Photo of a World Without World Wars

Any idea what architecture would look like in this world? I'm sure Neoclassicism would be more relevant, but otherwise I don't know anything
 
Here is the other half of the fashion posts, it follows Kaiserreichs33 earlier posts as well.

1960s

fashion_1960_by_eldirectorcharro_df296a7-fullview.png

After the 1950s we calm down a bit, women’s dresses begin to slim down although accessories and hairstyles remain somewhat extravagant. Men’s fashion resembles OTL’s 1960s but goes “backward” from the crazy 50s to a more toned own 1970s rather than the other way around as in OTL. Men also accessorize a bit more than OTL.

1970s

fashion70s_by_eldirectorcharro_df2b92f-fullview.png

A return to simplicity and more casual "everyday" looks. The 1970s contrast against the majority of the XX century exactly for this tendency (opposite to OTLs 1970s which were the peak of XX century extravagance). The looks are reminiscent of a regency revival for women and early XX century for men. Simple, slim, and casual.

1980s
fashion_1980_by_eldirectorcharro_df2n6ku-fullview.png

The trends of the 70s continue, but we begin to see a higher degree of accessorizing (especially in the men) once again. towards the end of the decade corsetery in women begins to re-appear as the Roaring 90s make a splash.

1990s

fashion_1990_by_eldirectorcharro_df2n6lg-fullview.png

Go big or go home. The 1990s are bold and flamboyant. Optimism for the new Millenium, and the ongoing space race (the first landing on the moon is 1993) have people experimenting with all sorts of styles. New retailers also make high fashion accessible for the masses and these rapidly adopt "faux-aristocracy" styles. The real aristocracy obviously find this tacky and annoying.

2000s
fashion_2000_by_eldirectorcharro_df2n6qn-fullview.png

The wilder styles of the 1990s are toned down and the most extravagant accessories for both men and women are discarded. Popular fashion means styles are varied (no longer are women subjected to a consistent hemline or silhouette) and much more practical.
 
Any idea what architecture would look like in this world? I'm sure Neoclassicism would be more relevant, but otherwise I don't know anything

Neoclassism would be really big thing. And since world wars and nazis and communists don't destroy old buildings, these probably are going to continue influence architecture.
 
I'll be reposting my old fashion posts, to make a more polished version, next:
The Evolution of Women's Western Fashion throughout the XX Century
Part I (1910-1939)
The 1910s

img_20220406_210507_by_gustavo_jaco333_df35w76-pre.jpg
Fashion from 1910 to 1919 in the Western wWorld was characterized by rich, exotic and extravagant opulence, a dominant feature of the last decades of the Belle Epoque, this period is sometimes known as the Titanic Era.
During the 1910s, the fashion silhouette became much more agile, fluid, and smooth than in the 1900s. When the Ballets Russes performed Scheherazade in Paris in 1910, a craze for Orientalism followed, popularizing this look, which featured draped fabrics, vibrant colors and a column-shaped silhouette. In 1911, the “harem” pantaloons were also introduced, a pair of voluminous trousers that only the most daring women chose to wear.
As the typical S-shape of the previous decade began to disappear altogether, skirts began to decline and a completely new style, that of a revived empire waist, also emerged, in 1911 the “lame skirt” was introduced. which narrowed so much at the bottom of the skirt that it made it difficult for women to walk, another of the innovative silhouettes included the “lampshade tunic” that would become dominant in the 1920s.
During the decade the hems of the dresses began to rise gradually, in 1911 the ankles became visible, in 1914 the hems reached the heels and in 1917 they reached the calves, despite this, showing the ankles was considered vulgar by many, as in the Victorian Era, this meant that women's boots remained the most popular type of shoe during this period.
In Female's Children's Fashion, the clothes evolved in two different directions, the day-to-day and the formal dress, girls' clothes started to become less "adult" as the lengths of the skirts were shortened and the features became more child-oriented. The children of the wealthy predominantly wore white only, with little variation, while white continued to be the color of choice for young children, denoting their innocence, 1910 saw a wider range of colors appear in children's clothing. Fabrics have also changed. Girls traded delicate muslin for patterns and plaid. Stronger fabrics like these allowed girls to play with more abandon.
The 1920s
img_20220407_000011_by_gustavo_jaco333_df35w7e-pre.jpg
Fashion from 1920 to 1929 in the Western World was characterized by a simplification in women's fashion, with modesty and minimalism arriving, fashion continued to move away from the more extravagant styles typical of the previous decade and towards looser clothing, the 1920s. twenty would be a period in which the silhouette of the empire would dominate
In the early 20s, the world entered a prosperous era, women's clothing evolved into a simpler and more practical style than in the previous decade, they began to wear looser dresses, wear short hair for the first time in history, painted eyelids dark color , and very red lips, the aesthetic standard of the Gibson Girl, dominant in the last 30 years, had been replaced by the Bow Girl (named after the actress Clara Bow, icon of the 1920s), with the reduction of the size of the hair, wearing the heavy and extravagant hats of the previous decade became impractical, thanks to which a new type of hat known as the "Cloche Hat" became popular.
While clean lines and few embellishments ruled the catwalks, the 1920s were not without luxury. Expensive fabrics, including silk, velvet, and satin, were favored by high-end designers, while department stores carried less expensive variations on these designs made from newly available synthetic fabrics. The use of mannequins became widespread during the 1920s and served as a way of showing shoppers how to match and accessorize new fashions, during the decade, however, the trend of Orientalism continued, albeit in a milder form, oriental inspirations could be seen mainly in evening dresses.
Shoes were finally visible during the 1920s. Before, long clothes covered shoes, so they weren't an important part of women's fashion. Now, shoes were seen by everyone and played an important role during the 1920s. Women had all kinds of shoes for all kinds of events. Everything from household shoes, walking shoes, dancing shoes, sports shoes and swimming shoes. The shoe industry has become an important industry that has transformed the way we buy shoes today. The shoes were made in standard sizes perfect for ordering from fashion catalogs to the next boutique. In the early 1920s, Mary Janes were still popular from the previous era, although they paved the way for the invention of many other shoes.
In Female's Children's Fashion children's fashion began to become more fashionable and comfortable in the 1920s. Clothes were made of cotton and wool rather than silk, lace and velvet. Clothes were also made sturdier to withstand play. During previous decades, many layers were used; however, during the 1920s, minimal layers became the new standard, clothes became looser and shorter, dresses and skirts were now knee-length and baggy, shoes were also made of canvas, making them lighter and easier to use.
The 1930s
1930s_alternate_fashion_by_gustavo_jaco333_df4ewis-pre.jpg
The fashion from 1930 to 1939 in the Western World, like the decade itself, can be divided into two periods: before the crisis and during the crisis. The Great Depression had a profound effect on society and culture as a whole, and fashion was no exception.
The 1930s opened with the same loose empire silhouette of the 20s, however between 1930 and 1933 the silhouette started to get tighter, in addition fashion became more extravagant than in the previous decade, extravagant ruffles were common in this period and the skirt long became extremely popular, influenced by Hollywood actresses
After the New York Stock Exchange crash, the opulent attitude of the first half of the decade lasted most of 1933, but later that year the effects of the Great Depression began to affect the public, and a more practical approach to fashion passed. to dominate. Other aspects of 1920s fashion took longer to phase out, cloche hats remained popular until around 1936, while short hair remained popular for many women until the early 1940s.
Because of the economic crisis, designers were forced to reduce clothing prices to keep their businesses afloat, especially those who worked in haute couture houses. Designers were also forced to use cheaper fabrics and materials, and dress patterns also grew in popularity as many women knew how to sew. As a result, clothing became more accessible and mass production continued, which had been growing in popularity since the 1920s. The 1930s allowed women of all classes and social backgrounds to be in fashion, regardless of wealth. With price reductions in the types of fabrics used for design, new inventions such as the zipper (patented in 1938).
In Female's Children's Fashion children's clothing of the 1930s was heavily impacted by the problems of the time with many families suffering financial hardship from the Great Depression. Clothes were often made at home with mothers often making clothes out of other items. However, these clothes were often based on popular fashions. Sewing patterns to guide their creation were often included in magazines. Exchanges were established where children's clothes that had been outgrown by their previous owners could be delivered. However, fashion continued to be a major influence on the way children dressed with contemporary writing, suggesting that many were interested in what they looked like and keeping up with current trends. Ruffled dresses with embellished puff sleeves inspired by those worn by children's fashion icons such as American movie stars and British princesses Elizabeth and Margaret were popular with girls in the 1930s. The hems were shorter for younger girls and reached below the calf as they grew.
 
Last edited:
The Evolution of Women's Western Fashion throughout the XX Century
Part II (1940-1969)

The 1940s
img_20220407_132344_by_gustavo_jaco333_df35w44-pre.jpg
Fashion from 1940 to 1949 in the Western World was characterized by the return of long, sleek lines, high collars, and the emergence of a new silhouette known as the "New Look" that would become dominant in the 50s and 60s.
In the early 1940s, the world began to recover from the turbulent 1930s, the economic recovery was reflected in women's clothing, clothing evolved into a more flamboyant and elegant style than the decade before, the decade was a period of transitioning from simple 1930s fashion to over-the-top 1950s fashion, skirts got wider and wider throughout the decade as the hems got higher and higher, sleeves got longer and more decorations started to appear on dresses
The beginning of the decade followed many of the practical trends of the 30's, however due to the economic recovery fashion gradually became more extravagant, the clothes that during the 30's used pastel colors and were lifeless due to financial difficulties, however in the decade 40's stylists started using bright colors once again, also during the decade, women started wearing long hair again
At the end of the decade, Christian Dior presented the world with a new silhouette, in what would become known as the "New Look", the silhouette was characterized by a small and narrow waist, an evolution of the corset silhouette, and a full skirt, oval, which emphasized the bust and hips, with his revolutionary New Look, Christian Dior wrote a new chapter in the history of fashion.
In Female's Children's Fashion, children's clothing began to be made with higher quality, and some even adopted trends popular with teenagers. The dresses of many girls and young women were styled after those of older women. The main style of little girls were mini versions of adult women's clothing, pinafores and aprons, formerly used to keep clothes clean, became fashionable pieces, and they evolved into similarly styled dresses and fashionable accessories for girls' clothing, the girls still wore long curly hair and the dresses had many bows
The 1950s
img_20220407_182224_by_gustavo_jaco333_df36x76-pre.jpg
The fashion of the 1950s to 1959 in the Western World, sometimes called "The Crazy 50s", was characterized by extravagance and opulence, with a palpable mood of optimism that gripped most people after the end of the economic recovery at the end of the 1940s, the decade is characterized by an emphasis on width, in contrast to the narrower silhouettes that predominated between 1910 and 1940, one of the defining features of the decade was the popularization of a new silhouette known as the "New Look", in addition to of the return of the crinoline in response to the growth in the width of skirts throughout the 1940s.
Women's attire featured wide, full, tapered skirts accompanied by elaborate hairstyles, typically featuring curls, the 1950s were a period of excess, crinolines were once again revived by designers such as Christian Dior, whose 1947 "New Look" featured full skirts supported by stiff petticoats, crinolines were popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s, throughout the period a tailored feminine look was prized and accessories such as gloves and pearls were popular.
In the late 1940s, an emerging middle class began to adopt "Fantasy Styles" in their clothing, mixed with an Aristocratic Nostalgia from the Belle Epoque, during the 1950s there was a race between the Aristocracy and the Middle Class, the aristocracy had suffered great losses during the Great Depression, losing a lot of prestige and power, seeing itself threatened by the emerging middle class, while the middle class tried to imitate aristocratic fashion, using "fake" tailored looks that tried to imitate royalty and nobility clothes, meanwhile in the United States, the 1950s were one of the golden ages of Hollywood, in the USA, the great movie actresses were the main influence for American women.
In Female's Children's Fashion, the girls of the 50's were not allowed to wear crinolines, instead they use petticoats to allow a greater volume in the skirt, the type of dress of the children in the period was a costume composed by a voluminous skirt, mainly in the back with sleeves a la francaise and mini bonnets
The 1960s
img_20220407_185715_by_gustavo_jaco333_df36x8r-pre.jpg
The Fashion of the 1960s to 1969 in the Western World was characterized by greater simplicity and minimalism compared to the over-the-top flamboyance of the fashion of the previous decade, although the simpler fashion of the 60s was equally luxurious, it also saw the gradual return to a slender silhouette following the full skirt fashion of the 1940s and 1950s.
The 1960s, inaugurated with a great economic boom, as a result of economic policies implemented in the 40s and 50s, fashion, however, has not had major changes since the 50s, the oval skirts typical of the previous decade ended up being replaced by tapered skirts, consequently from oval shaped crinolines to a funnel shaped crinoline, shorter hems also ended up becoming more popular, women wore stiletto heels, women's hairstyles got too big and used a lot of hairspray, the beehive hairstyle was the most common hair style of the time.
The early 1960s saw a minimalist movement explode in reaction to the over-the-top extravagance of the 50s, while, in contrast, 60s fashion was characterized by an explosion of vibrant color, big hair and accessories. During the 1960s there was a great democratization in fashion, with the evolution of haute couture, the aristocracy, commerce and the middle class began to dress much more similarly, something that would continue until the 1980s.
In Female's Children's Fashion, children's fashion became less elaborate than in the previous decade, during the 50's the focus of children's clothing was more on appearance than practicality, something that changed during the 60's, girls got rid of the petticoats and bonnets and began to use more practical dresses, and more focused on games, a designation was made between school clothes and "play clothes", even if a child did not wear a uniform to go to school, he usually returned home and wore active clothes for the rest of the day.
 
Last edited:
Flag_of_Mongolia_(Differently).png

Flag of the Great State of Mongolia
1ad841bfdac3f3c71459fc64a57656a5.jpg

An inn in Kalgan, capital of the Greater State of Mongolia
Although Mongolia joined Russia during the 1930s, Inner Mongolia remained within the Chinese Civil War until 1947 when, with the help of Russia, it managed to have its own independent state, currently Mongolia is a Russian puppet state, and its relations with China are tense
 
Any idea what architecture would look like in this world? I'm sure Neoclassicism would be more relevant, but otherwise I don't know anything
Neoclassism would be really big thing. And since world wars and nazis and communists don't destroy old buildings, these probably are going to continue influence architecture.
Not necessarily, after 1910 architecture had started to leave behind both the different eclectic rivival styles of the 19th century and the Art Nouveau style of the turn of the century and was, via Cubism, clearly heading towards the New Objectivity style of the 1920s and '30s. Architects like Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Adolf Loos, Walter Gropius or Ludwig Mies van der Rohe had begun rejecting unnecessary decorations and embracing minimalism long before the outbreak of the Great War, a trend which would no doubt have continued.

Robie_House_exterior_HABS_ILL%2C16-CHIG%2C33-1.jpg

Robie house by Frank Lloyd Wright (1909)

Casa_Steiner_-_Foto_Fachada_Trasera.jpg

Steiner house by Adolf Loos (1910)

Fagus_Gropius_Hauptgebaeude_200705_wiki_front.jpg

Fagus Factory and administrative building by Walter Gropius (1911 - 1913)

A no Workd Wars world would mean no war related destruction of historic buildings, but it would also mean a lot more money available in the different national economies of which a good part would be invested in real estate. And while a part of those investments would definately be used to build up previously undevelopped areas the other one would be used to replace older structures in the city centres.

It's equally important to understand that prior to the 1970s the idea of urban heritage conservation was next to nonexistent. A good example of this is the fact that in the 1950s and '60s more historic architecture was lost in Germany due to peacetime urban redevelopment than as a result of WW2. Another earlier example from my city was the demolition of many medieval, renaissance and baroque era buildings around the then newly completed Cologne Cathedral in the 1880s and 90s to grant an unconfined view of the monument from all directions.
 
Last edited:
Not necessarily, after 1910 architecture had started to leave behind both the different eclectic rivival styles of the 19th century and the Art Nouveau style of the turn of the century and was, via Cubism, clearly heading towards the New Objectivity style of the 1920s and '30s. Architects like Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Adolf Loos, Walter Gropius or Ludwig Mies van der Rohe had begun rejecting unnecessary decorations and embracing minimalism long before the outbreak of the Great War, a trend which would no doubt have continued.

Robie_House_exterior_HABS_ILL%2C16-CHIG%2C33-1.jpg

Robie house by Frank Lloyd Wright (1909)

Casa_Steiner_-_Foto_Fachada_Trasera.jpg

Steiner house by Adolf Loos (1910)

Fagus_Gropius_Hauptgebaeude_200705_wiki_front.jpg

Fagus Factory and administrative building by Walter Gropius (1911 - 1913)

A no Workd Wars world would mean no war related destruction of historic buildings, but it would also mean a lot more money available in the different national economies of which a good part would be invested in real estate. And while a part of those investments would definately be used to build up previously undevelopped areas the other one would be used to replace older structures in the city centres.

It's equally important to understand that prior to the 1970s the idea of urban heritage conservation was next to nonexistent. A good example of this is the fact that in the 1950s and '60s more historic architecture was lost in Germany due to peacetime urban redevelopment than as a result of WW2. Another earlier example from my city was the demolition of many medieval, renaissance and baroque era buildings around the then newly completed Cologne Cathedral in the 1880s and 90s to grant an unconfined view of the monument from all directions.
So, not even in a world without world wars would we get rid of lifeless concrete and glass buildings? how wonderful
 
So, not even in a world without world wars would we get rid of lifeless concrete and glass buildings? how wonderful
You'd definately wouldn't get rid of them, after all the above mentioned Adolf Loos had stated as early as 1910 in an essay and lecture series on architecture that "ornament is a crime", But modernism likely wouldn't become so absolutely dominant in TTL's 1950s, '60s and '70s as it did IOTL due to neoclassicism not being tainted for its' association with Fascism and Stalinism ITTL.
 
You'd definately wouldn't get rid of them, after all the above mentioned Adolf Loos had stated as early as 1910 in an essay and lecture series on architecture that "ornament is a crime", But modernism likely wouldn't become so absolutely dominant in TTL's 1950s, '60s and '70s as it did IOTL due to neoclassicism not being tainted for its' association with Fascism and Stalinism ITTL.
So would we have a world with mixed architecture? so to speak
 
So would we have a world with mixed architecture? so to speak
Indeed, I'd expect the three OTL post WWII decades to architecturewise ITTL look more like OTL's 1980s and '90s, if not stylewise - postmodernism IOTL was a direct reaction to the streanglehold modernism did have on architecture in the previous three decades - then at least in its' diversity.
 
The Evolution of Women's Western Fashion throughout the XX Century
Part III (1970-1999)
The 1970s

1970s_alternate_fashion_by_gustavo_jaco333_df4ewus-pre.jpg
The Fashion from 1970 to 1979 in the Western World was characterized by a great simplicity compared to the decades before and after, the fashion of the 70s left at once the extravagant styles of the 50s and 60s in favor of a return to simplicity and more casual everyday looks, 70s looks are mostly inspired by Regency fashion, plus some medieval, renaissance and 18th century influences.
In the late 1960s women began to abandon crinolines and oversized skirts in favor of more practical styles, in the early 1970s, French designers reintroduced a straight, columnar silhouette that became dominant in subsequent years, albeit simpler, in the however, the 1970s are not without luxury.
Unlike previous decades where day dresses were shorter, reaching from the knees to the ankles and evening dresses reached almost to the floor, the 1970s saw a reversal in this detail, where day dresses used to have lower hems than evening dresses.
The straight silhouette of the 1970s was much more "masculine" than earlier silhouettes that focused on both the waist and the bust, corsets went out of fashion once again at the same time as more sporty styles became popular, as did looks. In everyday life, the main focus of 70's fashion was practicality, these styles would remain a major influence on fashion until the mid 80's.
For much of the decade, women wore their hair long, parted in the middle or on the side, a style inherited from the late 1960s, making one of the popular hairstyles for a woman didn't take long, having coarser hair also became popular.
In Children's Women's Fashion, fashion followed most adult female trends, opting for simpler and more fluid clothes.
The 1980s
1980s_alternate_fashion_by_gustavo_jaco333_df4ewuy-pre.jpg
Fashion from 1980 to 1989 in the Western world was characterized by a transition between the more sporty and simple looks of the 70s and the over-the-top opulence of the "Roaring 90s".
The early 1980s continued with most of the simpler trends of the 1970s, but the use of accessories such as jewelry, gloves and hats became more common. Unlike the 1970s, where fashion was primarily influenced by a "Regency Revival", the fashion of the 1980s came to be heavily influenced by an "Edwardian Nostalgia". Turtleneck styles and sleek lines became commonplace, and by the end of the decade corsets had become popular again. These styles continued to characterize fashion until the mid-2010s.
The 1970s experienced a short period of economic stagnation between 1974 and 1981, but the 1980s began with an economic boom in 1981, which caused palpable optimism in most of the population.
During the 1980s, headgear once again became a major factor in women's fashion, while in men's fashion hats remained a must-have for any self-respecting gentleman, in women's fashion, after the 1930s, hats ceased to be an essential item in women's clothing, although it has never gone out of fashion in fact most women would rather attract attention with hairstyles than hats, this changed in the 80's when hats started to become more and more popular, the types of favorite hats in the 1980s were small, decorated with flowers, feathers and ribbons and usually covered half your head. 80s hair styles transitioned from the extremely simple styles of the 70s, to the big, fluffy hair of the 90s.
Another great feature of the 80's was the return of puff sleeves, although long sleeves were already a big trend in the 70's, during the 80's puff sleeves became almost ubiquitous in women's clothing, sleeves were gradually growing over time in thedecade and reached its peak in 1989, when it started to decrease again. The use of ruffles and ribbons also made a big comeback at the end of the decade. Also during this decade the hems of the evening dresses returned to the floor, however the hems of the day dresses remained quite low, varying between the ankles and the heel, these lower hems remained in fashion until the beginning of the 2000s.
In Female's Children's Fashion, fashion saw an aggressive return of ruffles and ribbons for girls, when younger (between 0 and 7 years old) girls wore loose dresses with circular caps, at a certain age they started to wear miniature versions of their mothers' dresses

The 1990s
img_20220408_165721_by_gustavo_jaco333_df38lfq-pre.jpg

Fashion from 1990 to 1999 in the Western World was characterized by rich and exotic opulence, often this period is known as "The Roaring 90's" because of its extravagant fashions allied to great economic growth, the 90's are known for their excesses, Elegant dresses richly decorated with expensive jewelry, flowers and ribbons, large hats, silk gloves and very large and fluffy hair are some of the hallmarks of this era.
As in the 80's, 90's fashion continued to be influenced by an "Eduardian Nostalgia", with the evolution of haute couture the population began to adopt a "False Aristocracy" style.
In the early 1990s, several fashions from the late 1980s continued to be very popular with the female population, however, recycling styles from earlier decades, notably the 1900s and 1910s, made the fashion of the decade increasingly unique. The 1990s, unlike previous periods, presented a series of distinct trends, due to the increase in the availability of Commonet and satellite television outside the United States or Europe, in addition to the reduction of import tariffs with the creation of the European Andureira Union, fashion became more globalized and homogeneous in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
With the final decline of the straight 70's silhouette, the hourglass-shaped silhouette became popular again, the hems remained quite short as in the 80's, hair in the 1990's was typically big, fluffy, curly, puffy and with heavy style and curls were very desired
Due to the space race fashion saw a new trend called "Space Age Fashion", this trend was characterized by fanciful styles that mixed past styles mainly Victorian and Edwardian with futuristic trends (Basically OTL Steampunk), another big trend was the beginning of the fashion for women's pants, although cycling pants have been around since the 19th century and pantaloons ebb and flow in the 20th century, during the 1990s it was the first time that women's pants became normal everyday items. , this style was extremely daring and controversial, with women's pants being banned in certain countries such as Spain, Danube and Brazil.
Hats were one of the most defining features of the 90s, Huge wide-brimmed hats were worn in the mid-decade, embellished with masses of feathers or decorated with ribbons and artificial flowers.
In Female's Children's Fashion, the trends of the 80's continued in vogue, and the most popular style for girls in this period was the sailor suit, which made a triumphant return in this period.
 
Last edited:
Young and men's professional clothing, 2010s?

1650245703339.png

Mens.jpg

More relaxed styles followed the return to earlier fashion as a reaction to the styles of the previous decade. Daily practicality and the rise of a more professional middle class contributed to the "office man style" of the period.
 
Automobile design, 2000s?
cars.jpg

Popular sedan type produced by General Motors beginning in the 1990s as American automobile production entered what is considered its "second golden age" after mass production of cheaper but less attractive models during the 1970s & 1980s.
 
Decolonization: The process, supported by leading intellectuals influenced by the writings of Marcus Garvey, Mark Twain (AKA Sam Clemens) H.G. Wells, and others, finally gained momentum beginning in the 1970s, partly as a result of growing opposition to ongoing conflicts in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Revelations of atrocities committed in Indonesia, then French Indochina, Africa, and India shocked Americans and Europeans alike. A spate of reforms enacted by the British and Ottoman Empires paved the way for what became known as the Great Revolution, or Uprising, in those countries. A new generation of charismatic figures helped make the case before sympathetic audiences, particularly in America and Britain.

FACE OF FREEDOM
1650247445521.png

Desmond Tutu, former premier, African Union. Mr. Tutu was widely respected worldwide for his nonviolent advocacy of African independence. He symbolically took office in Johannesburg after returning from exile following the "African Spring" of the 2000s. He passed away in 2022.
Flag.jpg

Flag of the United Provinces of Vietnam, adopted after the country gained independence from the French in the 1990s.
 

Attachments

  • 1650247647003.png
    1650247647003.png
    327.4 KB · Views: 14
Last edited:
Top