The discussion thread is here No Magellan Expedition 1515-1600 Verse 1 Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro (1433–1500, son of Pedro Afonso de Magalhães and wife Quinta de Sousa) and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, wife with issue of João Fernandes Barbosa. In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa, Cochin and Quilon. He participated in several battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu. He later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed. In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained. He married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories. After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp. He was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship and accepted it which caused him to remain under the service of the Portuguese King. Verse 2 In the former province of Saludong of Majapahit that was a victim of an attack of the Bruneians a few decades ago by Ragam Bolkiah and the trading towns of Faru, Tondo, Makabebe and Bigan would start to adopt islam but not completely til 1580 from Borneo, the former majapahit vassals, the Kingdom of Sapa and Kaboloan, now under the rule of the descendants of the rulers of Singhasari and Majapahit just like the kingdom of Mataram, Tondo and parts of Saludong is under Bruneian occupation and Kumintang are allies of the Bruneians and its coastal and trading cities are vassals of Brunei, the trading city states of Faru, Makabebe and Bigan would become loose vassals of the Kingdom of Sapa and Kaboloan forming the Kingdom of Saludong/Sapa near the end of the 16th century due to these trading states being dependent on Sapa-Kaboloan and the Malays from Sumatra and Javanese would start migrate to these trading towns which would assimilate into the locals and the Bruneians would have some control of the muslim parts of the Kingdom of Saludong like what it had when the towns that formed it were starting to convert to islam. After the eruption of Mt Pinatubo Ragam Bolkiah razed and attacked the Majapahit Province and defeated its Vassal Kingdoms of Kaboloan and Sapa and seized the city of Tondo and established Kota Saludong and also settled tagalogs in parts of the Northern Manila bay in the environs of Tondo and Meykawayan displacing many of its original inhabitants inland and west to Makabebe and Hagunoy after the destruction of Majapahit and the start islamicization of Java, the refugees from Java would also migrate to Saludong in the Kingdoms of Sapa and Kaboloan which have fused into one. Sultan Bolkiah's victory over Majapahit in the north by defeating the vassals of Majapahit and the Majapahit forces there and as well as his marriage to Laila Mecanai, the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra, widened Brunei's influence in the North East. This increased Brunei's wealth as well as extending Islamic teachings in the region, resulting in the influence and power of Brunei reaching its peak during this period. Bolkiah's rule reached essentially all of coastal Borneo, as far south as Banjarmasin, and as far north as the island of Saludong. Meanwhile on South the Kingdoms of Cebu and Butuan want saviors against the Muslim raiders and the Pisheya sailors from the Madya-as confederation and Sulu Sultanate would be raiders in the high seas, whose ruling class is from Sri Vijaya, the Sulu Sultanate is muslim while Madya-as is Buddhist. During Rajah Humabon's reign in Sugbu, the region had since become an important trading center where agricultural products were bartered. From Japan, perfume and glass utensils were usually traded for native goods. Ivory products, leather, precious and semi-precious stones and Shakara (sugar) mostly came from India traders and Burmese people traders. The harbors of Sugbu became known colloquially as sinibuayng hingpit , shortened to sibu or sibo ("to trade"). It was also during Humabon's reign that Lapu-Lapu was granted by Humabon the region of Mandawili (now Mandaue), including the island known as Opong or Opon (later known as Mactan). The Rajahnate of Butuan or Kingdom of Butuan, was an Indic polity centered on present Mindanao island in the city of Butuan in what is now the southern Philippines. It was known for its mining of gold, its gold products and its extensive trade network across the Nusantara area. The kingdom had trading relationships with the ancient civilizations of Japan, China, India, Indonesia, Persia, Cambodia and areas now comprised in Thailand. The balangay (large outrigger boats) that have been found along the east and west banks of the Libertad river (old Agusan River) have revealed much about Butuan's history. As a result, Butuan is considered to have been a major trading port. Shariff Muhammed Kabungsuwan was the first Sultan of Maguindanaw. A native of Johore in Maritime Southeast Asia, Kabungsuwan re-settled in Mindanaw where he preached Islam to the native tribes around the region. Kabungsuwan traded in T'buk(Old name of Malabang) Malabang, Ranaw, married to the native princess of Iranun. Kabungsuwan was of Arab-Malay ethnicity. He married a local princess and established the Sultanate of Maguindanaw in the 16th century. The sultanate was usually centered in the valley of Kotabato. Verse 3 Born to a poor family in the city Raoping of Chaozhou, Limahong had an early start in criminal activity and progressed to piracy, becoming leader of around 2000 pirates. His activities and attacks on ports and ships throughout southern China increased and a warrant was issued by the authorities to capture him alive and send him to the city of Tay Bin. He was married to Nataracy. He shifted his activities to piracy on the high seas and out of reach of China's power. He was able to accumulate up to 40 ships, whereupon he once again raided cities and ports in southern China. Limahong attacked a city occupied by Lin Daoqian, another Chinese pirate, but Lin Daoqianwas able to escape along with 5 of Limahong's ships. However, Limahong was able to capture 55 of Lin Daoqian's fleet and thus increased his own to 95 ships. He was now a veritable king of the high seas of southern China. In late 1573, he gathered an army of 3,000 Chinese warriors, renegades and vagabonds and fled to the island of Saludong. There, he and his band of outlaws sought refuge. By this time, a force of 40,000 soldiers and 135 ships was sent by the Ming emperor to kill and capture the pirates. Limahong and his troops first arrived in an area between Bigan and the northern part of Kaboloan where in he established a Kingdom. The newly formed greater Saludong/Sapa Kingdom would not mind the Kingdom of Limahong, named Linsheng and Limahong gained most of Samtoy territories with the exception of Bigan and nearby towns which became parts of the Greater Saludong/Sapa Kingdom, the people of the new founded Kingdom of Limahong would also be loyal subjects of the Saludong/Sapa Kingdom forcing the Kingdom of Limahong to be vassal of the Kingdom of Saludong in the begining of the 17th century. Verse 4 During Rajah Humabon's reign in Sugbu, the region had since become an important trading center where agricultural products were bartered. From Japan, perfume and glass utensils were usually traded for native goods. Ivory products, leather, precious and semi-precious stones and śarkarā (sugar) mostly came from India traders and Burmese people traders. The harbors of Sugbu became known colloquially as sinibuayng hingpit , shortened to sibu or sibo ("to trade"). It was also during Humabon's reign that Lapu-Lapu was granted by Humabon the region of Mandawili (now Mandaue), including the island known as Opong or Opon (later known as Mactan), Lapu Lapu would found a Muslim Tausug colony in the area of Cebu, since Lapu-Lapu's origin is Tausug and Bornean. On the latter part of the 16th century the island of Mactan and the areas given to Lapu-Lapu would adopt islam from Buddhism causing the City of Mandaue and island of Mactan have tausug and muslim influence, while Butuan would gain more muslim converts as well, the environs of the City of Mandaue as well as Mactan would become muslim near the end of the 16th century. Verse 5 The Spanish would focus the gold from the new world in the wars against the protestants in helping the Austrian Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire on the reign of Philip II and Philip III giving the Spanish and Austrians a more invincible armies which are paid by the King. The Battle of Ksar El Kebir in 1578 saw both the death of the young king Sebastian and the end of the House of Aviz. Sebastian's successor, the Cardinal Henry of Portugal, was 70 years old at the time. Henry's death was followed by a succession crisis, with three grandchildren of Manuel I claiming the throne: Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza (married to John, 6th Duke of Braganza), António, Prior of Crato, and Philip II of Spain. António had been acclaimed King of Portugal by the people of Santarém on July 24, 1580, and then in many cities and towns throughout the country. Some members of the Council of Governors of Portugal who had supported Philip escaped to Spain and declared him to be the legal successor of Henry. Philip II of Spain marched into Portugal and defeated the troops loyal to the Prior of Crato in the Battle of Alcântara. The troops occupying the countryside (Tercios) commanded by the 3rd Duke of Alba arrived in Lisbon. The Duke of Alba imposed on the Portuguese provinces a subjection of Philip before entering Lisbon, where he seized an immense treasure; meanwhile, he allowed his soldiers to sack the vicinity of the capital. Philip II of Spain was crowned Philip I of Portugal in 1581 (recognized as king by the Cortes of Tomar) and the Philippine Dynasty began. When Philip left in 1583 to Madrid, he made his nephew Albert of Austria his viceroy in Lisbon. In Madrid he established a Council of Portugal to advise him on Portuguese affairs. Portugal's status was maintained under the first two kings of the Iberian Union, Philip I and his son Philip II of Portugal and Aragon, and III of Castile, generally designated, anachronistically, II and III of Spain, respectively (Spain was the geographical name given to the entire Iberia Peninsula at the time, not of a particular state, nationality or kingdom). Both monarchs gave excellent positions to Portuguese nobles in the Spanish courts, and Portugal maintained an independent law, currency, and government. It was even proposed to move the Royal capital to Lisbon. The Spanish would acquire access to the Portuguese Eastern colonies and Brazil as well as the African and Indian colonies of Portugal due to the union, however, Spain at this point has very high inflation due to the gold from Americas. Verse 6 After the Chinese had banned direct trade by Chinese merchants with Japan, the Portuguese filled this commercial vacuum as intermediaries between China and Japan. The Portuguese bought Chinese silk and sold it to the Japanese in return for Japanese-mined silver; since silver was more highly valued in China, the Portuguese could then use Japanese silver to buy even larger stocks of Chinese silk. Due to the unification of Portugal and Spain, the Spanish silver would enter the Chinese market after 1580 via the Portuguese, this would create some decline to the Chinese economy but it was not drastic and not able to destroy the economy of the Ming Dynasty. An invasion was launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering Korea and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and Ming dynasties, respectively. Japan quickly succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming Dynasty, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, where the Japanese continued to occupy Hanseong (present-day Seoul) and the southeastern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese by Joseon civilian militias and supply difficulties hampering both sides, the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military victory for the Ming-Joseon forces. The the invasion lasted from 1592 until 1596. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years, ultimately resulting in the normalization of relations. Verse 7 Being unable to deal with the rebellion, Alba was replaced in 1573 by Luis de Requesens and a new policy of moderation was attempted. Spain, however, had to declare bankruptcy in 1575. Don Luis de Requesens had not managed to broker a policy acceptable to both the Spanish King and the Netherlands when he died in early 1576. The inability to pay the Spanish mercenary armies endured, leading to numerous mutinies and in November 1576 troops sacked Antwerp at the cost of some 8,000 lives. This so-called "Spanish Fury" strengthened the resolve of the rebels in the 17 provinces to take fate into their own hands. The Netherlands negotiated an internal treaty, the Pacification of Ghent in the same year 1576, in which the provinces agreed to religious tolerance and pledged to fight together against the mutinous Spanish forces. For the mostly Catholic provinces, the destruction by mutinous foreign troops was the principal reason to join in an open revolt, but formally the provinces still remained loyal to the sovereign Philip II. However, some religious hostilities continued and Spain, aided by shipments of bullion from the New World, was able to send a new army under Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza. On 6 January 1579, prompted by the new Spanish governor Alexander Farnese, the later Duke of Parma, and upset by aggressive Calvinism, some of the Southern States (County of Artois, County of Hainaut and the so-called Walloon Flanders located in what is now France and Wallonia) left the alliance agreed upon by the pacification of Ghent and signed the Union of Arras (Atrecht), expressing their loyalty to the Spanish king. This meant an early end to the goal of united independence for the 17 provinces of the Low Countries on the basis of religious tolerance, agreed upon only three years previously. In response to the union of Arras, William united the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Groningen in the Union of Utrecht on 23 January 1579; Brabant and Flanders joined a month later, in February 1579. Effectively, the 17 provinces were now divided into a southern group loyal to the Spanish king, and a rebellious northern group. In 16th century Europe, it was assumed that every country would have a king or other noble as head of state. Having repudiated Philip, States General tried to find a suitable replacement. The Protestant Queen of England, Elizabeth I, seemed the obvious choice to be protector of the Netherlands. Elizabeth, however, found the idea abhorrent. Her intervention for the French Huguenots (see the Treaty of Hampton Court) had been a costly mistake, and she had resolved never again to involve herself in any of her fellow monarchs' domestic affairs. Not only would intervention provoke Philip, but it would set a dangerous precedent. If she could interfere in other monarchs' affairs, they could return the favour. (Elizabeth did later provide aid to the Dutch rebels in the Treaty of Nonsuch (1585), and as a consequence Philip aided Irish rebels in the Nine Years' War.) The States-General then (in 1581) invited François, Duke of Anjou (younger brother of King Henry III of France), to be sovereign ruler. Anjou accepted on the condition that the Netherlands officially renounce any loyalty to Philip. In 1581, the States-General issued the Act of Abjuration, which declared that the King of Spain had not upheld his responsibilities to the people of the Netherlands and therefore would no longer be accepted as the rightful sovereign. Anjou arrived in February 1582. Though welcomed in some cities, he was rejected by Holland and Zeeland. Most of the people distrusted him as a Catholic, and the States-General granted him very limited powers. He brought a small French army to the Netherlands, and then decided to seize control of Antwerp by force in January 1583. This attempt failed disastrously, and Anjou left the Netherlands. Elizabeth was now offered the sovereignty of the Netherlands, but she declined. All options for foreign royalty being exhausted, the States-General eventually decided to rule as a republican body instead. Immediately after the Act of Abjuration, Spain sent a new army to recapture the United Provinces. Over the following years, Parma reconquered the major part of Flanders and Brabant, as well as large parts of the northeastern provinces. The Roman Catholic religion was restored in much of this area. In 1585, Antwerp — the largest city in the Low Countries at the time — fell into his hands, which caused over half its population to flee to the north (see also Siege of Antwerp). Between 1560 and 1590, the population of Antwerp plummeted from c. 100,000 inhabitants to c. 42,000. William of Orange, who had been declared an outlaw by Philip II in March 1580, was assassinated by a supporter of the King on 10 July 1584. He would be succeeded as leader of the rebellion by his son Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange. The Netherlands were split into an independent northern part and a southern part which remained under Spanish control. Due to the almost uninterrupted rule of the Calvinist-dominated separatists, most of the population of the northern provinces became converted to Protestantism over the next decades. The south, under Spanish rule, remained a Catholic stronghold; most of its Protestants fled to the north. Spain retained a large military presence in the south, where it could also be used against France. With the war going against them, the United Provinces had sought help from the kingdoms of France and England and, in February to May 1585, even offered each monarch sovereignty over the Netherlands, but both had declined. While England had unofficially been supporting the Dutch for years, Elizabeth had not officially supported the Dutch because she was afraid it might aggravate Spain into a war. However, the year before, the French Catholic League had signed a treaty with Spain to destroy the French Protestants. Afraid that France would fall under control of the Habsburgs, Elizabeth now decided to act. In 1585, under the Treaty of Nonsuch, Elizabeth I sent the Earl of Leicester to take the rule as lord-regent, with 5,000 to 6,000 troops, including 1,000 cavalry. The Earl of Leicester proved to be a poor commander, and also did not understand the sensitive trade arrangements between the Dutch regents and the Spanish. Moreover, Leicester sided with the radical Calvinists, earning him the distrust of the Catholics and moderates. Leicester also collided with many Dutch patricians when he tried to strengthen his own power at the cost of the Provincial States. Within a year of his arrival, he had lost his public support. Leicester returned to England, after which the States-General, being unable to find any other suitable regent, appointed Maurice of Orange (William's son), at the age of 20, to the position of Captain General of the Dutch army in 1587. On 7 September 1589 Philip II ordered Parma to move all available forces south to prevent Henry of Navarre from becoming King of France. For Spain, the Netherlands had become a side show in comparison to the French Wars of Religion. The Spanish were able to win over Maurice of Orange after the initial victory of Maurice of Orange. the earlier Dutch successes owed not only to his tactical skill but also to the financial burden Spain incurred replacing ships lost in the disastrous campaign of the Spanish Armada in 1588, and the need to refit its navy to recover control of the sea after the subsequent English counterattack, however the Spanish would be able to replace them as soon and for that reason the Dutch revolt was defeated. However, by regaining control of the sea, Spain was able to greatly increase its supply of gold and silver from the Americas, which allowed it to increase military pressure on England and France and gain victory against Maurice of Orange on 1592 and completely quell the Dutch revolt on 1593, causing Protestant Dutch elites to flee to France and England. On the end of 1593, the Spanish and French were forced into a marriage treaty where in Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain and Henry IV of France were married and Henry IV of France is converted to Catholicism. Isabella Clara Eugenia would experience frequent stillbirths and miscarriages, however three children of Isabella Clara Eugenie, Dauphin Louis(Louis XIII) b. 1594, Princess Elizabeth of France b. 1600 and Duke Ferdinand of Orleans b. 1603 would survive to adulthood. The Edict of Nantes was signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time. In the edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity. The edict separated civil from religious unity, treated some Protestants for the first time as more than mere schismatics and heretics, and opened a path for secularism and tolerance. Henry was the subject of attempts on his life by Pierre Barrière in August 1593 and Jean Châtel in December 1594. In the third assassination attempt, King Henry IV was killed in Paris on 14 May 1610 by a Catholic fanatic, François Ravaillac, who stabbed him in the Rue de la Ferronnerie. Henry's coach was stopped by traffic congestion related to the Queen's coronation ceremony, as depicted in the engraving by Gaspar Bouttats. Hercule de Rohan, duc de Montbazon, was with him when he was killed; Montbazon was wounded, but survived. Henry was buried at the Saint Denis Basilica, however he was survived by his wife Isabella Clara Eugenia who influenced his successor Louis XIII in order to repeal the edict of Nantes in his reign.