
      o King Anthony's War
      - Anthony I launches an invasion of Germany comprising of 48,000 soldiers. There were those who advised him against the invasion but Anthony ignored them all. He believed he was on a mission from the Creators and was indeed supported by Pontifex Donato XII. The Italian Army, under the command of Anthony’s firstborn son (one of three) Anthony di Montalcini, Archduke of Tuscany, underwent a long hike through the Eastern Alps which greatly reduces the Italian supply.
      - German infantrymen lined up in a phalanxes and used their pikes to kill Italian cavalry. Gunpowder further erode the dominance of the mounted knight and made feudal castles far easier to conquer. Horsemen. These facts strongly led to an unexpected German victory in King Anthony's War.
    • 1458
      o King Eduardo I of Spain completes the reconstruction of Spain after a brutal civil war with the withdrawal of royal soldiers from noble houses.
      o With a stabilized economy and arranged defense, Spain establishes its first ever colony in the Americas within Venezuela.
    • 1459
      o King Anthony I charters a city near Ocizzia to be used for Abbeist missionaries and increased tobacco cultivation. “Papa Donato” is founded in name of the Pontifex.
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      o Kroonhaven, the political and cultural center of the Netherlands, becomes the prime port for distributing the spice trade into Northern Europe, replacing Bachburg for this cherished economic dependence as a result of the King Anthony’s War.
    • 1460
      o Anthony I begins major restructuring of the Italian military.
      - The establishment of the Royal Gunpowder Mill at Bisagno.
      - New taxes were established to pay for his permanent army.
    • The Window Tax was a property tax on the number of windows in a house. It was a significant social, cultural, and architectural force in Italy during the 15th and early 16th centuries. To avoid the tax some houses from the period can be seen to have bricked-up window-spaces.
    • Extreme tariffs were established against non-Arabic ships at major ports, such as Cervari or Trivoli. “We mustn’t impoverish ourselves and enrich them!”
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      o German General Hans von Saalschultz of Azteczustand, the German New World colony, is killed in an Aztec sacrifice ritual, his heart being ripped from his chest.
    • 1461
      o 10,000 Germans pour into Azteczustand in fear of general uprising.
    • 1462
      o The Universale Council elected the first Italian-born Pontifex since Niccolo I 1377, 85 years earlier. Niccolo is just 33, making him the youngest Pontifex at age of coronation.
      o Katharina II establishes the Gewürz-Charter. Since King Anthony’s War, Kroonhaven had replaced Bachburg as the spice distribution center for Northern Europe, thereby cutting the Germans out of middlemen for the trade. The threats of Aztec revolts were another incentive to assert control over colonial trade. The Gewürz-Charter was empowered to build forts, maintain armies, and conclude treaties with Native American rulers.
    • 1463
      o The Laconio City-State is enraged with war against the Grand Duchy of Perioeci. The city state pleads to the Kingdom of Italy. The rising cost of warfare, particualry the need to provide for an army on an annual (as opposed to occasional) basis, playe into the hands of the ever so expanding monarchical state of Italy.
      - Laconio is adopted into the Kingdom of Italy.
      - Grand Duchy of Perioeci is defeated by a force of only 8,000, Perioecian Duke Areleous is replaced with Anthony’s nephew Gaspero di Carniello.
    • 1464
      o The Academy Paganicittà is established by Anthony I in the Canary Islands to promote naval innovation, attract population to the islands, and support Atlantic exploration/colonization.
    • 1465
      o Francesco Pantoliano is the first sea captain to circumnavigate the globe. The full extent of the Earth was realized, since their voyage was 40,870 Trivolin miles (60,440 km or 37,560 mi), the traditional unit of measure for Ancient Trivoli. The expedition showed the need for an International Date Line to be established. When Pantoliano returned from the expedition, he found that its date was a day behind, yet they had faithfully maintained the ship's log. The crew lost one day because they traveled west during their circumnavigation of the globe, opposite to Earth's daily rotation. This caused great excitement at the time, and a special delegation was sent to the Pontifex to explain the oddity to him.
    • 1469
      o Pontifex Niccolo declares the islands of Malta to Anthony I and the Kingdom of Italy.
    • 1470
      o Kingdom of Sweden officially converts to Gospelism with the founding of the Heel Church and conversion by Queen Anna III.
    • 1480
      o English King Frederick IV charters the Labrador Fur Company, which granted a monopoly on fur trade to Sir James Eddington of Cannery. Frederick was seeking increasing revenue and hoped eliminating English internal competition would make competing against French fur traders much easier. The Labrador Fur Company leads to evident significant increase in immigration to the Americas and colonial interests in the region.
    • 1485
      o Anthony I establishes the Spezie Charter. The German and English had been the first to adopt this approach, by bundling their resources into a monopoly enterprise, the Gewürz-Charter in 1462 and Labrador Fur Company in 1480, thereby threatening their Italian competitors with ruin. The Spezie Charter emphasized their control over peppers and tobacco and worked heavily with the Fenicio family.
    • 1487
      o Anthony I dies at age 71, he is titled “Anthony I, the Dignified.”
      o Lisabetta da Po, Archduchess of Po and eldest surviving child of Anthony I, is inaugurated as Queen. She obtains the title “Lisabetta II”.
    • 1488
      o Lisabetta II’s health degenerates. The Queen became convinced that some of the nuns residing with the Imperial Palace (in Po) wanted to kill her, a fear which was never proved. The queen found it extremely difficult to eat, sleep, bathe, or change her clothes. Most likely suffering melancholia, a severe clinical depression, her younger brother Simone di Trivoli wrote to the Imperial Palace servants “It looketh so that the best and most suitable thing f'r thou to doeth is to maketh sure that nay person speaks with Her Majesty, f'r nay good couldst cometh from it.” Historian conspirators believe Lisabetta was reading and adopting Gospelist ideas, possibly not insane at all.
    • 1489
      o Pontifex Niccolo hands the Italian crown to the ‘much more sane and rational’ sibling Simone di Trivoli, Lisabetta’s younger brother. Lisabetta II spends the rest of her life confined in Torchello, proclaimed “Lisabetta II the Mad”, and Simone di Trivoli is coronated by the Pontifex as “King Anthony II”.
      o A faction of nobles raised the question whether Anthony was a legitimate monarch considering Lisabetta was the declared heir by Anthony I. The powerful counter-argument was that, since the Pontifex crowned Anthony II, “tis the wills of the Gods!”
    • 1492
      o Anthony II declares the Edict of Grifoni, outlawing Gospelist churches throughout the Kingdom of Italy. Intense persecution of Gospelists took place. All Heelist ministers were given two weeks to leave the country unless they converted to Abbeism and all other Gospelist were prohibited from leaving Italy. In spite of the prohibition, the persecution including many examples of torture caused as many as 100,000 to flee Italy at risk of their lives. Most moved to France, Adriatia, Gorizia, and the new Italian colonies in the Americas.
    • 1493
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      o Anthony II begins the construction of Montalcini Palace in Trivoli. The place was constructed in such a baroque style to demonstrate (maybe exaggerate) the immense power of the absolute monarchy. Behind the palace was Anthony’s private hunting grounds and housing for Italy’s nobles. It was there where Anthony could keep a close eye on the nobles and exemplify their dependence on the monarchy. The king would force nobles to do humiliating acts like chasing pigs, thus idealizing the monarch as superior. Though the palace would not be completed until 1511.
    • 1495
      o The first national constitution in Italy since the Trivolin Empire is established in Trivoli. “King’s Law” stated “shall from this day f'rth be rev'r'd and consid'r'd the most p'rfecteth and supreme p'rson on the earth by all his subjects, standing above all human laws and having nay judgeth above his p'rson, neith'r in spiritual n'r temp'ral matt'rs, except the gods high-lone.” King’s Law was another effort from Anthony II to claim absolute power, it was even signed by Pontifex Niccolo after its creation in Trivoli on May 19th (thus affirming ‘divine right’).
    • 1496
      o Anthony II undertakes the Book of Vineyards and Pastures. Anthony sent men all over Italy to each region to find out what or how much each landholder had in land, citizens, and livestock, and what it was worth. From the census, historians estimate the population of Italy around 1500 to be 15 million, much higher than that of Spain (7 million), Germany (6 million), an England (5 million), but equal to that of France. At this point, Italy comprises 8% of Europe’s entire population.
      - Trivoli itself saw a major hike in population, increasing to almost 110,000, twice than it was a century before.
      - Torchello is the closest to rival Trivoli at 100,000 residents.
      - Cervari witnessed a slight decline to 90,000 residents, being at 95,000 six decades earlier.
      - Capraia is deemed immeasurable with such a large number of religious pilgrims, but combined with external measurements historians estimate the population is between 25,000 and 50,000.
      - Austiae emerges as a major city with a measurement of 45,000 citizens.
      - Regalis returns to its classical population between 60,000 and 80,000 civilians.
      - Castelcio reports a population of 75,000.
    • 1501
      o The Duchess of Sardinia, Angela da Sironi, is discovered to have sheltered Gospelists during a trip of royal expectionists
      o Anthony II condemns Angela da Sironi to death without the right to appeal. The king is quoted with: “Gli Dei non lasciare l'uomo appello nell'aldilà.”, which can be better understood with the rough translation: “Do you think the Gods let men appeal in trial before they are judged before the Gates of Heaven?”. Not only did this incident symbolize that the King of Italy was truly the ‘highest judge in the land’ but that he was visualized divinely.
    • 1502
      o The “Arab Sickness” hits Europe in August. Originating from Sub-Sahara Africa, Italians were the first Europeans to experience the epidemic brought from Arab middlemen in the spice trade. France and Spain fall to the epidemic in winter and by spring almost all of Europe is coughing. The mortality rate is estimated at 5%, leaving 6.5 million Europeans dead by 1505.
    • 1503
      o The French attempt to compete in tobacco farming with the chartering of the Chesapeake colonies in summer.
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      o King Anthony II patrons a multitude of artists to demonstrate the power of the monarchy, notably at the Montalcini Palace. The painting above is on the ceiling of the palace’s ballroom.
    • 1504
      o The Queen of Italy, Maria di Castelchio, dies from the “Arab Sickness”, leaving King Anthony II widowed and heirless.
    • 1505
      o Alice da Gorizia, Princess of Gorizia, House of Lombardi, is encouraged by her mother to put herself in the way of the new widower, King Anthony II, and appeal to him directly. Anthony, already with a reputation as a womanizer, is instantly drawn to Alice's beauty, and makes arrangements to see her at multiple royal social events. When Alice rejects his sexual advances, he agrees to marry her and make her Queen of Italy. But in Abbeism, remarrying is forbidden as marriage locks two partners together into the afterlife.
      o Pontifex Niccolo declares Maria di Castelchio guilty of adultery, falsely claiming an affair between the dead Italian queen and the Lord of Arccado. Thus she is declared a heretic, allowing Anthony to remarry.
    • 1506
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      Above: Alice da Gorizia, Princess of Gorizia (1491) at age 16​
      o Anthony II marries Alice da Gorizia.
    • 1507
      o Pontifex Niccolo dies, Italian monk Father Alberto replaces him as Pontifex Niccolo II.
      o The War of the Quadruple Monarchy ignites in Hungary. After the death of heirless King Géza VI, claims from four significant figures emerge.
      - Michele Szabo, Geza’s Italian nephew and son of brother-in-law, the closest in line to the throne under the age of 40. Supported by Kingdom of Italy.
      - Julia-bol Csongrad, cousin of Geza VI, closest surviving blood-relative. Supported by East Hungarian nobles.
      - Ervin Nemeth, a Gospelist and Landgrave, supported by Kingdom of Germany.
      - Gheorghe Moraru, the cousin-in-law of Geza and Rumanian duke. Supported by Rumania.
    • 1509
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      o The French found Tremblay at the mouth of the Hudson River, named after the surname of their king Richard III, House of Tremblay. The land was purchased from the indigenous Wappinger Tribe.
    • 1510
      o The English take over the East Indies.
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      o The Aprocius Fountain is completed in Trivoli, the masterpiece of Sicilian architect and sculptor Guglielmo Iommi.
    • 1511
      o King Petrus IX of Gorizia passes, making Alice da Gorizia, Queen of Italy, the ruling monarch of Gorizia. Technically, while Anthony II is the monarch of Italy, Alice I is a monarch of both Italy and Gorizia. But by the King’s Law, Anthony II is still the highest ruling authority in Italy.
    • 1513
      o The War of Quadruple Monarchy escalates after the Battle of Cegled, in which the Rumanians crushed German mercenaries.
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      o The Battle of Cegled is followed by the Cegled Conferences. The Rumanians attempted to ally with each other side independently. The Germans, first to meet at Cegled, refused to abandon their Gospelist interest. The Hungarian nobles failed to meet on agreement on anything other than refusal to fall under foreign rule. The Italians, however, promised non-aggression with the Rumanians as their war incentive was to prevent German and Gospelist influence and expansion.
    • 1514
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      o Giorgio Bonaducci paints Horizons of Capraia. Bonaducci was patroned by Anthony II and depicts Ovidius’ return to Trivoli from Capraia after his divine encounters. Such Baroque art typically featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism.
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      o Mario Storace is credited for the work on the Palace of Montalcini’s Chapel, pictured above.
      o Julia-bol Csongrad is killed in the Capture of Bekes, leaving East Hungarian nobles without a further cause. The nobles debate over their support with the death of their previous cause. Ervin Nemeth was a Gospelist and would only further divide Hungary. Michele Szabo was perceived as young, naive, and inexperienced. The nobles backed Gheorghe Moraru, the cousin-in-law of Geza and Rumanian duke. Because Italy and Rumania had agreed not to provoke aggression between each other, they end their war with Italy when they sided with Rumania.
    • 1515
      o The Germans felt under the weight against Italy, Rumania, and a minority of Hungary with major losses at Heves (December 26, 1514 to January 10, 1515), Esztergom (March 10-14, 1515), and Ajka (April 2-3, 1515). After the Germans retreated, signing peace at Ajka on April 10th, the Italians saw their war as victorious since Gospelism was prevented from spreading to Hungary. Anthony had little incentive to fight for Michele Moraru, a costly weighed war against Rumania would serve no further value. Thus Italy declared victory and returned its armies to the homeland.
      o Hungary falls under control of Rumania, a further step of Rumania’s involvement in Central Europe’s affairs.
    • 1516
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      o Anthony II passes at age 67. He is given the title “Anthony II the Assertive”. The king had named his stepson, Petrus di Gorizia, his successor despite not being an archduke due. Petrus takes the name “Anthony III”; not being blood related to his predecessor, Anthony III’s coronation marks transition from the House of Montalcini to the House of Lombardi. Petrus di Gorizia is the first Italian monarch to have graduated from an higher education institute, Petrus having enrolled into Marchetti University.
      o By “King’s Law”, even though his mother Queen Alice I was the older monarch, Anthony III was the highest monarch in the land by king’s right.
    • 1517
      o One of the major problems Anthony III inherited was overpopulation and underpopulation in Italy, paradoxically. In Italy, there were so many farmers in Italy that the large population had well more than enough food to support itself. This led to a long decline in food prices. The country was so overpopulated that it was underpopulated. To fix this ironic problem, Anthony III established incentives to decrease the number of farmers and create new demands.
      - The abundance of workers in Italy and scarcity of needed labor in Brazil was an obvious and easy fix. Land, indentured servitude contracts, and titles were all offered to Italians to increase New World colonization.
      - Universities were established across Italy to add a larger educated work force and increase scientific innovation. Fortunate peasants found such educations as a way of social mobility. Such major universities include the Sardinia University (in Marxani), University of Bisagno, and the University of Laconio. Anthony III is also credited with the founding of the first university in the Americas with the University of Rossini in Venti Fiera, named after the city’s governor Carlo-Alfonso Rossini and a significant part in the city’s growth towards the dominant center in the southern half of South America.
      - Anthony increases wages for the King’s Navy. Italy’s navy wasn’t just vital for colonization interest but for defending and rivaling interests in the Mediterranean.
    • 1518
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      o Michele Iommi paints The Conversion of Cavallo.
    • 1519
      o Under Anthony III, loyal nobles were awarded the Order of the Piffero, an ancient and prestigious honor. This bestowed much status on the recipient but it cost Anthony III nothing – whereas the creation of new titles invariably cost the king money as estates were usually granted from royal land. The first award of the Order of the Piffero was in 1519 and in Anthony III’s reign, 37 nobles received the Order of the Garter. This award was intended (typically successfully) to increase the recipient’s loyalty and debt to the king.
    • 1521
      o Dutch explorer Willem de Vries founds “De Vries” at the mouth of the Rio Grande, the first Dutch settlement on mainland North America.
    • 1525
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    • 1526
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      o Reynaldo Baseggio explores and maps the extensive mountains along western South America.
    • 1527
      o Anthony III establishes the “Tasse e Spesa” policy, meaning tax and spend. Anthony III philosophy that led him to this policy was simple, increase taxes on the civilian population only to spend it back on them to increase their dependency upon the state. While this policy wasn’t applied much towards the poor, Anthony did copy the welfare method used by the ancient Trivolins he learned of at Marchetti University in Austiae; Trivolin emperor Spurius Saturnus (ruled 103 – 124) provided the 'congiaria' or corn dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food. Much of the tax taken from nobles was used to fund Italy’s military, meaning that Italian nobles were reliant on the monarchy for defense along with unable to rebel.
    • 1528
      o Prudenzio Coiro invents the first submarines, propelled by oars and made of wood, in Sicily.
    • 1529
      o Queen Alice I dies, Anthony III inherits the Kingdom of Gorizia thus uniting it with the Kingdom of Italy.
    • 1530
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      o The famous masterpiece “Time” marks the said end of the Rotundi period.
    • 1531
      o Since almost all the exploration attempts to find gold and silver had failed, Governor of Brazil Giorgio di Fausti adopted an economy based on the production of agricultural goods that were to be exported to Europe with the Reborgo Conference, later called the Reborgo Doctrine. Tobacco, cotton, cachaça and some other agricultural goods were produced, but sugar became by far the most important colonial product the Italians profited from in Brazil.
    • 1535
      o The Germans import slaves from Africa to their North American colony of Mexiko to solve its major labor deficit. Abbeists still hold slavery as a sin against the Ultima Vox Eius and humanity, this causes another different in religious belief and secularization between Gospelists and Abbeists and what Pontifex Giovanni VI declares a “War of Morals” ironically.
    • 1538
      o Sweden establishes a colony in India.
    • 1540
      o Bernard III of France restricts Swedish passage through the English Channel to make Swedish ambitions in the East Indies more expensive, far, and difficult.
    • 1542
      o The Governor of Brazil, Giordano Alderisi, is removed by Anthony III after he put a legislative vote for the Colonial Assembly to repeal Brazil’s trade restrictions with other non-Italian colonies. This had violated the sovereign policy of the king, in which Brazil could only import and export with Italy or fellow Italian colonies. Brazil exported sugar, tobacco, cotton, lumber and native products in exchange for wine, olive oil, textiles and domesticated animals from Italy.
    • 1545
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      - Above: European colonial possessions in 1545.
    • Dark Red: English
    • Blue: French
    • Purple: Italian
    • Orange: Dutch
    • Gray: German
    • Brown: Spanish
    • 1546
      o French Queen Abigale I succeeds Bernard III to the French throne.
      - Suspicions quickly awoke of her being a Gospelist and Gospelist sympathizer.
      o Dutch Prince Hendrik van Dekker begins pushing a pro-Gospelist pro-French agenda, suggesting a marriage between Gospelist Prince Hendrix and the new French Queen.
    • 1547
      o Religious tensions break into violence between Gospelists and Abbeists in central France.
    • 1548
      o The marriage of French Queen Abigale I and Dutch Prince Hendrik is followed by the Treaty of Kroonhaven, both occurring in Spring, confirming that the two countries France and Netherlands would remain officially separate should the couple fail to produce children and the temporary union would be dissolved.
      o Threatened by the possibility of a Gospelist France, a French-Netherlands unification for that matter (which would double the navy and dismantle overseas Italian colonies and monopolies), Italian King Anthony III invades France in objective to overthrow Queen Abigale. Anthony di Lombardi, Archduke of Gorizia, constantly wrote to his father in the summer and fall of 1548 on the consequences if Italy did not break France’s alliance with the Netherlands and potentially Germany with it.
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      o The Dutch move Abigail to the safety of Gezichtseinder Castle.
    • 1549
      o King Niklas V of Germany brings in the support of 114,000 soldiers to protect, which he perceived as, the rise of Gospelism in France (despite only 15% of the French population enrolled in Gospelist church).
      o Italy sacks the cultural and political center of France, Chapiteux.
    • 1550
      o Sweden enters the war against France, despite Gospelist rule, to regain control and passage through the English Canal that has troubled their colony-bound ships through the previous decade.
      - Scandinavia’s non-religious incentive to join the religious war provokes thought on the point of religious wars throughout southern Europe.
    • 1551
      o French and German forces are decisively defeated by Anthony III at the Battle of the Rhone.
      o Germans and Dutch rush soldiers into Southern France.
    • 1552
      o Italians are sieged at Cévennesville, temporary forcing Italian retreat.
      o French Armada defeated by Swedish fleet off the coasts of Normandy.
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      o Italy begins blockading the coasts of French colonies in North America.
    • 1553
      o Knowing that the Germans were leading its grand army of 62,500 healthy soldiers to retake the French city of Chaptieaux, Anthony III abandons his positions and marches to intercept the Jerries.
      o At this Battle of Les Rouges, 50,000 Italians were strategically defending a narrow valley between two hills. The Germans deployed their cavalry around the narrow bottom of the valley by crossings the feet of the two hills. The Germans attack was strong, a stalemate appeared to be the best outcome for the Italians. The Italian Army was further demoralized when a story swept the ranks that Anthony III had been killed in battle. It seemed as though the Italians were being pushed backwards, unwilling to confront the Germans without their strong leader. Once Anthony III heard this rumor, he removed his visor and rode his famous white Lipizzan horse “Alba” to the head of his army. His soldiers, seeing that he was alive, rallied and renewed their assault. As the weather turned to rain, Anthony organized his troops to move 20 meters backwards. The German cavalry fell vulnerable as they crossed into the wet mud, creating a time window which decimated the heavy cavalry. With German causalities really high, their generals abandoned Chapiteaux efforts to retain their depleting forces. Germans retreated, Italians cherished and celebrated with a major victory in “the French War”.
    • 1554
      o Netherlands proposes peace treaty with Italy which would succeed the rich sugar plantations from France and Holland in the Caribbean to the Kingdom of Italy, but it is rejected.
    • 1555
      o Sweden begins to impress sailors in the North Sea to disturb Dutch and German trade, but English and Norwegian merchants are effected as well.
      o Swedish soldiers land in the Netherlands and Northwest Germany.
    • 1556
      o King Viktor II of Sweden is indirectly held responsible for the impounding of Norwegian imports in occupied Netherlands and Germany, resulting in declaration of war by Norway which was also motivated to bring Norwegian dominance back to the North Sea.
    • 1557
      o German troops abandon France temporarily to protect German and Dutch territory, leading to heavy Italian advancements.
    • 1558
      o Sweden leaves the war, followed by Norway.
      o King Pan VI sends 28,000 of Poland’s best troops to fight in France in objective to prove Poland as a European power and increase the influence of its Gospelist allies.
    • 1559
      o Prince Hendrik van Dekker of Netherlands is crowned King Hendrik IV of Netherlands of King Hendrik I of France. Pontifex Donato XII doesn’t coronate the new French king; England and Spain refuse to recognize him as the King of France.
    • 1560
      o Spain provides Anthony III with massive subsidies to stay in the war and protect Abbeist control.
    • 1561
      o The French launch raids into Italian colonies south of Chesapeake Bay, costing Italian tobacco farmers plentiful.
    • 1562
      o Treaty of Chaisepique.
      - France and Italy agree to restrict colony blockades within 500 kilometers of North America for the remainder of the war.
    • 1563
      o In fear of Italy leaving the war, Spain joins the war over France thereby balancing the war.
    • 1565
      o At the Battle of the Seine, as the Italians and Spanish head towards Gezichtseinder Castle to overthrow Queen Abigale, Anthony III is killed in battle with a sphere impaling his stomach.
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      - Anthony III is declared “Anthony III the Belligerent” and is succeeded by his eldest offspring Anthony di Lombardi, Archduke of Gorizia as “Anthony IV” after his father.
    • 1566
      o England enters the “French War” to:
      - Remove Dutch, French, and German merchant competitors in the North Sea.
      - France falling under Dutch influence was a large concern for the English.
      - Encourage the new king Anthony IV to agree to a marriage between his daughter Sofia, Archduchess of Tuscany, and Prince James, House of Winechester.
    • Such a marriage would ally England and Italy against Spain; the increasing friendship, military cooperation, and diplomacy between Spain and Italy was a fear for England’s long term strategy.
      - England wished to see France returned to its previous Pro-Abbeist and Anti-Gospelist government; much better for France to cooperate with England than the Germans.
      o Once English troops landed in the Netherlands, the Polish exit the war with the “sides of the scale out of balance.”
    • 1568
      o Archduchess Sofia, House of Lombardi, marries Prince Juan del Naranja of Spain. It appears as though Spain and Italy are heading towards a hegemony-like alliance; the union is called “El matrimonio de los imperios” or, ‘marriage of empires’.
      o German, Dutch, and French forces seem overwhelmed with consistent minor and medium losses.
    • 1569
      o Anthony IV is stabbed to death in his sleep by French Gospelist Jean-Paul Sauvageon. Letters arrive a month later to Sardinia where the Archduchess of Sardinia Sofia (only child of Anthony IV) is declared Queen.
      - The “Patriotic Rebellion” and “Revolt of the Nobles” are both used to describe the revolt of Italian nobles against the Coronation of Sofia I. The Italian nobles had reasons to believe that her marriage to Prince Juan del Naranja would hand the executive powers of the Italian monarchy over the nobles to the Spanish. Despite the following legislative action not being define in any sort of constitution, doctrine, law or mandate, Italy’s nobles ‘veto Queen Sofia’s coronation’ at the Diet of Austiae. This marks a significant step in the secularation of Italian ruling, the right of the crown is no longer through “divine right” but the people of Italy.
      - Italy’s nobility forces Sofia “to choose between the diamonds on her crown and the diamond on her ring.” Loyal to her husband and the Ultima Vox Eius, Sofia abdicates in her love for the charming, romantic, and future king Juan del Naranja. Her quick reign left her with the title “Sofia I the Captivated”.
      - The only archduke remaining Giovanni da Trivoli was coronated as King Anthony V.
      o Archduke Giorgio of Sardinia (Anthony IV’s younger sibling) is declared king as Anthony IV had no wife or children. Anthony IV is titled “Anthony IV the Solemn”.
      o Abigail I of France is captured and forced to hold a negotiation for peace.
    • 1570
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      o The “Treaties of Holland” bring the 21 Years’ War to an end. The extremely significant treaties, which are marked as the forerunner of international law, establish:
      - Peace between all factions of the war.
      - An end to religious pretexts for the destructive wars brought throughout Europe (though only signed by France, Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Spain, England, and later Norway plus Sweden).
      - A prejudice in international affairs against interference in another nation's domestic issue.
      - Abigail I is removed of her throne and replaced by her 2nd cousin, the extremely pious, Francis de L’Habiteville. Thus re-installing an asserted Abbeism through France. Because Abigail is removed from the French crown, no offspring leads to the separation of the Dutch-French union.
      o “The Stagna Affair” is uncovered as it is discovered that newly crowned King Anthony V has been previously married yet is currently married to another woman. This is a controversial affair discussed by Italy’s nobility, which results in again the demands and threats for the monarch to abdicate. Divorce and marriage violated Ovidiast principles, with the exception of some specific Gospelist groups, meaning the only way Anthony V could continue as the ruler of Italy would be if he converted the monarchy to Gospelist rule. This wasn’t an option as the Kingdom of Italy was strongly, almost completely, Abbeist. Anthony V abdicates, further degrading the divinity of the Italian monarchy.
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      Italian City-States in 1365, two centuries earlier. ​
      - For the first time throughout the Kingdom of Italy’s history, no individual held the position of archduke. As the mandate brought since Archduke Edoardo di Montero decrees, when there is no duke containing royal blood (which would make them an “archduke”), the next in line of succession goes to the duke with the greatest area of land (or ‘most powerful’). In this situation, Duke Luigi da Ferrero, Duke of Calabria.
    • Duke da Ferrero is crowned King of Italy as Luigi I, marking the beginning of the House of Ferrero era. Luigi I titled his predecessor: “Anthony V the Disguised”.
     
  7. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
    [size=+5]
    #7
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    1571 - 1659

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    Luigi I in 1571​
    The 21 Years’ War (1549-1570) had many major effects not completely recognized until 1571. Dynasty changes in France and Italy forever altered history. Previously the Dutch colony of Nicaragua (called Zwartmeer by the Dutch) - which divided Spain's colonies into two - was succeeded to Spain. Another result was a large wave of immigration to the Americas; New France saw the largest population increase from 40,000 to 168,000 (420%) many of which were Gospelists seeking refuge from religious persecution but most running from the dangerous warfare and economic destruction brought from it. Italian colonies increased 133%, in which 188,000 rose to around 250,000. Brazil increased from 100,000 in 1550 to 112,400 in 1570 (12.4%). Tesoro, the southeast corner to mainland North America, obtained a rise from 65,000 to 110,000 (70% increase); around 20,000 of that 45,000 increase was emigrating from France and the French speaking colonies. Cuba and Maya only saw an increase of (10%) from 23,000 to 25,250.
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    Piccolo Pablo Cappiello is enrolled into King Luigi I’s sphere of influence as a jester. The dwarf jester became a common source of entertainment and mockery at the Montalcini Palace. In his portrait (above), Cappiello looks directly at the viewer, motionless, making no hand gestures, suggesting a denunciation of the court's treatment of himself and other dwarfs​

    Luigi I was a greatly admired king in Italian history, both by his subjects and his successors. He spent his youth being tutored endlessly, spending two years in Greko-Turkey studying culture and attended the Marchetti University in Austiae, focusing on philosophy. Luigi wouldn’t reach graduation of the prestigious Marchetti University, his father dying of diphtheria in Luigi’s third year of study obligated him to return to Arccado to rule as the Duke of Calabria. The Duke was a strong fanatic of the ancient Trivolin philosopher of Bassius. Bassius argued that it’s the subjects’ right to overthrow or even assassinate a governor that rules harshly and ignores the necessities of the people. A ruler wouldn’t be paid by a government but by the profits of a better livelihood. Bassius’ political philosophy is known as “commoner politics”, where a government functions not to better its leaders but the improvement of the common subject. Two years after becoming Duke of Calabria in 1563, Luigi’s wife died of malaria while riding a her lipizzan horse two miles outside their Arccado Palace to observe the untamed garden of Italian Clovers there (a distance Luigi prohibited on his family in a strange and ironic fear of assassination).

    [​IMG] Young Luigi da Ferrero​

    While Luigi was a ruler with the goals to benefit the people, his lack of control over his surroundings (like the deaths of his beloved father and soul mate wife) led to a power-thirsty trait in him, a need to supervise and rule completely what he feared to lose. Historians cite this as major causes why Luigi I would emerge as the original enlightened absolutist.

    The diseased deaths of his father and wife directly caused Luigi to become a well-known germophobe. Basing designs off ancient Trivolin ruins, Luigi built a personal bathhouse in the Arccado Palace and encouraged anyone, whether foreign diplomat or palace servant, to use it. With sympathy came indecency, any individual that coughed or sneezed around him was required to remain two rooms away from the Duke at all times for at least a fortnight. Luigi established the University of Ferrero, equipped with a self-titled hospital, in Lipari shortly after becoming King of Italy in 1570 to eradicate diseases so others wouldn’t suffer the emotional losses from diseases that he did. The University of Ferrero provided centralization for medicine in Italy; more educated and more numerous doctors had been requesting improved facilities by the 16th century. Giorgio Catria discovered blood circulation at the University eventually in 1582. The University of Ferrero would continue to be the leading school in medicine inside Italy up into the modern era.

    Being the “enlightened absolute monarch” archetype, Luigi I carried an emphasis on rationality and applied them to his territory. The king began his rule by compelling the people of Trivoli to give up emptying their slops out of the windows. The fifteen century old Cervari Canal was refurbished and expanded. Hospitals were established in Favilla, Bisagno, Marxani, Cantiero, and Arccado. Cities lacked the budgets to fund local hospitals themselves, and the germophobic monarchy wanted to end costly epidemics and quarantines.

    After four monarchs leaving the crown in the six years before he obtained the crown, “Luigi the Great” reasserted the crown’s power and prestige. Applying Bassius’ philosophy of a strong code of laws making any leader assertive, King Luigi reformed the 159 year old “Privateer Policy” created by King Giorgio II in 1418. The old policy applied the use of privately owned merchant ships that were licensed by the crown to commandeer vessels deemed to be pirates. The 1577 decree provided a royal fleet, titled the “Teatralio Armada”, to seek out, eliminate and/or confiscate pirate vessels. Luigi’s policy heavily encouraged this royal fleet to confiscate stolen goods on pirate ships in promise with a 50% royal tax on the profits. The king was literally trying to out-pirate the pirates. The reason behind its title “the Teatralio Armada” is based off of Michele Teatralio’s comedic play “Privateer” (1400) which amusingly told about a system where Captain Alfanso was to “out-pirate” other pirates ironically. Luigi the Great loved his admiral’s, Giovanni Pescatore, joke about the Teatralion play, finding the similarities in the play and irony with it, that he named the fleet the “Teatralio Armada” which was also in the support of Italian nationalism. Teatralio Armada’s center of attention would be in the Caribbean and Gulf in the New World where pirating was tenfold the nuisance as it was in the Mediterranean.

    Luigi the Great was a unique absolutist monarch and historic figure to be titled “the Great” by the fact that he never engaged the Italian military formally in a war. Luigi would, however, manipulate other nations into wars and would effortlessly fight against guerilla piracy. Overseas, the prime accomplishment of Luigi’s reign was that regarding the most infamous pirate to have ever lived: Pearltooth.

    Little is known about Pearltooth’s origins. All that has been conformed is that Pearltooth’s given name was Marco Marcini, born on the island of Corsica at some time in the 1550s. Earliest records of Pearltooth are wanted papers by Italian soldiers in Lucertola for the pirate captain after interrogating recovered survivors from a large act of larceny. Recovering most information from second person encounters and records, Pearltooth gained significant attention among pirates after rescuing two brigs and a schooner, all privateers, from the Spanish Navy, which was pursuing the pirate ships with four frigates and two brigs, just outside of Mariecasa. The rescued ships and sailors were merged with Pearltooth’s sailors, forming “Pearltooth’s Fleet”.

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    Luigi the Great manipulated Spain and Germany in war in 1586 through political deceit. Unknown until much later, Pearltooth’s homeport was Geyer which was the only island east of Mexiko in the Caribbean under German control. Having access to plenty of German soldiers and ships to loot from, Pearltooth dressed his mobile tribe of ambitious pirates in German sailor uniforms and applied German naval flags to his ships. Germany began blockading Spanish coastlines immediately upon receiving news of their newly engaged conflict. Pretending and appearing to be a German fleet, Pearltooth gained assistance from actual German boats as he fired upon Spanish merchant and naval ships. Pearltooth would either loot the merchant ships or commandeer them, guiding them to the nearest port to sell its goods. Pearltooth profited heavily during the two and half year long war. With German ships mistakenly assisting Pearltooth he could engage against larger, more numerous enemies and more often. The deceiving pirates almost never required a German speaker, almost all of its crew only Italian speaking, they only required knowledge of German flag signals.

    Pearltooth could no longer join in the profitable blockade of Spanish coastlines after the end of “Liefde’s War”. To fully utilize his fleets appearance as German, Pearltooth approached multiple German ports on the eastern coasts of Mexiko undetected as pirates only to raid merchant ships without too much danger.

    The end of “Liefde’s War” also provided Pearltooth with a much larger fleet. After Liefde’s War ended, thousands of sailors along with German and Spanish privateers were discharged. With so much trained sailors at the time of a cross-Atlantic colonial shipping trade boom created a large pool of trained European recruits.

    Pearltooth began intercepting Italian vessels heading for Bastoni in 1589. Transport ships carrying prisoners almost always were raided by Pearltooth’s men. After the Italians caught on to Pearltooth’s concentrated focus of Bastoni, the captain turned his fleet south. Every mapped fortress and prison was sieged or attacked by Pearltooth on the way to the pirate haven at Geyer.

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    The Governorates of Cuba and Yucatan mailed King Luigi with heavy concerns after seven fortress were all assaulted by the infamous Pearltooth, who had retired his German disguises and began using his infamous crimson sails, and feared that they fortresses were breached in search for additional sailors and manpower for his fleet.

    Geyer was the haven for pirates, full of mercenaries, rebels, pretty ladies, and pirates. So far away from the other German colonies around Mexiko, it carried heavy trade with slow reinforcement and control. It was the ideal location for such a large pirate havens. The Italians, Dutch, and Spanish couldn’t touch the German island without permission from the King or Queen of Germany and contact took months. Pearltooth attended an extremely secretive gathering of pirates at the pub “Shwartz” just outside the town center of Geyer. Pirate leaders from the 9 most powerful pirate clans formed an alliance against all formalized fleets seeking the only goal to shatter these clans. If a pirate clan fails to compile with this common defense they are deemed as an enemy. This alliance of piracy was given the titled “Pact for Chivalric Skullduggery”, or “Chivalry Skulls”.

    The Teatralio Armada didn’t express attention over Pearltooth until the capture of ruthless English pirate Benjamin Baxter and his crew at Bermuda in 1591. By torturing Baxter’s First Mate, the Teatralio Armada’s Admiral Giovanni Pescatore discovered the secret piracy alliance “Chivalry Skulls”. Pescatore was a heavily trained, experienced, and educated Navy Admiral having graduated the Royal Academy Paganicittà and held credit for multiple naval victories in the 21 Year’s War and in the Italian crusades against piracy throughout the Western Hemisphere.

    To produce a literate citizenry, elementary education was made compulsory for all boys and girls, and higher education on practical lines was still offered for a select few. King Luigi added scholarships for talented poor students, and allowed the establishment of schools for those of the Red Sea Faith, Melekists, and even Gospelists Ovidiasts. Indirectly, Luigi weakened the power of the Abbeist Church. Before the multitude of Luigi’s basic schools, the only opportunity for the lower or middle classes to obtain a cheap, basic education was through the church.

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    In 1591, believing with heavy evidence that the Greko-Turkish Empire was mobilizing its army to invade Rumania, Queen Sofia VI ordered a pre-emptive attack against Greko-Turkey. Power-wielding Emperor Theodoros III of Greko-Turkey had already involved his empire in 6 wars in his first 10 years of reign. Foreign powers, including Italy, feared an inevitable conflict against the increasingly aggressive and militaristic Greko-Turkish Empire.

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    The three participants in the Aegean War and their respective capitals​

    Rumania’s preemptive attack appeared to result in a stunned Greko-Turkish army. Theodoros’ offensive, siege units were well in place near the Rumanian border before Sofia’s protective surprise assault. Little defensive troops were fortified in defense in Northern Greko-Turkey. Strategically Rumanian Queen Sofia VI had previously signed the Ciucarges Agreement with Adriatia. Adriatia’s navy was already launched in direction to the Aegean Sea to financially damage the Greko-Turkish tyrant while Sofia invaded. To better the war’s results the Adriatic Navy changed its objective towards galleons transporting soldiers to the new front.

    There was another power playing the advantage of a point of vulnerability, however. Luigi applied the Italy navy into the Adriatic Sea. The great Italian monarch appeared to have successfully intimidated Adriatia considering the much smaller kingdom’s ambassador couriered to Trivoli quickly and offered the Treaty of Procida (1592). In exchange for minor war financing from the royal treasury, Adriatia offered the region of Foggia (Adriatia’s territory on the Italian peninsula itself possessed by their kingdom for centuries). Luigi accepted the opportunity to further unify Italian nationalism which annexed a region long lusted after by the Montalcini Palace.

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    The Kingdom of Italy after the annexation of Foggia in 1592​

    To further assert Italian unity and his own powers, Luigi engendered the Apex Council of the State (1595). Luigi the Great’s decision to create this highest court of appeal derived from his Marchetti University studies and fixation with Bassius’ political philosophy. Bassius emphasized a strong code of laws given a dilemma against a strong ruler. The Apex Council of the State’s objective was to serve as the legal advisor towards the absolute monarch, to nationalize interpretation of any specific law, to serve as the last court a judicial legal case as a last resort, and to act as a supreme court for administrative justice.

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    Chinese explorer Thién Cheng reaches and maps much of the North American west coast in 1596. The young but growing Chinese bureaucracy quickly grows curiosity and ambition over the North American continent which they were well aware had been mostly colonized by European imperialists.

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    The Throne Room in Montalcini Palace​
    King Luigi I presented the Decreto Stanza del Trono (literally: “Edict of the Throne Room”) which, thanks to Archduchess Anna Maria di Fiorosso unwillingness to marry, decreed that a succeeding monarch to the Italian throne must be lawfully wed before coronation. Luigi believed this proclamation resolved the rapid failure of multiple Italian heads of state before the crown was passed to him just twenty-seven years earlier. The 1598 would prevent another European dynasty from annexing the Ferrero Dynasty as well as encouraging Luigi’s daughter to marry Basilio, Duke of Castelchio, in the year 1600. In a monarch married another monarch in union, odds were they would co-rule Italy (destroying the absolute monarchy) compared to one already-married individual being crowned as the de facto heir or heiress. Decreto Stanza del Trono also encouraged powerful families to propose a future arranged marriage between one of their own children and Luigi’s young grandchildren (the eldest grandchild being just 9 years old in 1598). The early coordinated plans for marriages, contradicting Luigi’s efforts, were a rushed scramble to connect family ties with the powerful Italian monarchy. These arranged marriages additionally allowed mutual ties with foreign powers – primarily Spain.

    King Luigi I fell ill during a harsh cold autumn in 1601 and the germophobe king ironically died of cholera at age 62 the following spring. While a few nobles argued the king only cost the treasury a large debt burden by excessively spending on the civilian population in opposition to capturing and investing in wealth by conquering lands. Most nobles however, almost all from the northern Italy, praised Luigi’s consistence neutrality in conflicts which would have damaged their armies, finances, and efforts and almost definitely result in an ever higher debt than domestic expenditure. Praised for his domestic improvement and endurant epoch of peace in Italian history, Luigi is officially given the title “Luigi I the Great”! The Morte Abbazia, “the Death Abbey”, begins construction to become the final resting place for Luigi and his long lost wife. The tomb will continue to serve as the final resting place for many Italian monarchs and royal family members for centuries to come.

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    The Morte Abbazia​

    Archduchess (de facto princess) Anna Maria di Fiorosso was the legitimate heiress to the throne with her marriage to the Duke of Castelchio and thus passing Decreto Stanza del Trono’s stipulation. Anna Maria di Fiorosso took upon the regnal name “Lisabetta III” in honor of her mother Lisabetta di Saracco who suffered an early death. The recently coroneted Queen also felt many personal similarities with Lisabetta I with her fixation towards arts and culture.

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    The Stone Lisabetta III in Trivoli sculpted the queen in the midst of a popular market square​

    Lisabetta III significantly stepped up Trivoli’s involvement and management of the Italian colonies in the Americas in comparison to any of her predecessors. Rivers became exponentially strategic as European colonization pushed inward. Lisabetta outlined multiple rivers to charter a port near its mouth. The quick in growth settlement “Ferrero” was founded near the mouth of the Mississippi River in 1606 where the ground held higher elevation against the flood-prone banks. Adjacent to the trading route and portage, the Italians intended the new settlement to become an important colonial city.

    The city of “Ocizzia” is renamed “Capo”; Lisabetta III bureaucratizes the North American colonies like that of Brazil. Capo centralizes economic, religious, and political organization along with policies throughout Italian North America. Like the Governorate of Brazil, the collected Italian North American colonies with Cuba and Mutal known as “Valentia” fall under the sovereignty of a regal appointed Governor. Only the Italian monarch can appoint such a governor which forces a loyalty and dependence by this newly created office. If Lisabetta III created a position of duke or duchess for the colonies it would not only become a hereditary position (thus removing the crown’s control over the office) but would be the largest duchy in Italian realms and be the closest non-archduchy in line of succession.

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    Above: North American colonial possessions by 1650​

    The Chinese achieve their two first settlements within the New World in 1608 in their attempt to compete with European powers and gain from North America’s resources. It is the first power outside of Europe to settle in the Americas since 1389.

    A common interest, some would say fixation, between Lisabetta III and her father Luigi the Great was philosophy. Before her ascension to the throne, Lisabetta studied philosophy at the University of Laconio along with focusing on literature. These two fascinations led to unique characteristics of her reign.

    Queen Lisabetta III promised handsome salaries for writers to “pick up their pens to pick up others’ imaginations”. Her aim was to:
    - Raise literacy rates and further expanding an educated citizenry
    - Strengthen and expand Italian culture and shared literature
    - Attract foreign authors, academics, intellectuals and theorists to Italy
    - Progress technological and philosophical ideas and innovations
    - Emphasize the common history among Italians
    - Spark a new golden age of Italian literature like that under Teatralio

    Among the artists who seized Lisabetta’s opportunity which promised a living with ink, Rosario Zola attained highly in fairy tales. The Tuscan woman collected many of her fairy tales she came up with for underprivileged children at the Grifoni Monastery in her publication “Zola’s Entertainments for Young Children”. The fairy tales include:
    • Three Hairs from the King
    • The Hairless King With No Heirs
    • The Witch of Strega
    • So I Adopted Some Ogres
    • Vampires at Midnight
    • Morning in Mourning
    • My Salt Turned Into A Dragon
    • Imprisoned Imprincess
    • Alex the Jester Guard
    • The Princess With A Warm Heart In An Ice Castle
    • My Aunt Actually Isn’t An Elf
    • Galleons in the Clouds
    • Ten Great Danes One Toddler
    Many writers were able to emerge from the Queen’s literature encouragements. Corsican poet Bonaventure Abbate continued to write about poverty even after his work lifted him out of it. The first daily Italian newspaper, The Daily Newsprint, emerged in Trivoli in 1609. Histories of the Italian People was published in Torchello by Nicolas Russo in 1619 and contained an eight part in-depth recording of Italian history which quickly evolves into one of the most academically cited and praised accurate documentations of history.

    Most significantly from all these writers emerging out of poverty are the philosophers which shape the course of the 17th century. Poteri Naturali is published by Luka Boveri in 1608. In Poteri Naturali, Boveri argues the natural rights of men and women: existence, education, free will, property, and conflict when these natural rights aren't contented. Boveri continues that these natural rights shouldn’t be chartered because this would legally imply they could be revoked or reduced. To prevent these inviolable-intended natural rights from being broken, they must be legally structured as the highest power in the land. Absolutism isn’t therefore a suitable system. Constitutionalism must be implicated to preserve the rights and powers of the people. A power-regulating constitution and an all-powerful monarch would be a power paradox. Boveri concludes that centralized bureaucratic power must be separated into different powers that balance each other.

    Guglielmo Arrighetti theorizes in Quadrati e Cerchi (1611) of the equality among all people and the absurdity of divine right. Because people are all naturally equal, royalty and commoners hold no distinction.
    Arrighetti argues many praised monarchs in history shouldn’t be idolized for simply expanding or greatly increasing their power. A great leader, Arrighetti argues, works to improve the lives of his people. Luigi the Great is the best example of such a great leader. But because a rare monarch such as Luigi the Great must inevitably die, hereditary succession doesn’t guarantee an extended administration as each monarch looks for their own interests. Arrighetti outlines a system of representation as the only efficient structure of government which can be traditionally working for the improvement of the civilian population.

    The Castelchion 1618 publication Saggi Sulla Laicità by Matilda Distefano emphasized free will, secularism, and antitheism. She proposed that ethics are guided by emotion and feelings rather than moral principles. She encouraged the separation of church and state along with the toleration of religious minorities.

    The rise of newspapers, a literature citizenry, and popularity of salons and coffeehouses led to social intellectual discussions on politics, culture, philosophy, and these writings. Italian society was being much more easily and commonly exposed to these new ideas which circulated throughout the kingdom. The “Epoch of Illumination” was on its rise.

    Lisabetta enlarged the royal expenditure and carried a fair sized debt left over from Luigi I. New revenues were clearly needed. Queen Lisabetta sought to annihilate the royal treasury’s operating deficit and produce a surplus that’d pay off her carried debts. Taxes on wine, sugar, and tobacco swelled at least fivefold each with the “Consumed Luxuries Tax” established in 1619. As anyone could suspect these taxes were unpopular but temporarily rescued the monarchy from an eventual bankruptcy.
    Before 1621, few Italian major cities held grain storages for emergencies. Lisabetta III introduced state-owned grain storages to balance out the grain price when needed.

    War erupted in central Europe in 1623 when France launched an invasion of Germany to prevent Hans von Bohmerwald from succeeding to the German throne which would end French ties with the German Boldman dynasty. The “War of German Succession” was quickly joined by the Kingdom of Hungary seeking to gain territory and weaken German power/influence; Hungarian Queen Kasia IV refused not to seize such an opportunity against its traditionally powerful German neighbor which could be exposed onto two fronts.

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    Lisabetta III’s advisors long encouraged the invasion of a neighboring territory to plunder its wealth and economy to financially assist the royal treasury’s numerous debts. Finally in 1625, when “Hansel VI” was crowned and with the French-Polish fighting to overthrow him, Lisabetta joined Germany in promise for the island of Jamaica in the Caribbean. Once Jamaica was in hands of an encompassed Caribbean influence, piracy would be near-extinguished. Italy’s army crossed the Alps in Summer and began their despoiling of France.

    Entering the war was publically unpopular in Italy; Queen Lisabetta III stated no just for war. Peasants were forced to contribute soldiers. The German capital of Bachburg was captured by the French the same month, November 1625, they (France) lost their own capital to the Italians. A significant accumulation of art and cultural artifacts was pillaged by the Italian army with the Sack of Chapiteaux 1625.

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    Western European nations during the War of German Succession and their nationally recognized capitals​

    The French catapulted its soldiers towards the German capital Bachburg initially. Hungary turned its attention away immediately upon Kasia IV’s apprehension of Italy’s concentration of force onto France and the culturally grand city of Chapiteaux. The German armies believed Hungary was abandoning its Bavarian ambitions completely and scrambled to counterattack the ‘retreating’ Hungarians. Hungary’s mistake was its lust for the rich Italian ports of Favilla and Castelchio. The war was a disaster in the perception that all participating nations were taken advantage in their exposed backs. Each kingdom was involved in a two front war while only significantly focusing on just one of these fronts. Italian generals hesitated in their orders to retreat into Italy and counter the attacking Hungarian forces because a journey across the Alps in winter would be devastating to the army. With the heavy damages Italian occupation was tolling in southeast France, French leaders overwhelmingly decided recapturing their prized capital / preventing further Italian acquisition far outweighed their attempt to overthrow King Hansel VI and the new Bohmerwald dynasty. France applied its entire army back to the homeland for defense and left no troops in Germany in what they considered a worthless continued fight in comparison with their Italian objective.

    The war spread to the Americas in early 1626 but was fought as almost entirely a naval war. The French and Italian colonies in North America lacked the road networks, population, and military objectives to fight a land war.

    Hungarian soldier formations found themselves fighting Germans with their backs to the Italian homeland. The war’s gradually increasing unpopularity was great worsened by the Sicilian Rebellion in 1627. A large part of the Italian forces were temporarily just outside the country or concentrating defense near the Italian Alps. Taking advantage of the situation, Sicilians began an uprising against Trivoli’s administration in Lipari and Saracco, Baron Giorgio di Mangano was asked to head it. The Calabrian Baron enthusiastically accepted to invest his energy in a war of what he perceived to be Sicilian liberation and independence from the Italian monarchy. On the 16th of March 1627, another group of 3,500 armed men and women joined him near the city of Silvana.

    Most of the Sicilian nobility did not support Mangano’s uprising because they considered it, in their perspective, to simply be a peasant uprising. France and Germany signed a treaty at Rosenrot in the April of 1627 after a German counterattack into northeastern France. With the French now fighting a more favorable one-front war, Lisabetta successfully attempted to do the same with the Treaty of Adriatia in July 1627 ending Hungarian-Italian hostilities. Even with the war waging on against the French, Lisabetta now felt comfortable to undertake the pacifying of Mangano’s Rebellion. 6,000 Italian soldiers arrived in Sicily on the Ides of August. The result not only crushed Sicily’s Rebellion but massacred hundreds of peasant men, women, and children in the crosshairs. Mangano was captured and hanged across the Marco Bridge in Trivoli in the following November.

    The immense construction of war ships to continue the protection and assault of New World colonies was costing the French and Italians a heavy debt. France refused a peace treaty until it had regained the territory conquered and occupied by Italy along with the return of stolen wealth. Lisabetta III wouldn’t sign a peace treaty that would surrender the captured wealth which was necessary to repay the overwhelming accumulated war debt.

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    The War of German Succession, now two wars with one name, dragged on through 1628 when the Germans and Hungarians finally found an agreement on peace. Italy sustained the bloodshed even with its captured treasured safely in Trivoli’s hands. Lisabetta III’s threats demanding subsidies from Spain and Greko-Turkey failed to achieve anything except newfound hostilities.

    A margin in any advantage for either side came in late 1629 when King Frederick VII of England began loaning France large amounts of war funding. Italian spies reported that France had increased galleon, man of war, and ship of the line construction around 250%. Knowing major, even more costly, defeats were incoming in North America if fighting continued into 1631 from an overwhelming French naval advantage, Lisabetta sent ambassadors to finally negotiate peace from the prolonged war. Italian ambassadors agreed in the Accords of Chapiteaux (1630) to pre-war national borders, expensive repayment for the stolen French properties, shared occupation of the colonial city Sabbia near the Chesapeake Bay, and the marriage between Lisabetta’s grandson Federico Fenicio and Princess Juliette de Vraiment which they hoped would prevent a recurrence of a clash.

    The ‘Wars of German Succession’, came to be known in plural, palpably was financially devastating to the royal treasury. Lisabetta was obligated to levy further taxes and reduce expenditure. Revenues were found with ‘sin taxes’, like on alcohol, coffee, gambling, tea, and even prostitution. Since Giorgio II the monarchy maintained the policy of a minimal or nil tax on salt to promote transatlantic shipping and American colonization. Against her advisors recommendations, a gradual tax on salt was established in 1634.

    After gold was discovered in the Chinese North American colonies in the early 1630s, a wave of Asian immigration pushed into what Europeans referred to as “California”.

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    Lisabetta passed away at Avina Palace on the outskirts of Stagna leaving her kingdom slowly heading towards bankruptcy. “Lisabetta III the Pioneering” is succeeded by her thirty-four years old first born “Giorgio III” in 1637.

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    King Giorgio III’s 1656 portrait, the hand gesture on his left suggest association with the Order of the Piffero​

    Giorgio III’s prime concern coming into power was not the stagnant economy, not his troubling finances, not the weakened army and navy, not the criticisms of the Italian absolute monarchism, or even the rising tension between the traditional Italian ally Spain. Giorgio III’s first and upmost concern was: rats. The 1630’s saw a rat flood in Trivoli which spread disease, consumed food storages and infested the crops of surrounding farms. To rid these pests, Giorgio attempted various peculiar ideas including the domestication of red foxes, unleashing hundreds of stray cats in central Trivoli, and even creating pest control job occupations.

    Giorgio aimed to return the Italian navy’s size to that of its quantity before the Wars of German Succession. Galleons were expensive and the king expressed annoyance with his advisors constant reminders of the treasury’s deficit and mounting debts. When Spain entered war against the Greko-Turkish Empire in 1641, crossing a magnitude of warships through Italian wars (which the king had witnessed first person twice), he commandeered a quota of merchant ships and upgraded them into war galleons. Despite what the king’s closest advisors believed, Giorgio didn’t intend or desire to join the war. However the king did fear the Greko-Turkish conflict spreading to his dear kingdom.

    Spanish diplomats arrived at Trivoli in 1643 urging their ally for militaristic or at the least, financial assistance, in their skirmish. King Giorgio III, polite but at times irrational and oblivious, expressed his sympathies and explained that war was the last thing Italy could afford at the time. Manuel II of Spain reacted with great frustration and resentment towards the news of Italy’s “selfishness”.

    In 1645, King Giorgio III possessed 9 unwed children of his 11 total. The three oldest and closest to the throne of these children were archdukes and archduchesses (reigning over Calabria, Trivoli, and Gorizia). Giorgio briskly organized the marriages of these unwed children creating and strengthening diplomatic ties. Four of Giorgio’s offspring were married with German royalty; the king’s intentions likely to becoming the closest ally to the young Bohemwald Germany dynasty which was still fresh and without extensive diplomatic ties throughout Europe like that of Britain or Sweden.

    Some record that Giorgio wasn’t firm enough to be an absolute monarch. His nobles questioned his legislations openly.

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    Vincent Thurman invents the Thurman Steam Engine in 1646 which uses steam pressure to drive pistons, a significant step towards Europe’s industrialism.

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    Navigator, Cartographer, Explorer and Captain Bartolomeo Abbadelli encircles Australia, mapping just its northern and eastern coasts in 1653. With a landing at “Giorgio Rock”, the captain claims Australia for the Kingdom of Italy.

    While on the streets of Cervari celebrating the Festival di Abbracci, a would-be assassin attempted to murder King Giorgio III by firing at the king from behind a market stand. The bullet missed any organs but shot off the king’s left ring finger. The festival quickly transferred into a crowded scramble making an attempt to regain control strenuous for the royal guards.

    Giorgio was confronted by the “Vineyard Rebellion” in 1655 as Tuscan winemakers attempted to protest the heavy tax burdens the absolute monarchy levied both on their wine and their lands. Lords in Tuscany pleaded to the Duke of Tuscany for suppression of the rebellion; the Duke required the monarchy’s help which possessed the expensive national army that dukes were dependent on the monarch for. Giorgio sent his organized, efficient army into Tuscany firing upon the protestors. The Vineyard Rebellion quickly emerged into news pamphlets, followed by coffeehouses and salons, as “King Giorgio’s Massacre”.

    Assuming war debt fell under further difficulties during the Cahokian War in 1556. The Native American tribe Cahokia, under the leadership of Chief Chicsa, initiated an assault on the European colonists in the North American Italian colonies of “Valentia” to repel the treaty-defying westward European expansion. Giorgio deployed 10,000 more soldiers into Valentia in 1557 to fight off the Native American attackers along with to reinstate colonial stability and sense of security. Giorgio believed an increased maintenance of a colony should result with increased revenue from that colony. As a result, a noticeable rise on excises were found in ports on indigo, barely, and rice.

    In May 1558, King Giorgio suffered a serious stroke which almost incapacitated him completely. For weeks the most powerful man in Italy remained paralyzed on his bed almost blind. He improved over the next few months, forcing servants to carry him on his chair over their shoulders, and was able to walk on a cane by next year. During this time, Giorgio’s third born child, second eldest alive, and the premier eligible candidate for successor and heir Anthony da Trivoli, Archduke of Trivoli, was prepping towards assuming the crown.

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    King Giorgio III died of a second stroke and other heart-related health issues in November 1659 at Torchello Palace. At his royal funeral at the same location, the king is officially titled “King Giorgio III the Amiable”.
     
  8. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
    [size=+5]
    #8
    [/size]

    1659 - 1671

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    King Anthony VI’s Royal Portrait​
    Succeeding his father Giorgio III as absolute monarch of Italy in 1559, King Anthony VI obtained the throne with a bankrupt treasury, deficit budget, increasingly expensive and interdependent colonies, frigid relations with the once friendly Spanish monarchy, open public criticism - in salons, coffeehouses, and the press - of the Italian monarchy along with the radically high taxes, and other strengthened opposition to the absolute monarchy notably by Italy’s own philosophers.

    The Ferrero house monarch knew all of his troubles were in some way or another related to finances. Fiscal reform was patently needed and the public was already greatly angered by the gradual increase in taxes on flour, alcohol, coffee, gambling, tea, wine, sugar, tobacco, indigo, rice, and barley. In his search of new and increased revenues, Anthony VI chose to triple tariffs instead of taxes; by doing which he theorized would prevent a further infuriated public. Yet these tariffs discouraged foreign traders so much that many resources were now shortened in the Italian market causing prices too heavy for the average citizen. Tariffs did help generate higher earnings for the treasury but turned economic stagnation into decline in 1661. Anthony VI authorized the sailing of Italian naval ships to Adriatia and Greko-Turkey for a small profit and to make the navy’s maintenance more economical.

    Corsica traditionally held a heavy dependence on foreign trade, notably with the French and Spanish. While they were much more dependent on the Italian homeland and the breadbasket of Tuscany, the annihilated once-abundant resources in the island’s ports and markets caused widespread hunger throughout the large Italian Mediterranean island. Starved peasants revolted in 1662 and overthrew their Duchess Emilia di Capraia with demands for nourishment. The peasants were pacified by royal soldiers and the island returned to stability with Anthony’s third eldest child appointed duke in February 1663.

    King Anthony the Sixth encountered difficulties controlling his kingdom politically as well. When his youngest brother attempted to marry Michela Casretti, whom Anthony considered to be inappropriate as a royal bride coming from a lower social class, the king insisted on a law essentially barring any children from a couple like that of his brother and Casretti from coming into the line of succession and forbid members of the Royal Family from marrying without the Sovereign’s consent. Anthony released public records of the royal finances in 1665 as an educational piece for the people, striving to create a well-informed, interested populace that could understand the king’s dilemmas. When the massive extent of the king’s debt was reported to Italy’s shocked nobles in 1665, they rejected the King’s fiscal reform plan to in some way abdicate control over the North and South American Italian colonies which dragged the king’s debt and to further reduce expenditure on salaries paid for by the state which includes nobles. Such a fiscal reform would’ve placed the king out of a deficit and had just one of the Italian colonies in the New World, whether Brazil in South America or Valentia in North America, been sold individually to a foreign power at a fair price the monarchy wouldn’t be far from free of its bondage to debts. The outspoken Italian nobility and refusal for reform signaled an inability for Anthony VI to serve as an absolute monarch.

    Finally, in January 1666, Anthony VI took an initiative to exert a large income generating tax. The absolute monarch defied his nobles’ reactions and outcry to levy the Poll Tax (1666) with his new approach of assertiveness. The Poll Tax fixed a numerous tax on the number of heads (citizens) of each noble. This radically transferred nobles’ power sources because now nobles must generate their revenues from their land and not the monarchy (exactly what Anthony VI tried to result from his failed fiscal reform attempts just a year before).

    Outraged and financially bankrupted noble named Count Giovanni Artigiano wrote “Criticisms of the Italian Absolute Monarchy”. The well-educated count writes how unjust the political power structure of absolutism very well is along with examples of the system’s failure concerning the absolutism within Italy. The soon widely printed pamphlet details:
    • An absolute monarch wields the right to levy taxes without the consent of the people through any means of representation.
    • Any divine right of kings or queens has proven false; therefore what qualifies any individual to wield the power of an entire kingdom?
    • In Quadrati e Cerchi, Guglielmo Arrighetti states “A monarchy’s power doesn’t come from the monarch; the monarch’s power comes from the people! An absolute monarch’s greatest fear is this truth.” The quote shines with truth yet the people carry no form of representation!
    • The Poll Tax creates an upmost unfair taxation system. Have urban lords with considerable farmland make more wealth, why must the populated lords of the cities pay more?
    • No political body carries the ability to challenge the monarch, in consequence any failure, inefficient policy or mistake made by the sovereign impoverishes us all without an opportunity to challenge, veto, or prevent such damages.
    • Since all persons are equal, it is most absurd for one individual to represent the masses of an entire realm.
    • A child born into riches, silver spoons, and royalty has not any awareness of the livelihood on the common people the said child will one legislate.
    • Potentates rule the kingdom for their own benefits and consider not the best interests of the commoners.

    Artigiano exemplifies “acts of tyranny” from the Ferrero dynasty (Luigi I through Giorgio III) in which the monarch mismanaged the Italian people. The Count goes on to argue continued leadership in absolute monarchism will only result in further taxes due to the mismanagement of the nation’s treasury (as a result of one individual responsible for an entire country’s finances), future wars like that of the German Succession to pay for the king’s debt, more “motherland resources” dispatched to the colonies for the monarch’s gain and only to leave Italy hungry and starving. Criticisms of the Italian Absolute Monarchy left printing presses in Italy hot considering one quarter of Italy had read or heard the document by the end of 1666. Artigiano concluded his essay with the line:
    A riot broke out in downtown Trivoli in the April of 1666 which derived from starved Italians unable to afford the exorbitant price of bread and bakers unable to bake bread from the scarcity of flour which was expensive enough with 33% sales taxes let alone the scarcity of the resource. The riots spread into protests in front of the King’s Army. When Trivolins scurried into the Montalcini Palace the royal guards were obliged to fire upon the intruders; Montalcini royal guards are sworn by oath to defend the king’s palace until death. The incident becomes known as “Bloody Teyevidie” and The Daily Newsprint titles their headlines of 14 April 1666:
    The phrase becomes known throughout Italy; coffeehouses and salons discuss the massacre with great interests.

    King Anthony VI sent the King’s Army to strip Stagnan nobles of their titles and lands after their refusal to pay taxes during 1666’s second quarter tax collections on 1 July. These nobles fled to Po were they persuaded Pon nobles to wage war in what they called already “the King’s War against the Nobility.” The nobles already knew the third estate was well in opposition of the crown and could easily be influenced to fight. Messengers and couriers fled Po’s cities and countryside recruiting what they called the last war of absolutism. Now the nobility needed a military commander to leader their massive rebellion.

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    The nobles selected Francesco Mazzini to lead their campaign which aimed to place Vincenzo di Bisagno (Archduke of Po and Giorgio’s oldest surviving brother) to the throne whom laid just 3rd in line of succession and whom they believed would end the absolute monarch and transfer significant powers to the nobles of Italy.

    Mazzini was a Sardinian-born field marshal who strongly endorsed the Criticisms of the Italian Absolute Monarchy by Count Giovanni Artigiano published earlier in 1666. Francesco Mazzini towered his peers with a 6’6 foot (2 meter) stature. The military man enlisted during German War of Succession at age 13 in 1627. Francesco Mazzini was 5’6 at age thirteen and easily passed for a recruit of age. The Sardinian dedicated the rest of his teens, twenties, and thirties to military service and even spent 1556-1559 in Italian North America (Valentia) to fight the Cahokian War. Experienced and still ambitious, confident while au fait, charismatic and energetic, Francesco Mazzini was ideal for the nobles’ campaign.

    Mazzini organized his presented thousands of recruits into an extremely well organized structure for an efficient chain of command. The more experienced and knowledgeable yardbirds were given higher rankings and responsibilities. Mazzini’s soldiers were called “Cleanfaces” due to Mazzini’s emphasizing on shaved faces for his soldiers to avoid hazardous beard-grabbing in combat and promote tidiness with good hygiene.

    General Francesco Mazzini possessed complete control over the rebel army and commenced his war on tyranny in the October of 1666. Stagnan nobles resided in Po and Tuscany when Mazzini outlined his war strategy without the Duchy of Stagna as an objective. Mazzini claimed a war for land and conquer would be impossible at that point in time. A war with major political, social, and economic objectives would be much more probable. Hence Mazzini commenced the first of these objectives in October 1666 amidst the Riots of Grifoni.

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    Above: Italy in 1666​

    The Grifoni Riots began on October 2nd after intoxicated sailors began slurring cries and memories of the monarchy seizing their ships and obnoxiously complaining over salt prices that greatly reduce the profitability of transatlantic trade. The sailors demands for new ships and free salt emerged into a brawl when Grifoni’s guards appeared at the ports to calm the sailors. After a fire spontaneously started at a few business, Grifoni residents began raiding pastries then shoe stores. The civil unrest endured eleven days of unrest until the King’s Army arrived on 13 October. Business owners and workers emerged obliged to turn to thievery after their own shops were stolen from. Mazzini was located one third the distance than that of Trivoli’s during the time of the outbreak. So by the 13th of October, the Cleanfaces had already fortified multiple locations within Grifoni, positioning loaded Hungarian muskets on high elevated rooftops and encircling courtyards with overlooks. Mazzini had turned a city in riot into a potentially devastating trap for the King’s Army. Once Trivoli’s soldiers arrived on 13 October, disguised Cleanfaces dressed in civilian attire provoked King’s Army soldiers by spitting in their directions, calling them “Muckworms” “Thatch-Gallows” “Parasites”, mocking them, insulting their families, and throwing bottles in their direction. Without orders, some might argue in self-defense, soldiers snapped and a few fired upon the crowd followed by a multitude of the King’s Army soldiers simultaneously shooting at the rioters. Mazzini’s rebel army launched fireworks “about ninety seconds following the King’s Army shots” which cued the Cleanfaces to begin their ambush.

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    The soldiers of the King’s Army were surprised and vulnerable in the open; Mazzini’s Army’s soldiers were positioned in ideal places like rooftops and behind windows. The King’s Army quickly lost the fight and the Cleanfaces were viewed as saviors and rescuers. Mazzini’s first battle for the rebel cause was a strong victory.

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    Painting depicting the Avins Riots, the Avins Cathedral (Control+F) can be found in the background​

    News of “Mazzini’s rescuing of innocent civilians from Anthony VI’s tyranny” quickly spread by word, ink, and print. Mazzini could check social victory off of his war strategy’s objective list.

    The Nobles’ Revolution spread to other cities with copious revolts against Trivolin leadership in the winter between 1666-1667 in Regalis (19 October), Amata (27 October – 2 November), Venalcini (29 October – 18 November), Gorizia (4-6 November), Avins (19-21 November), Castelchio (12-16 December), Austiae (26 December – 3 January), and Bisagno (10-11 January).

    After the 13th of October, General Francesco Mazzini moved his sprouting in numbers Cleanface Army northwest away from Grifoni. While Mazzini knew Grifoni was expecting a large return of Trivolin involvement, he was interested in his economic objected Northwest in Cervari.

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    The Fenicio Family played a significant role for Cervari in sparking the Rotundi Period​

    The Fenicio Bank is the oldest bank in Italy and served close ties with the monarchy since the establishment of the Italian Kingdom in 1384. The monarchy’s treasury resided within Trivoli but the Fenicio Bank in Cervari was financially vital as the administrator for Italy’s only banking corporation.
    Mazzini marched into Cervari in a parade fashion with flowers thrown before the Cleanfaces’ paths. Soldiers guarding the Fenicio Bank in Cervari instantly surrender to Mazzini’s overwhelming force. The succeeding general captured the bank’s gold and currency reserves, later to be used to finance the purchase of French cannons in the Spring of 1667.

    As a result of Mazzini’s economic objective success, Anthony VI absorbed the Fenicio Banks’ loans to prevent a run on the banks (which would be even more financial devastating than the debt added).

    The rebelling nobles undertook the responsibility for acquiring the French cannons that Francesco Mazzini lusted after. The nobility also confiscated the two hundred and twenty years old and still running Royal Gunpowder Mill at Bisagno without the need for orders from Francesco Mazzini. In the meantime, the Cleanfaces mobilized south away from the Northern Italian winter. A multitude of recruits joined the cause against tyranny throughout the journey to Stagna.

    King Anthony VI’s military intercepted the Cleanfaces before they would reach Stagna in the November of 1666. At the Battle of Stone Pine Berms (1666), the King’s Army proved to be superior in training, equipment, and accuracy as they crushed Mazzini’s forces. Francesco Mazzini’s army contained so many fresh recruits that disorganization led to a failed effort to flank the King’s Army.

    The Cleanfaces retreated into Po; King’s Army didn’t chase the fleeing rebels. For the winter of 1666-67, Mazzini encamped the rebel army in a well-hidden valley laying kilometers outside Torchello known as “Gola Giallo”. The King’s Army ravaged crops and devoured farm animals throughout Po’s countryside when General Lariticini finally sought out the rebel army in January producing an infuriated peasantry. The Mazzini’s winter at Gola Giallo was immensely needed for his army. There, his army was able to emerge organized, healed, and trained. The chain of command was enforced strictly; weeks were spent improving reloading time.

    The Cleanfaces returned to fighting in the spring of 1667. Mazzini was victorious in his first battle of the season (Palude, 22 March) where his troops faked defeat and ran, only to turn back onto the vulnerable pursuers. The King’s Army did force Mazzini into retreat at the Battle of Friumia (1 April) and the Battle of Collina (9 April).

    Cannons and artillery were equipped into Mazzini’s army after the arrival of French siege weapons in that spring. Francesco Mazzini now held considerable leverage against the King’s Army.

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    When the King’s Army attempted to flank the Cleanfaces at the Battle of Rusticano (5 May), Mazzini’s army quickly adapted into Echelon formation (displayed above). Anthony VI’s forces had been proved unable to further use the basic strategy of flanking against Mazzini. Another reason for the Cleanfaces’ success was their new massed artillery able to quickly moved with the battalions. The Battle of Rusticano cost Trivoli over thirty thousand soldiers and prove to the rest of Europe that the conflict was much more than a large riot; civil war was upon Italy!

    With Italy in turmoil and an opportunity to end the Ferrero dynasty, King Eduardo II of Spain formally declares war on Anthony VI. Spanish soldiers quickly infiltrated the territory and strait of Gibraltar and later in October arrived into the Italian peninsula. Trivoli was cut off from contacting the Italian colonies Valentia and Brazil once the Spanish barricaded the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Italy’s nobility new the king was weak and vulnerable at this time. After the Duchess of Tuscany Juliet da Elba swore allegiance to Francesco Mazzini’s efforts on May 28th, 1667, many more duchies followed. Gorizia, Castelchio, Appennini, and Periocci announced allegiance to the rebel cause in the Summer of 1667. Formal revolution against King Anthony VI came with the call for a Motion of No Confidence by the Tuscan Duchess Juliet da Elba on August 21st.

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    Above: Italian National Day being celebrated in its modern times​

    August 21st, a day which will be celebrated as Italian National Day, marks the release of the Motion of No Confidence (“Mozione di Sfiducia”) by the Duchy of Tuscany (under the deputation of Tuscan nobles and Juliet da Elba’s leadership). The context of the Mozione di Sfiducia declared Anthony VI no longer fit to serve as king, placed the nobility in democratic authority until a constitution could be drafted to replace the ineffective system of absolute power under one individual, debased the leadership and loyalty towards Anthony VI, along with “Hereby issuing a death warrant for citizen Anthony Ferrero the Sixth for atrocities on the Italian people.” The document carries the signatures from the entire Tuscan nobility (counts to the duchess) signatures. Printed copies of Mozione di Sfiducia were sent to each region in Italy. The nobilities of other Italian duchies quickly followed as the war was obviously one to benefit the nobility.

    When the Spanish Incursion of 1667 arrived in October, Mazzini saw the King’s Army overwhelmed, overextended, and well-too occupied. Thus the Cleanfaces crusaded through the Italian road networks towards Trivoli in the autumn of ’67 when there was little chance the King’s Army would stand before their paths and turn their advancement back.

    Mazzini and his enthusiastic rebel army encircled Trivoli on 27 October. Francesco Mazzini knew that even if the denounced king fled the city he would still be without the little political control he had left leaving the war victorious. The streets of Trivoli were dry although they were flooded by rebellion. Urban civilians assimilated with the storming Cleanfaces. The rebels spread into Montalcini Palace’s square, crowds chanted “Morte Mandato! Morte Mandato!” Death Warrant they called for the king!

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    The palace’s gates collapsed when Cleanfaces effortlessly tugged it with ropes. Dirty espadrille shoes trampled through the marble floors. The Royal Guards didn’t hesitate to shoot at the intruders. The overwhelming in number Cleanfaces branched out throughout the grand palace. Laughs and shouts of “Morte Mandato” echoed the enormous palace.

    The royal Montalcini Palace was investigated thoroughly until Anthony VI was uncovered hiding in the wardrobe chambers, hands crossed over his chest and crying. The mob beat the king on the crowd until Cleanface soldiers were brought to the scene. Mazzini’s soldiers escorted the king to the palace’s courtyard “Montalcini Square”. The crowed gazed upon the captured king, some with muskets leveled in his direction, as he was loaded onto a black carriage. 18th century Italy coined a term typically going along the lines “Don’t load me into the black carriage over my crimes” meaning their intents were good but ultimately a failure; the term derives from this incident.

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    The Apex Council of the State’s original building used in the Italian Revolution​

    By Mazzini’s orders, Cleanfaces transported Anthony VI during an evening’s rain to the Apex Council of the State located no more than four miles away. The congregation of rebels followed the carriage all the way to the Apex Council’s edifice. Francesco Mazzini believed that executing Anthony VI in front of the symbolic Montalcini Palace would suggest their revolution to be that of savagery and disorder versus a trial then execution at the Apex Council would demonstrate that their rebellion was a “revolution of the people” and applied liberty ideals like justice.

    A swift “Inquiry of Citizen Ferrero” was made but ultimately the infinitely numerous jury found the miserable and crying Anthony VI guilty of all charges and sentenced him to hanging by right of the Mozione di Sfiducia’s death warrant. After the trial the disposed monarch was taken outside with Mazzini’s army encircling the square.

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    Mazzini, the tall and extravagant figure of the far right, ignores the king’s crying plead for his life​

    The king was executed when the clock tower rang at six o’clock with the stool below him kicked. The king hanged for ten quiet minutes in the misting rain until finally passing over. It’s widely rumored the disposed despot displayed a death erection during the ten excruciating and humiliating minutes before Mazzini’s army.

    The now official overthrowing of Anthony VI, whom Mazzini himself proclaimed “Anthony VI the Monstrous”, led to the surrendering of a vast majority of the King’s Army. All the major generals realized there was nothing left to fight for with the exception of General Carlo Muratore. Muratore argued that Anthony’s younger brother Margrave Tommaso da Trivoli was next in line to the throne (contemplating the Archduchess of Calabria Carmela di Ferrero, Anthony’s VI only daughter and heiress to the throne, had fled to Greko-Turkey) and Mazzini’s puny rebel “Cleanface” army could still be defeated. Spain personally led an assault against General Muratore in efforts to earn the new nobility’s friendship and prevent the Ferrero dynasty from reclaiming control. Tommaso was exiled to Azores in January.

    Italy’s nobles assembled at Stagna for the winter of 1667-1668 until May debating their new constitution and the next monarch to be handed the crown. Their debates were recorded by copious reporters and sent to publications across Italy. Originally the nobles desired Mario, Anthony VI’s second eldest brother, to be king whom proved to be submissive to the nobility’s demands. Strong support from Spain and the debased Ferrero house indicated a time to refresh dynasties.

    Juliet da Elba, Duchess of Tuscany, had been a strong noblewoman in the rebel cause and formalized the revolution politically with the Mozione di Sfiducia. Juliet convinced the convention to make her and her husband joint monarchs which would prevent the transiting monarchy from emerging absolutist again with the royal branch divided. The nobles chose Juliet da Elba to be the next monarch by an overwhelming 81.6% vote on February 28th.

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    Queen Juliet da Elba and her husband King Paolo di Bianco​

    The Italian Constitution’s final copy was adopted on May 9th. The constitution reformed the Italian political drastically. The absolute monarchy was strapped of complete powers with the creation of parliament, which consisted of a House of Lords and a House of Commons; unlike the monarchy, parliament had the right and ability to levy new taxes. The House of Lords can elect the position of Chancellor to serve as the Head of Government with the abilities to:
    • To vote down legislative proposals of the government.
    • Administration over fiscal measures and the budget, a government is obviously powerless without control of the state finances.
    • The election of a new chancellor or removal of an existing one required:
      o A general election if no party contains a majority in Parliament.
      o A leadership vote at a party caucus, meaning another party member would serve as replacement.
      o A parliamentary vote on a major issue could lead to a vote of no confidence.
      o A monarch contains the ability to dismiss the Chancellor at any time with reason.
      o Death of a chancellor calls an immediate election of a successor.

    The Bank of Italy was created to prevent future mismanagement of the economies and finances in the future. Before the Italian Revolution the government’s finances was managed in the Royal Treasury under the monarch’s administration. The Bank of Italy replaced the Royal Treasury but served under the Chancellor’s sovereignty and to act as Italy’s central bank. The Bank of Italy manages the nation’s currency, money supply, and loaning rates. It could also loan the government money which would prevent the multitude of debt holders Italy had under Anthony VI. The Bank of Italy as the nation’s legal tender was important towards the nation’s transition from mercantilist to free market policies.

    Some historians argue the Italian Constitution’s most significant and radical component was the Diritti Fondamentali (fundamental rights) which listed inviolable natural rights for every man and woman in Italy. Diritti Fondamentali was influenced by the writings by Luka Boveri, “Poteri Naturali”, which emphasized that the natural rights of existence, education, free will, property, and conflict when these natural rights are contended. Boveri argued that these rights must be upheld in principle constitution and not be chartered by the government, meaning they could be revoked. Diritti Fondamentali listed ten inviolable rights:
    • The Right to Life and Existence.
      o Capital punishment and firing upon protestors is thus outlawed. A government is also prevented from taxing essential foods needed for survival.
      - Salt emerges in debate whether taxable; salt isn’t needed for diet however it preserves other necessity foods.
      - Prevents cruel and unusual punishments from being imposed on Italian citizen.
    • The Right to Education to fulfill every human’s basic potential.
      o Thus the government must provide free basic education for all citizenry.
    • The Right to Property and Social Mobility.
      o Entitles every citizen the right to private property.
      - Specifies that compensation but be granted in exchange for labor and outlaws thievery.
    • The Right of Free Press and Speech.
      o Includes the freedom to petition, challenge or criticize the monarch without fear of retribution.
    • The Right to Vote Representatives for the House of Commons.
      o The right goes beyond just the nobility but to all men and women of the citizenry.
    • The Right to Keep and Possess Arms.
      o For their own protection, as fitting to their class.
      - This entitlement is upheld as the right to conflict when these natural rights are contended.
    • The Right to Self-Determination and Free-Will.
    • The Right to Due Process of Law.
      o Includes the right to appeal courts’ rulings.
    • The Right of Religious Liberty.
      o Exempts church and religious organizations from taxation and establishes the separation of church and state.
    • The Right to Peaceful Assembly.

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    Stagna Square​

    The Italian Constitution reformed not only the monarchy’s interactions with the rest of the sovereign national government but also the political structure of the monarchy. The title of “archduke” and “archduchess” were dissolved. Previously a monarch could appoint their son or daughter into a position of a duchy which would make them an “archduke” or “archduchess”. The archduchy had more power against other dukes. The Italian Constitution specified that all dukes and duchesses were equal, regardless of their bloodline or land size. There was speculation that the deputation gathered in Stagna was going to outline marriages from the monarchy or their children to be approved of by the House of Lords but contemplating strong religious opinions that this violated the natural right to choose one’s eternal partner the delegations abandoned their pursuit.

    Queen Juliet I and King Paolo I were crowned in Trivoli on Italy’s new “National Day” on August 21st, 1668. The first act by the new jointly-ruling monarchs was the honorary titling of Francesco Mazzini to the 1st Margrave of Italy. Mazzini is the only person to ever receive this title.

    The new constitutional Italian government fell under a setback after the coronations of Juliet I and Paolo I. Queen Juliet attempted to appoint Romeo di Ballare as the new Governor of Valentia, yet the current Valentian Governor Eduardo Giamatti refused to step down claiming only the “absolute monarchy of Italy can appoint the Governor of Valentia or Brazil!” Because no lord or authority recognized the Mozione di Sfiducia or the Italian Constitution, the new Trivolin government possessed no jurisdiction over Valentia.

    Giamatti’s government declared independence from Italy on 1 January 1669, ending centuries’ efforts of colonization. Trivoli fell into a panic but the newly formed government was barely stable and lacked an efficient chain of command to fight an overseas conflict. Queen Juliet sent diplomats to negotiate, but not attempt coercion, with Giammti. The diplomats returned in 1670 assuring Juliet Valentia would shed blood to be self-governing. Trivoli was disappointed by the loss but recognized Valentia as an independent nation with Parliament’s approval.

    Brazil followed Valentia’s footsteps when Governor Giovanni Fantozzi declared himself Protectorate of Brazil in 1671. Small rebellions appeared in Brazil since the loss of contact with Trivoli during the Italian Revolution. Brazilian writers criticized the self-interests brought forward by Italy’s management of Brazil which never bettered the lives of the colonists. When it appeared revolution was upon the doorstep of Brazil’s capital Fortezza in April 1671, Governor Fantozzi decided to side with the revolutionaries and declared Brazil “self-governed for self-interests” on April 9th 1671. Trivoli responded with remorse but voted to adopt policies to obtain new colonies to feed the overpopulated Italian peninsula in high demand for numerous resources.

    While Anthony VI is a times cited as a scapegoat for the failure of Italian absolutism, its true causes for its collapse and historical extinction all lead to financial difficulties. Growth in public speculations in salons and coffeehouses, extremely high literacy rates in comparison to other Europeans due to compulsory education, and a golden age of Italian literature all allowed ideas to spread quickly and easily. Weak rulers like Giorgio III and Anthony VI allowed the nobility to gain enough leverage that when financial bankruptcy obliged the monarchy to force tax collections with muskets, revolution was inevitable.

    The Italian Revolution changed Italy politically by the establishment of inviolable entitlements and rights to the individual, disbanded the absolute monarchy and rebuilt power with a constitutional joint-monarchy, applied the ability to levy taxes solely to the legislative branch, and directed considerable more power to the common Italian with the election and representation in parliament. The head of government position of Chancellor was definitely the de facto leader and prime decision maker in the Italian nation. The country was changed economically by defaulting the monarchy’s debts with Anthony VI’s overthrow, fabricated a central bank to serve as the legal tender for the government, and leveled the Italian colonies of Valentia and Brazil for unlimited resources available. Socially the revolution’s effects granted numerous more freedoms; the right of free speech and press caused a wave of liberty in literature among writers, playwrights, and journalists in Italy.
     
  9. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
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    Seattle
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    #9
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    1671 - 1729​

    The 1670s stalled progress in the Industrialization epoch of Italy without the resources from Brazil and Valentia and Italy’s manufactured goods exports to those nations with it. This halt in the Industrial Revolution actually encouraged a different revolution, one much more delicious. Taxes on flour, tea and wine were completely extirpated leading to a return to pastries. Brazil (the world’s coffee powerhouse) embargoed trade to Italy until 1686; Italy at the point of the Italian Revolution comprised a plentiful of coffeehouses. Coffeehouses held a great position in Italian society as meeting places for gossip, discussion, socializing, and news. Wine and tea became the substitutes for coffee and wineries reemerged in rich farming regions like Tuscany and Sicily. When resources were cut off from the ex-colonies, Italian consumers turned to neighboring colonial powers like Spain and France. Tomatoes from Spanish colonies in the Americas were abundant, the Spanish made great profits selling the vegetable to Italian markets. Wheat rapidly emerged as the prime crop for Italian farmers after the high demands for bread and flour under the reign of King Anthony VI. Fascination for new foods, meals, cooking, and culinary techniques emerged with Giornale Cuochi (celebrity chefs).

    Pasta is historically a love within Italian cuisine. Post-revolutionary chefs experimented with their pantries much more *occupied* with wheat foods than before the Italian Revolution (1666-68). Pasta is formed from unleavened dough of durum wheat flour mixed with water then formed into different shapes. Tomatoes, brought back from the Americas through Spain, were very important for sauces. Tomato sauce recipes from Sughi Rossi by Ferdinand Anima swept through Italian kitchens after its publication in Regalis in 1673.

    Of this time period, many popular cuisines developed in Italy. These include:

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    Conchiglie, Sicily, Giornale Cuochi Chef Pantaleone Sinagra

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    Spaghetti, Gorizia, Locals

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    Muffins and Raison Bread, Tuscany, Locals

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    Cornetto, Sicily, Giornale Cuochi Chef Pantaleone Sinagra

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    Cinnamon rolls became a common aliment in salons and re-remerging coffeehouses after Spanish colonies begin to rapidly develop throughout India in the 1690s. Sugar and cinnamon became easily accessible for Italian kitchens leading to cinnamon rolls baking which require simply dough, cinnamon, sugar, and butter.

    In her fifth annual ‘Royal Agenda’ to parliament on the first of January, 1674, Queen Juliet I outlined intentions to re-establish Italian overseas colonization that could become self-sufficient and profitable for Italy within two decades. Juliet publicized to parliament domestic issues which could be amended by colonization. These issues include:
    • The loss of North and South American colonies terminated most of Italy’s flax and timber supplies. Alternate sources must be sought especially if the Italian navy was going to continue competing with threatening neighbors.
    • An Italian port was craved for a port in the East to extend Italian naval and commercial power as well as to promote trade with Japan and China.
    • Overcrowding of prisons brought by the Diritti Fondamentali’s “Right to Life and Existence” which outlawed capital punishment but not exiling.
    • Rival powers, that being the French, Spanish, and English, expansion in the East Indies threatened chances for Italian footholds in the Pacific.
    • Land grants alone could support colonial distance costs.

    Italian Chancellor Claudio Rovigatti openly supported the Queen’s revitalized colonization interests. The Chancellor was able to open a “colonization” sector in the 1675 fiscal budget. The original funding was low but Rovigatti intended to increase it exponentially.

    Captain Bartolomeo Abbadelli claimed Australia for Italy in 1653. British and Spanish explorers dismissed the continent as a wasteland while Abbadelli discovered the fertile lands on its eastern coasts. Australia was an easy choice to establish ports in the East, plentiful in territory for land grants and timber for shipbuilding. The Italian Government sent the Violet Fleet in 1676 under the command of Captain Rodrigo Speziale to establish a central settlement.

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    “Bianco” was founded by Captain Speziale and named after the ruling royal dynasty. Colonization of Australia picked up quicker than that of Valentia or Brazil due to greater social urges to restart lives and escape the Industrialization of urban cities. Traditionalists who still connected land with social status acquired royal land grants to Australia. This industrialization didn’t ‘pick up’ in Italy significantly until the 1720s.

    The Italian Revolution served a powerful change of government policy on economics. The Ferrero Dynasty applied a policy of “tax and spend” in which the economy was taxed heavily and the government spent heavily on the citizenry. The result of this policy was a population dependent upon the state, when the government was in financial troubles increasing the already-extreme taxes could only cause a more angered citizenry. Paolo I applied the policy of “laissez-faire”, where the government would not regulate the Italian economy but work to expand markets. The free market policy was officially introduced in the 1679 fiscal budget which cut revenue and expenditure.

    As industrialization progressed in the 1680s, society migrated to urban and nuclear family life. Chancellor Sabrina Aucciello outlawed Child Labor in 1684, arguing it was immoral, limited adult employment in an already overpopulated peninsula, and violated the Diritti Fondamentali in every human’s right to education to fulfill their basic potential. The outlawing of Child labor and increasing urbanization actually restrained population growth in Italy while industrialization advanced population growth in Germany and France. Agrarian Italy required multitudes of children for the heavy labor needed in farm life. In post-1684 city life, however, children weren’t allowed to work and therefore wage-working parents simply chose to have less or none at all children they couldn’t afford instead of raising children into child labor that would profit the parents.

    Giovanni Fantozzi, the self-declared Protectorate of Brazil, was assassinated at gun point in 1687. Social unrest followed the assassination when the country fell into dispute over the succeeding government. No heir was claimed by the “Protectorate” but many of Fantozzi’s old supporters made efforts for Fantozzi’s son Aldo G. Fantozzi to succeed his father as “Giovanni II”. If Giovanni Fantozzi’s son succeeded the rule of Brazil then the nation would forever exist as a hereditary monarchy and thereby a kingdom. Liberal Brazilians, most of their ideologies gaining influence from early 17th century Italian philosophers and the Italian Revolution itself, refuted claims for any individual to take the throne. The liberal support was towards the creation of a democratic republic, only then would Brazil “truly be self-ruled”. Military support easily rose towards their commander, General Caspare Gaspari.

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    Aldo Fantozzi still controlled the Brazilian Navy but the complete army fell under Gaspari’s authority. The liberal revolutionaries raised a fair sized army around the cities Monte Lisabetta, Fortezza, and Montalcini. Civil war broke out at the Battle of Donnola where General Gaspari crushed the liberal army’s force of sixteen thousand soldiers.

    Brazil’s civil war gained Queen Juliet’s attention quickly after the Battle of Donnola. Juliet scrutinized the civil unrest as the window of opportunity she’d been waiting for since Brazil’s independence. The Queen didn’t hesitate on this golden opportunity to reinstate Brazil as an Italian province, colony, vassal, or subjugated territory. Aldo G. Fantozzi remained an enemy for Queen Juliet, he was a staunch adversary of the Italian monarchy and imperialism like his father. Instating Aldo Fantozzi as ruler of Brazil could only continue Italian-Brazilian relations before Giovanni Fantozzi’s regime. Juliet’s advisors encouraged her, if she intervened militarily into the conflict, to support General Caspare Gaspari which proved to be victorious against the Republicans at the Battle of Donnola. The royal advisors wrote that surely the Republicans lacked any traditional chain of command, they’d continue being crushed by trained military forced under Gaspari.

    Italian diplomats delegated by Parliament set sail from Trivoli in November 1688 for Brazil. The ambassadors didn’t need considerable persuasion in their meeting with General Gaspari at Reborgo in December. Gaspari may have been gaudy ad arrogant but he understood the capabilities of his military. The Italian ambassadors described Gaspari as
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    The Lasagna Concordat​

    The Italian ambassadors and Brazilian revolutionary General Gaspari easily compromised with mutual interest. The outcome of the Gaspari Conference was the Lasagna Concordat. The etymology behind “lasagna” was that Caspare Gaspari expressed an infatuation for the lasagna that the Italian diplomats brought to Reborgo. The Lasagna Concordat provided militarily support for Gaspari from Trivoli, this included muskets, gun powder, and shoes which were vital for Gaspari’s soldiers. Once Gaspari expectedly defeated his Republican and Fantozzi impetuses and asserted control over Brazil, its markets would fall under Italian interests and prices regulated affordably for Italian merchants. Once again, Brazilian spices, limber, and cash crops could fulfill demanding Italian markets.

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    Above: Delicious Lasagna​

    The Lasagna Concordat was leaked by an incognito Republican under the alias ‘Coraggioso Cavallo’ and published exponentially. Brazilians were infuriated by the Italian intervention, whom Brazilians despised since their colonial days, and General Gaspari’s willfulness to return Brazil to those days. Historians can now argue that Gaspari’s support from Italy costs him more support than he overall gained.

    The Republican cause grew amongst the fears of Brazil returning to ‘oppressive’ colonial rule if Gaspari assumed Brazil’s government. Their revolution was much more than just one on the basis for liberalism and democracy, but fighting off European imperialism that traditionally hasn’t been for Brazilian interests. Valentian Supreme-Governor Michele Germano calls his congress to involve themselves in the conflict. Congress approves in a landslide. However Germano doesn’t declare open war against Italy, the Supreme-Governo publicizes their efforts to restrain North and South Americans from European imperialism and open support for the Republican revolutionaries.

    King Paolo I died at Montalcini Palace on New Years’ Eve in 1689, Juliet titled him “Paolo I the Affable”. Queen Juliet I served as the single-ruling constitutional monarch following Paolo’s death.

    Valentian soldiers arrived in Brazil at Celega in March, 1690. A land war was not in Italian interests, Chancellor Sabrina Aucciello stated her fiscal budgets mustn’t implode from war debts. Reasonable amounts of supplies were provided to Gaspari’s army but no soldiers. The Italian Navy confronted Fantozzi and Valentian vessels. Impressment of Valentian merchants was encouraged, Valentian sailors already worked under Italian language, terms, and signals which made incorporating them an easy task.
    Fantozzi’s claims to political powers over Brazil were widely ignored. Fantozzi abandoned his ambitions and retired to Swedish South America in 1691. Gaspari’s soldiers clashed against the Republicans and Fantozzi through 1691 and 1692. The Caribbean Sea experienced naval conflicts between Valentia and Italy in which the Italian Navy mastered an eighty percent victory rate. The powers seemed balanced until a turning point in Brazil’s war at the Battle for Seno del Mare. The Republicans successfully conquered one of their most important war objectives, cut off Gaspari’s port of Seno del Mare that supplied him with Italian war subsidies. Lieutenant General Tacito Raimondi was surrounded by Republicans 270 degrees and thereby forced to simultaneously attack both flanks.

    After the Battle of Seno del Mare, Gaspari’s forces were dragged deeper and deeper into Brazil chasing the Republicans and Valentians which pulled him away from Italian war supplies that he made himself completely dependent on. Queen Juliet’s advisors claimed only two options remained. Either Juliet’s army could be deployed into Brazil which would be an expensive investment in the war but logistically be in Italy’s favor. Juliet was in no way in-favor of sending Italy’s army to Brazil and “repeat the effects of the German Wars of Succession.” Therefore, in 1694 Queen Juliet agreed to act on her advisors second claimed-option: to abandon the war efforts.

    General Gaspari’s endeavors to dictate Brazil collapsed without his northern divisions destroyed under Raimondi and his subsidies from Trivoli. The Brazilian population was exponentially polling disapproval of Caspare Gaspari by 1694. An interesting fact from the “Brazilian Revolution” was that in 1694, more Brazilians actually opposed Italian rule than Caspare Gaspari. Brazil and Italy held extreme culture ties, 85% of Brazilians sharing Italian ancestry, but political and economic history made the nations enemies and this continues for another two centuries.

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    Battle of Peloso​

    Gaspari eventually died at the Battle of Peloso in 1695 under a Valentian and Republican coalition of troops, effectively ending the Brazilian Revolution. Renewed hostilities from Brazil and Valentia towards Italy further suspended hopes of reopening markets. Brazil’s new republic government opposed Trivolin interests and made openly hostile policies against Italy despite Italy being the largest source for immigrants coming into Brazil.

    Queen Juliet passed away in her sleep from natural causes in the May of 1696. “Juliet the Equitable” is buried at Morte Abbazia next to her husband Paolo I. The monarchy is succeeded by the eldest child of Juliet I and Paolo I, Prince Rinaldo di Bianco.

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    King Frederico I, House of Bianco​

    Prince Rinaldo di Bianco bears the regnal title “Frederico I”, while original his original choice was to be “King Fantastico I” but his mother’s advisors urged the prince not to take upon such a ridiculous name.
    King Frederico stood out from other monarchs of his generation in that fact that he is identified to suffer from schizophrenia. Chancellor Tommaso Poletti and foreign ambassadors often recorded incidences where Frederico claimed an “invisible advisor” to be following him around, insulting the king of his bald head and weak eyebrows, criticizing his every decision as well. This advisory that he referred to as “Marco” supposedly encouraged Frederico to write laws for parliament to vote upon such as “taxation on bald men” (1697), “retitling and renaming of all merchant vessels in Italy ‘Frederico’” (1701), “outlawing of women kissing men whom possess moustaches in public” (1704) and even a request for military funding towards breeding dogs and horses together to make “hunting dogs that soldiers can ride into battle”.

    The king’s invisible advisor Marco’s criticized Frederico’s decisions so often that the king reversed and repealed orders just minutes after ordering them. Frederico I was ineffective and weak as a ruler, Chancellor Ferdinando Borgoni described Italy as:
    and as
    Frederico established the Royal Zoo at Trivoli in 1702. Rumors that King Frederico got Fredreaky with an elephant occurred in 1703, though this sexual conduct was never proven.

    King Frederico I’s behavior, lack of motivation, and disorganized orders pushed Parliament to take action finally in 1705. The Italian Constitution did not grant Parliament powers to impeach the monarch. The 1705 newly appointed Chancellor Giancarlo Sarni made various meetings with Frederico where he would whisper “abdicate”, “demit” and “resign” near the insane king but behave as if he said nothing. Giancarlo Sarni did this so subtly yet often that the idea of abdicating the throne worked its way to Frederico’s subconscious. In the record-hot summer of 1705, the Montalcini Palace servants stumbled upon the monarch arguing out loud with himself over ‘admitting his failures and surrendering the throne to a less-bald leader’.

    King Frederico abdicated his throne on 3 September 1705 on the condition he could choose his post-reign remembrance title. “King Frederico I the Awesome” was succeeded by his nephew Paolo di Bianco, whom would be known as King Paolo II.

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    Sadly for Frederico the Awesome, his successor wouldn’t be “less-bald”. At the time of his ascension to the Italian throne, which skipped his father, Paolo II operated as a colonel in the Italian army. Paolo II stood with a strong stature and deep, assertive voice.

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    At his inauguration ceremony, Paolo II became the first Italian monarch to make a speech at his own coronation. The speech made a powerful impression on his peers, proving he would be an influential and potent ruler unlike his predecessor.

    Paolo II’s reign quickly struck gold in 1706 – literally. Gold was discovered in Australia and emigration from Italy rose to pre-revolutionary levels under Valentian and Brazilian colonial rule. To prevent Australia from organizing a future rebellion efficiently like Valentia and Brazil, Paolo II divided the colony into seven different provinces.

    King Paolo and his chancellor Giancarlo Sani decided to send a military expedition to Tunisia to start off both of their careers with a military victory to boost their popularities and to finally put an end to the Tunisian pirates threatening and endangering Mediterranean trade.

    The Italian Incursion proved successful. Tunisian treasure was captured and its government overthrown, replaced with an Italian-controlled governorate. This quick and almost unopposed European conquest of African territory did not go unnoticed by European powers.

    King Paolo expanded the Royal Zoo at Trivoli, adopting lions, turtles, and kangaroos. Paolo appeared obsessed over lions, describing himself as a lion in a letter to his 2nd cousin Prince Pierre V of France:
    A private cage was even set up near the king’s hunting grounds behind Montalcini’s Palace where Paolo’s favorite pet “Valadier”, one of the larger white lions. After a game of hunting, Paolo II would serve his kills to his prized pet lion for dinner.

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    Italy, Bellatora, and Adriatia​

    Throughout Giancarlo Sarni’s chancellery, the government made feats to improve Italian influence over Adriatia. The Adriatic Kingdom historically was Italian in culture and language but differed in ideologies. Adriatic commoners were shocked by the cruel violence of the Italian Revolution and politically feared constitutional limitation and separation of powers. Adriatic King Tommaso IX realized the Bianco Dynasty’s attempts to diplomatically tie the two nations together through arranged royal marriages, subsequently Adriatia outlawed royal marriages without the king’s consent in 1710.

    When Prince James of Winechester and Princess Emma of Rowling Hallows married in 1711, they received a kangaroo brought all the way from Australia as a gift from King Paolo II.

    A powerful 8.1-8.5 magnitude earthquake disfigured western Spain in 1714, killing thousands and financial devastating the monarchy. The Italian government, under the leadership of Chancellor Giancarlo Sarni, provided financial relief to Spain and transported paid laborers to the Iberian peninsula to begin reconstruction in 1715. Spaniards were presented with medical treatment, mostly in the Italian city of Lipari where the University of Ferrero Hospital lay. The Italian sympathy successfully brought closer ties between Spain and Italy with the establishment of the Treaty of Hispalis (1717).

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    Claimed North American territories​

    Subsequently after the end of the violent and bloody German Civil War (1709-1717) when liberal pro-democratic insurgents were finally defeated by the militaristic far-right monarchy, King Karl I of Germany launched an invasion of the Netherlands for a quick victory followed by plans to “Germanize” the Dutch population. The German’s bloodshed didn’t stay in Europe for more than two months when Germany began attacks on the Dutch colonial possession “Texaskolonie” in North America.

    A German conquest and annexation of the Netherlands and Dutch colonies would certainly upset European balances of powers, specifically German leverage against England. English promptly sailed and aided the Dutch against their German aggressors. The “North Sea War” begun and brought more bloodshed from European conflict to the Americas than ever before. France was bordering Dutch, English, and German dominions in Europe and North America, the French adopted a neutral isolationist policy since the war’s outbreak to avoid suffering collateral damage internally.

    Valentia too was concerned over the German incursion into Texaskolonie. Valentian Supreme-Governor Aldo Narciso urged the defeat of the German invaders so that Texaskolonie could continue as a buffer-zone against the aggressive German militarist regime and Dutch traders would continue to profit Valentian ports through their passing of the Caribbean. At the Alloro Agreement (1717), the Netherlands exchanged the Bahamas Islands and 15,000,000 Stukkens (the Dutch currency at the time) for Valentia’s “unconditional war support for the protection of Dutch possessions in the Western Hemisphere”.

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    Valentia began a naval blockade against German vessels from entering or leaving the Gulf of Mexiko which eventually had successfully dried the North American German territory of gunpowder by 1720 and cut off quick efficient commands for mass strategizing from Karl I.

    The Dutch and Valentians struggled to mobilize and defend Texaskolonie after the German capture of De Vries (which lies at the mouth of the Rio Grande River) in September 1717. Texaskolonie lacked an intricate efficient infrastructure of roads, the Netherlands travelled to its settlements through the much quicker Rio Grande River. Consequently, messages and troop movements were protracted without access to the Rio Grande.

    King Paolo II of Italy met with Queen Hermosa II at Capraia in 1718 to anatomize the North Sea War. Spain and Italy both intended to avoid the war’s bloodshed as much as possible but if their neutrality was broken the two allies must enter the war together on the same side. Queen Hermosa expressed concerns about the rising military powers of Germany which threatened comfortable levels of European balances of powers. The English weren’t enemies of Italy or Germany but not friendly diplomatically either. If Italy declared open support against Germany, relations with Valentia could improve. However, no motives other than diplomatic relations with Valentia were possessed by the Spanish-Italian alliance and therefore Paolo II and Hermosa II agreed on neutrality until foreign intervention hypothetically resulting in mutual defense in coalition.

    The English and Dutch war against Germany in Europe failed to progress for any side, resulting in a general stalemate on the European campaign. When attacks went successful they were constantly replied with successful massive counter offensive before fortifications would be rebuilt. Spain and Italy were able to stay neutral through the entire North Sea War until its declared statement on the European campaign in June, 1720.

    The Dutch and German’s conflict was far from deadlock on their North American campaign. German soldiers - most of which were North-American born - quickly blitzed Texaskolonie. What one might expect to be a defensive war on the Dutch and Valentian part was in reality Germans defending the territory and forts that were conquered almost unopposed. Valentian citizenry was so displeased with the losing fight that the 1718 elections flopped Valentian government’s power from the Porpora Party to the Valentian Nativist Party.

    After Supreme-Governor Bruno Moretti-Loiseau’s inauguration in January 1719, his new Valentian Nativist enforced their “peace agenda” which advocated negotiating a peace treaty between Italy and Germany (notably not with the Netherlands). Peace did come to North America’s bloody, gruesome conflict when German-Mexiko leaders compromised with the new Valentian Nativist government at the major city of Ferrero. Their talks agreed to divide Texaskolonie between Germany and Valentia, with or without Dutch acceptance. Germany’s territory gains concluded the expansion of Gulf of Mexiko ports and the annexation of the mouth of the Rio Grande (where De Vries city lay). Valentia annexed the western plains wide for corn farming which immensely profited the bureaucratic government in Capo through the selling of land grants for westward expansion.

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    North America in 1720 after the North Sea War (referred to as the Texaskolonie War in N.A.)​

    The Dutch were surrounded by a powerful Germany’s colonial possessions and their betraying temporary-ally Valentia. Reconquering of Texaskolonie would be impossible for the Netherlands even with a pre-war state of their homeland in Europe. The Dutch government in Kroonhaven refuted their payments to Valentia from the Alloro Agreement which had been violated by Valentia’s betrayal.

    The North Sea, or Texaskolonie, War deprived the reputations of Valentia and Germany. Foreign powers never fully trusted Valentian agreements after their disregard for their own Alloro Agreement and the Dutch declared a boycott for other European nations on Valentia diplomacy.

    The Italian domestic front witnessed prodigious industrialization through the 1720s. The steam engine revolutionized transportation with the train and steam boat. Factories in the north relied on the quick canal system through the Po Valley such as the famous Cervari Canal for quick transportation. Coal was also considerably more abundant in Northern Italy than the rest of the peninsula. A preliminary shift away from agricultural economy throughout Western Europe produced a textile and metal reliant capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimately sales depended on urban merchants. Consequently, urbanization begins to increase its pace through this time period.

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    King Paolo died on his 51st birthday at Sempreverde Palace in 1729 after suffering from tuberculosis for twenty painful months. “King Paolo II the Lion” spawned four children: Paolo (1706), Emilia (1709), Giovanni (1710), and Maria (1712). The king was succeeded by his third born child Giovanni, it wasn’t ever expected that he would inherit the monarchy; however his elder brother Paolo and elder sister Emilia both predeceased him.
     
  10. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
    [size=+5]
    #10
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    1729 - 1790

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    Prince Giovanni in 1729​

    Prince Giovanni ascended to the throne at the youthful age of 19 after three years of studying at the White Academy (the Royal Military Academy in Regalis). Prince Giovanni’s childhood was filled with neglect, being only the third born child of the time-consumed monarch whom sent the prince to military school. Giovanni wasn’t, however, rebellious but instead very orderly (which aligns with his more traditional, conservative ideologies). His first chancellor Fillipo Niro wrote that the new monarch was “Suspicious of others just as he himself was deceitful”. Because of the lack of trust between the new monarch and Chancellor Niro, Giovanni dismisses Fillipo Niro in 1731. Giovanni appeared greatly encouraging to some while discouraging of actions to others, this pattern suggesting he was able to politically pursued others influentially with careful diction and effective tone. Those that socialized with Giovanni found it difficult to read his body language, a constant straight face removed of all expression made his feelings mysterious and thus language was the only way to detect Giovanni’s emotion and attitude.

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    Prince Giovanni chose to continue his life with his given name Giovanni for his regnal name out of honor towards his elder brother Paolo as the true “Paolo III” despite his premature death. King Giovanni I, House of Bianco, adopted Mario Alberghini’s publication L'imperialismo as his state policy immediately with his first Chancellor Fillipo Niro. L’imperialismo was published first in Sironi 1727; Alberghini argued imperial expansion and colonization serves as the prime exertion and evidence of power by a European state. Imperialism and colonization improves and benefits European states by:
    • Economic
      o Economic expansion hold high demands for cheap labor, natural resources for Europe’s apparent increasing industrialization needed to manufacture products, and markets to acquire access or control over to sell these products. European powers historically have competed with each other for the greatest potential resources, markets, and trade; European powers are all imperialist but having limited their imperialist potentials.
    • Finance
      o Imperial overseas colonization has proven to be greatly profitable, from Brazil to Australia.
    • Ideology and Ethnocentrism
      o European nations that believe their cultural values or beliefs to be somehow superior to others’ could spread their culture to ‘inferior ones’ through imperial conquest. Spreading European culture is an easy task “considering the well-delayed process for the civilization of non-Europeans, cultural indoctrination is exerted through processes of civilizing these savages in Asia, Africa, and Arabia.
    • Political
      o The growing nationalism and imperial power “evident in the current state of Europe” can only lead to European rivals escalation into competition for supremacy. European colonization of the Americas must be the precursor to Asian, Arab, or African subjugation. Imperialism is not a new policy, it is a matter of national pride, rivalry, prestige, and security.
    • Glory
      o “It can be found in Europe that Aquitaine and the Netherlands share the same land area and population, however the Netherlands is significantly measured as a more important state and influence, ever so more valued than Aquitaine in diplomatic treaties and negotiations. The reason for the greater influence the Dutch possess against their European rival is they are viewed more powerful simply for their much more evident role in the world, they possess ports on or near every continent. Territorial expansion is the single greatest evidence of a nation’s importance.”

    King Giovanni read L’Imperialismo before Parliament for his 1730 Royal Agenda, outline imperial expansion as the objective to improve Italy. Giovanni added that imperialism was necessary if Italy wished to catch up with Germany or England.

    Further motivation for Italian imperialism came with the 1730 Census two months later. The Italian national census replaced the Book of Vineyards and Pastures (see hashtag 6) as a result of the Italian Revolution in 1668. The 1730 census reported that Italy showed a prospective future to consume more food than it could produce. The agriculture-population surplus displayed itself to be shrinking considerably and heading towards a deficit in the following decade. Though the Industrialization of Italy slowed down population growth unlike in other European states, it witnessed increasing urbanization and a slight decline in rural agricultural occupations. Giovanni urged parliament to removed tariffs on food imports created under the kingship of his predecessor and government development of the steamship and railway industry.

    Instead of taking government control over these demanding industries, Chancellor Vincente D'ambrosio fabricated incentives for growth. When industrialist Fabiano Fenice began mass producing thrashing machines that even poor farmers could afford, Chancellor D’ambrosio granted his company Fenice Opere a monopoly in 1736 on his thrashing machine model as long as the model’s price remained at its affordable level. The trashing machine transferred Italian agriculture into farms required less labor and producing slightly more, rescuing Italy from becoming dependent on foreign imports.

    The railroads and steamships Italy possessed were part of the emerging global market for food, completely revolutionizing the transportation of food, but Italy still lacked these industries when compared to the demand for them. The train and steamship reduced volatility in food prices as scarcity from one area easily could be offset by cheap imports from a different area.

    The Italian 1730s observed ‘robber barons’ as a result of the rapid industrialization beginning in the 1720s. These robber barons, known as “Ferrocani” (compounded nouns meaning Iron Dogs) in Italian, were wealthy and powerful industrialists asserting control over Italian, Australian and North African resources. Among these Ferrocani:
    • Giuseppe Montague (1691-1756) was born into a working-class family in Grifoni and immigrated to Australia at the age of 15 when his father was swallowed by ambition aroused from news of the Australian Gold Rush in 1706. His family flourished in Australia when his father used the wealth created from gold and established a mining company in 1710. His father died tragically in 1712, leaving the family and the mining business in Giuseppe Montague’s hands. Montague’s mining company absorbed smaller competitors by promising their owners stocks, this became increasingly common as the Montague Mining Company’s stocks appeared exponential. By 1727, Montague Mining Company was so profitable that it had a de facto monopoly on coal in Australia with no competitors able to lower their price below Montague’s. Montague Mining Co. controlled not only the mines where coal and iron ore was extracted, but the ships that brought the resources to ports and the railroads that transported the coal to the factory, the coke ovens where the coal was coked. Giuseppe Montague expanded his mining monopolies into the Italian homeland over tin and potassium. Giuseppe Montague retired at age 47 as one of Italy’s richest multimillionaires, leaving the company to his vice president (Montague being sterile and thus childless).
    • Placido Albani (1694-1748) emerged in the 1720s during rise of railways as the owner of the largest railroad construction company in Italy, Adiger Rail. Ranking as the wealthiest rail entrepreneur wasn’t enough for Albani, he began driving efforts to form a monopoly over railroads in 1732 by purchasing the steel manufacturers and oil extractions used for his rail expansion. Adiger Rail laid down great lengths of railway through Italy, France, and North Africa which made Placido Albani the richest Ferrocani at the time of his early death. Albani was the first to emphasize giving away his massive wealth, establishing orphanages and libraries across Italy, all named after him.
    • Michele Mercutio (1699-1773) inherited a collection of three factories from his uncle in 1731. Mercutio’s sphere of influence revolved around Cervari, the leading port of Italy’s industrialization (which was heavily centered in Gorizia and Po). Cervari relied on quick sea transportation through the Cervari Canal and along coasts of the peninsula. Hence Mercutio theorized steamships to emerge as a major industry from Italy’s industrialization; he invested a considerable amount of his fortune into steamship stocks in 1735. Sure enough, steamships emerged into high demand and his companies (merged into one complete company called Orizzonti in 1741) lead the Mediterranean in quantity by the early stages of the growing industry. Mercutio’s company was directly innovated by him, he financed the design and construction of ocean-going steamships for inter-Atlantic travel and transportation. Paddle steamers were constructed for pleasant quick inter-Mediterranean travel for middle-class commoners; Orizzonti cut voyage time between Trivoli and Capraia (Corsica) from 22 hours on sail vessels to 14 hours on their steam-engine ships.
    • Arturo Valentini (1710-1802) was the wealthiest among the Ferrocani throughout the second half of the 18th century. Valentini was born in Trivoli to one of the wealthier local families and was college educated, graduating the University of Bisagno in 1732 with honors. Valentini used his inheritance wealth to seize control over Italian steel and construction industries. From 1740-1760, Valentini was responsible for 85% of the canals constructed in Gorizia and Po. Valentini’s company was responsible for the construction of the Suez Canal.

    A year into the Chancellery of Vincente D'ambrosio, the Italian military deployed soldiers into Egypt to subjugate the Egyptian government into Italian control. The 1736 Italian invasion proved successful, Sultan Abdul-Azim agreed to be vassalized under Trivoli’s authority. The Italian citizenry was surprised, not heavily disapproving of, but surprised by the sudden incursion. Chancellor D’ambrosio’s inducements for creating the Egyptian Protectorate was two single reasons, the first being the persuasive ideas within the publication L’imperialismo, the second being advocates for the construction of a Mediterranean-Red Sea Canal.

    Numerous reasons demanded the construction of a canal allowing ships to travel through the Sinai Peninsula:
    • A cross-Sinai Peninsula canal dramatically cut the distance to reach locations in the East. These shortened distances can be exemplified with a vessel travelling to the Persian Gulf, in which one would have to travel 21,000 kilometers from Trivoli for circumnavigating the continent of Africa. Through this proposed canal, one must only travel 7,400 kilometers to reach the Persian Gulf from Trivoli.
    • The canal was necessary to improve communication, message, transportation, and travel times between Australia and the Italian homeland. Australia was a fountain of coal for the Italian global sphere of influence and demands for the resources sustained high levels throughout the industrialization period.
    • England was emerging as a global naval force evidentially during these times (purchasing Bermuda in 1724, colonizing St. Helena in 1726, vassalizing Madagascar in 1729, subjugating Korea in 1730, and conquering Singapore in 1733). With the Suez Canal, England would lose the tactical use of already being the prime naval power in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean if Italy could send its navy quickly from the Atlantic (through the Mediterranean) to the Indian Ocean where the English spent fortunes building up an established vernacular navy there.
    • A canal at this location would bring resources being transported from India and the far-East to Mediterranean ports, thus the canal would increase resource circulation for sugar, spice, and everything nice in Italian markets.
    • Profits from the strategically superb location would pay for construction costs within years and then further generate direct net profit that’s not even including the cut transportation costs to the east nor the new resources Italian markets would obtain access to.

    Arturo Valentini was granted construction of the Suez Canal in 1738 after the Trivolin government deemed Egypt as completely subjugated and organized. After its eventual completion in 1751 it was nationalized so the Trivolin government could have a say on who can transfer through the canal, arm the canal with soldiers to prevent a siege or capture, pay off the construction costs, and regulate toll costs.

    Meanwhile, King Giovanni’s advisers pressed him to arrange a royal marriage to strengthen diplomatic ties with Spain or England. Giovanni claimed that marrying a foreigner would ruin his personification, saying “if I remain the Father of Italians, the Italian children require a Mother of the Italians”. Giovanni dwelled on the ceremonial personification of himself and his cult of personality, he argued for his advisers to believe marrying an Italian commoner would serve his regime the best. However, King Giovanni accepted Spanish King Sebastian I’s invitation to travel to Hispalis in 1738. There, Sebastian proposed an arrange marriage between Giovanni and his beautiful daughter Alondra del Bosque (whom stood second in line to throne). Princess Alondra was beautiful and attractive, but Giovanni wrote accepting the marriage proposal could lead to the assimilation of the kingdoms if Alondra one day became queen, but rejection could have scratched the Spanish-Italian friendship.

    King Giovanni did indeed marry Princess Alondra. He married his bride in Hispalis, not Trivoli, in the warm summer of 1739. Around this time, a scramble for Africa quickly emerged primarily as a result of Italian events in Egypt which easily subjugated the ruling government and organized the territory efficiently to profit Italian interest. Less than 10% of Africa was under European administration prior to the 1740s, but motives all related to Mario Alberghini’s L’imperialismo.

    King Sebastian I moved to completely dominate Morocco into Spanish hands to maintain Spanish control over the Strait of Gibraltar. Leading industrialized powers England and Germany quickly rushed into this competition early on. English settlements appeared in various locations, the English would capture one city then threaten neighboring locals. Germans concentrated on southern Africa. By 1750, Africa was under European administration at:
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    After explorer Mario Liparichio discovered oil on an expedition in “Libya” in 1749, Arturo Valentini began lobbying Trivolin Parliament to secure the region before another European power would. Chancellor Vincente D'ambrosio refused to promote wars on the basis of oligarchs, stating that:
    Chancellor D’ambrosio retired in 1751 after sixteen years leading the Italian government, the longest of any chancery, and was succeeded by Missimo Lazzari. Lazzari concurred with Valentini, granting him a chartered monopoly on oil in Northern Africa with regulated prices in exchange for a 19 acre villa in Sardinia. Italian soldiers landed in Libya in 1753 while Arturo Valentini’s oil wells did emerge plentiful until the turn of the decade.

    Fears that Italy was going to surpass English or German industrial output emerged in the 1750s. Gorizia, Po, Castelchio, Sicily, and Umbria contained more industrial centers than that of France and Spain combined as the prime locations of Italy’s industrialism. All this industrialism triggered Benjamin Hiddleton to write “the Struggles of the Proletariat” in England, publishing the manuscript at Thamesmouth in 1754. The contents of the Struggles of the Proletariat theorized socialism and communism. These main ideas, political philosophies, and theories include:
    • The equal distribution of wealth. Because some humans fall into greed and might possibly take more than their agreed respective amount, a benevolent government must uphold the responsibility of distributing the wealth equally. All property must be owned by the state to finally end class warfare.
    • An end of wage labor. Each citizen contributes equally to society and receives its rewards equally.
    • Industrialization has led to the superabundance of material wealth and therefore property can be distributed based on need.

    1755 witnessed – and heard – the invention of the telephone in Brazil and the completion of a transatlantic telegraph cable from the coasts of Britannia, France to the French North American provinces.

    Politics were forever changed in Europe after the defeat and annexation of Rumania by Hungarian Emperor Nicolescu I in 1756. Rumania collapsed completely by the Hungarian aggressors after six years of search-and-destroy warfare from the defending, de-concentrated and scrambling Rumanians. While the effects of “Emperor Nicolescu’s War” (1750-1756) were monumental politically, one could easily argue it held equal importance in technological history. Hungarian weapon industrialist Istvan Lakatos invented the “Lakatos Gun”, an early rapid-fire weapon which is the essential forerunner to the machine gun. The Lakatos Gun utilizes its cyclic multi-barrel design which synchronized the reloading sequence and ventalized the barrels to cool between shots. Lakatos’ significant invention allowed higher rates of shooting without the barrel overheating.

    The surprising great success by Hungarian militarists strategists, far reaching army capabilities, and the stupendous large area conquered and annexed by Hungary all proved the young empire to be a major European power. King Bernard V of France contemplated Karl I of Germany and Giovanni I of Italy as untrustworthy adversaries and potentially openly hostile against France given the opportunity. Bernard hoped that a Franco-Hungarian alliance would avert German or Italian aggression due to the basic defensive concept that winning a two-front war strongly unfavorable and to some regions greatly improbable. Hungary was power hungary for greater prestige in Europe; with the “Heves Pact” signed at Heves in 1757, the French and Hungarians were promised a defensive pact to each other along with promises to choose mutual beneficial paths for the two powers when opportunities are given.

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    The rising Hungarian determination and Franco-Hungarian alliance intimidated smaller powers in Europe. The undersized republic of Aquitaine, situated between Spain and France, fell into debate over fears from neighboring the two most powerful as well as dangerous alliances in Europe, that being the Italian-Spanish and Franco-Hungarian alliances. Anticipating foreign aggression from their megalomaniac neighbors, Aquitaine pled to King Karl I of Germany for a promised coalition have Spain or France storm their country. Militaristic Karl I chose to accept Aquitaine’s appeals for potential war support on the basis of two reasons: French aggression into Aquitaine could be used as a pretext to achieve verification of German central-European supremacy that was damaged by the German stalemate in the North Sea War (1717-1720); appending diplomatic relations was a direct retort to the Heves Pact.

    The English and Dutch sustained strong political and economic ties since the North Sea War, in which England essentially saved the desperate Netherlands and the Dutch emerged dependent on English trade with its maritime navy destroyed and American colonies lost. Sweden sympathized with the Dutch and English historical adoption of neutrality during central European conflicts. While all three of these nations preferred neutral stances, King Olav of Sweden at the Whiteladder Conference in 1759 theorized a policy of “Neutral Union”. This idea was that these three nations could form their own defensive pact in Europe that could all remain neutral individually, not working to promote the benefits of the other which would be non-defense affiliation and supportive of foreign affairs, but not need to fear foreign aggression through promise of “you attack one and you attack all” policy. Their prime concerns were France and Germany, but a trinity defensive pact would ensure England and Sweden almost complete naval supremacy in the North Sea, Kattegat, and English Channel for protection of their coasts and a heavily greater quantity of soldiers to defend the Dutch homeland. The Netherlands, Sweden, and England formalized their ironic neutral alliance at the 1759 Whiteladder Conference and title their coalition as the Trinity Alliance.

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    The Treaty of Hispalis (1717), Heves Pact (1757), and Trinity Alliance (1759), included all of the six European colonial powers in Africa. Among these alliances, the French worried over their colonial isolationism against the other powers in Africa and called for the Congo Congress hosted in the French capital Chapiteaux in 1761 to establish agreed rules of effective control of foreign territory. The Congo Congress, signed by Spain, France, England, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands agreed to:
    • The disputed region of Senegal was granted to England but Somalia was granted to France.
    • While the Suez Canal could remain under Italian regulation and toll profits, all signing powers must be allowed armed naval vessel passage through the canal to protect European interests abroad.
    • Italy agreed to allow French naval vessels to freely patrol the Red Sea without merchant ships to escort in exchange for a French agreement to outlaw and prevent the harassment of Italian sailors through the Gulf of Aden and free passage through the gulf.
    • The Congo Basin and Congo River were declared free territory unclaimed by any power, open to free trade, European investment and non-monopolist private property.
    • Should come a conflict on the European continent between the signing powers, open-war in Africa mustn’t be implied on signing this agreement for the assured protection of all European investments.
    • The Niger, Congo, and Senegal rivers declared free for ship traffic, the Nile River under complete policy and control of the Italian government.
    • An established and rightfully claimed colony must gain public acceptance and not simply territorial claim. Fair rights over colonial lands require treaties with local leaders, the European power’s flags flown in heavily populated areas, an established administration possessing order through the means of police or soldiers.
    • Further acts of acquiring portions of African coasts or signing a vassal state must be notified to the other signatory powers.
    The 1761 Congo Congress ensured temporary peace at a time of rising political tensions due to the “Allying of Europe”. Karl I of Germany died during the negotiations and was succeeded by his also-militaristic grandson, Karl II.

    Brazil experienced massive industrialization under President Rinaldi Estero (1759-1769) in attempts to modernize the republic through rail construction, acquiring industrial resources, and utilizing its vast population and flow of immigrants for unskilled factor laborers. Brazil was increasingly an influential nation on the world stage, a team of Brazilians inventing the incandescent light bulb in 1672, and was the most populated sovereign country in the Americas. Estero argued science, technology, expertise, and most importantly education were grand solutions to society's problems. Universities spouted up across Brazil in the 1660s under federal funding, rail expansion linked populated areas and resources together, child labor was abolished, and tariffs stripped. The economic growth rates of Brazil in the 1760s’ decade can be almost compared to Italian economic output growth in the 1720s.

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    King Giovanni’s 1764 portrait​

    In 1765, King Giovanni I proposed “moral laws” through Chancellor Sebastiano Armati to “conform an ethically just nation”. These proposed laws include:
    • 10 Years of manual labor for thievery – PASSED
    • Castration of convicted rapists – MODIFIED AND PASSED
      o Originally written as a death penalty for the offense but capital punishment had been outlawed by the Italian Constitution
    • Have a corrupt individual sell an office or bribe an official, a fine to be forced to the state ten times the size of the price of the sold office or bribery – PASSED
    • Criminalization of homosexuality - REJECTED
    Giovanni I began to seek new fields to expand his cult personality in 1767. Statues of Giovanni were erected in all Italian major cities; titles were declared to the king such as “Supreme Crown” “First Worker of Strong Italy” and “Beloved Leader”; school children were taught to sing his praises before every day in Italy’s public education system. The first air independent and combustion powered submarine, ITS (Italian ship prefix for “Italian Ship”) Tuffatore is launched at the port of Castelchio in Italy around this time period.

    To promote Italian nationalism and unity, massive celebrations were funded throughout Italy in 1768 to promote the 100th anniversary of “democratic power to the Italian people” since the completion of the Italian revolution. Parades followed King Giovanni I as he conducted a ‘Grandioso Giro’ – or, grand tour – across Italy. The “Agora Games” were renewed; the Agora Games in ancient times were athletic gatherings in Bellatora during the Wine Festivals. The new Agora Games collected athletes from across Italy and competed in the first of a planned every-two-year event at Bellatora which promoted the athleticism of the Italian ethnicity and nation. Historically, these parades proved successful in promoting pride of national identity and King Giovanni’s status as a cult of personality. The second Agora Games were held in Hispalis in 1770 in honor of King Sebastian II of Spain.

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    At heavily-industrialized Avins, Italy in 1771, Trivolin-born inventor Guglielmo Martinelli demonstrated the first automobile to go into production, the three-wheeled electric-powered Modello Uno.
    Italy began searching and acquiring islands across the globe for forts, ports, and all sorts of reasons. Chancellor Bertoldo Padovan wished to construct a global network of bases for the Italian navy to further Italy as a world power. Throughout the 1770s, 1780s, and 1790s, Italy obtained the oversea islands of Fiji, Samoa, Nauru, Mauritius, St Helena, and Comoros. Chancellor Padovan made headlines in 1773 when he outlawed the Italian Socialist Party.

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    Industrialization hit domestic rebellion with the Torchello Rebellion in 1773. Factory workers, as well as a considerable amount of communists, rioted against low wages below any affordable lifestyle and factory conditions that sickened their health. King Giovanni feared it was a socialist revolution and sent the Bianco Army to suppress the radicals. 841 workers were injured and another 388 killed. The revolt displayed the vast fears of the wealthy and powerful to lose their status against social change. After the 1773 Torchello Rebellion Chancellor Padovan lobbied for the complete outlaw of all unions from all industries to prevent these “violent organized riots designed to topple social order and seek radical immoral ideology”. Unions were outlawed, much to the influence of Arturo Valentini and political donations in parliament.

    Meanwhile, an artistic movement called Clayworthism developed in 1770s Britain. Clayworthism characterized itself as tiny yet visible brush strokes, colorful lighting, and common subject matter excluding still lifes. Notable works of this artistic era that helped defined the style are:
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    Morning in Thamesmouth, painted in 1776 by Martin White

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    Life Caught In The Ordinary, painted in 1777 by Scott Thomas Clayworth.

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    The North Bank, painted in 1783 by Henry Harrows​
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    Niccolo Argento​

    Italy’s expansionism and rivalry for sovereign world power status lead to the Argento Plan in 1779. Niccolo Argento, Academy Paganicittà honors graduate and the Grand Admiral of the Italian Navy, implemented the plan to construct a navy to surpass the naval force size of France. The Italian and Spanish navies together were already of such a magnitude to maintain complete dominance in the Mediterranean to protect Italy’s coasts and colonial contact. The Argento Plan sought out naval expansion to influence Italian interests around the globe and not just the Mediterranean Sea. The Argento Plan carried out Fleet acts in 1780, 1782, 1785, 1788, and 1791, all of which include sixteen modern dreadnoughts, five battlecruisers, twenty-six cruisers, twenty-one pre-dreadnought battleships, and forty five torpedo submarines. These target planned constructions were fairly unrealistic but the enormity of the expansion program was sufficient to spark alarm to other European powers and starting a costly naval arms race with the French, British, and German. The naval arms race pushed the French to closer ties with the Germans and interest in further ties with Italy from the Greko-Turkey Empire and Britain.

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    English-born Benjamin Lexing launches the first powered flight in 1782 in Ireland.

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    The very same year, the 2.9 Liter by the Spatzkraft Company was introduced in Germany. The 2.9 Liter is recognized as the first mass-produced middle-class affordable automobile. French and Dutch counterpart manufacturers quickly introduce their own assembly lines and copy the vehicle design.

    The German-controlled North American colony of Mexiko culturally differed from its European father country. Life in Germany was markedly more militaristic and conservative than Mexiko. Multiple rebellions against German rule were attempted previously in the 18th century but none emerged more significant than that of Nickolaus Harman. A small group of colonialists under the leadership of frontier cowboy Nickolaus Harman launched search and destroy initiatives against their local province’s leaders in 1783. The executions were in response to warrants for Harman and other frontier entrepreneurs which they felt were unjust.

    German troops dispatched to arrests the Nickolaus Harman gang were defeated in a small yet ultimately decisive battle at Kleineburg. News of their victory proved the colonial capability to defeat their sovereign European country. A second and larger grade of soldiers marched towards Harman’s gang in 1784 and put his tenacious acts to an end. Nickolaus Harman and his gang were executed by firing squads. However, they aroused wider popular support for the Mexiko nationalist movement.

    French Prime Minister Lucienne Pointe embodied an administration bent on territorial expansion of the French Empire. Her economic policy – and lack thereof – sought after a global network of commercial ports to maximize trading which in hence would maximize tax revenue. The French Head of State commissioned a large twenty-four ship fleet from France’s Mediterranean ports to settle, claim, and colonize the two islands of New Zealand. While Australia was a major Italian colony, the neighboring islands of New Zealand remained populated solely by indigenous peoples. When informants notified Italian Parliament of the French intention, the legislature voted to increase the Suez Canal toll costs tenfold for all ships longer than a hundred meters to prevent French expansionism. This ignites the Sinai Peninsula Conflict in the year 1789.

    Lucienne Pointe believed this violated the Congo Conference and sought a multilateral consultation in which the Italian Government could be called to account before the other major European Powers. Italian and French Ambassadors Leonardo Allegri and René Babineaux met in Bellatora in the February of 1789 where both parties attempted to instate national dominance by obliging the other into submission. Italy refused to recognize the crisis as an issue requiring the involvement of other European powers other than France and Italy. The French foreign minister Babineaux went far enough to threaten war over the Suez Canal Affair.

    The crisis peaked in mid-March when Italy cancelled all military leave and France calling up all reserve units within the same week. King Giovanni encouraged his Chancellor Mirabella Ronchi to contemplate the mobilization of armies near the French border. Giovanni’s regime long supported the expression of nationalism through power plays against other European powers. Parliament spoke out against military action over such a matter of little importance and threatened to impeach the Chancellor. Ronchi resigned as Chancellor and Parliament replaced her with the pro-multilateral-talks policies of Celino Silo. On the first of April, Italy agreed to attend a multilateral consultation.

    At the Vermere Conference (April to August 1789) in the neutral nation of Aquitaine, nine powers came together to settle the dispute. Russian politics weren’t pleased by not being invited to the conference and thereby being classified as a minor power. Among the nine powers, Italy’s representatives were disappointed that only Spain supported their interests in the matter. Support for the French position for fair toll passage through the Suez was recognized by England, Germany, the Greko-Turkish Empire, Hungary, the Netherlands, and Sweden. The Italian ambassadors were overwhelmingly pressured to give in, and they did so by signing the Vermere Agreement on August 23rd, 1789. The decree required Italy to charge the same, fair toll price for transportation through the Suez Canal that they charged domestic Italian ships. Historians believe King Giovanni postponed signing the agreement until after Italian Nationalism Day (August 21st) so that Italian patriotism wouldn’t be tarnished on the national holiday.

    Mexiko’s frustration over the delay in gaining independence extorted a wide, violent revolution in 1791. Years of colonial disobedience, rebellions, and guerilla warfare persuaded the German father country to forsake their North American colony completely. The networking of railroads in Mexiko paved the ability to successful trouble German command. Rebels could spread as quickly as news and consequently Germany didn’t value Mexiko enough to continue the endurant fight to subjugate their North American dominion. Germany retains its possession of its Caribbean colonies, however.
     
  11. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
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    #11
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    1790 - 1802

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    European diplomatic ties allied Europe through an elaborate scheme of defensive pacts since the Treaty of Hispalis (1717), which formalized a firm Spanish-Italian alliance. Emperor Nicolescu’s War un-stabilized the balance of power that Europe took great lengths to maintain, the result was complex political and military alliances through Europe since the Heves Pact following the war. The Heves Pact established a French-Hungarian mutual defense agreement in hopes it would avert German or Italian aggression and what they both perceived as untrustworthy, deceitful monarchies. The 1757 Heves Pact unbalanced the power balance and directly caused Germany and Aquitaine to reply with a defensive pact of their own. While the German-Aquitaine defensive pact was from legitimate fear of French or Spanish incursion and annexation by Aquitaine, the Germans wanted to draw French concerns over a two-front defensive war of their own as well as justified pretext to enter a just military conflict; a just military conflict that militaristic Germany could legitimize their “hegemony over Europe” that was dampened by their loss in the North Sea War. While the English extended their long measurement of steps to remain neutral and isolated from continental European affairs with the signing of the “Trinity Alliance” (Sweden, England, and the Netherlands, 1759) at the Whiteladder Conference, they still gave into the naval arms race created by the Argento Plan and escalated by French involvement. The Italian Navy, reformed and revolutionized by Grand Admiral Niccolo Argento, was thrown into rivalry with the British and French navies for world naval supremacy after the Argento Plan; the Italian government made use of the abundant industrial resources in Australia and the quantities of factories in Italy to devote resources and finances to naval build up.

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    Emperor Nicolescu III of Hungary’s regime sought out domestic policy reform in the 1790s to strengthen Hungarian nationalism. The most controversial and influential policy created was the Etnikai Àthelyezése Policy adoption in 1794. Etnikai Àthelyezése ‘relocated’ ethnic minorities, most notably Czechs, Poles, Slovenians, and Germans, towards Hungary’s borders, ghettos, and often forcing emigration. The constitutional republic of Slovenia was in uproar with lines of forced ethnic-Slovenians immigrants crossing borders into their isolationist neutral nation. Slovenian Parliament elected to declare a close-border policy against the Hungarian Empire on 17 November; roads, rivers, and railroads between Hungary and Slovenia were closed in protests of Etnikai Àthelyezése and to halt the flow of foreigners in a xenophobic self-minded Slovenia.

    Emperor Nicolescu condemned the closing of Slovenian borders to Hungary; Slovenia was vital to the Hungarian Empire’s western empire with access to the port of Castelchio and thereby Adriatic Sea. As the economic effects began to take toll on the Hungarian economy, Emperor Nicolescu lobbied to European leaders to meet at the Hungarian capital Heves to discuss the possibility of establishing free rail passage between all European states. King Giovanni I of Italy discouraged foreign leaders from attending the conference and claimed rail liberalization would loosen the length of French, German, English, and Italian industrial advantages to less-industrialized economies. In fact, King Giovanni was openly supportive of the Slovenian closed-door policy. When the Italian Chancellor Vittorio Bosco signed the Castelchio-Coal agreement in January 1795, promising lower rates for coal in Slovenian markets as long as Slovenia remained with its closed borders to Hungary, Emperor Nicolescu received the act as a major offense against the Hungarian Empire and its interests both domestic and abraod. Italy was indeed endeavoring to weaken the growingly-powerful Hungarian Empire and utilized the Slovenian Crisis opportunity given. With this offensive hostility against Hungarian interest by Italy and tensions rising, Emperor Nicolescu III of Hungary ordered his generals to prepare for the strong possibility of near military conflict.

    King Giovanni, the longest reigning monarch in Italian history, died on 3 February from natural causes while travelling through Regalis via train. The previously declared heir of “King Giovanni I the Ironside”, his first born child Princess Sofia, died of typhus just three weeks prior to Giovanni’s death. It was clear who laid second and third in line of succession to the throne but debate waged in Parliament over who should succeed the ceremonial position. Giovanni’s second born and eldest surviving child Princess Rhea was 48 years old and childless. Had Rhea been crowned queen, she already failed to produce any heirs and deadlock in succession would only occur again with more distance successors. While Rhea was most likely infertile, she also held a reputation for ‘unladylike’ behavior including profanity and spitting, at 48 years old, her people barely knew her other than her unladylike reputation and simply wasn’t attractively youthful anymore to obtain the attention of contending bachelors from abroad. The third in line to the throne was Giovanni’s grandson Leopold, the son of Giovanni’s eldest son. Leopold was 24 years old, energetic and experienced in serving the Italian Navy. However, Leopold was born on Spanish soil and was technically 2nd in line of succession the throne with the death of Princess Sofia. The Italian government and public argued between the rightful and best successor in what came to be known as the “hundred-and-one days” of government deadlock over choosing the successor.

    Hungarian Emperor Nicolescu III realized the state of vulnerability Italy laid in with political deadlock, weakness in military command, and eventually an ‘unprepared successor’ rising to the Italian throne. Hence on April 28th, Hungarian soldiers invaded the hills of Slovenia to re-access Hungarian economic trade into the Adriatic Sea, expand Hungarian leverage against Italian and German interests, expand and annex new territory, and gain a more direct access to seas without imperial Greko-Turkish regulation. The aggression was greatly necessary to protect Hungarian economic trade, protect its interests, maintain dominance against foreign rivalries in central Europe, and achieve its own “door to the Mediterranean and window to the Atlantic”. The Hungarian incursion into Slovenia went without significant resistance; Slovenia possessed unsubstantial military technology and Hungarian forces dwarfed Slovenia’s in quantity.

    The Hundred-And-One Days of political deadlock came to an end on May 15th with the coronation of Giovanni’s grandson Leopold di Bianco as the 20th monarch of Italy. Debate most likely would have continued if the Patriotic Party had not taken plurality within the legislature. That, and Parliament was persuaded by Leopold’s military experience and youthfulness which were two traits not only valued for a ceremonial position but requisite during a period of political and military tension in Europe.

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    Leopold I​
    “Leopold I, House of Bianco” was eager to prove himself as a strong leader willing to take strong efforts to protect Italian interests as well as assuming the cult of personality status Italy experienced under his grandfather King Giovanni I. Together, King Leopold and Chancellor Vittorio Bosco declared open war against Hungary on May 18th 1795 with the “Balcony Speech” at Montalcini Square in Trivoli. At the Balcony Speech, King Leopold justified the formal declaration of war on the Hungarian aggressors, reasoning with his deep, assertive voice that the Hungarian invasion of a neutral nation “defied civilized moral manners”, Hungarian aggression in the East must finally put to a halt, prevent “foreign dominance of Italian seas and coasts”, to maintain long term peace and balance throughout Europe, and to “maintain the Italian peoples status as thee world power!”

    The French government was obligated by the Heves Pact to join the Italiano-Hungarian War; France formally joined Hungary in the conflict with Declaration of War on Italy on 20 May. Within the day following telegrams of the French adoption of open war against Italy, Spain backs their Italian allies (required by the Treaty of Hispalis, 1717 regardless) and declares a state of war with the Hungarian Empire and France. Aquitaine and the United Kingdom quickly remind Europe of their neutrality.

    Shots are exchanged on the Italian – Occupied Slovenia border with Hungarian cavalry entering Italian soil. The skirmish impacts little due to temporarily mass mobilization of troops by Italy but mark the opening gun shots of the First World War.

    Italian Chief of Staff Aldo Rocchelli organizes a plan which emphasizes a strong and swift defeat of France, utilizing the outnumbering of French by Spain and Italy. A fast victory in the west could allow application of Italy’s full resources and attention towards the East against the Hungarian Empire. Therefore, the Italian military must engrave defenses between the Italian region of Castelchio and Hungarian-occupied Slovenia temporarily while Spain and Italy use numerical advantage to defeat the French. Rocchelli’s plan would prevent fighting a long term two front war which is universally accepted to be unfavorable.

    23-26 May: Italian troops, led by cavalry, invade France through the lower-elevated south-western Alps. French soldiers launch counter offenses but are caught off-guard by Italian mobile artillery. Spanish soldiers pour into the French south-western border. The outbreak of the first world war undoubtedly came as a relief from months of diplomatic-political stalemate (the Hundred-And-One days of uncertain regnal succession and Hungarian incursion into Slovenia) and yearlong tensions (from the introduction of the Etnikai Àthelyezése policy and Slovenian closing its Hungarian borders). A wave of Italian national pride, optimism, and support for King Leopold I suddenly appeared to override political and social divisions. Italian workers, whom were under the least progressive working conditions by far compared to equally industrialized nations at the time, shared the wave of optimistic patriotism and dropped their demonstrations for legal unions, regulated wages, outlaw of monopolies, and safety regulations from the promised-wealth soon to flow into factories for war industrialization. Chancellor Bosco was determined that Italian communists and socialists viewed Hungary as the prime aggressor, which prevented massive strikes from occurring as well as verifying that the Italian Socialist Party voted towards special war credits.

    Spanish and Italian navies assault French Mediterranean ports, destroying military and commercial vessels to prevent colonial contact and assuring the protection of Italian/Spanish coasts. Meanwhile, Italian squadrons of soldiers exercise Grand General Aldo Rocchelli’s plan. Italian armies marched around the Alps before turning north to encircle French forces in a pincer attack through near the Italian border. Much like the Wars of German Succession, Italian military commanders lay their eyes upon capturing Chapiteaux but must defeat French armies quickly as possible. Spain’s armies meet an extremely well-fortified Franco-Spanish border.

    On 26 May, Hungarian generals order their soldiers to break Italian defenses near Slovenia. Their assault ultimately achieved limited success opposed to the powerful “Liris Machine Gun” the Italian army equipped their fortifications with. 450 rounds of 7.7×56mm Rimmed cartridges a minute repelled the Hungarian attack decisively. The early Hungarian attack surprised Italian Grand General Rocchelli that Hungarian generals would risk soldiers at the Italian fortifications and in such a large number. Rocchelli realized more units must be diverted in the East to maintain the defensive line and responded accordingly.

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    Naval skirmishes between Germany and Spain appear in the Caribbean. Torpedo boats are used for the first time in a major conflict; the European conflict in close waters draws concerns and attention from Valentia whom announces neutrality on 27 May officially.

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    Spain is only able to capture the Jeanmont Fortress, the strong fortified and mounted line between the Mediterranean Sea and Aquitaine restricts Spain from advancing that’s necessary to meet Italian demands for joint-incursion into deep France, capture the capital Chapiteux, and end the western front swiftly. By 1 June the Spanish hadn’t reached more north than 43°35’ N. Trivoli sought out Spanish improvement to expedite their western front plans.

    Aquitaine underwent “the Telegram Crisis” starting on 3 June with Spanish request for free escort through Aquitaine to invade France. Aquitaine panicked and scrambled for options to protect their neutrality to avoid the neighboring destruction to indulge their peaceful land. The Aquitaine government in Vermere informed the French government of Spain’s solicits via telegram. Appalled and fearful of Spanish breaking the stabilizing Franco-Spanish lines, Chapiteaux replied any open borders and allowed passage for Spain would cause justification for war with Aquitaine for “violating neutrality and aiding the enemy”. Hence, Aquitaine denied Spanish appeals for conveyance.

    For Spain and Italy to win the war they agreed France must be dealt with quickly before her industries and populace pick up war effort and both could divert their full energy onto Hungary in the east without fighting a two front war. Spanish endeavors to break French defensive lines failed and Trivoli kept pressuring for their lusted swift victory. Spain possessed no other option than to invade through Aquitaine on 6 June, curving through the Aquitaine farm country and around the French armies along Franco-Spanish lines.

    Germany signed a safeguard of Aquitaine’s neutrality in an event of invasion in 1758 (oddly both parties believed a French incursion was considerably more likely). The Spanish transit through Aquitaine compelled Karl II of Germany to proclaim war against the Mediterranean Powers on 8 June. Aquitaine’s defense capabilities were weak and minimal, allowing Spanish-occupation proving elementary and a puppet government eventually set up following in two months.

    Spain’s soldiers bypassed the French concentrated lines through their Aquitaine passage and successfully flanked France at the Battle of Norte-Pyrenees (8 June – 15 June). The French collapse permitted gradual retreat from Italy and Spain until assistance from newly arrived German armies halted Mediterranean forces at the Battle of Les Rouges (29 June – 12 July). The Battle of Les Rouges pushed the Italian-Spanish armies back from their deep penetration into France by 30 miles until a stalemate was finally reached on 12 July. The Italians and Spanish, who were defeated in the Battle of Les Rouges, conducted a hasty retreat then dug in. The French couldn’t force either enemy out of position so also dug in. The mobile war ended and a long, enduring war of attrition begun.

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    Hundreds of miles of intricate trenches emerged; barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances. Artillery coupled with machine guns made crossing open ground extremely difficult and thus little advancement was made in the west by any side.

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    While the Italian Chief of Staff on the French frontlines Aldo Rocchelli fell under the stress of a stagnant war of attrition, Italian Chief of Staff on the Eastern front Raffaello Capello marched his armies into occupied Slovenia. However, Capello was halted at the border where three battles took place over four mouths (11 August – 4 December). The fighting was extremely bloody and mounted more than 300,000 casualties on both sides.

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    Meanwhile in Africa, Italian Ethiopia and Sudan quickly fell under assault from French forces. The forts of Djibouti fought valiantly but ultimately collapsed from the significantly my numerous French colonial soldiers in the August of 1795. Trivoli realized more soldiers must be applied into Africa to protect Italy’s oil well of Libya and breadbasket of Egypt. The demand for manpower was needed everywhere, but Italian manpower in Africa was noticeably less than her opposition.

    Italy was the most populated participant thus far in World War 1 with 71 million souls; France and Germany each possessing 40 million; Hungary estimated at 39 million; Spain containing 35 million. Trivoli’s parliament authorized a military draft in August and implementing it on National Day (21 August). Manpower was also sought from colonial Australia, whom held 6 million citizens in their 1790 census, which was already providing Italy with massive amounts of coal and ship construction. A major problem to transportation between Italy and Australia was French naval blockades in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea (both between the Arabian Peninsula and African continent). Accordingly, Grand Admiral of the Italian Navy Niccolo Argento conducted a series of annihilation battles and night attacks on French vessels through the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden in the autumn and winter of 1795. Volunteers for the war was scarce in Spain and Germany but more nationalistic France, Italy, and Hungary were able to enlist hundreds of thousands of more volunteers without even drafting than Spain and Germany. The Italian draft was massive, enlisting young men from ages 16 to 30. France drafted its population with equally high rates in national emergency. Europe’s war was getting out of hand.

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    Hungary’s newly recruited and trained armies commenced a massive one-million man invasion in December 1795. Italian biplanes warned Chief of Staff Raffaello Capello of mounting Hungarian soldiers but after Hungarian soldiers were able to overwhelm a much-less numerous region of Italy’s fortifications and therefore allow its large invading army to bypass the rest of the lines, the Eastern defense was all but lost. The risky Hungarian incursion costs the empire immense deaths and injuries. But with a hole in Italian defenses forced, Hungarian soldiers pushed frontlines considerably. Capello halted Hungarian advanced around the populated city of Favilla after losing the industrial wealthy port and city of Castelchio but 160,000 Italians were being bombarded by artillery and machine gun fire into retreating south in the Istria peninsula. With Capello’s troops halting advancement around the Isonzo river, which could then be turned into a flanking narrow corridor where Hungary’s numerous advantage would prove redundant and Italy prevailing, the Hungarian Empire moved one hundred thousand soldiers from the Istria peninsula pressuring Italians south and applied them near Favilla to defeat Capello quickly before a strong defense or counter attack is established. The greatly reduced pressure on the Istria peninsula allowed Italian leverage to eventually bully a halt, leaving Italy an unexpected opportunity to evacuate their prior-rapidly losing 160,000 soldiers starting on 18 December.

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    On 19 December, the evacuation was announced to the Italian public, and many privately owned boats started arriving at Sigillo, the largest port unoccupied and out of reach from Hungarian artillery, to ferry the troops to safety. This flotilla of small vessels travelled 80+ mile distances from Torchello, Austiae, Favilla, and even Bisagno via the Cervari Canal. The significant contribution these civilian vessels made to the Sigillo evacuation gave rise to an Italian rally together in the face of adversity. From 19 – 28 December, 138,000 Italian soldiers’ lives were rescued to the Italian homeland peninsula.

    At the start of the war, the Italian Navy had cruisers scattered across the oceans, many of which were subsequently used to attack French and German merchant shipping. The French systematically hunted these ships down but did experience embarrassments to prevent the destruction of considerable French shipping. At the outbreak of hostilities, Italy began a Mediterranean and Red Sea naval blockade of French. This strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies from Africa. The French Navy initiated sea mines off the coasts of Spain, Morocco, and near Atlantic-ocean waters in the winter of 1795-96. The Atlantic-ocean mines were in international waters, violating accepted international law codified by several international agreements over the previous twelve decades.

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    While the land war in France continued a stalemate, rising casualties, and no advancement made by either opposition, the Italian-Hungarian frontlines stabilized near Favilla (a city turning into ruins) after Istria’s complete subjugation under Hungary’s control, the war in the skies consisted of no borders. Fighters were developed to deny enemy aircraft and dirigibles the ability to gather information by reconnaissance. Borghi Company constructed engines for the Italian Aviation Corps with the first synchronization gears, so that mounted guns can fire through the arc of its spinning propeller without bullets striking the blades. This concept prevented mounted guns from shooting off a plane’s own propellers. One of Borghi’s monoplanes in the Italian Aviation Corps crashed over France in late 1795, French soldiers recovered the planes, and French aircraft manufacturers copied the synchronization design.

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    By late 1795, France commandeered commercial rigid ships – zeppelins – and used them to patrol enemy territories. These zeppelins were used for reconnaissance, to track Italian ship movements over the Mediterranean in process of reinforcing Spanish and Italian fronts, and later to bomb supplies coming to the frontlines from Africa and Trivoli itself. Bombing with the use of zeppelins proved little success for the French; originally artillery shells were dropped before effective bombs designed for aviation was created. France launched an air raid upon Trivoli on 11 February. There, a zeppelin did indeed kill 11 people with bombs missing Montalcini Palace just by a few hundred yards, but the zeppelin raid achieved little material success. The zeppelin raids did capture French, as well as Italian, public’s imagination. Later bombing raids were carried out by airplanes and fear of these raids did somewhat impact industrial production.

    That same February in 1795, another war broke out after Greko-Turkish Emperor Theodoros X closed the Dardanelles to Russian vessels and revoked the Kastamonu Conference (1772) in retaliation for Russian buildup of its Back Sea’s fleet. Passage through the Dardanelles was vital for trade throughout all Russian Black Sea ports and the export of resources and manufacturing in southern Russia with Mediterranean markets. The Kastamonu Conference exempted Russian vessels from paying tolls at Maltepez and, in exchange, Turkish merchants were exempted from tariffs at Russian ports. Greko-Turkey, on the other hand, openly expressed concerns over Russia’s black fleet expansion that threatened the balance of Naval Power in the Black Sea. Greko-Turkey was obliged to exert retaliation to maintain peace but in February 1795, Russia was obliged to declare war to maintain power. A state of war between Greko-Turkey and Russia now existed while the death toll continued to rise in west Europe.

    Achieving no more material success in the land two fronts of the war of attrition, Italy turned to strangling the “Northern Powers” economic resource markets, colonial resourcefulness, imperial contact and communications by adopting a policy of “unrestricted warfare”. Italian Grand Admiral of Navy Niccolo Argento urged Chancellor Vittorio Bosco to agree to this policy since the war’s beginnings. Chancellor Bosco feared adopting unrestricted warfare would bring international condemnation of Italy’s war effort and strike considerable outcries. But because the French had violated multiple international treaties by laying sea mines off the coasts of Spain, Morocco, and near Atlantic-ocean waters in the winter of 1795-96 and violated the Congo Congress under the texts: “Should come a conflict on the European continent between the signing powers, open-war in Africa mustn’t be implied on signing this agreement for the assured protection of all European investments.” Even with these pivotal treaty violations, little international reaction was received. Chancellor Bosco agreed to Grand Admiral Argento’s advocated unrestricted submarine warfare for two central reasons. The first being retaliation for France’s ultimate treaty betrayals seen with sea mines and African conflict; second reason being that because little reaction was received when France violated these essential treaties and Bosco hoped to receive the same limited reaction if this policy was adopted. Hence, Parliament authorizes unrestricted submarine warfare to Admiral Niccolo Argento on 29 March, 1796.

    A group of selected German soldiers, titled the “Ohne Abdrücke” Squadron, arranged the assassination of the heir to the Spanish throne Prince Juan-Carlos de Montero in the Spanish major city Matriz on 14 April. The Germans’ assassination was successful but their goal was a failure. The Germans hoped to discourage Spanish morale from fighting “Italy’s War”. The result of Juan-Carlos’ assassination was the opposite, the faction of the domestic Spanish population lost their prized heir and now had their own just and cause for war effort other than backing their grand ally. The Spanish home front rallied and Spanish King Sebastian IV de Montero sought revenge against the German monarchy – personally.

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    Timoteo Armati and his infamous Viol Violento​

    By mid-1796 the Italians achieved air superiority, restricting Northern access to the strategically essential intelligence that continuous aerial reconnaissance provided. Continual aerial reconnaissance was significantly more dangerous to achieve for the Northern Powers. The first Italian “ace” pilots begun their careers. Trench warfare left the World War in Europe stagnant frontlines and efforts to move these lines was only possible through strategically vital aerial reconnaissance. The most notable Italian fighter ace was Timoteo Armati, who achieved 103 kills in his purple fight plane Viola Violento by the end of the war, and went on to a famous political career in the 1710s. Armati emphasized the use of blind spots to achieve air victories. “If you can’t reach an angle of your enemy’s aircraft to achieve a blind spot’s disguise, angle your own aircraft to approach from the sun and create your blind spot with glare.”

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    Italian submarines became an increasingly havoc on France and in the late summer of 1796, the French begun to counter Italian submarine activity in French coastal waters with air patrols. On western French coasts on 27 July, vaguely the Bay of Biscay, a French seaplane carried out the first successful torpedo attack on a ship. Mastermind of the Italian Navy, Grand Admiral Niccolo Argento, realized the increasing threat of air superiority in naval warfare well before any other naval power in the world ‘by a long shot’. Grand Admiral Argento desired an aircraft carrier that could fly off wheeled aircraft and land them aboard. Existing carriers had the ability to launch wheeled aircraft but not the ability to recovered them without the possession of flight decks. Argento contracted Orizzonti (company founded as a steam ship manufacturer and operated by plutocrat Michele Mercutio which emerged as Italy’s largest commercial luxury liner in the 1760s) to create an aircraft carrier to act as a sea-capable mobile airport. Orizzonti converted an ocean liner that was in the middle of construction in Laconio when the war (which was referred to as the “Mediterranean War” by France, Germany, and Hungary) broke out. The ocean liner they converted, the Signora, was completed with the first example of a standard aircraft carrier to the world with a full-length flight deck allowing wheeled aircraft to take off and land. The ITS Signora officially began its service after King Leopold christened the ship at Laconio with the breaking of a champagne bottle against its bow on 12 May, 1797.

    The autumn and winter of 1796-97 was the second coldest of the 18th century which froze and halted production in a multitude of French and German factories in the north. Food supplies for soldiers in the trenches became sparse with frozen-over harvest resulting in the French government introducing rations on foods to its civilian population in November, 1796. France’s economy was already being strangled from Italy’s unrestricted submarine warfare blockading the French empire from her colonies. However devastating the harsh winter was to Germany and France (along with the rest of North Sea nations), trenches were so stubborn and impossible to cross (artillery, barbed fences, and machine gun fire almost assured soldiers their deaths if an attempt to cross was made) that frontlines did not change more than 10 kilometers from September 1796 to March 1797.

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    When France and Germany suffered from the “North Sea Winter of ’96-‘97”, Brazil profited. While claimed to be a neutral power, Brazil sold tons of cereals, fruits, sugars, coffee, and grains to France and Germany which weren’t sold to Spain or Italy. Brazil experienced multiple conflicts with Spain and her South American colonies through the century; the Failed Brazilian invasion of (Spanish) Venezuela in 1718, Brazilian-Spanish Maritime Conflicts of the 1730s, Reborgo Crisis of 1759, sinking of SNS Caballo (1784) off the coast of Celega, and support for colonial independence of Spanish South American colonies since Brazil’s own independence. Tensions between Italy and Brazil carry even deeper roots from even before Italy’s financial and military support for revolutionary General Gaspari in the Brazilian Revolution (1688-1694). With strong records of a negative history between Italy and Spain, Brazil restricted its trade in the World War to the Northern Powers of France, Germany, and Hungary. The agricultural deficits in France and German from the North Sea Winter of ’96-’97 brought the economic opportunity for Brazil to intervene in the Europe markets and profit from the high demands. For the remained for the World War, Germany and moreso France were economically dependent on Brazil to fill their agricultural needs. Brazilian trade over the Atlantic Ocean and Italian unrestricted warfare conflicting was inevitable and happened throughout the war.

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    Brilliant monarch of Russian, Czarina Katerina I, epitomized her brilliance with the Gorzano Talks that began with Russian ambassadors’ arrival to Trivoli in the April of 1797 from a long, time-consuming circumnavigation of the war’s conflicts. Chancellor Vittorio Bosco invited the Russian diplomats to Gorzano, just outside of Trivoli, where the Chancellery had set up government away from the war’s chaos and where the enemy “would know where to find us [the Chancellery]”. Czarina Katerina authorized her ambassadors to negotiate an allying treaty with Italy. Basically, Russia was already in the midst of planning a land invasion of Greko-Turkey but couldn’t launch such an attack necessary for their war’s victory on the case of two reasons: Russian lacked any direct land access to Greko-Turkey; naval transportation through the Black Sea was logistically suicide for Russia’s army, both nations were already engaged in massive amounts of naval conflict in the Black Sea. With Hungary’s army almost completely in the west, fighting a seemingly endless war against Italy, and thus its Eastern Empire near defenseless and largely vulnerable: Czarina Katerina and her advisors decided to reach Greko-Turkey by invading through eastern Hungary. Instead of simply invading Hungary and opening war against a new enemy, Katerina wished to further exploit Hungary and Italy’s war involvement with the Gorzano Talks. There, Russian ambassadors (knowing their leaders were planning to open war on Hungary regardless of a deal with Italy) attempted to negotiate Italian assistance against Greko-Turkey. The ambassadors pretended as if Russia would only open up a second front for the Hungarian Empire in accordance that Italy joined the war on the Greko-Turkish Empire. Russia proposed this: that Russia would open up an eastern warfront offensive upon Hungary have Italy begin a naval campaign to blockade Greko-Turkish trade and vessels in the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas (this would more than damage their economy considering Greko-Turkey wasn’t heavily industrialized, it lacked the rail transportation for massive mobilization and supply routes which it relied on its navy for instead). Chancellor Vittorio Bosco didn’t question a single word from the Russian ambassadors whether it be truth or not, the deal was considerably mutual beneficial. Hungary would be forced to divert massive amounts of its land troops from its Italian frontlines to the east, greatly easing up Italian land efforts, and Turkey would be forced to divert multitudes of vessels out of the Black Sea to engage against a much more threatening Italian Navy and thereby freeing up the Black Sea for Russian supply trade and naval campaigns. Consequently, on 30 April, 1797, the Italian and Russian governments signed the Gorzano Treaty: promising an Italian-Russian alliance against the Greko-Turkish and Hungarian empires. Through quick use of the telegram and the telephone, both nations declared war on the agreed adversaries on the same day of the Gorzano Treaty’s signing.

    Millions of Russian soldiers deluged the Hungarian countryside – regionally the Rumanian countryside – carefully confiscating railroads to rush soldiers to their distant goal of capturing the Turkish capital of Maltapez which effectively win the Russians their war over the Black Sea. Hungarian command fell into panic over the surprise Russian incursion; more than nine-tenths of Hungarian men-at-arms were positioned near their western, Italian frontlines and thereby leaving its eastern empire vulnerable. Emperor Nicolescu I of Hungary is recorded to have stated “A leak is more comfortable than a flood”, the metaphor is the perfect exposition of the emperor’s concern over the surprised (unprovoked) invasion and the Hungarian military’s reaction. A substantial quantity of Hungarian soldiers was swiftly loaded onto freight trains towards the east to prevent further Russian acquisition of Hungarian Rumania and propel the invading forces back to Russia.

    By the end of May 1796, Hungary’s frontline reduction of troops along the Favilla Frontlines was palpable and Italian military leaders debated whether to:
    A. Use the reduced pressure from the Hungarian frontlines to divert soldiers towards the large western front’s colossal demand for any new leverage.
    B. Use weakened Hungarian trench defenses to shove enemy lines east and regain control over Favilla and Castelchio, possibility to gain opportunity for Slovenian liberation.
    C. Amplified version of Plan B; use weakened Hungarian trench lines to launch a vast invasion in the East, regain the lost major cities of Favilla and Castelchio, liberate Slovenia, invade the Hungarian homeland and consequently force a Hungarian peace treaty. This required diverting manpower from the west front but would reward the west war effort in a long run with full attention being able to applied onto France without an eastern front.

    Italian Chief of Staff (Eastern Campaign) Raffaello Capello claimed Course A would drag the war longer. Capello continued to argue that missing any opportunity to exploit any of Italy’s enemies’ defenses would mean Europe’s war would only “last as long as a man’s hunger”. Western campaign’s Chief of Staff Aldo Rocchelli refused to loosen manpower in France where the stagnant conflict couldn’t afford reducing areas that were already in gigantic demand. Thus Course C was considered too risky. Trivoli agreed to put Course B into action on 3 June. Capello began organizing offensive strategies that could finally force out progress in the eastern front.

    While Hungary was rapidly mobilizing on railroad, Greko-Turkey was mobilizing on sea. Italian submarines dominated the Aegean Sea. Every Turkish ship transporting over the Aegean Sea, whether mercantile or naval, was destroyed by Argento’s Navy. This blockade of Greko-Turkish waters affected the empire greatly on the basis that the Greko-Turkish Empire lagged behind its European rivals in terms of industrialization; Greko-Turkey lacked railroads and historically been heavily dependent on transportation via the Aegean Sea. As Russia hoped the Gorzano Treaty would induce, the Greko-Turkish Empire was obliged to retreat its navy from the Black Sea, through Maltapez and the Dardanelles, and into the Aegean to combat the greatly trade-disturbing Italian Navy.

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    Italian Grand Admiral Niccolo Argento’s commanding vessel; Argento lived and commanded his fleet from the largest battleship of the Italian Navy during its existence; the ITS Vechino.

    The Greko-Turkey Empire may have lacked internal industrialization, but its competition and escalation in a naval race against the Russians in the Black Sea provided Greko-Turkey with a fairly sized navy comprising notably of four dreadnaughts and eleven pre-dreadnaughts among others. The mightier Italian Navy diminished Greko-Turkish confrontations throughout the summer of 1796. Greko-Turkey attempted to achieve a major victory with the bulk of its navy finally in August. They hoped such a major victory would prove decisive. A major naval battle finally came in August with the Battle of Icaria. Grand Admiral Niccolo Argento commanded the Italian fleet from the ITS Vechino. An Italian reconnaissance submarine (ITS Sotto-38) identified the Greko-Turkish fleet following Argento’s fleet by twenty-five kilometers. Sotto-38 voyaged away from the chasing Greko-Turkish fleet so it could safely ascend its antenna into the surface and radio Admiral Argento. The Italian fleet could only travel as fast as its heaviest (and most powerful) vessels; the lighter Greko-Turkish fleet was clearly going to catch up to the Italians’. Admiral Argento turned his vessels to starboard in a specific sequence in effort and result to preserve the sequence of his battle line. This maneuver allowed his fleet to confront Greko-Turkey with his most effective and armored ships in front, with the flagship ITS Vechino remaining in lead. If Argento turned all his ships simultaneously, the order of ships would’ve been reversed and the less-armored ships could be vulnerable to open fire while some of the smaller Italian ships unable to return opening fire due to their shorter range. Italian torpedoes aggressively propelled against the Greko-Turkish from all directions, without stopping, hesitating, or conserving for a safe returning voyage. Argento’s submarines continued their torpedo fire as Italian cruisers and dreadnaughts turned the Greko-Turkish ships’ broad sides east. This allowed Argento’s submarines to fire upon the enemy ships farthest from its surface fleet and the sinking of the Greko-Turkish fleet’s largest, powerful vessels. The bulk of the Greko-Turkish fleet flashed explosions one-by-one. The Greko-Turkey fleet was tactically out-maneuvered, even with its previously held greater numerical advantage, and Greko-Turkish flag officer Nikodemos Aerleous ordered the raising of white flags to indicate surrender. Northern Powers hoped the Greko-Turkish Empire could seize the Suez Canal and thereby eliminate Italian connections to coal-rich Australia.

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    Italian submarines expanded their trans-Atlantic trade blockades by directly sinking French vessels stationed at port in French North American colonial possessions. The Atlantic Coast of French North America (Referred to as the Hudson Territories) was the cradle of the French navy similar to that of Australia’s value to Italy. The coal and oil the Hudson Territories provided and its industrialized eastern labor supply made the region superb for naval vessel construction. The French utilizes their North American colonies with their distance from mainland Europe, assuming their ports were out of reach from Spain or Italy. Italian Grand Admiral Niccolo Argento orchestrated an attack for the purpose of removing French confidence in North American security, sabotage French construction progress, and possibly to forge doubt in Hudson Territories’ attitude towards its European leadership. This action was under the order “Operazione Ricci di Mare”, or ‘Operation Sea Urchins”.

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    While Niccolo Argento theorized the operation’s strategy, procedure and tactics for months after he received approval from Chancellor Bosco in September. 17 Italian submarines, under the leadership of Argento’s own nephew Basilio Argento, left Trivoli on November 9, 1797 to Lipari (10 Nov) where six additional submarines joined Fleet Commander Basilio Argento. The fleet descended deeply into the Atlantic after exiting the Mediterranean Sea to avoid detection by French destroyers. The fleet reached North American coast around the night of November 28th/29th. Under nightfall, while civilian and military workers slept, the Italian submarines entered Chesapeake Bay and began firing torpedoes at the docked French ships. The booms from striking explosions awoke and alerted the French; naval ships and large commercial ships were both targeted by the Italian attackers. Three transport vessels were struck, dumping metals and coal into the Chesapeake Bay. As a result of French ships tied to port, mostly unattended, the Italian submarines could pick of the vessels like “sitting ducks”. Three battleships were damaged and another three sunk. Not a single vessel in repair or construction was struck, hiding safe near the uploading ports compared to the considerably more vulnerable cruisers, battleships, and destroyers. As instructed by Grand Admiral Niccolo Argento, once a submarine had fired more than three-fourths of its torpedoes, it retreated from the bay to safely await regrouping and return to the mainland. Seven Italian submarines conducted this order; once French sailors began dropping depth charges aimlessly into the dark, nighttime Chesapeake Bay, the Italian fleet accepted its achieved damages, discontinued its successful assault, and headed south to the bay’s entrance. The regrouped fleet voyaged across the Atlantic proudly and successfully, a few submarines experiencing damages from depth charges but zero casualties, and refueled in the Canary Islands.

    Operation Sea Urchin’s Aftermath:
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    Full comprehension of the Italian assault didn’t yield to the French until dawn. The French lost an estimated 900 sailors and civilians from Operazione Ricci di Mare in the region France previously considered completely safe and out of Spanish or Italian reach. The Hudson Territories’ newspapers panicked that their population was:
    Popular indigenous newspaper ‘Tremblaiville Daily’ stated:
    The Tremblaiville Daily goes on to elaborate:
    The Italian assault encouraged the Valentian public of their neutrality. As result of “The Attack on Chesapeake”, the French removed any submarine construction in the bay and laid deep sea mines within the Chesapeake and Tremblaiville harbors to prevent a repeat of the Italian submarine attacks. The French positioned more destroyers to patrol Hudson Territory coasts and now were obliged to divert attention towards North American defenses. The resources Argento’s attack cost Italy was insignificant to that of the French expenditure to repair the Chesapeake fleet and to markedly upgrade North American defensive measures. In the war of attrition, Operazione Ricci di Mare was charitable to Italy’s cause.

    Multiple attempts to utilized out-numbered Hungarian defenses failed until a final successful breakthrough by Italian soldiers through the eastern front trench lines on December 2nd. The ‘Audace Offensive’ brought staggering Italian losses; Chief of Staff Raffaello Capello ordered his soldiers to simply overwhelm the enemy numerously. As one could imagine, the first soldiers to run towards heavy machine gun fire suffered, being either killed or injured. Soon enough, the Hungarian defenders couldn’t reload their heavy machine guns fast enough. Once Italian soldiers jumped into the enemy trenches, most of the machine gun fire turned from no-man’s-land and towards the protection of the Hungarian’s “lefts and rights”. Hungarian ranks fell quickly; they were trapped in their own defenses. The Audace Offensive produced the complete liberation of Favilla on 3 December and Castelchio on 5 December. Hungarian enemy lines receded.

    Italian soldiers marched into occupied Slovenia on 9 December. The Italians were moving fast and the Hungarian Empire was falling down like a house with too much weight on its roof, not enough support. France and Germany did not comprehend the success of Italian forces against an overwhelmed Hungary until the Liberation of Villach (Slovenian cultural and political capital) on 19 December. If the Northern Allies wished to continue a two-front war against the Italians, actions would have to be made.

    German command mobilized its own soldiers to assist Hungarian defenses in the east. Germany’s prime concern was a peace treaty from being negotiated from Hungary with Italy, have the rapidly advancing Italian soldiers storm the western Hungarian countryside. The Russian Sack of Festiti (21 December) and Calasari (24 December) caused uproar over the Hungarian Empire’s military leaders. The economic consequences of Russia’s incursion were staggering without enough Hungarian footholds in its eastern regions.

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    Hungary’s environment on New Years’ Eve, 1797​

    German reinforcements was noticeable but not considerate. Germany spared the few soldiers it could, but even by its arrival into liberated Slovenia: Italy had claimed region superiority. General Capello’s army was unstoppable. Through the rest of December, January, and February, Hungary lost three things: 213,000 lives, homeland territory stretching from its western borders with Slovenia to thirty miles outside is own capital, and the war.

    Hungarian Emperor Nicolescu I knew a one-front war with only Italy or with only Russia was now a gamble itself. The Empire’s two front defensive war was costly and decimating. Fearing he’d be overthrown if Italian troops reach the capital of Heves, Emperor Nicolescu offered a cease fire on 27 February, 1798. Chief of Staff Capello accepted this offer and awaited diplomats from Trivoli to negotiate a peace treaty. The Treaty of Blanco-Karpati ended the Hungarian Empire’s participation in war against Spain, and Italy; recognized the independence of Slovenia; ceded ten billion õzbak to Italy in reparations. From the Hungarian perspective, Hungary was under pressure from Russian and Italian advancement and obligated to spark a minimal of significant endeavor to turn its luck. Hungary and Spain-Italy were now under a state of peace.

    The Brazilian government’s December elections took its effect the February of 1798, transferring control of Brazil’s congress to the National Party and electing Philbert Bulgarelli (former Monte Lisabetta Governor, National Party) to the Presidency. After twenty-eight years of maintaining congressional power, the Merit Party of Brazil lost majority rule in Brazil’s legislative body. The Nationalist Party refuted the Merit Party’s pacifist platform and after the Italian torpedo assault on Chesapeake Bay in November, the Brazilian population greatly expanded fears over Italy’s capability to launch attacks on North American coastlines undetected. While both parties condemned Italy’s unrestricted warfare, the National Party demanded measures to protect inter-Atlantic trade. Bulgarelli himself stated Brazil needed to immediately build up strong naval and land forces for defensive purposes; an unspoken assumption was that the Brazilians would fight sooner or later. The Brazilian preparedness movement, immensely escalated by the Chesapeake Attacks, included many of Brazil’s most prominent bankers, industrialists, right-wing politicians, lawyers, and prominent families. Among the Nationalists, economic strength and military might was more decisive than idealistic endeavors for ‘silly causes’ like democracy, liberalism, progressivism, and national self-determination. The Merit Party dug itself in when it attempted to slash the military budget in 1796; the Nationalist Party cried for a massive buildup of the Brazilian Navy (most notably, a build-up of destroyers to counteract or prevent Italian submarine warfare). President Bulgarelli introduced new, pre-emptive war measures and policies while Brazil, de facto, remained neutral.

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    Le Gros Lézard​
    War raged on in France, trenches bombarded with artillery shells and helmets luring bullets daily. French innovators showed the world the very first tank on 16 March, “Le Gros Lézard”. Searching for ways to maneuver over trenches, cross no man’s land, and break through barbwire.

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    Both the Germans and the Italians feared a large German-Italian conflict breaking near Slovenia, resources struggling to maintain firm competition in France as it is. After German soldiers receded the Eastern front after the lost Hungarian fight, the Italians followed. Italian Chief of Staff Capello ordered the destruction of all bridges along the Danube River on the 19th Meridian East and 47th Parallel North to delay enemy advancement towards Slovenia and Italy have the Germans decide to re-open up the eastern front. The destroyed bridges infuriated the already-downhearted Hungarians, it divided their nation politically and economically; Germany and France condemned the destructions with citations that the Treaty of Blanco-Karpati did not permit these actions and the two countries (Italy and Hungary) were now signed into cease-fire peace.

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    Propaganda posters such as this one appeared in both Slovenian and Italian neighborhoods, this poster stating “Your Liberator, Leopold I of Italy. For the self-determination of each nation”​

    Italian-liberated Slovenia under Italian occupation, barely into its reconstruction and political reorganization, is formed into an Italian puppet state. The decision to create a puppet state of Slovenia was underwent by Chancellor Bosco in the attempt to legitimize its military occupation amongst the Slovenian people, followed by pro-Italian propaganda sent to Slovenian inhabitants by 1799. Italy’s King Leopold designated his younger sister Caterina di Blanco as the new monarch of Slovenia; Chief of Staff Raffaello Capello became Queen Caterina’s Chief Minister and the de facto ruler of Slovenia. Under Capello’s control, by literally definition: dictatorship, the Slovenian railways were nationalized and industrialists open for cheap investment through the removal of safety and union laws. Two-thirds of Slovenia’s reconstruction was either towards defensive fortifications/measures or military resource manufacturing, many Slovenians were found subjects to force labor, food rationing, and the confiscation of private property. Caterina I’s first action as Queen of Slovenia declared her nation neutral to all foreign conflicts, preventing any Jus ad bellum German invasion. Via politics, Slovenia proved a profitable military defense for Italy.

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    No spring offenses were attempted in France in 1798, but with eased resources the Italian army expanded its East African involvement. Italy recaptured its colonies of Sudan and Eretria by summer; the success of Italy can be owed to three factors: proliferate arms and ammunition abundant for Italian soldiers, the incorporation of Libyan and Egyptian colonists into the armed corps, and dogs. Dogs made excellent scouts with their powerful senses easily detecting enemies, stealthily carrying messages from the frontlines to headquarters and locating wounded soldiers for medics.

    On the Italian homefront, factories worked around the clock. At the Torchello Maiellis Factory on 27 May, 1798, 150 tons of trinitrotoluene exploded, causing the injuries of over 300 civilians and 128 deaths. Another explosion, similar to the Maiellis Factory Incident, occurred in Stagna just two weeks late on 10 June 1798 when a gunpowder plant in Stagna exploded during the dead of the night and killed 71 civilians. While the Italian government prohibited publication of the incidents, it was clear that Italian factories were exhausted and overworked to Chancellor Bosco. The Hungarian Empire’s conflict in Slovenia wrecked its economy beyond belief, delaying its manufacturing contributions until sufficient necessities were reconstructed (among these necessities included water and power in some areas). Australia proved vital to Italy’s manufacturers and coal-based navy but its labor contributions were just as exhausted. North African Italian colonies lacked the immediate industrialization needed for war-effort manufacturing (yet North African Mediterranean coasts and the Nile River furnished generously to Italy’s pantries and stomachs with foods like olives, fish, dates, citrus fruits, and wheat). Bellatora laid 138 kilometers, 76% of its entire 181 kilometer border, with Italy. Bellatora partook on Northern Italy’s rapid industrialization periods in the 18th century while not politically within the borders and administration of the Italian government. Many Italian leaders greatly desired to get their hands on this little country for centuries. Bosco’s government lusted to annex the city-state to introduce additional war-effort factories (such as arms manufacturing, which the Italian army would only take from Italian makers), nationalize manufacturing plants for materials like artillery shells and gunpowder to maximize efficiency, remove Bellatoran unions that entitled their members to more fair wages and consequently cost owners more (driving up product prices and diverting expenses to fewer workers, less productivity), and remove the city’s safety regulations that “limited productivity potential”. The World War heightened a period of Italian nationalism which patently expanded into Bellatora due to its shared culture and language. The city’s rich industrialist formed the Bellatora City-State into an oligarchy republic by the 1760s. On July 2nd, ten thousand soldiers were temporarily removed from the larger Slovenian defense armies and situated around Bellatora. Italy indirectly threatened the Bellatora City-State with extremely graduated tariffs “to all independent states” on 13 July. Bellatora completely relied upon its Italian neighbors for trade and economic interactions; tariffs would cost Bellatora’s industrialist plentiful. The Italian government paid Bellatoran representative Alfanso Pescatore to introduce the Referendum Ultimatum on 27 July with his own Tuscan estate. Bellatora was under military and economic intimidation, the oligarchical city-state controlled by industrialists and plutocrats voted towards appealing to Italy for annexation (“unification”) on 7 August. Chancellor Bosco’s parliament accepted Bellatora’s appeal while the Bellatoran civilian population protested, fearing their own sons would “sent to the coffins they call trenches”.

    What the Germans referred to as the “Confiscation of Bellatora”, the industrialist of Bellatora referred to as a profit. The military industrial war machine and removed tariffs quadrupled the stocks of Bellatoran corporations by 1799 and provided further war materials for Italy’s war effort.

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    The first use of chemical warfare occurred in October by French troops, firing chlorine-filled artillery shells towards the Spanish trench lines in Aquitaine. Chlorine attacks damaged tissue in the lung and were often worsened if its victims moved under its presence. The fatality of chlorine gas wasn’t as effective as the French hoped but psychologically terrorized the Spanish and Italians. Orders for gas marks quickly followed October’s chemical warfare introduction.

    Over the course of October 1798 to February 1799, six Brazilian cross-Atlantic conveys were sunk by Italian submarines. All of which were between the Hudson Territories and France. Italy’s unrestricted submarine warfare policy brought such a large amount of criticism and attention from the Brazilian population that President Philbert Bulgarelli seized the issue for political gain by drafting the Bulgarelli Ultimatum. This coercive attempt meant to weaken the Italian war effort which threatened Brazilian global interests as well as Brazil’s control over the Atlantic. Bulgarelli already drove fair momentum off of his world power naval arms ‘catch-up’ which brought his campaign slogan: “pace attraverso la forza”. The Bulgarelli Ultimatum attempted to either prove that Brazil was a global superpower, achieving its interests simply through threat and intimidation while maintaining peace, or use as pretext to rally Brazilian nationalism which would favor Bulgarelli and his conservative-right party. The Ultimatum’s requires that, have Italy fail to achieve, Brazil would fall under obligation to “protect its interests against aggressors through force have peaceful, civilized methods fail.”

    1801: Brazil’s Ultimatum:
    • Remove all Italian naval submarines from the Atlantic Ocean and end its unrestricted submarine warfare with it.
    • End military occupation and political subjugation of Slovenia
    • End military occupation and political subjugation of Bellatora
    • Arrest Italian Ambassador to Brazil Benvenuto Crocetti for antagonizing Brazilian interests and refusing to ‘work with the Brazilian government’. Replace Crocetti with a more sympathetic, compromising and appealing ambassador.
    • Return French colonial possession that the capturing of violates the Congo Congress.
    • Provide “explanations” for Italian hostilities towards the Brazilian democracy.

    Brazil telegrammed the Bulgarelli Ultimatum on February 11th 1799. Trivoli did not take the message serious at first glance, but after the realization and confirmation of the telegram, Chancellor Bosco claimed it was no more than a Brazilian attempt to enter Europe’s war justly and gain political advantage at home. Bosco promised Italy would restrict submarine warfare to the coasts of France and the Hudson Colonies; the Italian Ambassador to Brazil was replaced (but not fired) with Juliette Adessi. A third requirement of the ultimatum was met eight weeks after the issuing of the February 11th telegram; the Bulgarelli Ultimatum forced a three month expiration date (May 11th, 1799). The third requirement met, the explanation for Italian hostilities, was explained as a “struggle for order and stability among Italian-speaking peoples”. Two months into the Ultimatum, only half of the demands were received. On April 29th the Italian government issued claims that the Bulgarelli Requirement’s to “Return French colonial possessions in Africa and end military occupation and political subjugation of Bellatora and Slovenia” intervened in Europe’s own war and that “Brazil isn’t the police officer of any hemisphere”. Only after Brazil refuted the Italian excuse and pled to “meet half-way” it was clear to King Leopold I and Chancellor Bosco: Brazilian entry into the war was inevitable.

    Failing to meet political demands against the more liberal and pro-democratic opponent would appeal internationally that Italy is the more corrupt or aggressive nation. Chancellor Bosco used the sinking of two Italians submarines (96 dead Italian sailors) off the coast of Seno del Mare by Brazilian destroyers on May 4th as justification to declared “open and total war upon the federation of Brazil”. Bosco’s government argued that the unavoidable war with Brazil beginning through this formal declaration – in retaliation for the sinking of 96 Italian sailors –internationally appeared to make Italy out as the victim of the tensions.

    Some might suggest that Brazil’s interest in involvement into Europe’s war was brought by Hungary’s surrender (Treaty of Blanco-Karpati) which removed Brazilian reluctance to parade a war of “liberalism and democracy” to the public while fighting along the side of a European emperor. The Brazilian population reacted to the news of open war with surprise. Brazil’s domestic front wasn’t surprised by their entry into the World War, they had been expecting war after the Bulgarelli Ultimatum expired throughout April (Italy’s failure to meet all the requirements) but instead surprised that Italy was the nation to declare open war. Brazil replied with declaration of war on Brazil on 6 May.

    Brazil’s congress swiftly passed a – suspiciously already drafted – national draft act on May 11th. Brazil mobilized economically and militarily. Brazilian battleships emerged in the Atlantic so abundantly that the power-threatened Italian navy retreated its attention out of the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean in August. The re-opened access to African (but not Asian as the Italians found themselves blockading inter-Indian Ocean trade) colonies allowed the French to deploy massive quantities of relief to its forces in Africa. Resources from coal to ammunition picked up French African crops morale and successful endeavors.

    By November 1799, Brazilian soldiers arrived to the French frontlines at rates up to 15,000 daily. War-weary French and German soldiers enthusiastically welcomed the fresh Brazilian boots with great solace. Italy possessed a higher percentage of enlisted citizens than any other power but even with that Italy was unable to replace their losses as the energetic, fresh Brazilian troops poured into the trench lines. In the winter of 1799 and 1800, the Italian warfront began to deteriorate.

    Brazil’s inexperienced navy foolishly attempted to exert an offensive in the Mediterranean Sea with the bulk of its navy, hoping to open the Mediterranean to its own blockade and economic strangle. (Female) Brazilian Admiral Daniela Aringheri was appointed fleet admiral to carry out this mission in the elsewhere frozen Mediterranean winter. The Mediterranean recorded to exist as the only large warm waters in 1800’s winter. The Brazilian January assault was infamously titled the “Flotta Supremo” – or, “Paramount Fleet”. President Philbert Bulgarelli confidentially assured his military strategists that a Brazilian fleet major naval victory inside the Italian-held Mediterranean under opposing Grand Admiral Niccolo Argento’s commands would prove Brazilian naval sovereignty and the internationally recognize Brazil as the world’s prime naval power quietly. Italy was indeed the most powerful and reputational naval adversary globally of the era and any naval victory against Argento within the Mediterranean would signify a new, irrefutable world Great Power.

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    Argento innovatively utilized torpedo bombers for the first time on a large scale during the naval battle, the bombers being launched from the Signora aircraft carrier​

    Aringheri’s fleet passed the Straits of Gibraltar on 10 January comprising of 21 battleships, 8 armored cruisers, 17 battle cruisers, 31 light cruisers, 3 auxiliary ships, and 50 destroyers. The Flotta Supremo was massive, too large to be picked off by numerous little battles. Just as Brazil had intended, a major battle was the only path to defeat this intruding giant. The Gibraltar passing alerted the Spanish, whom contacted Trivoli at 11 pm on January 10th, 1800. Niccolo Argento collected the vessels available – 15 battleships, 6 pre-dreadnought battleships, 27 battle cruisers, 19 light cruisers, 46 fleet torpedo boats, and Italy’s only operating aircraft carrier (Signora). The two opposing fleets spotted each other roughly 80 kilometers from Mallorca during the dawn of January 12th. Brazilian fleet admiral Daniela Aringheri approached the enemy Italian fleet in one single line of battle, maneuvering her fleets’ broadsides parallel to the Italian fleet for maximum efficiency of her battle guns. Admiral Argento’s approach was to deliberately cut the Brazilian line in three; with his aircraft carrier remaining placed in a safe distance, his fleet approached in two columns. The two parallel columns propelled towards the Brazilian intruders perpendicular, one towards the rear of the single-column linear Brazilian fleet and another just fractions of the fleet in front of Aringheri’s flagship. By cutting Brazil’s fleet just in front the flagship, the isolated Brazilian ships in front of the fleet could not be able to see the flagship’s signals. This action took the entire third of the Brazilian fleet out of the battle temporarily while they reformed. The columns’ break of Aringheri’s line caused a multitude of individual one-on-one ship actions. Niccolo Argento trusted that his sailors’ superior seamanship, quicker gunnery and exceptional morale would provide greater luck with ship-on-ship conflicts to defeat the Brazilians “by the strength of the sailor instead of the strength of the fleet”. The decisive concentration on the rear of the Brazilian fleet by the second Italian column forced the central Brazilian ships to reverse their direction to support the rear’s defense. The central vessels’ reversal to assist the butt of the fleet cost valuable time and temporally removed these ships from firing on the Italians. Five Brazilian battleships fell victims to Argento’s torpedo bombers alone, costing the Brazilians the bulk of their fleet. As the battle raged on, falling heavily (and to the Brazilians: surprisingly) in the Italian Navy’s favor, aircraft launching from the ITS Signora (carrier) dazed Brazilian vessels. Brazil had never encountered air units through naval conflict before and Italy itself only a few attempts before. ITS Signora’s only ace, Tenente “Maurizio Alfrero”, suffered gunshots from Brazilian gunfire, bleeding out in his cockpit, and while piloting his aircraft he maneuvered his plane to fly into the funnel (smokestack) of the Brazilian destroyer BNS Sequoia. Alfrero knew he flew on the gates of death and made his last action alive purposely crashing his plane into a Brazilian war vessel. The destroyer’s internal engines exploded from the suicide crashing by Tenente Aflrero; the ace’s sacrifice, bravery, endless endeavor, and resourcefulness earned him the place as an Italian national hero both in 1800 and the years following. Grand Admiral Niccolo Argento decisively defeated Brazil’s Fleet Commander Aringheri, officially when her flagship raised white flags in surrender. A day after the battle, the remaining 48 Brazilian ships afloat were refueled and commandeered into the Italian Navy.

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    Brazil’s humiliating defeat at the “Infamous Battle of the Mediterranean”, marking the second largest naval battle to ever be recorded in all of history, infuriated the Brazilian public. Consequently, the number of war bonds bought in Brazil spiked eight-fold in the January of 1800, Brazil’s annual March-budget talks enlarged Brazilian military expenditure vastly, and strategist attention turned full-scale towards achieving progress on land.

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    In March 1800, the Russians endurance paid off with the capture of Maltepez on the 17th. Even the three month long siege couldn’t encourage the city’s military leaders to surrender. But the softened defenses and starved soldiers provided the Russians with ease when they stormed the city on March 16th, 1800. Similar to the Spanish and Italian objective of capturing Chapiteaux, the Russians believed capturing the Greko-Turkish Empire capital Maltepez would force their opponents to the negotiating table. No negotiations were able to take place due to the rapid political deterioration and collapse of the Greko-Turkish Empire that followed. The humiliated Greko-Turkish Emperor Theodoros X abdicated after failures to control Greece in rebellion. The Greeks lost their economic ties with the eastern half of the empire since the Italian blockade in the Spring of 1797 (most trade and communications in the empire was done via Aegean Sea crossing). The war was universally unpopular throughout the Greko-Turkish Empire and many blamed the war on Emperor Theodoros provoking it from antagonizing the Russians. Central command militarily, economically, and politically collapsed since the siege of the empire’s capital began. The Greek rebellions was not a nationalist movement but one with desires for an end to the economically devastating war that “stole our sons and brothers like common thieves”. The military draft enforced cites as a significant cause. Unable to control the Greeks breaking from the empire, humiliated by failed leadership, stressed from critical and antagonizing nobility, Emperor Theodoros X abdicated his throne. The depressed, self-hating miserable emperor retreated himself to the Greko-Turkish island of Cyprus and eventually decided to take his own life on 30 April. With centralized political command and sovereignty in disarray, no single individual in troubled Turkey validated powers to negotiation any peace treaty. Grand-General Mustafa Sadik continued fighting the Russians with his de facto Turkish army; Sadik fortified military defense just east of Maltepez. There, the Turkish army’s shorter numbers would serve no disadvantage against the invading and numerous Russian army. 212,000 Sadik soldiers defended against three massive waves of Russian attacks from 28 March to 23 April. The Russian offensives failed with each attempt, mounting ~540,000 Russian casualties accumulated. Russia executed Generals Anastasiy Markovic and Georgy Kuznetsov for their failed tactics.

    Grand-General Mustafa Sadik’s charismatic and decisive leadership, which arguably saved the remaining loyal Turkish nobles, earned him appointment as Türkiye'nin makam or “Authority of Turkey”. By late June, Sadik’s armies divided Russian and Turkish lines at the Bosphorus Strait, cutting the city of Maltepez in half as well. The only three bridges that crossed the Bosphorus Strait were demolished to prevent strait-crossing; the rubble left from the destroyed bridges prevented any Russian or Turkish vessels from navigating the strait. Their stagnant struggles left the Russians and Turkish in their own war of attrition. Russia turned its territorial expansion to the exhausted Hungarians whom remained weak since its conflicts with Italy in Slovenia.

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    French cavalry passing a captured Spanish trench.​

    The “allies”, a term applied since Brazil’s addition to the Northern Powers, launched the Straight Offensive on 3 July. The offensive sought to divide the Spanish and Italian forces with a series of feints and advances south towards the Mediterranean coasts. The first week of the offensive, which concentrated its soldiers on an outward curve of Italian-Spanish trench lines in France, witnessed catastrophic losses from Italian artillery fire. From east to west on 10 July, French, German, and Brazilian artillery shells bombarded Spanish-Italian troops for six straight hours simultaneously. The allies charged across the trench lines, some French and German legions with armored tanks, and exploited the softened Spanish-Italians. Ally leaders ordered no withdrawing, keeping their rare exploitation a success and preventing mounting casualties to have died in vain. The Straight Offensive cost the allies nearly 300,000 soldiers but by August 10th, 1800, the allies reached the Mediterranean coast.

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    European frontlines by August, 1800 in Southern France.​

    Italian luck diminished in Africa as well. Resupplied and accompanied with reinforcements, French African corps played a chase-and-run game with receding Italian squadrons. Sudan was a conquered French possession by the time the allies reached the Mediterranean in early August, dividing Spanish and Italian frontlines. The warfare of attrition was over in Europe, offensives favored the replenished allies driving to victories from their new, additional ally Brazil.

    Admiral Niccolo Argento travelled to Libya in September, 1800, to oversee the training of Italian-Libya colonists into the Italian Navy. At 11:00 PM on 19 September, a Turkish submarine (far out of traditional Turkish naval range) fired three torpedoes at Argento’s infamous flagship, the ITS Vechino. Argento sunk with his prized ship, and thus the death of the great naval architect, tactician, and admiral who ever lived. The morale impact on the Italian Navy was devastating. The Brazilian and Turkish navies picked up a wave of enthusiasm, Brazilian sailors chanted the death was “the Creators’ revenge for the Chesapeake and Mediterranean (battles)”.

    The southward expansion in Europe engendered French General Jean de Montrereau to draft the Rapide Leste Plan, which specified widening the Straight Offensive’s liberation south westward. Invading Spanish-held territory would be easier by approaching from the east, the Garonne River was unfortified and much more shallow there. Then the plains of Aquitaine could provide rapid territory advancement with ease, flank Spanish trenches, and encircle Spanish the large, strong Spanish occupation of the major city Vermere. The Rapide Leste Plan took effect when the allies launched the Garonne Offensive (10 October – 27 December). By its end, 83,000 Spanish soldiers found themselves surrounded by ally artillery regiments by land and French battlecruisers by sea in the city of Vermere. Their bombardment began on December 26th, 1800; with artillery positioned outside of machine gun range the Spanish soldiers were unable to retort gunfire. Over the nights of December 27th and December 28th, the ally commanders agreed to continue their bombardments so that the defending Spanish soldiers could not make any repairs in the night. While the commanding Spanish officer at Vermere, Jorge Delgado, promised his soldiers they “wouldn’t perish without a fight” on a December 27th speech, the city hadn’t received supplies in 8 weeks due to the Aquitaine Offensive’s cutoff of transportation routes to the Spanish homeland. Before the siege even began, food and ammunition storage was running low. Hypothetically, if the storages at Vermere were filled then Delgado undoubtedly would continue towards a last stand despite his tactical vulnerability. But by December 29th, supplies were spares; citizens and soldiers shared a starvation prompting the “Munity of Delgado”. Starved Aquitanians, many of which recently experienced the loss of loved ones, were accompanied by Spanish officers in a violent protest in the Aquitaine Parliament Palace (where Delgado and other commander’s office laid). Delgado died by the knives of his own soldiers, whom lacked the ammunition to fire upon their commander. Lieutenant Eduardo Teófilo, ascending to the position of the city’s defense commander, agreed to surrender to the allies in exchange for his life. A triumvirate of Spanish cavalry galloped out of the city’s defenses with white flags shouting for a cease fire. All of the 59,000 surviving Spanish soldiers occupying the city were now prisoners of war; Spain’s army faced a humiliating defeat and the Aquitaine capital Vermere was liberated at last.

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    Vermere’s aftermath​

    Spain and Italy’s war efforts continued in downward spiral through winter. The allies propelled Italy’s soldiers into the Alps. Italian Chief of Staff Aldo Rocchelli realized he had neither the resources nor quantity of soldiers to conduct any kind of counter-attack. Rocchelli ordered every mountain pass to be destroyed in hopes Italy could reduce their defensive war to the Iberian Peninsula. At the Augustus Mountain Pass, Italian saboteurs found themselves alarmed that marching Brazilian arrived to the pass before the saboteurs. Thousands of Brazilian troops crossed the pass; the Italian saboteurs disturbed the accumulated snow along the pass. An avalanche crashed down the hills onto the passing Brazilians. Approximately 250,000 tons of snow, rock, and ice plunged down directly onto the roads. The bodies of some victims wouldn’t be found until the following spring and Brazil’s leadership estimated a loss between 10,000 and 12,500 of their soldiers.

    Ally troops stumbled upon the major mountain pass Rossis surprised, the pass was still intact and not destroyed by Rocchelli’s forces. Through Rossis Pass the allies poured out of the Alps and into the Italian homeland. The Battle of Gorizia (26-30 January) lost one of the great Italian industrial centers. With the loss of one of Italy’s own cities, it was clear that the upcoming months would prove decisive for the war’s outcome. Rocchelli illustrated the Piedmont Offensive to his commanders for a last-resort, final offensive. Beginning on 6 February, the Piedmont Offensive launched 25 Italian divisions, comprising of 512,500 soldiers (a sixth of these soldiers being citizens rushed into enlistment past training) to recapture Gorizia and repel the allies out of Italy into an eventual stalemate without passage through the Alps.

    On the individual troop level, the Piedmont Offensive’s soldier was either one inexperienced and trained, simply citizens forced to bear arms in uniform without training, or one of exhausted veterans defeated from earlier campaigns. Rocchelli’s Piedmont Offensive (6 February to 1 March) was the biggest military disaster the Italian forces witnessed during the entire war. The Italian army was already worn out at this point, only one-fourth of their motor vehicles still function, infantry divisions at one-third to one-half strength, and logistic issues prevented the full equipment of rifles to the Italian army. Rocchelli’s offensive involved such a vast quantity of soldiers that, to remain organized, Rocchelli decided to march the majority of his infantry along the three major roads towards Gorizia. The large number of soldiers on roads found themselves vulnerable when German and Brazilian divisions surprised attacked the marching Italians from both sides of the Veni and Monticini roads. Overall the Piedmont Offensive failed to conquer any objectives, to capture Gorizia, repel any ally advancement, and more casualties were inflicted on the own Italian forces than on the allies.

    Spain’s military command collapsed from rapid pinch and flank attacks through the Pyrenees and into the Iberian Peninsula. It seemed the entire northeast Spanish countryside stormed with ally infantry. Unable to defend against the invading allies in the Spring of 1801, Spanish King Sebastian IV sought a cease-fire on July 2nd. Chancellor Bosco in Italy didn’t sympathize with the same strategy; even with the collapse of his Spanish ally, Bosco hypothesized digging new trench lines from the Adriatic Sea. The more advancement made by the allies in Italy’s northern industrialized regions came more desperation by Trivoli’s command. Civilians were put to labor to construct this 200 kilometer trench line in early July, soldiers referred to as the “Bosco Line”.

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    The red line maps the Bosco Line​

    French zeppelins realized the trench efforts underwent by Italy; allies’ military commanders rushed for an incursion of the Italian peninsula before an entire, coast-to-coast, trench line could be completed. The Italian Chief of Staff, General Aldo Rocchelli, repeatedly argued to Chancellor Bosco and his cabinet that the trench line only assured an Italian defeat. The Bosco Line cut off access to Italy’s most industrialized regions needed to continue the war effort; Rocchelli claimed continuing war manufacturing with just the Sicilian and Australian manufacturing bases was insufficient towards maintaining defense. The increasing number of Brazilian and French vessels in the Mediterranean would most definitely lead to a full scale blockade by 1801, removing Australian iron, steel, and lead unable to reach Italy past the Suez Canal. A war of attrition could not be reapplied with a Bosco Line, Italy could no longer starve and the allies greatly benefited from the Brazilian entry into the war. Roccelli’s argument concluded the Bosco line eliminated any sort of Italian victory whereas a successful counter-attack against the allies could lead to a potential stalemate and truce. Digging Italy into two would prevent Italian capability to launch any sort of counterattack.

    Italy’s war effort collapse finally became self-ware in result of the July Riots. The first riot emerged in Lipari on 19 July, led by the young socialist Salvatore Gambino. Originally the Lipari Revolt was a protest by nationalized weapon factory workers who hadn’t received their promised paychecks in five weeks. Other factory workers joined to after Chancellor Bosco’s government began regulating war material prices to combat inflation and mounting war debts, which forced free market industrialists to cut their workers’ wages in reply to regulated profits. Sicily’s laborers revolted throughout Lipari, Silvana, and Saracco on the week 19-26 July. Northern Italy’s heavily industrialized region inevitably would be captured and controlled by the allies, had the Bosco Line be completed it blocked access to the valuable region. The increasing Brazilian presence in the Mediterranean signified the Suez Canal would so be blockaded or apprehended, thereby removing access to Australian steel, coal, and iron. With Italy’s Sicilian manufacturing base in revolt, economic continuation of the war was anything but feasible. The Italian government under Chancellor Bosco and King Leopold I finally accepted their incontrovertible defeat and ventured for an armistice on 3 August.

    August 3’s “Armistice at Torchello” concluded the cessation of hostilities, exchange of prisoners of war, promises for reparations, disposition of Italian warships and submarines, demilitarization of Slovenia, withdrawal of Italian soldiers in French colonial possessions in Africa (preservation of these colonial infrastructure as well), and the agreed conditions if Trivoli violated the agreement. Negotiations for a conclusive peace treaty began on 11 August in Bachburg; the Treaty of Bachburg’s ratification prolonged to January, 1802.

    While delegates from Aquitaine, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, and Spain debated in Bachburg through August and Winter, France mobilized its soldiers east to rescue their traditional Hungarian allies from Russia. French leaders contained major concerns of a collapse of the Hungarian Empire, a close ally they had invested so much into. The developed relationship, both diplomatically and militarily, between Germany and France during their struggles against Spain and Italy caused the German government to join French intervention east to continue Franco-German partnership after the fall of Spain and Italy.

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    Treaty of Velekov​
    German and French action in Hungary decisively propelled Russian troops out of former Greko-Turkey and eastern Hungarian Empire. The Russian army’s technological disadvantage and outdated military tactics compared to the recently very experienced western Europeans cost them their significant military gains quickly. Reconnaissance provided from airplanes, defensive-line penetrating tanks, large surplus of artillery shells leftover from the western front, and greater equipped soldiers (ammunition, grenades, protective steel helmets, revolver side arms have primary weapon malfunction), all provided French and German soldiers significant advantage against Russian ones. By February, Hungary-France-Germany’s troops were invading the pre-war Russian homeland. Consequently, Russia surrendered all conquered territory, prisoners of war, transfer of Crimea to a Hungarian-Turkish joint- administration, and reparations to Hungary, Greece, and Turkey, all of this agreed to at the Treaty of Velekov.

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    The ratification of the Treaty of Bachburg in Germany, 1802.​

    The Treaty of Velekov (1802) humiliated Russia, deteriorating Russian patriotism among its citizens. The treaty came just five weeks after negotiations in Germany finally came to a conclusion when the Treaty of Bachburg was ratified by seven participants on 12 January 1802. Italy was stripped of its colonies on a global scale. Australia was an obvious region to remove from homeland Italy’s hands, the amount of iron and coal it produced was extremely vital and strategically valuable for any war. German delegates assumed that with Australia removed, Italy couldn’t fight a future conflict during the new era of industrialized warfare. Yet the French and Brazilians worried if Italy kept territories across the planet, a global network of naval bases could be established (much like the English and French do) and to launch submarine hostile endeavors. Thus every overseas island outside of the Mediterranean Sea (Fiji, Samoa, Nauru, Mauritius, St Helena, and Comoros) was stripped from Trivoli’s control and Italy was banned from future colonization without the Collective European Security Council’s (CESC) approval. The CESC’s establishment with the Treaty of Bachburg included Aquitaine, Brazil, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain as its founding members with intention to legislate peace and international cooperation to avoid conflict. Any legislation required a two-thirds majority and with two-thirds of the original members being from the allies, the allies were de facto in power of the Coalition. The Treaty of Bachburg established reparation costs for Spain and Italy, as well as set up preparations to reestablish free states in Bellatora and Slovenia. To much vexation from the French, the allies agreed to let Italy keep Libya as a result of French violation of the Congo Congress. Italian delegates constantly brought up the Congo Congress’ violation, which earned them negotiating room throughout the talks. Egypt, however, was deemed too valuable (resources ranging many, from honey to iron ore) and access through the Suez Canal was seen as the most valuable passage on the entire planet. Northern Africa was divided by giving ceding Sudan, Eritrea, and Egypt from Italy to France; Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, and Senegal to Germany. Spain was allowed to keep Morocco and Italy allowed to keep Libya-Tunisia. An “open door policy” would be established from foreign bankers to invest in the reconstruction of Italy. Interest rate minimums be set and regulated by the Collective European Security Council. Brazilian delegates, under pressure from Philbert Bulgarelli, pushed for new constitutions for Spain and Italy that did not continue their monarchies. Thus an end to the Italian and Spanish monarchies, forcing King Leopold of Italy and Sebastian IV of Spain to abdicate the day of the Bachburg Treaty’s ratification in 1802. The allies saw Italy as the aggressors of the war; the French viewed Italian efforts to defend Slovenia against their ally Hungary as open hostility against French-Hungarian allies and Italian submarines in the Atlantic was deemed too aggressive by the Brazilians throughout the European conflict. The Treaty of Bellatora sought to break Italian nationalism into shambles, contain Italian global influence and power throughout the globe if Italy was to ever threaten other European powers again, exploit Italian markets by ceding colonial resources and opening up new markets.

    World War 1 brought immense destruction upon Europe that left 15 million military soldiers dead total. Italy’s military endeavors measured 2.5 million deaths, the most of any nation. 23 million soldiers returned home wounded and 2.6 million civilians died from situations like ethnic cleansing in Hungary and Slovenia, winter starvation in northern France and Germany, or warfare’s turmoil in Aquitaine, France, Slovenia, Italy, Hungary, Greko-Turkey, and Russia. Tolling over 40 million deaths, World War 1 was the most catastrophic, loss of life, bringer of destruction, largest war in history – at the time. Politically, the monarchies in Italy, Spain, Greko-Turkey, and Slovenia were abolished (Aquitaine’s monarchy restored), the Collective European Security Council at last established an international political organization in hopes of achieving peaceful methods, Brazilian politics became increasingly involved in Europe. Economically, the world war greatly expanded mass production and the use of machinery to perform previously human labor task, in the 1801-1810 decade, post-war time production turned to automobiles, airplanes, and radios. Northern Italy, Southern France, most of Hungary, Aquitaine, and the Turkish capital of Maltepez suffered devastating losses of physical property, landscapes, and finances. The social impacts included three million more women of ‘marriageable age’ (that being the middle two-thirds of the population, in this analysis ages 15-60) than men in Italy’s 1803 consensus. Consequently, the average age of marriage dropped as parents encouraged their daughters to secure husbands at earlier ages. In Italy, women who were desperate for husbands and moved to Italian-speaking nations like Valentia and Brazil became known as “Magaris” (Magari roughly translating to ‘let’s hope’ or ‘I wish’). Though earlier marriage rates meant earlier birthing rates among the Italian population, the economic hardships and reduced male population meant the overall number of births sharply fell in the World War 1’s aftermath. However, the World War’s effects didn’t last an interim but forever shaped history’s followed events.
     
  12. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
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    #12
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    1802 - 1821

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    The Brazilian Minister of State Simone Benivieni furnished the Gorzano Convention in the Spring of 1802, leading the construction of a new constitution with German and French idealists. The new constitution declared Italy a democratic parliamentary republic with universal suffrage for all men and women ages 20 and above, removed the monarchy, allowed the existence of all political parties regardless of their ideologies (reversing Chancellor Bertoldo Padovan’s outlawing of the Italian Socialist Party in 1773).

    Vittorio Bosco resigned his position as chancellor during the Bachburg Peace Conference. The office wasn’t resumed until after parliamentary elections in the autumn of 1802. Under the new “Gorzano Constitution”, the chancellery emerged as the Head of Government in addition to its previous Head of State powers. Bosco’s pro-war Patriotic Party collapsed following 1801 and 1802, its members formed and joined new parties such as the Nationalist Party, Conservative Party, Golden Bull Party, Reformist Party, and Munificent Party. 1802’s election failed to produce a majority for any party in Parliament, leaving the Golden Bull Party’s Luigino Cremaschi the elected chancellery with plurality - the Golden Bull Party only possessing 22.8% seats in Parliament.

    Cremaschi’s government focused towards the readmission of police into cities and regions to restore order, protect the re-opening of free trade with French, German, Hungarian, Aquitaine, Greek, Turkish, and Brazilian markets, and secure the rebuilding of northern industry. The central Italian government suffered from deadlock during the first two years under its first assembled parliament under the Gorzano Constitution. Radical and stubborn agendas from all parties prevented cooperation and compromise. The Nationalist Party blamed the escalating economic stagnation on the government’s inability to cooperate and opposed the democratic system itself, preferring an authoritarian, autocratic state like 1665 pre-revolution Italy. The Conservative Party blamed the war’s failure and the followed financial instability on declining morals brought on by industrialism. All compromises by the Reformist, Golden Bull, Nationalist, and Munificent Parties to rebuild Italy’s industrial and economic sectors were blocked and vetoed by the Reformist Party which strived for a return to agrarian society. The Conservative Party’s agenda discouraged economic expenditure by the government and strived to legislate morality while the Munificent Party, under the heavy sponsoring of Italy’s wealthiest, attempted to return Italian economics to pre-war levels by reducing tax brackets on the upper class and corporate tax rates to encourage financial investments by industrialists. During the 1804 election, the Munificent Party merged into the Golden Bull Party to assimilate power for both parties, gain access to the chancellery, and the Golden Bull Party to tap into the proficient donations by wealthy industrialists. Luigino Cremaschi assured himself continuation as Chancellery with the annexation of the Munificent Party which, after the 1804 Parliamentary elections, gave the Golden Bull Party 37.3% seats in Parliament.

    The Golden Bull Party’s success existed shortly, Italy’s post-war economy failed to fasten its enduring decline. Post-war Italy’s banking system was essentially in the hands of the allies, due to that and terrible credit of a ruined economy, meant tremendously high interest rates. Even with corporate and upper class tax rates reduced to considerably low levels, investors’ confidence remained miniscule. From the World War, mass production techniques improved so much that the efficiency of per man-hour increased a staggering 40%. Italy lost its colonial markets to sell to, most importantly Australia, and Italy’s domestic market couldn’t afford many mass produced items such as the automobile or the radio. This enormous output of goods clearly required an increase in purchasing power, or in other words: higher wages. Severe hyperinflation throughout Europe caused by the end of wartime production made trading with fellow European markets difficult, though the French and Germans still possessed colonial markets to take advantage of. The influx of labor from returning soldiers added to the high unemployment. Prices increased as companies struggled to profit. Resources like iron, copper, and steel became very scarce without Australia proliferated prices. While wages stayed the same and prices increased, the inflation devalued the wages’ already-low true values.

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    Salvatore Gambino​

    The deteriorating Italian economy, as depressions tend to, enabled the emergence of radical parties. The most principle party to historically emerge was the Communist Party in 1804 by Salvatore Gambino. As a result of the World War, many Italians lost their national identity and turned to economic-social identification. The Communist Party’s origins are that of Gambino, but Salvatore Gambino’s origins are one of the darkest. His mother Rosina Gambino was arrested in 1758 for begging, a crime the city of Lipari did not tolerate kindly, while her husband imprisoned a two year sentence for “drunkenness, 'using profane language in front of a lady’, and destruction of public property” and unable to contribute for his family’s livelihood. Because the woman was pregnant (with young Salvatore), sending her to Australia would’ve been costly. The police feared she would give birth on her voyage there, let alone the fact that Australian prisons would exclude a baby from its cells and the small Australian governments didn’t fund orphanages. Thus the police decided to offer Mrs. Gambino, now property of the state, and her services to the University of Ferrero Hospital, located in downtown Lipari and named after the royal Ferrero Dynasty. The famous research institute made great use of Rosina Gambino, they paid often 100 despairing pregnant women a year for research testing. Women in this magnitude of desperation of money couldn’t afford their children after birth anyways, participating in these experiments at the time was considered moral and ethical. At the research facility, English-born Professor Bernard Duhamel attempted to modify a child’s gender before birth. This was one of many, many ideas he tested and documented. Duhamel’s notebook was the first known recorded evidence of the discovery of the origin of fraternal and identical twins. But in Rosina Gambino’s case, she was injected at vital points with testosterone, doing so Duhamel hoped would result in 100% of the births being males. In this experiment, almost 60% of cases resulted in miscarriages. But Rosina Gambino gave birth to Salvatore Paulo Gambino on February 26, 1759. High levels of testosterone combined with low levels of cortisol and serotonin resulted with Salvatore showing signs of psychopathic character throughout his life. Abnormally high levels of testosterone, while resulting in natural athleticism and an energetic personality, made Salvatore Gambino aggressive, created tendencies towards antisocial behavior, sometimes violent, and a very dominant personality.

    Salvatore Gambino obtained an education while attending Lipari Sud Institute for Boys until age 11 when his father died during the 1770 Fabric Factories Strike, in which the Italian Army fired upon workers attempting to organize a protest for shorter hours and higher wages. After his father’s death, Salvatore Gambino was forced to work as a shoe shine in the streets of Lipari for his mother’s and his own financial survival. The killing of his father by the army brought Salvatore to despise the King Giovanni I “the Ironside” and monarchs alike. Hatred of the very army that fired upon his father and the monarch for which it served directly caused Salvatore to refuse to enlist when he was selected for military service at age 17, leading to three years in prison. During this time locked in prison in Sardinia, he befriended an Englishman by the name “Renaldo” Dedrick Wallace. Wallace was incarcerated in 1774 for alleged (but never proven) conspiracies and endeavors for the Italian Socialist Party (outlawed in 1773 by Chancellor Bertoldo Padovan, all those who continued association were imprisoned). The abolishment of the Italian Socialist Party occurred the same year of the Torchello Rebellion that resulted in the complete outlawing of organized workers’ protests and workers’ union. During their confinements, Dedrick Wallace translated Benjamin Hiddleton’s The Struggles of the Proletariat that outlined communist doctrines and beliefs. Gambino began recording Wallace’s translation of Hiddleton’s writings around 1777 and kept the collections with him when released in 1779. Upon his return to Lipari, Gambino discovered his mother died of malnourishment after losing her occupation as a maid and turned back to homelessness and begging. He went to become a metalworker in downtown Lipari where he maintained a life of poverty and secretly met with coworkers to organize strikes on multiple occasions. When the World War broke out in 1795, Salvatore Gambino was exempted from conscription due to his valued war-time profession as a skilled metal worker. During the war, he involved himself in several strikes demanding higher pay, improved working conditions, fairer hours, and an end to the war. Salvatore Gambino led the largest World War protest in Italy when nationalized weapon factory workers, whom hadn’t receive promised paychecks in five consecutive weeks, performed sit down strikes that spread to protests across Sicily. Laborers found themselves encouraged to join the protests after Chancellor Bosoc’s government legislated war material prices regulation to combat inflation and their mounting war debt, which in result forced the other (non-nationalized but free market) industrialists to cut their workers’ wages in reply to regulated and reduced profits. Thus the free market workers joined nationalized factory workers’ protest 19-26 July, 1801. The collapse of the Italian government and law enforcement during Italy’s surrender in 1801 permitted Salvatore Gambino to declare the formation of the Italian Union Party at the Nagner Factory courtyard in Lipari on September 22nd, 1801.

    Gambino and his communist Union Party drew crowds across Sicily at public rallies and speeches. In one of his more notable speeches at Silvana, the "Prevailed Disparity Speech” in July 1802, Gambino stated:
    The Prevailed Disparity Speech rallied hundreds of thousands Communists, increasing Gambino’s Union Party membership by seven-fold. Come the 1802 Parliamentary elections, Gambino’s party obtained 28 seats (5% of the total 561 seats). Four of these seats came from outside of Sicily, that being three from Gorizia and one from Po.

    While Gambino considered the Union Party only achieving 5% of the seats in Parliament an embarrassment, the communists now had a foot in the door within the blueprints of history. During a period of economic turmoil, radicals came from both the left and right. Italian nationalists blamed their defeat in the World War on government authority, a lack thereof. Religious fundamentalists accused declining social morals for the recessing social environment. Gambino acted increasingly aggressive in between the 1802 and 1804 election period. To compensate for his shortcomings, Salvatore Gambino travelled the Italian Peninsula in 1803 on what he titled “The Worker Unity Tour”. After speaking in front of a small crowd at Marchetti University in Austiae, Gambino inspired the local professor of political science Ambrosio Piagnone. Piagnone heard many notions in Gambino’s speech that he already agreed with, including the blame of Italian post-war turmoil onto capitalist bankers and lobbyists. Following that speech at Marchetti University, Pagnone took a serious belief into communism and began working as a communist activist. As political science professors tend to do, Piagnone debated another professor over effective policy management to pull Italy out of its turmoil. The debate was published into the university newspaper then copied and printed by the Butcher’s Daily (a popular critic publication in Italy during the late 18th century). Famous lines in this published debate included:
    Piagnone proved to be quite persuasive in the debate’s recordings, using metaphors efficiently so that every Italian could comprehend regardless of his or her education. Gambino perused the famous debate and recognized Piagnone’s talents. In October, Gambino brought Piagnone to Lipari, personally meeting Piagnone upon his arrival at the railway station, and proceeded to give him a long private audience. Piagnone capitulated to Gambino and sincerely swore total loyalty – a pledge never broken. "I love Gambino, his erudition and leadership exceeds any others’” Piagnone wrote.

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    Professor Ambrosio Piagnone​

    Ambrosio Piagnone wasn’t the only notable recruitment Gambino made in 1803. He reconnected with Renaldo Wallace, his English-born cell mate from the Sardinian Penitentiary, translator of Benjamin Hiddleton’s “the Struggles of the Proletariat”, and converter to the communist cause. One of the most powerful members of Parliament, Antonio Moriarti, switched allegiance to the rising communist party after the 1804 elections in which Gambino’s Union Party recorded an impressive but surprising 104 seats. The renamed the “Worker’s Communist Party” (WCP) measured 23.7% of Parliament’s votes and now considered widely as a major influence in Trivoli. Antonio Moriarti, a short Corsican man, voiced powerful control and impact within Parliament. Moriarti was popular among leftists, ranging from moderate liberals to the radical communists, and was a self-described “idealist progressive”. A short manifesto was drafted by Moriarti in the winter of 1805-06, titled “International Socialist Platform”, which outlined obstacles and directions that worldwide communism must confront. These included:
    • A Bassius system of government. This refers to the ancient Trivolin philosopher Bassius. The authority of a communist state must be democratically elected and governed by a ruler who works alongside the common man, wielding at the blacksmith’s to tilling in the fields. “In communism, every leader mustn’t be paid by the government but by the profits of a better livelihood. Only in this system, is a state truly communist.” Moriarti writes.
    • The constant expansion of communism.
    • Socialist democracy - achieving communism by democratic means. This bulletin was based upon the conclusion that through democracy, communism is inevitable.
    • Maintained freedoms of thought - which are necessary for internal communist improvement and social progress itself. “Abolishment of private property doesn’t mean social freedoms that of speech and of the press, too.”
    • The achievement of an eventual one-world communist government and state.
    • Legalism, in which a system of laws can make even a weak elected-leader effective.
    Moriarti was a man of stubborn idealist philosophies that wasn’t afraid to speak his mind. The Golden Bull Party collapsed in the 1806 Parliamentary elections. The Golden Bull Party failed to successfully deal with unemployment riots, a diminishing federal budget that resulted in reduced welfare expenditure, and criticism from political opponents. It lost 51 seats in 1806, falling from 37.3% control of Parliament to 28.4%. The Worker’s Communist Party added twenty seats, ranking the Communists at 153 seats in Parliament and the Golden Bull Party at 159 seats. Even with 27.2% of Parliament, the Golden Bull Party remained the decision maker in government; contrasting parties preferred to work with the Golden Bulls instead of any radicals. Salvatore Gambino took upon more aggressive policies to achieve power in Trivoli. In late 1806, Gambino forged the Protezione Lavoratori – or “Worker’s Guard”. The Worker’s Guard, claimed at the time to be the body guards of the Worker’s Communists Party, was orchestrated by Gambino to intimidate political opponents. The deaths of seven non-WCP Parliament members between 1806 and 1808 were most likely the product of the Workers’ Guard.

    The Worker’s Communist Party milestoned a vital victory in August, 1807. For the first time since the World War, the Trivolin government expanded public welfare instead of reducing it. The WCP surpassed the 50.1% vote requirement for legislation through the votes of Reformist and Conservative members of Parliament. Many of these were intimidated, extorted, humiliated, or bribed. The Workers’ Guard consummated its value to the Party and Gambino tapped Mezentius Napaloni to Director of the Workers’ Guard. Napaloni earned a fair reputation in the World War as a Cavalier Officer in the Eastern Front under Raffaello Capello. Young Napaloni led a daring charge at the Battle of Történelem and forced a gap in Hungarian defenses, but eventually found himself captured and a prisoner of war for the remainder of the war. His loyalty to the state was legitimized by refusal to expose Capello’s positions and war plans. After the war Napaloni served as Chief of Police in the city of Trivoli. While remaining Chief of Police in Trivoli he worked for Gambino’s Workers’ Guard.

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    Mezentius Napaloni, Director of Workers’ Guard​

    Napaloni was a deeply religious man raised in downtown Trivoli. After a violent history at Leoncavallo School for Girls and Boys, his father forced him into a more pacifist and peaceful direction. Hence he became an apprentice to a priest at the Trivolin Abbey della Provvidenza where he was possibly in fact sexually abused. At age 21 in 1787, he befitted the rank of an Ovidiast Minister. Napaloni worked as a minister until 1795, when the World War broke out. He quickly enlisted, indulging into his natural militaristic violent nature. Apart from being an Italian with blue eyes and red hair, Napaloni stood out from his colleges with unsurpassed fearlessness. Piagnone described Napaloni in his journals as “always serious and dutiful in character”. Following the World War, to which he resented the Italian defeat, he continued his living through police work. As Moriarti once put it
    Gambino himself even joked that “Napaloni sleeps in uniform.” However, evidence suggests he had no interests in communist ideology whatsoever. He had never been enrolled or supported a union, nor worked in factory professions. Napaloni valued authority and strength, something the WCP expressed in its radio talks and parades. Antonio Moriarti theorized that Mezentius Napaloni was “possibly farther right than the East” and considered the man would be a leading fascist if it wasn’t the Workers’ Communist Party rising stardom in Parliament.

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    The 1808 election experienced violent riots across Italy, almost entirely the credit of the WCP. Defeat of the World War was blamed on capitalists and monarchists; failure of recovery blamed on the Golden Bull and Conservative Parties. Dozens of MPs chose not to run for re-election either because they feared Workers’ Guard extremists harming them or disbelief that their district would re-elect them after the ’08 Italy riots. The election turnout was the highest in democratic Italy’s history. Farming peasants made trips to the nearest city or town simply to vote. Factory workers who listened to WCP radio talks (most of which were personally written and voiced by Piagnone) encouraged their spouses and family to vote Communist with them. World War veterans, angered by reduced veteran benefits by the struggling post-war benefits and blaming capitalists for their defeat, violently attacked banking institutions in Gorizia, Po, and Tuscany. 1808 produced a 53.1% Worker’s Communist Party Parliament; 298 of Parliament’s 561 total seats under Gambino’s thumb.

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    Piagnone compellingly speaking before crowd at the People’s Parliament Building in Trivoli​
    Salvatore Gambino was easily elected Chancellor with his 53.1% majority. Italian socialists, communists, and leftists extremists celebrated their victory, while banks panicked. Italian banks called in their loans, refused to release people’s accounts, and rushed in their owners and stock holders’ hopes to leave the communist-transitioning nation. To prevent loss of capital, Salvatore Gambino decreed the Gorzano State of Emergency. Piagnone infamously climbed onto his office window before newspaper reporters and claimed:
    The communist government suspended basic civil rights, suspended the Gorzano Constitution limits of government authority, and allowed conviction without trial. Gambino had consolidated power in Italy by June 1808 with these decrees, all in the name of ‘public safety and order’.

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    Piagnone’s ‘Window Rally’ imparted the Communist Party as a populist party to which the public could connect and relate.​

    Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Gambino and his political allies began to suppress the remaining political opposition. The “corrupt and conspiring” Golden Bull Party was banned and all its assets seized. Constitutional reform enacted a government suitable with those ideas that of communism. A “constitutional convention” was declared. While the Gorzano Constitution outlawed the forsaking of itself as the highest power in the land, it specified ratification of any section (with few exceptions). While the constitution was revised by Gambino and his two closest political idealists – Renaldo Wallace and Antonio Moriarti – it sparked anxiety among Italian military, industrialists, and political leaders. Consequently, Gambino purged critics of his new regime, eliminated political opposition, and loved ones of banking families. Widely-recognized MPs with considerable influence, instead of being executed or arrested, witnessed firsthand the deaths of family members to drive them to fear the Communists so greatly that they would subjugate into their power.

    By legislating one amendment to the constitution at a time, the Communist Party ratified an essentially new constitution (under the same title of the Gorzano Constitution). Conservative and Reformist Party members were prevented from entering the Italian Capitol Building by the Worker’s Guard to prevent any filibusters in the early stages of its amending. From the “Communist Triumvirate’s Reforms” (the three leaders being Gambino, Wallace, and Moriarti), a centralized single-party authoritarian state emerged with agrarian collectivism and the government seizure of all private property. The Ministry of Interior Security was created due to many citizens hiding private property and attempting to flee the nation. Napaloni’s Workers’ Guard reorganized to the Ministry of Interior Security’s administration and Napaloni appointed as the Director. Under the new constitution, the Chancellor’s Cabinet’s power was amplified. Some, not all, of the new “Ministries” and their Directors were:
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    • Director of Foreign Affairs, Renaldo Wallace. This position served as Deputy of the Chancellery, advisor of foreign policy, responsible for handling external affairs, and serves as the highest ambassador in Italy.
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    • Director of State Security, General Filippo Matteotti. The Ministry of State Security essentially collected national defense - that being the Air Force, Army, Navy, and Special Forces - under one ministry so military leaders wouldn’t conflict and contradict commands as occurred in the World War.
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    • Director of Interior Security, Mezentius Napaloni. The Ministry of Interior Security administrated authority over law enforcement, fire departments, and hospitals throughout Italy. Being Director of Interior Security, Napaloni also was empowered with the Workers’ Guard.
      o The Workers’ Guard was one of the most important instruments in the communist endeavors to consolidate power in Italy. The Workers’ Guard conducted the responsibilities of border security, Gambino’s own secret police, suppressing underground resistance, and controlled its own criminal justice system separate from that of normal law enforcement’s.
      o As Gambino’s psychotic paranoia grew, so did the M.D.I.S.’s [Ministero degli Interni Sicurezza] funding. Unfortunately for the Italian people, the MDIS would be responsible for mass executions, ran the system of forced labor camps, deported entire nationalities, and its history included political assassinations abroad, influencing foreign governments and enforcing Gambinist policies.
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    • Director of Culture and Public Information, Ambrosio Piagnone. As far as Salvatore Gambino was concerned, this was the “Ministry of Propaganda”. It controlled Italian radios, cinema, visual arts, literature, theatre, and newspapers. PIagnone exercised public indoctrination through the Ministry of Culture and Public Information and eventually created a new form of warfare – psychological.
    Other ministries such as the ‘Ministry of Sciences and Education’ and the ‘Ministry of Construction, Industry, Commerce, and Transport’ existed. But in the line of succession if a Chancellor dies or resigns office follows in the order 1. Director of Foreign Affairs. 2. Director of State Security. 3. Director of Interior Security. 4. Director of Culture and Public Information. 5. The ironic position of Majority Whip in the one-party Parliament.

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    Major Italian Cities in 1809​

    The Constitution, while almost entirely different than the original Gorzano Constitution, was de facto still the Gorzano Constiution. The Workers’ Communist Party leaders needed to legitimize that their communist government was in fact a new government and with it a change of times not just a change in party. Antonio Moriarti suggested moving the government’s offices to a new city. Moriarti described Trivoli “symbolic of capitalist imperialism” and “monuments for the rich by the result of the exploitation of lower classes”. Trivoli was slightly industrialized in its northern and far northeastern regions, but measured a fifteenth in quantity of contained factories within the city’s limits. Moriarti favored rotating the capital between major industrial cities every “two to five years” to refute bureaucratic authority and display communism’s equal favoring for all workers everywhere. Moriarti, of course, was a proponent for continuous revolution and expansion of communism. Moriarti dreamed of a one world government. Thereby, in his ideology a worldwide government should rotate residence. “Democratic communism rules for everywhere, monarchists and bureaucratic communism dictate authority from one center.” Ambrosio Piagnone argued “such disorganized inefficient waste of funds and energy” when it came to rotating capital cities. Piagnone did, though, recommend resettling the capital city. Specifically to a region symbolic of urban life, factories, industry, the proletariat. The riddle for a new capital city was palpable. The city of Avins was the center of 18th century Italian industrialization and emerged abundant in factories; geographically positioned in the center of Northern Italy’s manufacturing life, more railroads led to Avins than Trivoli itself. Chancellor Gambino favored Piagnone’s relocation plan over Moriarti’s. Piagnone understood symbolism and a centralized government empowered the chancellor more while Gambino fundamentally disagreed with Moriarti on many political issues. On February 26 1809 for Salvatore Gambino’s 50th birthday, the city of Avins declared itself “Gambinoville”. The name change came just weeks after plans to relocate the capital were released by the Ministry of Public Information.

    Following constitutional reform, Gambino’s regime pursued a sixteen quarter economic development plan called “Centralizzato Piano di Produzione”. As the guideline for communist production over the next sixteen financial quarters – or, four years – it aimed to prepare Italy for complete self-sufficiency in four years (1809-1813), facilitated another Italian period of rapid industrialization through collectivization in agriculture, employment to 100%, the undertaking of monumental public works projects, and repair damages in North Italy from the World War. Italian peasants’ position in society was greatly improved through collectivization where peasants worked cooperatively on the same lands sharing equipment. Farming efficiency improved greatly. However distribution of farming output caused a famine in many parts of Italy in 1810, resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths. The regime had no systematic measurement of how much each town and city consumed in food. Sardinian villagers’ diets, for example, typically consisted of seafood because their island was mostly too rough for farming but required food imports to feed its population. Due to the localized structure of Gambino’s collectivization, Sardinia was forced to rely entirely on its own output and consequently starved.
    Piagnone once elaborated to Chancellor Gambino:
    Monuments as the product of communism, in Piagnone’s view, verified their ideology’s triumph over capitalism. Accordingly, the WCP Government undertook massive projects to authenticate communism as superior economically, return Italian patriotism that quickly decline after the World War and the recession that followed, provide labor for the still high unemployment rate, and improve Italy’s infrastructure. Between 1809 and 1813, propaganda construction works included:
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    Renaldo Wallace at the Bridge’s Grand Opening​
    • The Worker’s Bridge (1810-1813), connecting Sicily and mainland Italy through the Strait of Messina. At its completion it was the largest suspension bridge in the world, spanning at 1,524 meters and 2,988 total in length. Construction began in 1810, leaving just three short years to complete the massive project. Safety regulations were disregarded by managers and forced labor used in the more dangerous stages of construction. The span was completed by November 1813 from rushed construction efforts and completed in time for the 16 Quarter Guideline.
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    • The Gran Paradiso Dam in northern Italy began construction in 1809 but in no possible way could be finished in time for 1813’s goal. But it was ordered by the Centralizzato Piano di Produzione for electricity production for northern Italy (as part of Gambino’s industrialization goals) and for “public awe” which carved the way for the Gran Paradiso Dam to become the tallest dam in the world standing at 286 meters in height and 700 meters wide. By the 1820s, the damn was generating 2,000 GwH, enough to power 1,100,000 Italian households. Italy completed the dam by 1817.
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    • The “People’s Spectacular Stadium”, 2.3 kilometers outside of downtown Gambinoville. The capacity of the People’s Spectaular Stadium measured an impressive 125,000 spectators. The stadium possessed a special stand for Salvatore Gambino and his political associates. If there was anything Italians loved more than communism, it was Kneecapball. While the stadium served as an efficient mass entertainment center, its use was amplified by the dictatorship for propaganda rallies and mass celebrations. In 1815, Chancellor Gambino commissioned ‘First Architect of the Ministry of Construction, Industry, Commerce, and Transport’ and mouthful title-holder, Giorgio Rabirius, to redesign the city of Gambinoville on a grand scale, with huge buildings, wide boulevards, and the transportation system reorganized. The major project included a wide ten-lane road leading from Gambinoville Stadium across town to the State Citadel. After a large celebration completed with speeches and fireworks displayed at the stadium took place, a marching parade made themselves downtown. Construction for this megastadium began in the autumn of 1809 and finished jaw-droppingly quickly in 1813.
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    • The Monument to the People’s Heroes in Regalis consisted of a 68 meter tall statue (fourth tallest in the world at time of completion), gallery of communist philosophers and leaders, and homed the People’s Recognition Award Commission. The Commission awarded notable communists annually for advances in science, literature, peace, architecture, and for the advancement of communism. The commission titled the peace award “The Gambino Peace Prize” and of which Salvatore Gambino was awarded – twelve times.

    The Centralizzato Piano di Produzione was very successful. The Italian economy strengthened considerably. The plan reduced unemployment to 0.9% (despite communism requiring 100% employment, the economy was previously measuring between 15% and 26% unemployment). The massive mobilization of resources used in order to rapidly industrialize Italy to above pre-war, heck, above mid-war levels, created a massive demand for labor. Wage setting by Workers’ Communist Party planners also contributed to the sharp decrease in unemployment, which dropped in real terms by 50% from 1928 to 1940. With wages artificially depressed, the state could afford to employ far more workers than would be financially viable in a market economy.

    The general quality of life improved for the lower classes but property earned by the rich was confiscated by the state. Because of the success, Gambino didn’t waste any time with going ahead of a second Centralizzato Piano di Produzione. The ambitious Chancellor’s new plan required 20 financial quarters, it gave heavy industry the Government’s highest priority in efforts for rapid industrialization. For this goal, the regime targeted coal and oil to fuel factories and transportation. This marked an important point in the regime’s timeline for the Italian economy. The government was well-aware of oil reserves in the Italy colony of Libya, but after scouting regions in 1814 the government was informed of massive oil reserves. Gambino was alerted that “Italy has more oil than it has coal”, which later would greatly influence the third CPP (Centraizzato Piano di Produzione). Gambino’s 2nd CPP outline objectives, incentives and promises for:
    • Electricity for every household in Italy.
    • Increase steel production five-fold.
    • Increase oil extract five-fold.
    • Triple coal output.
    • Faster and more reliable rail transport and travel.
    • Introduction of state childcare to encourage mothers to work.
    • Revamp the Cervari Canal
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      The steel and coal production goals were never achieved, but fulfilled partially. Gambino didn’t need these goals to be achieved, he needed incentives for rapid growth. The 2nd CPP (1814-1819) is recognized as the most successful of all the goals. The government provided every house in Italy electricity. To achieve this goal, massive power plants underwent construction. Even more impressive than the Gran Paradiso Dam was the Leoncavallo Hydropower Station. This dam (pictured above) redistributed irrigation to Tuscan farms, generated record-breaking amounts of electricity, and symbolized Italian economic strength to citizens of the age.

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      Cervari Canal: the bold white line extending from Cervari to the Adriatic Sea​

      Moriarti considered the Cervari Canal (assembled in 32 B.C. by Trivolin Emperor Septimus) was outdated in technology, size, and capacity. The canal underwent refurbishment at certain locks before but only when they were falling apart. Moriarti argued that the canal was built for wooden Trivolin ships and couldn’t fit naval battleships or cruisers through. The length of locks were too short and too thin. The minimal depth of the canal was raised from 3.5 meters to 11 meters to suit sea going vessels. The 27 miles long and renamed “Gambino-Moriarti Canal” employed 24,000 workers over five years. The impatient Chancellor Gambino demanded the refurbishment be completed in time for the CPP 20 Financial Quarter outline. Conventionally, Gambino got his way.

      Since becoming the dictator of Italy, Gambino became increasingly hidden from public. Though the antisocial Chancellor still loved to participate athletics events. Gambino’s athleticism came naturally and during parades at the Peoples’ Spectacular Stadium he participated in javelin throws, 100 and 200 meter dashes, as well as archery. Most participated events were rigged.

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      Statue of Chancellor Salvatore Gambino in his home town of Lipari​

      Salvatore Gambino was able to present himself as a man of the people while increasingly removing himself from the public’s eye through a sophisticated cult of personality. Factors driving Gambino’s increasing public isolation were that of antisocial nature caused by his abnormal origins and the constant paranoia he lived him, likely due to psychopathy. The Chancellor’s official title was “Our Great Inspiring Leader of the Revolution, Wise Teacher of Hiddelism, Strong Defender of the Workers, and Great Chancellor of Italy”. Gambino had thousands of portraits, posters, statues and murals erected in his honor all over Italy. His face could be witnessed on the sides of buildings, at schools, train stations, and on all denominations of Italian currency. School children repeated the national slogan “Signor Gambino ha sempre ragione”, meaning “Sir Gambino is always right”. A light was left on his office long after he left or fell asleep as part of the propaganda goal to present Gambino as a workhorse for the benevolence of the people. While Piagnone painted this cult of personality with his powers as Director of Culture and Public Information, even being the Chief Editor of Italy’s only legal newspaper “L’Osservatore del Popolo” (The People’s Observor), it was Gambino who combed himself as a God-like figure. In 1814 Gambino decreed that no poster, clock or picture could be higher than his portrait inside of buildings. Salvatore Gambino reigned like a god.

      Before the domestic central planning of 20 Quarter CPP finished, Italy’s foreign political landscape changed forevermore. The radical change didn’t come from the nations often acting on the world stage – France, Germany, or Spain. It happened in the most isolated of Europe’s major powers – Russia.
      Russian Czarina Katerina I was impressed by General Dmitri Bolokov’s massive rallies in the capital city Velekov. Bolokov’s political opponents openly feared his rallies, one Russian congressman writing:
      In 1815, Katerina appointed Dmitri Bolokov to the Presidency in belief he could return the Russian Empire to world power status and restore civil order. The Treaty of Velekov in 1802 humiliated Russia and deteriorated patriotism among its citizens. Russia lost all conquered territory from the World War, ceded Crimea to Hungarian-Turkish join administration, and agreed to reparations to Hungary, Greece, and Turkey. Since well before the World War, the Russian Empire was treated like a minor power when it came to treaties, agreements, and issues. Western countries traditionally either ignored Russian interests or took advantage against the empire if an opportunity was presented. Hostility emerged against the Czarina and the very institution of monarchy after the damages the World War brought. Thus in 1805, Katerina westernized the Russian Empire with the formation of a democratically-elected Congressional Diet which she empowered legislative abilities and pledged it would grant basic liberties. Katerina’s advisors claimed the introduction of the democratic institution “spared the monarchy another hundred years.” Although she pledged to provide full participation in the Congressional Diet, Czarina Katerina retained political power by ruling the executive office of Presidency to be chosen and appointed by the incumbent monarch (but appointments consented by the Congressional Diet). Up to 1815, no party gained a majority in the Diet. Katerina believed the dominant, persuasive but intimidating Bolokov could legislate efficiently and lead the Empire. Bolokov emerged as an influential and vocal public figure. He preached that their nation was losing their values to communists and liberals while old world morals deteriorated. The World War rapidly industrialized participants but this was perceived as frightening, dehumanizing social change in the previously, for the most part, unindustrialized Russian Empire. Bolokov’s theories of “фашизм”, essentially fascism, hoped to combine elements of modern urbanized society with traditional social ethics and values. Dmitri Bolokov described nations like species in the Bolokov Manifesto (1811):
      Bolokov’s notions on social cleansing weren’t new to the Russian people. Russian literature illustrated a hierarchy of races for nearly a century since authors like Monterov and Ulyanov. World War veterans resented their defeat on the industrialized nightmares of machine guns, airplanes, and mobile artillery. Many Russians believed in a grand conspiracy by the West that led to a Hungarian trap for the Russian army for when Franco-German military commanders turned east. As Bolokov rose to power he used these veterans, men who were brutalized from the trenches and mortars of the World War and most of who had nothing to lose, for his angry, savage political movement called “Bolokovism.” His fascist system inherited a spirit of brutality and power through violent means. Dmitri Bolokov reaffirmed Russian national identity and optimistic bright depiction of the future during this time of widespread disorientation. Bolokovism promised a Slavic utopia through national strength and racial cleansing, a utopia where the innovations and changes of modern society (such as automobiles, airplanes, trains, radios, etc.) joined compatibility with moral purity and elements of pre-industrialized society. It was clear to Italian leaders like Gambino and Moriarti that communism wasn’t the only ambitious major aggressive power in Europe.

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      Edna O’Hannigan​

      Bolokov sought to rid Russia from “immoral communists” which caused a spike in immigration to Italy from Russian communists fleeing their politically right extremist government. The reaction towards Bolokov’s fascist ideology across Europe was either one of three things: mutual agreement in the Bolokov manifesto, fear of Slavic fascism, or both. That is, individuals among some nationalities agreed that nations were essentially organisms that must rid themselves of inferior races but believed their own ethnicities were superior and/or should eliminate other nations for their own country’s success. A successful fascist movement in Ireland, for instance, occurred when Edna O'Hannigan assumed power after the Irish War of Colors (1816-1818).

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      Early 19th Century Irish art of Lady Edna O’Hannigan​

      Edna O’Hannigan sought out a more independent and isolated Ireland than preceding governments. The English, Dutch, and French treated Ireland as their own vassal state. Irish farm stock was often stolen by English civilians; in 1794 the nation lost sizable fishing waters to England. O’Hannigan promised an isolated Ireland, free from European control. As one could imagine, neutral Ireland was the subject of immigration by men fleeing conscription and families fleeing bloodshed during World War (1795-1802). The increasingly xenophobic Irish, tired of subjugated, granted its government to Edna O’Hannigan who vowed to rid the island of minorities such as the Aquitaineans, English, French, and Spaniards.

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      Gambino and his famous “Autonera”​

      Fascist revolutions elsewhere, such as Greece and Poland, ultimately failed from overwhelming opposition or militaristic force. Meanwhile, within Italy’s own military, a plan to overthrow the Italian government was implemented in 1818. Stratocracy-ideology military leaders began plans on for “Funzionamento Tirannia” by the discreet orders of Director of State Security, General Filippo Matteotti. Salvatore Gambino lived with an irrational fear of sea travel and always travelled by rail or air. The operation planned multiple attempts on Gambino’s life. First, placing a timed explosive on Gambino’s train cart on his March diplomatic mission to France in April, 1818. Gambino’s security discovered the explosive device and the assassination attempt failed. Secondly, when Gambino flies to Italian-possessed Libya in July, 1818, sabotage the aircraft’s radio and order the escort pilots to shoot down Gambino’s aircraft. Gambino cancelled his routine trip to Libya and again, the coup failed. Again in July, experienced army snipers rested on the rooftop of the Alberghiera d’Arancio hotel in Gambinoville to assassinate the Chancellor through gun fire. When Gambino’s Autonera automobile drove down Wrench Street with the chancellor in the rear left seat, the assassins fired. Three shots were heard, only one hit the Autonera. The chauffeur made a quick right turn just as the assassins were firing. This caused their aim to miss and one bullet penetrated the car’s engine. The front of the car released an explosion and the engine caught on fire. Gambino’s Autonera spun out of control on the rainy street and crashed into a brick bakery building to the assassin’s left hand side. Black bricks rained down upon the car’s passengers including Gambino. Salvatore Gambino appeared unconscious while his security rushed to pull him from the vehicle. The assassins believed Gambino to be dead, when in fact he was knocked temporarily unconscious, and hurried to the hotel’s communication chamber to radio confirmation of their success. A loyal communist receptionist overheard the snipers’ radio conversation. She rushed into the street for police to seize the enemies of the state. In the meantime the Director of State Security declared Marshall Law after the coup. Armed soldiers marched into Parliament and locked down “possible suspects for revolutionary plotting”. An hour after the incident Gambino woke conscious. Against Gambino’s orders the military command refused to revoke marshal law status. Police handed the assassins over to the Workers’ Guard, who imposed harsh torturing techniques. Napaloni watched as the soldiers painfully confessed that their orders came directly from military command. The state arrested General Matteotti and the commands of the Army, Navy and Air Force. Matteotti hoped to assume political power to exert communism in his belief for continuous-revolution, a militaristic imperialist communist empire to invade surrounding “corrupt capitalist exploiters.” The navy general Basilio Zambone wanted to undo the communist social-economic system in which he despised. The army general Giovanni Paxini believed in turning Italy in a right-wing fascist Stratocracy and purge ethnic minorities. Gambino ordered the executions of Italy’s military commanders via burning at the Peoples’ Spectacular Stadium during the Benjamin Hiddleton 110th Birthday Parade on June 2nd, 1818.
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      Only known photo of Moriarti at the Birreria d’Inverno​

      Following the failed coup aroused a much larger conspiracy. The Moriarti Conspiracy, which would ultimately define the 19th century, began at Birreria d'Inverno. Alehouses and taverns like Birreria d’Inverno emerged in industrial cities following the communist rise to power. Antonio Moriarti met with Italian Air Force Major General Romeo D’Innocenzi in privacy at Moriarti’s favorite alehouse Birreria d’Inverno, which he attended regularly. A secret pact was agreed upon – Moriarti would make D’Innocenzi the General of Italian Armed Forces through Gambino in exchange for D’Innocenzi’s complete devotion whenever Moriarti called.

      Following the Birreria d’Inverno incident, Moriarti persuaded Chancellor Gambino to appoint D’Innocenzi as Deputy of State Security and thereby General of the Italian Military due to his “devotion to communist ideology”. “D’Innocenzi” is the surname given to Italian orphans and because of this, Romeo D’Innocenzi had no noble family background like many of the Italian military leaders. With no traces of monarchist or capitalist origins, only poverty and a military life, Gambino agreed D’Innocenzi best suited to be the next commander of Italy’s armed forces.

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      D’Innocenzi encouraged labor camps for military resource production​

      Over the next year, D’Innocenzi reorganized the Italian military and its hierarchy. D’Innocenzi was discovered by an orphanage in colonial Australia wondering urban streets begging for food, tragically abandoned by his parents. Due to the fact that he hadn’t any education (while mainland Italy enjoyed free public education for its youth, its colonies did not) he opted for the only career field an uneducated civilian could enter that wasn’t labeled as a dead end career: military service. At just around the age of 14 – official birth year being unknown but suspected to be 1770 – he joined the Imperial Italian Navy. It wasn’t just singing sailor tunes and finding the red light districts in each visited port. Hard work exhausted the young sailor but fed him with experience. Under the charismatic and academic leadership of Niccolo Argento on the admiral’s very own flagship the ITS Vechino, D’Innocenzi learned all there was to warfare. He ranked Commodore aboard the ITS Vechino by the time the World War broke out in 1795 and Argento suspected he might replace himself one day. But the stories and myths revolving around fighter pilot ace Timoteo Armati and his infamous Viol Violento in mid-1796 encouraged D’Innocenzi to pursue a career in the new warfare of air combat. When a fellow sailor discovered that Romeo hid The Struggles of the Proletariat, the communist outlining platform, under his pillow he perturbed he might be dishonorably discharged. D’Innocenzi requested and was granted a transfer into the 9th Italian Air Brigade in 1797. Between the years 1797 and 1801 he experienced a considerably high amount of action until his plane crashed in southern France and he injured his left arm for life. For the remainder of the war he trained recruits in the art of aviation combat. He remained with the air force until 1820 when Chancellor Gambino appointed him General of Italian Armed Forces much ado to his relationship with Antonio Moriarti.

      D’Innocenzi modernized the Italian military according to his experiences. He systematized his ideas through the “Ricettario la Guerre”. The ‘Warfare Cookbook’ argued an efficient air force for army and naval success. In naval battles, “One pilot in an aircraft with a little fuel is much more expendable than 30,000 tons of steel and 600 tons of fuel”. Essentially, aircraft were viewed more ideal and productive to use against enemy ships than wasting hundreds of sailors and tons of resources that a battleship costs. “The key to supremacy in the seas is Italians in the skies” he wrote. He encouraged the recent aviation improvements of metal framed monoplanes with stressed skins and liquid-cooled engines. He wrote that coal should be abandoned in favor of oil, which contains as much as 40% more energy per volume which extends naval vessels’ range and improves internal layout. He was well aware Italy owned vast oil reserves in Libya, a promised industrial future for the increasingly coal-depleted economy. D’Innocenzi observed that Argento often tracked enemy seagoing vessels hiding on the horizon but following their smoke vapor during his servitude aboard the ITS Vechino. D’Innocenzi witnessed that oil gave off considerably less smoke which gave it another advantage over coal-based navies by making visual detection more difficult. A new military hierarchy was implemented and D’Innocenzi renamed his position “Captain General” to further distinct him from other high ranking officers.

      Gambino handed the 4th Centraizzato Piano di Produzione over to Parliament to end their ‘bickering’ over many issues. Chancellor Gambino promised more governing powers and responsibilities to Parliament in the following years. The new CPP sought to dramatically boost Italy’s agricultural output to alleviate the food shortages plaguing the Italian populace. The 4th CPP also addressed children's health and reduced infant mortality, directly contributing to population growth, outlined to maintain a basic balance between overall social demand and supply, to improve economic efficiency, (especially that of product quality), and to adapt to the changing structure of social demand and the demands of economic modernization on inventions like the radio and automobile. The 4th CPP (1820-1824) cured many social and economic issues Italian communism was facing.

      By 1821, the seed of another communist revolution was sprouting. The English Recession (1818) produced a prolonged recovery in which numerous citizens from the working class found themselves unemployed for endurant periods of times and improved farming techniques did not help as it seemed to only push more people off the agricultural lands and into the crowded, sparse-job market cities. Revolution captured the front pages of newspapers in March 1821 when angered workers stormed the “Whiteladder District” in the English capital of Thamesmouth where England’s wealthy lived. Houses were stormed and raided, wealth was “rightfully redistributed”. What followed was a power struggle between the ruling capitalist class and violent communist revolutionaries.

      While the communist Italian government found music in the news of the English communist revolution efforts, it sparked a great debate in Gambinoville. Antonio Moriarti and MPs alike advocated for “unconditional military support” on the British isle to continue the global proletariat revolution through use of military force. Chancellor Gambino feared military aggression within England would ignite conflict with the capitalist-backed powers of France and Russia that announced military support against ‘anarchists’ in England. The debate raged on until August 1821 when Gambino sent his Deputy of Foreign Affairs, 2nd in Command, born Englishman and closest friend “Renaldo” Dedrick Wallace to England to negotiate a treaty with the English government that would outlaw any foreign military intervention within England. England captured Wallace and imprisoned him, threatening execution if Italy continued to ‘intervene in English affairs’ despite the original intention to prevent Italian intervention and current Franco-Russian involvement. As a result, Gambino sent in powerful air, naval, and armored units to assist the revolutionaries. He did this knowing so that his best friend Wallace would die at the hands of the capitalist English government, a man loyally devoted to Salvatore Gambino.

      Romeo D’Innocenzi now worked within a wartime Italy, thereby no military police inquiring D’Innocenzi’s motives for his orders. Moriarti, angered over the loss of their important colleague Renaldo Wallace, ascertained his hatred over Salvatore Gambino. D’Innocenzi and Moriarti orchestrated the Gambino Tragedy on September 29th. D’Innocenzi ordered his own military secret police, the Falchi, to disguise themselves in rebel clothing. They were equipped with English-manufactured weapons to not reveal their true origins and identities. They stormed Gambino’s palace around 10:00 pm coincidentally when the skies happened to be filled with thunder and lightning. Gambino was aware of his family being captured by the ‘rebels’ but ordered his grand Gambinoville palace to be lit into flames regardless so the guards wouldn’t discover or follow him down his escape tunnel, sacrificing his loved ones for his own gain once again. Gambino believed an anti-communist pro-capitalist coup d’état was in place. It’s widely accepted that Salvatore Gambino fled to the island of Corsica in belief that his own government betrayed him. Despite no body of the old chancellor being found, government radios announced the ‘great tragedy’ of a dead chancellor. Antonio Moriarti succeeded as chancellor and claimed Gambino died as the result of a capitalistic anarchist conspiracy which plotted to destroy the social progress achieved by Italian communism.

      Gambinism ended and Moriarti’s “endless revolution” for worldwide communism policies took effect. Chancellor Antonio Moriarti began rewriting history to give himself a bigger role in the 1808 Communist rise to power. Totalitarianism and militarism was Italy’s two new qualities. The regime of Antonio Moriarti had begun.
     
  13. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
    Italian Leaders Reference Sheet

    Italian National Leaders:


    Italian Emperors:
    Valadier Dynasty
    Silvanus Valadier 74 B.C. – 73 B.C.
    Cassius Valadier 73 B.C. – 52 B.C.
    Septimus Valadier 52 B.C. – 10 C.E.
    Felix Valadier 10 C.E. – 42 C.E.
    Ortho Valadier 42 C.E. – 46 C.E.
    Amatus Dynasty
    Aurelius Amatus 46 C.E. – 81 C.E.
    Quintillus Amatus 81 C.E. – 122 C.E.
    Cicero Amatus 102 C.E. – 103 C.E.
    Quintillus Amatus 103 C.E. – 103 C.E.
    Saturnus Dynasty
    Spurius Saturnus 103 – 124
    Faustus Saturnus 124 – 170
    Aetius Saturnus 170 – 198
    Thracius Saturnus 198 – 236
    Cornelius Saturnus 236 - 289
    Octovia Saturnus 289 – 322
    Calvus Dynasty
    Refunis Calvus 322 - 328
    Vitus Calvus 328 – 355
    Caelius Calvus 355 - 378
    Porcius Calvus 378 - 412


    Italian Monarchs:
    House of Montalcini - 132 Years
    Giorgio I “the Unifier” & Lisabetta I “the Patroness” (co-rule) 1384-1410 26 Years
    Lisabetta I (single-rule) 1410-1417 33 Years
    Giorgio II “the Ambitious” 1417-1444 27 Years
    Anthony I “the Dignified” 1444-1487 43 Years
    Lisabetta II “the Mad” 1487-1489 2 Years
    Anthony II “the Assertive” 1489-1516 27 Years
    House of Lombardi - 54 Years
    Anthony III “the Belligerent” 1516-1565 49 Years
    Anthony IV “the Solemn” 1565-1569 4 Years
    Sofia I “the Captivated” 1569-1569 0 Years
    Anthony V “the Disguised” 1569-1570 1 Years
    House of Ferrero - 127 Years
    Luigi I “the Great” 1570-1602 37 Years
    Lisabetta III “the Pioneering” 1602-1637 35 Years
    Giorgio III “the Amiable” 1637-1659 22 Years
    Anthony VI “the Monstrous” 1659-1667 8 Years
    House of Bianco - 136 Years
    Juliet I “the Equitable” (joint rule) 1668-1696 28 Years
    Paolo I “the Affable” (joint rule) 1668-1689 21 Years
    Frederico “the Awesome” 1696-1705 9 Years
    Paolo II “the Lion” 1705-1729 24 Years
    Giovanni I “the Ironside” 1729-1795 66 Years
    Leopold I 1795-1804 9 Years

    Chancellors of Italy:
    Gabriella Parrino 1668-1672
    Claudio Rovigatti 1672-1679
    Lazzaro Anselmetti 1679-1680
    Pino Caiazzo 1680-1683
    Sabrina Aucciello 1683-1691
    Giorgio Agnellutti 1691-1695
    Tommaso Poletti 1695-1697
    Ferdinando Borgoni 1697-1705
    Giancarlo Sarni 1705-1717
    -------------------------------------
    Fillipo Niro 1728-1731
    -------------------------------------
    Vincente D'ambrosio 1735-1751
    Missimo Lazzari 1751-
    Sebastiano Armati 1764-1767
    Bertoldo Padovan 1767-1774
    --------------------------------------
    Vittorio Bosco 1793-1802
     
  14. greenbay2014 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Sep 15, 2013
    Location:
    Seattle
  15. BrutusWasInnocent Active Member

    Joined:
    Jun 26, 2015
    Location:
    Boston
    This is a gold mine. Holy heavens this is impressive. I have never seen an alternate history that's ALL alternate. Everything from scratch!! After reading the earlier stuff I just scrolled down to see where its going and I get it that technology goes at a different pace in reference to time here, but did you continue this timeline into 20th century tech?

    Bravo, truly bravo. Gj with the photoshops too. I'm honestly going to be popping up some popcorn and just be reading this for the next week. Heavens almighty!
     
  16. BrutusWasInnocent Active Member

    Joined:
    Jun 26, 2015
    Location:
    Boston
    Savage.

    The manner in which the Americas are discovered yet the returners aren't taken serious by any of Europe's States somehow seems more realistic than OTL. It was also somewhat nice to be teased on the knowledge of the Americas only to be forced to wait later. Then the rise of a Chinese-West Coast North America?! Ooo i cannot wait to see what conflicts that'll bring!

    Savage.

    The whole campaign uniting the peninsula was fascinating but what the heck was happening with all the distracting pictures of delicious foods like spaghetti, muffins, and cinnamon rolls? Is this some sort of new alternate-history cultural product placement? :p