As the declaration of War from France towards Spain reached the ears of Prussia and Austria, neither nation did anything at first. Although they had an informal agreement with Spain on defence in case of an all out War, France did indeed have the side of right on its side considering the reason it went to War, Spain seemingly interfering in a region which it had seceded after the Napoleonic Wars. As it was, Spain also appeared to be suffering from a genuine shock to it system with many people in the Government not knowing what to do. In truth, the merchant had been acting on his own; the Spanish Government had scaled back its activities in the Basque region during the War with Britain to avoid infuriating France and bringing them to War. The irony was stifling
Spain scrambled to get its forces into fighting order while also putting Toledo on a court-martial trial. The disgraced Toledo actually begged the Spanish Government for a command against the French, stressing that his actions had been for the Federacion, not for any reason like cowardice. Given his record and the fact he retained a fair amount of support within the Army, Toledo eventually managed to secure a command in Valencia, after being demoted to a lesser rank and forced to take a seemingly unimportant post in a city where he would be subordinate to another officer. Toledo accepted this with good grace, wanting only to serve his country in its time of need.
Believing that they were finally going to be liberated by Spanish, various people in the Basque Counties rose up against the French only to be mercilessly crushed by the French force in the region. As both nations began to build up forces along the region for deployment, the German powers began to look on with great interest, hoping for the French to fail and allow them to get their pound of flesh.
The Treaty of Brasilia was signed on the 22nd, cementing Brazil as the dominant force in South America. In return for aiding the new Governments of South America to be set up, Brazil was given vast amounts of their southern territories and the case of Upper Peru, its northern and eastern territories. The Republics of Greater Peru and Ecuador were let off more lightly but were largely turned into puppets of Brazil with Greater Peru ceding some land in its north-east region. Argentina however, would be the cherry on the cake for Brazil. A sparsely populated, vast amount of land and resources for the taking, Argentina was annexed outright as it was now the second half of the United Empire of Brazil-Argentina.
The move was largely unpopular within Argentina and a minor revolt persisted throughout the next few years. But due to the sheer vastness and ability of the Brazilian Army compared to the Revolutionaries who had been gutted during the uprising, they were left with little option but to collapse eventually. Brazil would spend the next few years bringing its vast domains under centralised control with Argentina being added to the Parliament and train tracks beginning to show. Brazil would eventually become the juggernaut of the South, an industrial giant with incredible power.
Peace feelers were also sent towards the Federacion by Brazil. Having gained what it wanted from the War, Brazil was happy to pull out. Although the Federacion Government was furious at losing such authority and nations, the realisation that they had no choice but to accept eventually won through.
Tensions between the East India Company and Imperial China, never far from the surface almost boiled over when an EIC ship was found smuggling opium into a Chinese port. The ship was seized along with the crew and War threatened towards Britain. The Peel Government was furious at the EIC for such a transgression. They had told them to cut back on the opium trade and with the War; they could not afford another front against the Chinese. The apology was issued and the matter was settled diplomatically but the Peel Government had reached a decision, the EIC could not be trusted anymore and when the War was done, the British Government would take a much larger role in the subcontinent.
This month also saw the opening shots of the War between France and Spain with a Spanish Army striking into the Basque regions, hoping to gain an insight into the French strength. They weren’t to get it however as Napoleon II had ordered the Army for a general build up along the Pyrenees as well as an Army being stationed in the Basque Counties to await the command for a general attack on Spain with the ambition of securing everything on the Northern side of the Ebro. Napoleon II was determined to bring all of Spain to heel, to accomplish what his father had failed to do. The various skirmishes and minor shooting matches began to escalate as the French prepared for a major offensive.
With all their forces aligned, the Allied Nations of Britain, New England and the Shawnee Nation launched their simultaneous assault on US positions. The strategy was for a gigantic pincer movement from Shawnee positions in the west to strike out and meet a British and Canadian Army heading west. The forces would then meet in Eastern Ohio before striking south towards Virginia and the capital. The British and Shawnee Armies had wanted the New England Army with them but Boston had settled on another idea. The New England Army was ordered to march south to New Jersey, officially in order to split US forces and weaken them.
The assault began on the 6th April with an assault in Pennsylvania by the Canadian Army and a strike into Illinois and Indiana. The Shawnee Army had largely recovered from the previous year’s Battle of the Border although the cavalry had yet to come back to full strength. The Sioux Nation had sent numerous troops to the Shawnee, bolstering their Army greatly with their numbers. The Army leaving the borders of the Shawnee Nation was 50,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry and 100 New England manufactured guns. This was joined by a more traditional Native Army of 10,000 Sioux soldiers who had wanted to join in the battle but not in the way of the Shawnee, wanting to stick to their traditional ways.
The Canadian Army was made up of local soldiers, British Army regulars and volunteers from Native Tribes which had been displaced by the US years earlier. The first Army of the Canadian assault was made up of 55,000 infantry, 13,000 cavalry and 150 guns. This Army was the first major one to be deployed by the British Empire since the Napoleonic Wars and the officer class was made up of graduates of the Yorkshire Academy, the cream of the British crop. The first Army was followed by a second that held its position in New York to secure supply routes. Although smaller at only 50,000 in total, it presented a source of worry for the US Government as it could be called up to assault from New York should the British Army need it.
The New England Army which struck at New Jersey was smaller than the other two with 40,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and 120 pieces of artillery. New England was maintaining its own supply lines in New York and had smaller forces in general. But New Jersey itself was lightly defended; the American Army had expected any assault to go straight towards Pennsylvania and had stripped troops from other areas for the fear of the combined assault be the Allies. The New England assault did indeed go smoothly at first, with weak defences being overcome rapidly while the Canadian and Shawnee Army had to go through the hard slog of better defences.
The US Army was itself under great pressure. With low morale, few supplies as its gun powder stores were beginning to run low and having no great victory since the War began, things were beginning to look desperate. The public was also growing tired of the War although still outraged at New England’s actions. President Clay himself was frequently depressed as the conflict dragged on with no end in sight. Their own Armies were separated into two with 58,000 in the Army facing the Shawnee and a further 65,000 in an Army in the Eastern Theatre. The assault on New Jersey however, threw their plans to the wind and another Army needed to be scraped together, stretching the American supplies to breaking point. The two Armies facing the Shawnee and Canadian/British Armies were forced to withdraw as a force was scraped together in order to be sent to New Jersey to defend it from New England attack.
With this huge setback, the US was left with limited options. The gunpowder supply was critically low with supplies only lasting a few more months at most. While they had managed to get supplies from the Federacion, these had been cut off with both the Brazilian assault and the declaration of War by France which had led to a vast increase in the amount of gunpowder the Federacion itself needed to defend itself. The US Army had stored gunpowder for the War but hadn’t expected a protracted conflict with the Shawnee Nation as well which had greatly diminished their stores. With supplies so low, the US Army was left with little choice but to withdraw their forces and risk it on a much more limited campaign. It was decided that the two Armies originally for defence in the east and west would join and merge in Ohio and attempt to strike out one of the opposing Armies before they could meet with the other and become a greater force. An Army of 43,000 was sent to New Jersey in order to help defend it from outright conquest.
There were no major battles in North America for this time as the scramble to defend too many places at once badly hurt the ability for the US forces to fight their enemies. This break allowed the Allies to advance while also having a shocking affect upon North America. In Mexico, it had been witnessing these events with great trepidation, fearful that the flames of War could spread to its own territories. To that end, Mexican troops were posted all along the border with orders to fire upon if attacked by anyone. Territory held in North America itself was a boiling point as rebellion was never far away from the minds of those in California and Texas. All it needed was a single spark and the whole area would be convulsed in rebellion. That spark was to come as the British force occupying Oregon came across the Mexican border forces.
While normally the event would have passed with merely an acknowledgement of the other force’s existence via a salute or mild greeting, the Mexican Government had become incredibly suspicious of the British presence in Oregon, believing it had become a smuggling point for weapons for the increasing amount of rebels in California and that the British were behind it (It was in fact due to an informal cabal sympathetic to the rebel cause in Mexican territories, the British/Canadian Governments had nothing to do with it). The Mexican patrol ordered the British to stop and reveal any equipment that they might have been smuggling into California to which the British force refused completely.
Tensions escalated until the British officer told his Mexican counter part that they could move out the way or the British would open fire upon them. This was met with some scepticism by the Mexican officer, Britain was already at War with America and Spain, could they really afford a War against Mexico as well? As it turned out, the British officer believed it could and gave the order to fire. The Mexican force was shot and scattered under the attack, fleeing south with the survivors telling everyone they met that Britain was now at War with Mexico. This itself was a tragic mistake as the Californian rebels heard of this and believed that the British were coming to help them. Rumour and rebellion went south hand in hand with the militias who had been arming for such an event, rose up and began to attack Mexican Government and Military positions, believing the British themselves were coming to aid them.
The British reaction to all this was rather confused. While furious that another front against another opponent had been opened, the fact that Mexico was tearing itself apart in Revolution greatly diminished any damage that the front might have caused. All the British had to do in fact was supply the rebels with guns and other supplies in order for it to bring down the Northern Mexican territories along with a few naval strikes along the Californian coast on Mexican positions. By the end of the month, all of California was in revolt with Texas beginning its own uprisings as well. The Mexican Revolution had begun, largely by accident.
In Europe, the War between Spain and France began with a mass attack on the Pyrenees by the French Army. Striking Spanish positions up and down the mountain range, the French Army was also aided by having a foothold in the Peninsula, the French Army in the Basque Counties being their foothold in the Peninsula. Spanish forces, which had been preparing to attack the Basque Counties, were quickly sent south instead to shore up defences and stop the attack before it reached too far into Spain. Along the Pyrenees, French and Spanish troops clashed with the Spanish definitely on the defensive, the War with Britain having drained a lot of resources and money. The French were definitely overcoming the Spanish defences, although it was taking time to do so.
The situation in North America worsened for the US as British; Canadian and Shawnee troops continued their march while New England troops began to cement their control over northern New Jersey. The New England troop’s experienced great difficulty in subduing the actual population in some places as fear of another slaughter of New York had led to many militias being formed as a way to resist the New England occupation. Not unlike the Spanish guerrillas of the Napoleonic Wars, these militias fought a low-key War against the invaders although their effectiveness was mixed at best, some groups managing to do some damage in their local area to the New England Army while others doing nothing more than offering verbal resistance.
As the US Armies scrambled to meet their objectives, defending New Jersey while at the same time, trying to bring an Army together to fight off the British, Canadians and Shawnee who were marching in the north. With such a shortage of supplies, it was decided that the only viable strategy was to send a large enough Army to fight off one of either the Shawnee or the British/Canadian Army before turning around and striking at the other, hopefully driving both off and bring the US on a much stronger foot for negotiations of any treaty. The Army in New Jersey would then strike at New England positions and force them out of the state, hopefully leaving New York vulnerable for capture as well.
The first stage of the strategy came with the US Army striking into New Jersey, leading to a more general uprising against the New England forces which was brought down harshly. Finding itself stretched and under great pressure, the New England Army called out for help from the British Army in New York. Grumbling, the British nevertheless sent a force of 8000 infantry along with 1000 cavalry to aid New England forces in New Jersey. As US forces went north, closing the gap between them and the invaders, the New England Army scrambled for defence, realising that they would be hard pressed to win the next battle.
The Battle of Roxbury took place on the 18th May between New England, US and later on, British forces. With 20,000 infantry on each side as well as 5000 cavalry for New England forces and 6000 for the US, New England showed its typical superiority with artillery by having 100 guns to the eighty of the US. The battle started at 11:21 AM with a bombardment from the New England artillery which as usual, performed well by unleashing chaos upon the American ranks. The US Army commenced its attack with a general infantry advance on the NE positions. The superior training and discipline of the US Army came to their aid when they maintained their ranks despite the artillery barrage and struck the NE lines.
For three hours the two sides unleashed their attacks upon the other with the New England Army slowly crumbling under the superior US Army despite better equipment. The coup de grace almost came when the US cavalry rode out and met the NE cavalry on the right flank, managing to severely damage it and make the force retreat. It was at this point that US victory seemed assured as the NE Army began to fall back. This was changed however when a British contingent of 2000 arrived on the battle field. The contingent had been sent ahead upon hearing of the battle and managed to arrive in time to strike at the American left flank at 3:04 PM, throwing the American lines into disarray. Although resistance was strong, the fresh forces coupled with a New England counter-attack forced the Americans to gradually pull back, unable to stem the attack upon their exposed side. The signal was given to retreat before the damage became irreparable. The total casualties stood at 4000 NE soldiers, 3800 US soldiers and 300 British soldiers. The Battle of Roxbury also confirmed Allied control of New Jersey, forcing US forces only to concentrate in the south of the state and await developments.
The battle had an unexpected development upon New England politics as The Federalist President Quail came under pressure from the Industrial Party under Hanson demanded to know when the War would end. Letting his frayed temper get the better of him against his hated foe, Quail struck out saying the War would go on until victory was assured, regardless of how much blood was spilt. The remark was a disaster as many people now began to see the Federalist Party as callous towards the lives of those affected by the War as well as incompetent as the opposition gleefully pointed out that only the timely arrival of the British turned it into a victory. Alongside the controversial conduct of the War and the slaughter of New York, many began to question their vote in November.
The situation in Mexico also degraded at this time, with the Revolutionaries now becoming organised into proper Armies. Northern California was completely in their hands and the other territories were slowly becoming untenable as well. The man who wanted more than anything to reclaim the provinces for Mexico, Santa Anna, was constantly rebuffed, his double dealings with the Government since the Texan Rebellion having cost him a lot of credibility and he was deemed untrustworthy. The Mexican Army was stretched thin in trying to quell every region at once and as the Revolutionary Armies gained success after success, they started to also form their own Governments, not wanting to depend on anything or anyone to help them.
The situation in Spain also became chaotic as French pressure built up along the south Pyrenees, the Spanish forces being too stretched to offer a decent fight in any particular region as they need to protect the border with the Basque regions where a French Army was just sitting there, waiting. Towards the end of the month however, the build up of French forces in France came to fruition as new units were sent into the fray in the south. By the end of the month, Spanish forces in the region were cracking under the strain and about to collapse.
Another event which happened this month took place on the 23rd when Siyyid `Alí Muḥammad was declared the bearer of Divine Knowledge and a Manifestation of God. It would be the start of the Baha’i Faith and a tumultuous journey.
As the situation got murkier and murkier for US prospects in the War, several began to propose a peace deal that would end it all. President Clay however, refused, wanting to at least negotiate from a position of semi-strength with a victory over the Shawnee and British/Canadian Armies marching in the North or forcing out the NE forces in New Jersey. With the two Armies being able to reach their meeting point in Eastern Ohio at the beginning of July, a large American Army was being stationed in the area to defeat one before turning on the other, hoping to drive them away and weaken the Allied positions in the negotiations. This was also joined with a general attack against the positions of NE and British forces in New Jersey.
The US force in New Jersey was faced with a difficult problem, with a further 3000 British troops having reinforced Allied numbers in the state, now faced a superior Army, not including numbers. The Allies themselves were not without difficulties however as the British were greatly annoyed with New England, believing their attack on New Jersey had been blatant conquest rather than any real attempt to divide US forces and were also incensed that the New England attack had needed British troops to aid it, seeing the mess as purely the fault of New England but supporting them anyway to prevent New York being exposed to attack from the south.
As the US Army prepared for another attack on New Jersey, New England quickly began to dig up greater defences in Roxbury, wanting to leave nothing to chance. The Second Battle of Roxbury took place on the 18th June with a US Army of 22,000 facing against an Allied Army of 20,000. The attack was brutal as the American infantry attacked New England defences again and again, each time being repulsed by the sturdy defence and constant firing upon the US Army with the artillery taking its usual toll. After six repulses, the American offensive was forced to fall back, having lost 4000 men to New England’s 2200 and having made no great impact upon Allied positions.
While US positions throughout the War fronts were getting worse, the Mexican Revolutionaries were getting better. All of Texas and California were aflame with two new Governments being proclaimed, one in Monterey after Mexican forces were forced to retreat from the area on the 19th and another Government being proclaimed at the Alamo in San Antonio of the 21st. The new nations of the Republic of California and Republic of Texas sought recognition from all nations with their independence and were to get it from the US and Britain first with other nations following soon. British supplies secured Californian mastery over the West Coast as well as the New Mexico areas where the recently arrived Mormon settlers were to play a key role in the future of California.
As Mexican forces were beaten back, the Government had no option but to hand over control of the War against the Revolutionaries to Santa Anna, who made it a priority to secure Mexico’s proper borders first before confronting the Revolutionaries. Mexican forces were pulled away from the main areas of rebellion and concentrated instead into Southern California and Mexico, leading a defensive campaign, for now.
In Europe, the French finally broke through the defences of the Pyrenees at the Southern tip. Using the Army that had been stationed in the Basque region all this time, the French Army then attempted a pincer attack, trying to capture all of the Spanish Army in one fell swoop. The French Armies from the south and north struck forwards, trying to cut off all lines of retreat. Realising what was about to happen, Toledo, still in Valencia begged to be allowed to lead a force to break the French lines and prevent a complete rout of the Spanish Army. He was reluctantly assigned 10,000 men whom he led north, meeting the main French force on the 23rd in Northern Aragon. Although the Spanish Army was outnumbered five-to-one, Toledo decided to make a delaying attack in order to prevent the Spanish defences to suffer a complete rout.
Making a surprise attack on his enemy’s rear, Toledo personally led an attack of 1000 cavalry against the French Army’s rear, managing to cause several casualties before withdrawing to a position in the east where his 9000 infantry were lying in wait. The French followed the cavalry to a slope where, when they reached near enough, the Spanish infantry appeared over the crest and began firing into the approaching enemy. Taken completely by surprise, the French cavalry suffered heavy losses before managing to retreat while the French infantry had to contend with attacking a brilliant defensive position. The weight of numbers began to tell however as the Spanish infantry was gradually outflanked and forced to retreat after several hours, Toledo being killed while leading the rearguard, his actions having dispelled the accusation of cowardice which had marred the last few months of his life.
Although Toledo had been killed in the battle, his plan had been a complete success as the surprise attack had delayed the French assault while damaging their Southern Army. The Spanish forces along the Pyrenees were given enough time to make a fighting retreat from their defences and organise in North-East Spain where by the end of the month, they were ready to march onwards to attack French forces in the region.
The final and deciding battles of the North American Theatre in the Four Year War took place at Cleveland, Ohio as the Allied Army took on the US Army assembled there. The US Army now stood at 70,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry and 170 pieces of artillery, the largest yet assembled in a single Front. The British/Canadian Army was in dire need of assistance and the Shawnee Army was still quite some distance away. The only nearby assistance was the Sioux contingent although what affect that would have upon the battlefield was unknown and at any rate, when the opposing Armies met, it was still some distance away. The British quickly took up defences several miles east of Cleveland where on the 7th at 12:53 PM, the Battle of Cleveland opened with a full scale bombardment upon American forces by the Allied cannon.
Despite the differences in numbers, the two forces were fairly well matched, Allied superiority in equipment being matched with the tenacity of the American soldiers. The infantry met and matched each other, pummelling into the enemy with a constant barrage of bullets, neither side showing any sign of stopping. For two hours, the pounding continued with both sides taking equal losses. The deciding moment of the battle came when the Allied cavalry launched an attack upon the American right flank only to be met by their American counterparts coming the other way. After a long and bitter struggle, the Allied cavalry was forced back, leaving the infantry wide open. The US cavalry charged, scoring some success before squares were formed, repulsing them.
The damage had been done however as the steady stream of infantry on British lines gradually forced them back before the British commander finally order a retreat at 6:12 PM, wishing to preserve his forces for another day. The final casualty total for the US Army was 8000 infantry, and 2300 cavalry. The Allies on the other hand lost 12,000 infantry, 3200 cavalry and twenty guns which were captured during the retreat. For the Allies, this was a setback as they retreat back east. For the US, it was a great victory with morale lifting throughout the Army. As night fell, the Army camped down in preparation to face the enemy when they came.
Then the Sioux attacked.
Not really paying attention to the niceties of the fighting styles of other nations, the Sioux launch a viscous surprise attack upon the American camp at 2:30 AM. Although surprised, the US units managed to rally decently during the confused three hour combat. The Sioux were finally repulsed having suffered 2600 casualties but the damage to the US Army was even worse. Having taken 3000 dead and wounded, the Sioux had also managed to steal 1500 horses from the camp with another 600 having been killed in the confusion. Having taken stock of this, the US Army prepared to leave for the south to reorganise and rebuild their ranks to the best of its abilities.
And then the Shawnee showed up.
Having taken a two day forced march with the minimal rest needed having been taken; the Shawnee Army had heard reports regarding the First Battle of Cleveland and the Sioux attack upon the American camp. With the Americans thus exhausted and their forces disorganised, the Shawnee cut off their retreat south and forced them into battle. With now only 59,000 infantry and 15,600 cavalry the US Army still outnumbered the Shawnee in terms of guns and men but were exhausted and demoralised after the raid, many still having bloodstains on their uniforms from the previous night.
The Second Battle of Cleveland started at 9:54 AM with the Shawnee bombarding the American position with their cannon while sending out their own cavalry and infantry in a general advance, hoping to capitalise on the exhaustion of the US Army with their attack. To its credit, the US Army did manage to stand firm through the assault but the Shawnee cavalry once again proved its undoing. With its usual renowned ferocity, the cavalry struck at their US counterparts before heading towards the artillery, their numbers and momentum overcoming the exhausted US cavalry. The Shawnee cavalry struck the US artillery and managed to drive many of those maintaining it away, leaving two arms of the US forces out of commission and the infantry greatly vulnerable.
Overcome by the Shawnee attack on all sides, the US Army signalled the retreat which soon became a full blown rout at the Shawnee kept up the pursuit, taking practically all the enemy artillery and managing to inflict losses of 15,000 on the enemy. When the day was done, the US Army was in tatters and the Allied forces were ready to strike south towards the capital. When news of this disaster reached Washington, it was decided that enough was enough; Clay finally agreed to offer an armistice in preparation for a peace Treaty. The North American Theatre of War finally closed on the 20th as Philadelphia was agreed to be the point of what would be several months of tense negotiations.
As the War wound down in the east, Britain began to put pressure on California to end its own rebellion and make peace with Mexico as well as Texas doing the same thing. This ‘request’ happened to coincide with Santa Anna winning a victory over a small Texan Army which had made an overenthusiastic lunge for proper Mexican territory. But the Revolutionaries were still unwilling to negotiate with Mexico as it was refusing to recognise either Texas or California as independent nations. While the North most points of its territories were in Revolutionary hands, Mexico proper had yet to be threatened.
In Spain, the French Army in Aragon was driven back with a series of defeats was inflicted upon them in various small scale battles, forcing them to retreat back to the Pyrenees. The French Army from the Basque Counties was itself also forced to pull back as newly formed Spanish Armies rushed to the area, managing to cut off their retreat to the Basque Counties themselves before turning on the French. Having no choice, the French Army was force back to the Pyrenees, managing to escape by the skin of their teeth as they were constantly harassed by Spanish forces that chased them straight through the mountains. With the threat of the French in Spain nullified for the time being, Spanish forces marched into the Basque Counties on the 19th, being welcomed as heroes by the people. With all Iberia now free from French troops apart from several passes in the mountain ranges.
With such a reverse, Austria and Prussia approached Spain, offering a mutual Alliance against France. Spain leaped at the offer and in return, Prussia and Austria offered to meditate the conflict which, if France refused, the two nations would declare War. Refusing to even consider abandoning French interests in Iberia, Napoleon shot down the offer immediately, ordering French forces to Italy to guard the land there. The only question came from what the Prussians would so, unable to attack straight on. The answer came with a Prussian ultimatum to the Meiningen Pact, let our troops through or face War. After some deliberation, the Pact refused and called up its forces, staking its fortune with the French Empire. Europe was now at War for the first time since the War of German Independence but all the pieces had not yet been brought into play…
One other event was the funeral of General Carlos de Toledo, buried with full military honours in Madrid. Fully redeemed after his death in battle, Toledo would be forever remembered as a faithful and honourable Spanish soldier
At Havana, a Treaty was signed between the Imperial Federacion and the United Empire of Brazil-Argentina, ending that Theatre of War. With neither side able to make anymore gains or losses, the War was brought to a close the Federacion being forced to recognise the various independent nations while the UE promised not to interfere in Central America or Federacion holdings in the Caribbean. While it finished one problem of the Federacion, the War against Britain was still a major thorn in its side, the Spanish Navy coming under increasing pressure as Naval clashes became more and more frequent. With nothing to gain and the War with France taking up much more resources, Spain sent word to Britain, asking for a peace deal. Despite pressure from France, Britain agreed, tired after a difficult War and wanting to consolidate its gains. The Federacion was invited to Philadelphia where it joined some very heated negotiations.
In Mexico, it became clear that with the recognition of Britain and the US as well as other North American nations recognising the rebel states as independent of Mexican rule, that it would perhaps be best to avoid being overly ambitious in trying to retake Texas and California. Santa Anna refused to consider this, instead marching out to Texas with an Army of 20,000 to confront the Californian Revolutionaries threatening Mexico proper. Moving north, Santa Anna managed to win various skirmishes against the Californian Revolutionaries, securing Baja California from invasion. The Mexican Army rested before suddenly receiving order from the civilian Government in Mexico, stop fighting, negotiations with the Revolutionaries had been entered.
Santa Anna was furious at this and started to gather support amongst various Army officers who felt the same as he did. Negotiations between Mexico and the Revolutionaries would continue for several months while conspiring between Santa Anna and the Army would go on for some time as well.
The European Theatre of War continued as the Pyrenees Front quietened down as French forces were rushed to the east in Italy and to support the Meiningen Pact in Germany. This moth saw no real fighting until towards the end when Prussian and Austrian forces fought and overcame border defences in Italy and Saxony before moving onwards to Pact and French forces. The Prussian command was confident of victory, still thinking of the Pact as separate, weak states that would fall before the might of the superior Prussian Army. Austria was less confident, having a border with France which left them vulnerable and their own nationalistic problems which the War had only briefly put aside as conscription managed to take away many of those who would have otherwise stirred up trouble.
As the War in the North American Front finally ended with the Treat of Philadelphia, many nations walked away feeling either elated, devastated or even mildly relieved. The basic tenets of the Treaty were thus:
1: All parties were to recognise that the Oregon Territory belonged to Britain.
2: All parties recognised that the Sioux territories and all land east of Oregon were now under the dominion of the Shawnee Nation, which was in negotiations with the Sioux Tribes for integration in their ways. It would be a difficult argument, but the Shawnee were confident of them being fruitful.
3: The US was forced to cede New York and New Jersey to New England, the last state being particularly contentious. New England had pointed out that it was responsible for dividing American troops at a critical time and as such, played a great part in the victory. Eventually, it was agreed that New Jersey would be allowed to vote on which nation it would be a part of after a space of fifteen years. This was the only real way to get the US to agree to allow New England to take the state, memories of New York still fresh in mind.
4: Spain ceded the Philippine Islands to Britain, removing their major port in the area while effectively making the Indian Ocean and South China Sea two British lakes.
5: Britain promised not to interfere in Central America. With the new markets having been opened with the independence of the Southern American nations, it wasn’t really needed anyway.
6: The Shawnee were ceded some land in Southern Canada concurrent with their Northern border on the condition that they would allow British business interests to flourish in the area. As the area was largely populated by various displaced Tribes from the 1830’s, there was no major outcry.
The Treaty was signed and in order on the 12th September by all parties. The biggest winner out of it was in fact the Shawnee Nation. It now had vast swathes of land and people that greatly increased its power. Although mainly subject to British business interests, this did not in itself detract from the independence of the Tribes, always one of their greatest concerns.
The greatest loser of the Treaty was of course the United States of America. Now cut off from the Pacific, losing a lot of potential settling land and having to cede two of its oldest states, the War had an even worse effect than the War of 1812. The Democratic-Republican Party was finished as the elections drew near and President Clay announced that he wouldn’t be standing for President a second time. As the US looked towards the election for any aid, they were to get it from one of the strangest duos in American politics.
Elsewhere in the World, the march of feet was heard as Prussia and Austria pressed the offensive with an assault into Central Germany and Northern Italy respectively. The march of these Armies was slow going as winter gradually set in and neither side wanted to commit too much to a War which would bog down in bad weather. As the month ended, both sides kept to their limited gains and waited for warmer climes.
Two elections in North America saw the establishment of two new Governments. In New England, the Federalist Party was removed from Power as the Industrial Party claimed the victory. The people of New England, while ecstatic at the victory, were unhappy at the way in which the War had been fought and felt that a new way forward was needed. The Industrial Party under Hanson was seen that way and before long, the new Administration took on its role with relish.
In the US, the National Party won a sweeping victory with the new President, James Buchanan taking power. Under him was the new Secretary of State, Abraham Lincoln. Despite having wildly different ideologies on certain points, the two were determined to rebuild America as part of a new nation that would rise from the ashes of its defeat new and strong. Buchanan sent Lincoln on foreign trips as much as possible, as disagreements on slavery constantly undermined their relationship but due to Buchanan’s experience and Lincoln’s grassroots support, both needed the other.
The Treaty of San Francisco, the Treaty which allowed the independence of California and Texas was signed. Despite opposition from the Army, Mexico recognised the two new Republics as it came under pressure from Britain to do so. California was the stranger of the two, made up of a mix of whites, Chinese and Mormons, the ethnic and Religious mixture of California, stretching from the Pacific to the New Mexico territories, made it quite unstable at times as the various conflicts arose time again and again. The democratic process came under threat also as Juntism began to make headways amongst the populace.