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One Hundred Years : A World Changes TL - 1914-1919 Period


June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary is involved in an assassination attempt. He is grazed by fragments of a bomb thrown by Muhamed Mehmedbašić, a Bosnian nationalist. He remains safe and in the city.

June 29, 1914: Emperor Franz Joseph orders a full investigation into the incident, and begins the deployment of extra troops to keep the peace in Bosnia.

July 10 1914: The Boston Red Sox refuse to buy Babe Ruth as a pitcher. Ruth, bitter about the rejection, decides to take up an offer with the Boston Braves, who immediately accept him.

July 12 1914: Grigori Rasputin is stabbed in the chest by Khionia Guseva, the wound proving fatal. The death is a extremely heavy blow to the royal family.

July 26, 1914: Henri Pélissier takes home his first Tour de France by 1 minute

August 1, 1914- Marcus Garvey founds the UNIA.

August 2 1914: Hussein Onyango Obama decides to move to South Africa to find a job at the King's African Rifles.

August 7-10, 1914: President Woodrow Wilson suffers a sudden stroke and dies. In a remarkably smooth transition, Vice President Thomas R. Marshall is sworn in as 29th President of the United States. In his hastily-written inaugural speech, “A Tragic Accession”, Marshall makes several faux pas as he champions a much more progressive agenda even than Wilson's own.

August 13-15, 1914: Great Britain defeat the United States 3-2 to win their fifth Davis Cup

August 15, 1914- The Panama Canal is opened. Visitors from around the world show up.

August 20, 1914- Pope Pius X passes away.

September 1 1914: Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George is found dead after being hit by a car while walking in London, PM Asquith remains undecided on his replacement, but many agree it will be a Liberal.

September 18, 1914: The 1914 Government of Ireland Act receives royal assent. While the Unionist faction in Parliament strongly opposed the inclusion of Ulster in Home Rule, the addition narrowly passes, with Prime Minister H. H. Asquith pushing strongly for the inclusion of the entirety of Ireland. The royal assention prompts a Unionist walk-out of Parliament supported by Andrew Bonar Law juxtaposed with celebrations in Dublin, Cork, and other southern Irish cities. Ulster, however, is simmering…

September 22, 1914: Portuguese Football Federation is form in Lisbon, Portugal

September 24, 1914: After President Marshall appoints several extremely progressive candidates to the cabinet, his legitimacy is openly challenged by conservative Republicans in the Senate, led by New York Senator Elihu Root. Marshall fires back angrily, calling “the fine senator from New York and all his ilk foul snakes chewing upon the bare leg of government”. The statement soon makes its way, both visually and verbally, into newspapers around the country.

September 25th 1914: After Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels is shifted to the Treasury Department in Marshall's reshuffle of the cabinet, Assistant Secretary Roosevelt moves up to take Daniels' place

September 26, 1914: South Melbourne take home their second title after winning by 10 points over Carlton in the VFL

September 27, 1914: Sultan Mehmed V is killed by Zionist Terrorists while visiting Jerusalem.

October 13, 1914- Louis Luçon, a Frenchman, is elected Pope. He takes the name Alexander IX.

October 31, 1914: Charles Taze Russell proclaims that an “apocalyptic war” is coming, during a mass in Allegheny, Pennsylvania,….

November 13, 1914: On November 13 in the early morning hours, a British freight ship out of Belize City collides with USS Utah, patrolling near the Mexican coast. While the Utah is not majorly damaged, the British ship suffers a large hole and rapidly takes on water. Though the American sailors manage to save several dozen crewmen, many more are lost in the black night and the ship is forced to return to Galveston with its sad cargo, leaving several dozen unaccounted for. The next day, the search is quickly called off by the Democratic governor of Texas, Oscar Branch Colquitt, ostensibly due to a lack of results.

November 15, 1914- Harry Turner, captain of the Canton Professionals, leads that team to victory over the Akron Indians.

November 16, 1914- The Federal Reserve Bank opens.

November 18, 1914: In a speech before the American Senate, the British Ambassador to the United States, Sir Cecil Arthur Spring Rice, publicly shames Colquitt for calling off the search so quickly and calls on the president to continue the search, at least for the bodies of the sailors who might remain. While the president is certainly willing to do so, his response is unfortunately complicated by Senator Elihu Root, who uses the occasion to again challenge President Marshall's leadership.

November 19, 1914: Marshall, in an attempt to both save face from the diplomatic catastrophe and confirm his legitimacy, nervously bungles his “Apology” speech, again in front of the Senate and a gathering of foreign diplomats, managing to insult the British Ambassador with an ill-timed joke. The diplomatic situation is further complicated as the Mexican Ambassador to the United States, Eliseo Arredondode, questions American diplomatic staff as to why the Utah was patrolling so near Mexican waters.

November 23, 1914: At Fatima, Portugal, local pilgrims proclaim that the Virgin Mary has warned, “The eagle, your country, has fallen to Satan….”

December 10, 1914: A handful of American sailors are arrested in Veracruz by Mexican officials on charges of spying for the United States.

December 13, 1914: In a public statement, President Marshall demands the return of the imprisoned American sailors. In response, the Mexican ambassador leaves the United States, without even a statement.

December 20, 1914: The so-called Christmas riots in Calcutta in British India begin after the bubonic plague which had struck Bombay only fifteen years previously appears like wildfire in the city; the British struggle to regain order in the city, in what can accurately be called the largest Indian rebellion since the Sepoy Rebellion fifty years earlier. The riots and plague combined will eventually cause the displacement or death of nearly two million people.

December 24, 1914: In the early hours of the day, the United States Atlantic Fleet, under command of Rear Admiral Frank Friday Fletcher, heavily bombards Veracruz, after which marines are landed. While the cadets of the Veracruz Naval Academy put up a strong defense, they are supported by only fifty Mexican soldiers and are eventually forced to surrender. Seventy-nine Mexican cadets and soldiers and twenty-two American marines are killed in the fighting. The United States now firmly occupies Veracruz.


January 1, 1915: President Marshall, in a public proclamation, declares the United States' terms for leaving Veracruz; the sailors' safe return, along with monetary compensation for the deaths of the twenty-two marines. The President's strong response to the Mexican Crisis has earned him well-deserved points in the eyes of the American people, and he is more popular than ever before.

January 2, 1915: Responding to President Marshall's declaration the previous day, Mexican officials agree to release the sailors, if the US leaves Veracruz, but refuse to provide monetary compensation for the twenty-two marines killed in the taking of Veracruz. President Marshall refuses to budge on this condition, declaring that honor for those killed and their families demands nothing less. The US Marines continue to occupy Veracruz and the sailors remain in Mexican custody as the stand-off continues.

January 9, 1915: The tense diplomatic standoff between the US and Mexico is complicated when elements of the United States Army stationed in New Mexico engage in large-scale firefights with troops loyal to Francisco “Pancho” Villa, under neither the USA's authority nor Villa's. While Mexican officials quickly lay the blame squarely at Villa's door as essentially a warlord unconstrained by the government, President Marshall lambasts the Mexicans for their inability to control their generals. In a saber-rattling speech, the president, his usually joking persona cast aside, says that the United States would be glad to take care of Mexico's problems if they cannot do it themselves, clearly challenging Mexican authority. The nationwide approval of the president is higher than ever before.

January 10, 1915: A large bomb goes off in Dundalk. A Protestants is captured and killed by a mob for the action.

January 20, 1915: Eugene V. Debs publicly speaks out against Marshall's saber-rattling, though he does also honor the president for his progressive views. More pacifistic elements of the Democratic and Republican parties do, quietly, agree.

January 23, 1915: John Chilembwe launches a massive armed insurrection against British occupation in Nyassaland seizing control of the armory at Blantyre,….

January 28, 1915: The situation in Veracruz continues to deteriorate. A group of US Marines on patrol find themselves the targets of a spontaneous mob who assault them with stones and glass bottles. Fearing for their lives, they fire into the crowd. They succeed in dispersing them, but leave 8 people dead and 15 wounded.

January 30, 1915: Large-scale riots break out in Veracruz, protesting US occupation of the city. They are put down with extreme force by American marines. 16 are killed and 5 wounded, two of those American soldiers.

January 30, 1915: John Chilembwes forces are defeated at Chikwawa. Chilembwe disappears.

February 8, 1915: Mexico folds first, as the economy already begins faltering at the loss of one of Mexico's largest ports. The monetary compensation is paid in full, and the American sailors are handed over to the occupation force in Veracruz. The next day, the Americans withdraw, handing the city back to the Mexicans. The president is lauded for his strong response, but many outside the United States watch developments with a wary eye.

February 9, 1915: Private Hussein Obama is part of a patrol that captures John Chilembwe. He sees a white officer beat the man.

February 17, 1915: Venustiano Carranza, President of Mexico, signs the Accord of Zacatecas along with Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa. In the accord, which officially declares that all three will lay down arms against each other for “the good of Mexico”, Villa is given the title of Military Governor of Chihuahua, with very few constraints upon his power in the state and extreme freedom in action–essentially, he is legally a caudillo. Emiliano Zapata is given similar freedoms over his home state of Morelos. Carranza agrees to institute a program of land reform over the next four years in exchange for the two recognizing his authority as president. The three are drawn together largely in fear of the United States, and an agreement to prepare for a possible war with their northern neighbor is also formed.

March 9, 1915: The first hundred of what will eventually be almost a million Indian immigrants fleeing the plague-ridden areas arrives in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The new immigrants will soon form a significant and colorful part of the population of the coastal city.

March 10, 1915: John Chilembwe is executed in Blantyre.

March 11, 1915: Boosted by his diplomatic victory over Mexico, Marshall unveils an agenda of extremely progressive goals in a speech before the Senate–it is soon nicknamed “the Marshall Plan” by political worthies. Included in the plan is extremely aggressive labor and trust legislation, Wilsonesque but to an even greater extent. Further regulation of the new federal reserve system is a major theme, but first priority is the encouragement of free trade by the lowering of tariffs.

April 14, 1915: Eliseo Arredondode arrives in London to discuss a comprehensive arms deal between the United Kingdom and Mexico.

May 4, 1915: Mexico reaches an agreement with the United Kingdom for the purchase of military equipment.

May 31, 1915: Gil Andersen wins the 5th Indianapolis 500 and is the first Norwegian to win the Indy 500.

June 5, 1915: Religious pilgrims at Fatima, Portugal claim that the Virgin Mary has warned, “The bear is massing on its border; he is ready to strike…”

June 20, 1915: In the burning heat of summer, American border patrols and Villista militiamen trade fire in isolated firefights, in the second bloodletting since Veracruz. Two Americans are wounded and one Mexican. While the event doesn't get much play on the national stage, in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and some parts of southern California, several local militias are formed, to add “additional security” to the border.

July 5, 1915: A makeshift bomb explodes in Belfast's Victoria Square, killing two civilians and wounding around thirty. Unionist paramilitaries are suspected of the act.

August 14, 1915: Tensions continue to mount as local pilgrims in Fatima, Portugal proclaim that the Virgin Mary has warned,“There will be a terrible War … beyond anything mankind has ever seen..”

September 17, 1915: Villistas clash with several American militias in Arizona–and this time, it isn't an isolated firefight. The resulting bloodletting, called in American newspapers “the Battle of Nogales”, takes up several hours after Villistas attempt to raid a munitions warehouse in Nogales, Santa Cruz County. American militias, being both disorganized and badly-armed, are forced back from the warehouse and the Mexicans return in triumph to Chihuahua. More than fifty Americans are killed, along with twenty or so Mexicans, and fifteen paramilitaries are taken prisoner by the Villistas; the first in what will soon become a war.

October 1, 1915 - United Kingdom General Election: the Conservatives gain control of the House of Commons. Unionist Party members win many seats in Ulster. Among those elected is Mohandas K. Ghandi. Elected as a Liberal for Finsbury Central as a Liberal.

November 31, 1915: In Ulster, fighting breaks out in the countryside between Catholics and Protestants.

December 10, 1915: The British army puts down most of the fighting, but there are still attacks.


June 7, 1916- The Republican National Convention in Chicago begins.

June 10, 1916- Charles Evans Hughes is decided to be the Republican Presidential candidate.

June 21, 1916- The Socialist Party Convention in St. Louis begins.

June 25, 1916- The Socialists nominated Eugene V. Debs.

July 1, 1916: The 1916 Summer Olympics open in Berlin.

July 15th, 1916: Antonio Salandra steps down as Prime Minister of Italy, to be replaced by Tommaso Tittoni.

November 7, 1916- President Marshall wins reelection with 377 electoral votes. The Republicans have 106 and the Socialists 48.

21 November 1916: Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary dies in his sleep in Vienna. He is succeeded by his nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

1 December 1916: Franz Ferdinand is crowned in Vienna as Emperor Franz II of Austria. His unpopularity in Hungary and desire for a Triple Crown causes immediate problems. The Hungarian government stalls the coronation for the Crown of Saint Stephen until they can exact some concessions from the new Emperor.

5 December 1916: Count István Tisza is removed from his position as Hungarian Prime Minister. He is replaced by Albert Apponyi, who is expected to take a much more hardline stance with the Emperor in negotiations over the Ausgleich.


January 30th, 1917: Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf suffers a stroke. Although he would eventually recover, his incapacitation caused his position as Chief of Staff of the Austrian army to be taken up once again by General Moritz von Auffenberg.

14 February 1917: Uprisings in Trieste are violently crushed by Emperor Franz of Austria. Images of the carnage shock observers in Germany and France.

March 5, 1917- The inauguration of President Marshall occurs. He gives the “Guardian of Democracy” speech in which he reaffirms the US' role as the defender of democracy in the western hemisphere.

19 March 1917: Serbian nationalists establish an unofficial parliament and other institutions, which run parallel to the Empire's own organizations. Franz does not repress these groups, seeing them as a chance to strengthen his position in negotiations and improve his bid for a Bosnian Crown.

12 April 1917: Seeing an opportunity to cut down the Hapsburgs and remove an obstacle to Pan-Slavism, the Russian government begins secret negotiations to support Hungary with military advisers and aid in the event of conflict.

May 23rd, 1917: Former Emperor Kojong of Korea unexpectedly dies in his sleep. There is widespread speculation that the deposed monarch was murdered by Japanese authorities, and anti-Japanese resentment among the Korean people begins to boil.

16 June 1917: Negotiations in Budapest collapse. Emperor Franz is unwilling to abandon his dream of a Triple Crown and Apponyi is unwilling to surrender Hungary's preferential position within the Empire. The Crown of Saint Stephen remains vacant. If no resolution to the Crisis appears before December, the Ausgleich shall be terminated.

1 July 1917: In a saber-rattling speech, Emperor Franz II of Austria demands international support to ensure the union of his empire and the enfranchisement of the Slavic people under a Bosnian Crown. An international team of diplomats are dispatched to Vienna in an attempt to resolve the dispute. Among those included in talks are Germany, Great Britain, France, Russia, Spain, United States, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Romania, and Serbia.

Austria's diplomats hope to convince the United States to support their position. Rumors spread that Germany, Russia, and Serbia are intentionally sabotaging the conference.

3 August 1917: Austrian officials intercept a telegraph from Russia promising Hungary full military support should the Vienna Conference fail. Emperor Franz orders the full mobilization of his military.

August 5, 1917: In response to the Austrians, the Russian military mobilizes. The Germans and French begin preparations to do so.

9 August 1917: With tensions mounting, Romania and Austria begin bilateral talks over their secret 1883 alliance. Ferdinand I of Romania indicates his willingness to honor the agreement, but pushes the issue of Transylvania. Austria promises to revisit Romania's claim in return for support.

11 August 1917: The Austrian government receives confirmation from the German Empire that it will support Austria in its fight for Hungary. France confirms that it will support Russia if Germany supports Austria in the Crisis.

August 13, 1917: Correspondences that prove, without a doubt the Russians are attempting to force the Congress against the Austrians in hopes of starting a war, are published in European newspapers. Public opinion turns against Russia.

August 14, 1917: The French inform the Russians they cannot help them in the event of war.

Russia backs down.

August 20, 1917: It is agreed to give the Emperor Franz Ferdinand the Crown of St. Stephen, and to absorb the Slavic portions of the Empire into the Kingdom of Bosnia. The title will belong to Franz Ferdinand, but a separate government will rule the area.

August 21, 1917: Hungarians unhappy with the decision begin to revolt.

August 23, 1917: The revolt in Budapest, the center of the revolts, is put down though some terrorist actions and riots do continue to occur there and in the countryside.

August 25, 1917: The Hungarian National League, a terrorist organization devoted to splitting Austria-Hungary, forms.

timelines/1914-1919_one-hundred_years.txt · Last modified: 2014/08/11 07:29 by Petike