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timelines:kingdom_of_great_britain_lttwdp

LTTW Dramatis Personae: Kingdom of Great Britain

Ruling monarchs

  • *George II (1683-1743) (George Augustus of the House of Hanover) King of Great Britain and of Ireland and Elector of Hanover (r. 1727-1743). Born in Hanover and still considered himself primarily German. Married Caroline of Ansbach. A fairly unpopular monarch at home, he initially refused to work with his antagonistic father's minister Robert Walpole before being brought into line. At his coronation, a chance accident and his son Frederick's visible amusement at such deepened their own antagonism, and George barred Frederick from the succession and exiled him to the American colonies with the invented sinecure post of Lord Deputy for the Colonies. After Walpole's fall from political grace, Great Britain was drawn into the Second War of Supremacy and George led his own Hanoverian troops on the battlefield of Dettingen, at which he was killed. His second son succeeded him as William IV. He also had at least one illegitimate son, George FitzGeorge, who made his name as a mercenary soldier in Germany.
  • *William IV (1721-1749) (William Augustus of the House of Hanover) Duke of Cumberland and Prince of Wales prior to becoming King of Great Britain and of Ireland and Elector of Hanover (r. 1743-49), having been made heir apparent after his father excluded his elder brother Frederick from the succession. William was on the battlefield of Dettingen where his father was killed as a commander and assumed overall command soon afterwards. He later ruthlessly put down the Second Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland, where he was viewed as a figure of hate and fear for generations afterwards. When the War of the British Succession broke out, he sailed to America with the fleet of Admiral Byng, but was assassinated at long range by Frederick's American riflemen from a fishing boat, swiftly ending that phase of the war.
  • *Frederick I (1707-1760) (Frederick Lewis of the House of Hanover) With the principality of Wales stripped from him in 1727, remained Duke of Cornwall and Lord Deputy of the Colonies 1727-1748, during which he built his support base among the American colonists. To avoid scandal resulting from an unfortunate incident, married the commoner woman Mildred Washington in 1732. Though initially reluctant, he gradually grew closer to the Washingtons and other important planter families, and helped lead the attack on Louisbourg during the Second War of Supremacy in 1745. Immediately afterwards, and playing on colonial fury due to William IV's plans to hand back the fortress to the French, he proclaimed himself Emperor of North America and the rightful heir to the throne, sparking the War of the British Succession. He had William assassinated by riflemen to prevent the war proliferating, then returned to Great Britain - quashing the Third Jacobite Rebellion in Ireland enroute - in the Second Glorious Revolution. Emperor of North America (r. 1745-1760), King of Ireland and of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover(r. 1750-1760). Had three children, Prince George, Prince Frederick and Princess Mildred. Never recovered from the death of his wife in 1756, became estranged from his firstborn son, but reconciled on his deathbed.
  • George III (1733-1799) (George Augustine of the House of Hanover) Prince of Wales up to 1760, then reigned as King of Great Britain and of Ireland, Emperor of North America and Elector of Hanover 1760-1799. Did not get on with his father, partly due to his fascination with the Americas, and vanished during the outbreak of the Third War of Supremacy; was later found to have enlisted in the army under the name Ralph Robinson and had fought at the Battle of Quebec alongside his childhood friend Major George Washington. Reconciled with his father on his deathbed and ruled Britain through the First Platinean War, Second Platinean War and early stages of the Jacobin Wars. Married his cousin Princess Sophia of Hanover, who bore him five surviving children: Prince Frederick George, Princess Carolina Sophia, Princess Amelia Virginia, Prince Henry William, and Princess Augusta Charlotte. Sickened after the shock of hearing of his firstborn son's death on the battlefield of Caen, he died at almost the same time as the Prime Minister Lord Rockingham, provoking a constitutional crisis.
  • Henry IX (1771-1807) (Henry William of the House of Hanover) Duke of Cambridge up to his elder brother's death, then succeeded to the throne in 1800. King of Great Britain and of Ireland, Emperor of North America and Elector of Hanover (r. 1800-1807). A liberal-minded ruler, he was close to Charles James Fox, who remained Prime Minister throughout his short reign. Often unpopular with the landed gentry and aristocrats (and some Americans for his opposition to slavery) he was widely praised in the more radical sectors of society. Married Lady Diana Spencer, who bore him two surviving children, Prince Frederick William and Princess Augusta Carolina. Captured by Franco-Italian forces during the invasion of England in 1807 and executed by phlogistication along with his wife and daughter, but prompted an uprising among Londoners during which his remains were hidden and never discovered again.
  • Frederick II (1794-) (Frederick William of the House of Hanover) Prince of Wales following the accession of his father. Escaped capture during the invasion of England due to being in America; was immediately crowned Emperor of North America, but was not coronated in Britain until his return in 1808. Due to his lack of majority, the Duke of Marlborough (John Spencer-Churchill) served as his regent and Lord Protector and continued to be a power in the land afterwards. After the death of Churchill and his son Joshua seizing dictatorial powers, Frederick fled into exile in America so that he could not be coerced into giving Joshua legitimacy.
  • Richard IV (1779-) (Richard William FitzGeorge) Grandson of George II's illegitimate son George FitzGeorge, and son of his son William FitzGeorge, Duke of Cambridge. Followed in his father's footsteps as governor of Hanover. Was given the throne via the complicated “German Sea Swap” by Joshua Churchill in order to have a monarch on the throne after Frederick II fled. His position is widely disputed and is not accepted in the other Hanoverian Dominions.

Other royals

  • Prince Frederick George, Prince of Wales (1765-1799) (Frederick George of the House of Hanover) Firstborn son of George III, a conventional Hanoverian and military enthusiast. Fought enemy natives in the ENA in his youth, then commanded an army in the Jacobin Wars, in Flanders (prior to Charles Theodore's declaration of neutrality) and then in the Seigneur Offensive. During the latter, was killed by a French cannonball at the Battle of Caen. His wife, Princess Charlotte of Ansbach, suffered a miscarriage and died in the process, soon followed by his father George III. The throne therefore passed to his brother the Duke of Cambridge, who became Henry IX.

Politicians

  • *Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford (1676-1745) (Whig Party) First “Prime Minister” of Great Britain (1721-1745), having come to the post by virtue of being the only senior minister to avoid being tarred with the brush of scandal in the South Sea Bubble of 1721, and taking over the amalgamated powers of several resigning ministers. Served under George I and then George II, despite the latter's initial opposition to him. Pursued a policy of keeping Britain out of European wars at all costs, which meant the country became prosperous and allowed him to keep taxes low. Was finally dragged into the Second War of Supremacy and then resigned in 1742 after a serious of vote-rigging scandals coupled with the defeat to the Spanish at the Battle of Cartagena-des-Indes.
  • *Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington (1673-1743) (Whig Party) Second Prime Minister of Great Britain (1742-43), although really only a figurehead for John Carteret, the Earl of Granville and Head of the Northern Department. Compton had opposed Walpole throughout most of his political career, and being a favourite of George II when the latter was still Prince of Wales, expected to become Prime Minister in 1727; however, he turned out to be considerably less capable than Walpole and thus had to wait another two decades for Walpole's fall from grace, then died almost immediately afterwards.
  • *Henry Pelham (1693-1753) (Whig Party, Anti-Patriot faction, a.k.a. “Pelhamites”) Third Prime Minister of Great Britain (1743-51) though he shared power with his brother Thomas Pelham-Holles, the Duke of Newcastle. Close to King William IV, he presided over an unpopular authoritarian government not shy of imprisoning its Patriot (supporters of Frederick I) opponents. After the Second Glorious Revolution, both Pelhams were deposed and placed under house arrest for the remainder of their lives.
  • *William Pulteney (1684-1758) (Whig Party, Patriot faction/Patriots) Fourth Prime Minister of Great Britain (1751-58) after serving as the leader of the persecuted Patriot opposition for years before. Imprisoned in the Tower of London by the Pelhams before the Second Glorious Revolution. Presided over the early phases of the Third War of Supremacy, his chief lieutenants being William Pitt, Secretary of State for the Southern Department, and George Grenville as Secretary of State for the Northern Department. His “Patriotic Parliament” passed much important early legislation such as the Colonial Act (1751) which recognised the independent Empire of North America and provided for more autonomous governors; the Act of Succession (1751) which recognised William IV as King before his death, thus preventing succession disputes; and the Act of Suppression (1751) which provided for brutal responses to the Jacobites in Scotland and Ireland, in particular a massive road-building programme in Scotland to enable armies to be moved around more readily.
  • *William Pitt (1708-1766) (Patriot Whig) Fifth Prime Minister of Great Britain (1758-1766). After a brief and uneventful military career in his youth, he entered Parliament in 1735 representing the rotten borough of Old Sarum, and became part of the Patriot opposition led by William Pulteney. Imprisoned in the Tower of London by William IV, upon his release he became Secretary of State for the Southern Department. Pitt was essentially responsible for the conduct of the Third War of supremacy, moving up to replace Pulteney as Prime Minister upon the latter's death in 1758. He favoured a colonial strategy, focusing Britain's efforts on defeating France in America and India, while leaving the continental front to Prussia. Unlike his OTL analogue, Pitt never took a title and remained the “Great Commoner”, being the first PM never to receive a peerage. A poor financial manager, he left his family in debt upon his death and his eldest son John decided to join the East India Company to help pay off the debts.
  • *George Grenville (1712-1769) (Patriot Whig) Member of the Grenville family, influential in British politics since the seventeenth century. An important member of the Patriot opposition under Pulteney during the reigns of George II and William IV, being imprisoned in the Tower by the latter along with Pulteney and Pitt. After the Second Glorious Revolution he became Secretary of State for the Northern Department (1751-1757) and then Chancellor of the Exchequer (1757-1766). He retired from politics after Pitt's death and followed him a few years later. His eldest son Frederick succeeded him as MP for Buckingham.
  • *Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland (1705-1775) (Pelhamite Whig, then Patriot Whig) MP for Hindon, entering Parliament in 1735. He began as a protege of Robert Walpole, and received notice for his skill in oratory, particularly in a speech advocating closer support of then-ally Austria by Britain. He became Paymaster of the Forces under the ministries of Spencer Compton and Henry Pelham, then was banished into the political wilderness after the Second Glorious Revolution due to his association with the Williamites. His political skill was such, however, that he was eventually brought back in 1757 to succeed George Grenville as Secretary of State for the Northern Department. His peerage was inherited by his first son Stephen, while his second Charles went on to become Prime Minister much later on.
  • Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (1730-1799) (Pelhamite Whig, then Patriot Whig, then Liberal Whig) Prime Minister of Great Britain (1766-1782 and 1796-1799), being the first individual to hold the post twice. A moderate Whig, he was initially condemned to the wilderness for his association with the Williamites, particularly being involved in William IV's attack on the Jacobites in 1746. Rockingham slowly rebuilt his support over the next few years, particularly in his native north, and befriended Prince George. This influence meant he was able to join Pitt's Ministry in 1763 as Secretary at War after George had acceeded to the throne as George III. When Grenville was unable to form a government on Pitt's death in 1766, he became Prime Minister. He was responsible for the entry of the young Charles James Fox, son of Henry Fox, into Parliament. Rockingham's first ministry was noted for the Troubles of the 1760s, when the American colonies demanded greater self-government, but his smooth handling of this crisis shored up his political position. He also guided Britain through the First Platinean War. During his ministry, in 1776, he was responsible for creating the Rockingham Stakes horse race in Doncaster with his friend Colonel Anthony St Leger. He resigned in 1782 after being caught up in the Africa Bubble scandal. He spent some years out of government before being recalled to the premiership upon the death of Edmund Burke and the collapse of the Portland ministry in 1796. His second ministry was noted for a steady shift towards conservatism as it shed francophile radicals. Rockingham presided over the launch of the Seigneur Offensive, but died suddenly at its height in 1799, provoking parliamentary chaos as George III followed him into the grave soon afterwards.
  • *John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713-1791) (Tory) A Scottish peer who, despite being a member of the diminished Tory party, supported the Patriots during Frederick's exile and helped spread stories about his triumphs in the Americas. After the Second Glorious Revolution he was rewarded for this service with a royal sinecure and the minor government post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster under the ministries of Pulteney and Pitt. He resigned upon the accession of Rockingham to the premiership and served as Leader of the Opposition in the Lords between 1766 and 1773, falling from grace due to his stubborn opposition to granting full independence to the Empire of North America, which eventually became an unpopular position. He retired from politics soon afterwards and devoted the remainder of his life to botany and being a literary patron, being one of the first Britons to write a commentary on Linnaeanism.
  • Edmund Burke (1729-1796) (Liberal Whig) Anglo-Irish statesman and MP for Wendover, entering Parliament in 1765. He swiftly became noted for being one of the most skilful orators in the Commons after Henry Fox, staunchly defending the grievances of the American colonists during the Troubles of the 1760s. He also spoke up for the Platinean rebels in South America during the Second Platinean War, and was considered fairly radical in his sympathies. It was thus something of a surprise when he strongly condemned the French Revolution, breaking with former ally Charles James Fox. Burke served as Paymaster of the Forces under Rockingham (1772-1779) and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs under Rockingham and Portland (1779-1796). In the latter ministry Burke was the real power behind the throne, with Portland being a figurehead. His strong prosecution of the war against the Jacobins resulted in his former liberal allies largely being replaced with conservative Whigs. He died in 1796, resulting in the return of Rockingham to the premiership as Portland's government collapsed. He was succeeded by his like-minded son Richard as MP for Wendover, who went on to become Prime Minister in his own right.
  • William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (1738-1803) (Liberal Whig) Peer who served as a figurehead Prime Minister (1782-1796) with Edmund Burke as the power behind the throne. Portland was of like mind to Burke and a supporter of liberalism in the 1780s, but became more conservative due to his strong opposition to the French Revolution. After Burke's death, his government collapsed and he retreated to being Lord President of the Council under the second Rockingham ministry, before resigning in 1799. Not a capable politician in his own right, his chief contribution to society was being President of the charitable Foundling Hospital of London.
  • Charles James Fox (1749-1807) ((Radical Whig, “Foxite Whig”) Son of Henry Fox, MP for Midhurst. Initially an ally of Rockingham, he supported the American colonists during the Troubles of the 1760s and then also backed the Platinean rebels during the Second Platinean War. However, he also went further, praising the French Revolution, and his command of oratory made him the respectable face of Parliamentary radicalism. A progressive “Foxite” party began to form in the 1790s after the death of Edmund Burke, as the second Rockingham ministry shed supporters and Fox found himself in direct opposition to his former mentor. After the deaths of both Rockingham and George III, Fox was offered the premiership by Henry IX, a longtime friend and politically like-minded. The early Fox ministry governed by alliance with their diametric opposite, hardline Tory reactionaries who also objected to the prosecution of the war with France, but because it involved alliance with the Catholic ultra-royalist Bourbon supporters of the Chouannerie and the exiles. After peace was concluded, the Foxite party was in a decided minority, with its early reform legislation failing and Fox being forced to compromise by merger with Richard Burke's Liberal faction of the Whigs, thus forming the Reform Coalition. This government ruled Britain until the French invasion of 1807, passing several important reforms, most notably reducing the property requirements for suffrage, the abolition of rotten boroughs and the transfer of their seats to growing industrial cities, and the start of Catholic emancipation. However Fox's naive attitude towards the Lisieux regime and his underfunding of the armed forces at least partly contributed to the initial success of the French invasion and the Harrying of the South. Rather than evacuate, Fox chose to atone by concealing a magazine of gunpowder in Ten Downing Street, offering to treat with General Hoche there, and then detonating it, killing both men.
  • Richard Burke (1758-1823) (Liberal Whig, Reform Whig) Son of Richard Burke, MP for Malton. He followed his father into Parliament and was also noted for his oratory. Under the Portland Ministry (really controlled by the elder Burke) he briefly served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. After his father's death, he was considered a potential replacement, but was too young. He served as Lord President of the Council under Rockingham, but resigned in 1798 over dissatisfaction with the prosecution of the war (formally; in practice, more probably because too many of his like-minded supporters had jumped ship) and became leader of the Liberal Whig faction. Burke brought the Liberals into alliance with the Foxite Radical Whigs after the election of 1800 and served as both Chancellor of the Exchequer and Secretary of State for Home and the Colonies under Fox. After the election of 1806, Fox felt himself in a stronger position and Burke was demoted to Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He resigned and walked out in disgust in 1807 due to Fox's inability to take the incoming French invasion seriously, and evacuated to Fort Rockingham in Doncaster where he was the most senior surviving minister, and thus led the remnant of Parliament as Prime Minister by default. This continued until 1812, when he resigned in protest that Churchill's regime was making Parliament increasingly irrelevant and no reform-minded liberal could continue to serve under him. He died at the age of 65 in 1823.
  • Charles Bone (1746-1813) (Reform Whig) Born under the name Carlo Buonaparte in Corsica, a minor nobleman and lawyer who was key in Pasquale Paoli's First Corsican Republic. Like many patriots, he fled the country after the French conquest of 1769 with his family, including his son Napoleone (Leo Bone). He immigrated to Britain, anglicised his name and formally converted to Anglicanism in order to study law at Cambridge, although there are significant suspicions he remained a Catholic at heart. He began practicing law in London in 1774, specialising in cases involving discrimination against Catholics and other religious minorities. A supporter of radical reform, he was persuaded to stand as MP for Southwark in 1800 and served as Lord Chief Justice of the Common Court (1800-1803), Attorney General of England and Wales (1803-1806) and finally Chancellor of the Exchequer (1806-1807). He resigned alongside Richard Burke due to Fox's failure to response to the French invasion, and fled to Fort Rockingham, where he continued to serve as a significant government figure, spearheading Britain's strategy to aid Royal France after the invasion had been repulsed (in contrast to Churchill's failed plan to land troops in Flanders). He served as leader of the opposition for six months after the election of 1813, when Churchill's cronies dominated Parliament; he died in the winter of that same year, ostensibly from a heart attack, but foul play was suspected.
  • Frederick Dundas (1762-) (Liberal Whig) A Scottish politician from a legal background. MP for Sutherland. A supporter of Richard Burke, he was appointed Secretary at War after the election of 1800 and was the driving force behind the construction of Fort Rockingham, though he was amenable to conservative interests in the Navy (his elder brother Robert was Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty) and reluctant to support the development of steam craft at sea (less so with Project Whistler on land). He resigned along with Burke and Charles Bone in 1807, going to Fort Rockingham and continuing to play an important role in the remnant of Parliament. Dundas became titular Prime Minister after Burke's resignation in 1812 until the election of 1813, though he was rendered impotent by Churchill's interference in Parliament, and his disgust with the government's policies in Scotland combined with suspicions over Charles Bone's death resulted in his emigration to New England in 1814.
  • Matthew Dalton (1760-) (Radical Whig, Reform Whig) MP for Cambridgeshire. A strong supporter of Charles James Fox, he was made Paymaster General of the Forces in 1800 and constantly butted heads with Dundas. An advocate for the development of new weapons in the Royal Navy, such as steamships and the rocket ship HMS Dragon. However, he also slashed the budget and orders for new conventional ships as a retaliation against conservative interests blocking his policies. He escaped Parliament at the last minute in 1807 and served notionally in the remnant government in Fort Rockingham, but fled the country in 1811 due to (prophetic) concerns over Churchill's attitude to radicals. He settled in the United Provinces of South America.
  • Sir Charles Drummond (1749-1820) (Tory, Rebirth Coalition) MP for Warwick and titular opposition leader under the latter Foxite Ministry. A conservative reactionary, he became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1811 and Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1813 under Churchill.
  • John Spencer-Churchill, 5th Duke of Marlborough (1768-1825) (Tory, Rebirth Coalition/Phoenix Party) Heir to the Marlborough line, member of the House of Lords, Lord Protector from 1807, Prime Minister from 1813. Generally known as “Churchill”. Inherited his father's title - and debts - in 1784. Reactionary by instincts but largely disinterested in politics, he only attended the House of Lords to condemn the French Revolution in 1794 and in 1799 to help try and bring down the Rockingham Ministry. After Fox's ascendancy a disgusted Churchill retired to Blenheim Palace and anonymously wrote Letters From A Concerned Gentleman, condemnations of the Foxite Ministry. In 1804, with the assistance of his friend Colonel Douglas Moore of the 54th, he began a programme of training the Oxfordshire yeomanry to a higher standard. This put him in a strong position upon the invasion of England in 1807 and he took the decision to withdraw his yeomanry to protect Fort Rockingham. Being at the centre of power early on, Churchill was able to get himself made Lord Protector and Regent for the absentee and minor King Frederick II. He helped mastermind the reconquest of southern England. While being responsible for the Ostend fiasco in 1808, by this point Churchill's power base was too deeply entrenched and he ruled the country with an iron fist from then onwards. After Frederick II reached majority, Churchill became Prime Minister, upon which Parliament began to grow in power again. He presided over a period of authoritarian rule coupled with industrial development, increased trade with the east and the rebuilding of London. His most positive achievement was working to aid Ireland after the famine of 1822. Churchill died in 1825 of a gunshot, it remaining unclear whether it was murder or suicide. He was succeeded by his son Joshua as both Duke of Marlborough and Prime Minister.
  • Joshua Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough (1793-) (Tory, Rebirth Coalition/Phoenix Party) A brutal man always struggling to escape the shadow of his father. He commanded troops in Scotland during the French invasion of 1807, bloodily crushing the Scottish Celtic Republic rebellion there. Known as Butcher Blandford or Bloody Blandford after his earlier title of Marquess of Blandford. After the death of Conroy, rose to command the PSC 'browncoats' and the Unnumbered spies through which he derived his power. Fell out of favour with his father for an overzealous retaliation for vandalism that involved destroying St Giles' Cathedral in Edinburgh, but worked his way back into his father's graces. After Churchill the elder's death, quickly seized power as Prime Minister in a coup. The House of Commons refused to allow it, so he killed Radical leader David Attwood and dissolved the Commons, ruling solely through the Lords. King Frederick II fled so as not to legitimise his dictatorial rule, so Joshua imported Richard FitzGeorge from Hanover to be King Richard IV. Responsible for many atrocities and authoritarian policies.
  • Arthur Spencer-Churchill (1794-) (Tory, Rebirth Coalition/Phoenix Party) Second son of John Spencer-Churchill. Although active in politics, primarily known for his work as part of the team heading up the RCTFI, which organised the industrialisation and recovery of Britain during the Marleburgensian period and in particular the development of new transport and communication networks. For his younger brother George, see America.

Military

  • Admiral Horatio Spaceholder

Scientists and Engineers

  • Dr Andrew P Holdfiller

Philosophers and Clergymen

  • The Right Reverend Reverend Wright

Other

  • Boring McPeasantson
timelines/kingdom_of_great_britain_lttwdp.txt · Last modified: 2011/06/22 12:26 by Thande