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shared_worlds:shared_worlds_technological_encyclopedia

Shared Worlds Technological Encyclopedia


Intro

This project was started in the main part of Alternate History's Shared Worlds forum by Blue Max. The user Mmmeee0 requested (or volunteered, since the position was inevitable) the responsibilities for creating the AH Wiki of the project.

It's going rather slowly and randomly, please standby.


Note from Blue Max: We are slowly adding in the second list of technologies to this layout. This will take quite some time, as there is much to include. Again, community contributions would be greatly appreciated.


A

Agriculture

Agriculture (Theoretical): If humans have the ability to see plants that are in some way edible, they can attempt to grow them for their own benefit. Required: Nothing (Prehistory).

Agriculture (Gen One) Domestication of Plants: One of the earliest technologies on this list, Domestication of Plants involves the selective replanting of the most nutritious and most bountiful forms of plants to make them provide more food for early societies. Required: Nothing [13,000 BC].

Agriculture (Gen Two) Irrigation and Intensive Agriculture: While Plant Domestication is useful for increasing human populations, intensive agriculture is really needed to create stable societies that survive the long term. Required: Nothing [5500 BC].

Agriculture (Gen Three) Crop Rotation: Intensive Agriculture ultimately drains a soil of nutrients and leaves it barren. But with dedicated observation and exploration, crop yields can be further increased and land remain fertile in perpetuity–which is essential to maintaining food production in a region, and can be adapted to include livestock and fallow seasons. Required: Education I [800].

Agriculture (Gen Four) Fertilizers: Further increases in crop yields can be achieved with the help of Chemistry. Fertilizers can turn barren soil back into arable land, and allow more plants to grow further. Required: Chemistry II [1842].

Agriculture (Gen Five) Insecticides: While intensive agriculture achieves remarkable gains, insect pests still take their toll. This technology ensures that more food is available for humans, at the expense of the bugs. Required: Chemistry III [1944].

Agriculture (Gen Six) Genetically Enhancement of Plants: The modification of a plant's DNA greatly changes its ability to protect itself and eliminates immediate limits toward its size, resistance toward pesticides, and increases its utility to farmers. Required: Genetic Engineering I [1995].

Agriculture (Gen Seven) Hydroponic Agriculture: The nurturing and growth of plants without soil and in simple solutions of water and appropriate minerals means that plants can be grown anywhere without investment of land, simply with appropriate energy and nutrients. This powerful advance means that farmland is no longer necessary. Required: Engineering IV [2030?].

Agriculture (Gen Eight) Xenoculture: Assuming other planets are colonized and explored, the questions will emerge of what life can be introduced onto a new planet. Xenoculture, the study of engineering life to alien conditions (and possibly the converse of engineering alien life to our conditions), may offer utilization of another planets resources to the same degree that plants on Earth grant resources to humanity. Required: Genetic Engineering II [2140?].


Armor

Armor (Theoretical): Theoretical predecessors to armor itself would include clothing of all stripes–and this means furs and pelts from animals. In this early recess, the idea of wearing clothing, is extremely ancient. Required: Nothing [OTL: Prehistorical].

Armor (Gen One) Leather: The combination of the skins of animals and Oak bark isn't a pairing that seems terribly logical to many, but this combination would lead to Leather. Leather was the first ancient armor, and while not nearly as strong as other materials, it also serves many other purposes. Requires Agriculture I [7700 BC].

Armor (Gen Two) Bronze Armor: The application of armor and shields made of Bronze required not only the use of Bronze, but also considerable practice of forging such materials. Required: Materials Science I [750 BC].

Armor (Gen Three) Mail: The Use of Iron, in turn, leads to superior protection. Chain Mail, armor made of protective metal links, provides excellent protection against most melee weapons, and represents a large advantage over various Bronze ArmorsRequired: Materials Science II [400].

Armor (Gen Four) Plate Armor: The importance of tailoring armor to precisely fit the user represents the next great advance in armor design. Plate Armor is heavier but still sturdier than Chain Mail, but affords even more protection. Required: Engineering III [1400].

Armor (Gen Five) Ballistic Vest: Stopping a bullet is a far more difficult prospect than a sword blow. Still, advances in plastics, manufacturing and engineering make this achievable without greatly reducing combat efficiency. Required: Industrialization II, Materials Science IV[1969].

Armor (Gen Six) Nanite Armor: The application of nanomachines to defensive properties is nothing less than magical, and strong advantage of Nanite Armor–it protects against second and subsequent shots as well as the first. In a world dominated by firepower where more bullets are more lethal, Nanite Armor changes the equation and allows soldiers to withstand storms of metal. Required: Nanotechnology II, Materials Science V [2025?].

Armor (Gen Seven) Energy Shielding: The discovery that energy can be used to stop and repel matter has been an expensive curiosity than a matter of practical use, but when weapons themselves are powerful to the point of leaving behind a mushroom cloud from pistols, exploitation of this principle is needed. Energy Shielding, as one can imagine, is intensely consumptive, but the modern marvel of Quantum computers and Man-Portable fusion reactors makes this the next breakthrough in protection Required: Nanotechnology III, Nuclear III, Computer V [2100?].

Armor (Gen Eight) Quantum Defense: Manipulation of Subatomic particles can lead to materials that rival man's greatest ambitions. Quantum Defense, the coordinated exploitation of Quantum locations, offers what appears to be impossibly capable defenses. Required: Nanotechnology IV, Nuclear IV, [2200?].


Astronomy

Astronomy (Theoretical): Anyone who can look at the skies above can marvel at their beauty, and wonder at what they all mean. Astronomy as a possible discipline. Required: Nothing [OTL: Prehistorical].

Astronomy (Gen One) Celestial Navigation: Using the stars and astrolabes, sailors in unmarked oceans can find their location to an area of within two miles, allowing them functional knowledge of their location in unbounded sea. Required: Maps I and Mathematics II [OTL 10th Century, later in Europe].

Astronomy (Gen Two) Identification of Planets and Major Moons: Gain knowledge of Moons around gas Giants and other planets not learned in prehistory. Required: Maps II and Mathematics III [OTL 1800-1850].

Astronomy (Gen Three) Identification of Interstellar Planets, Minor Moons, and Dwarf Planets: Gain knowledge of most objects in Solar System (excluding minor asteroids and small objects in the farthest reaches of the Solar System), as well as knowledge of Jovian seized bodies of stars within 100 LY of a habited world. Required: Computers III [OTL 2000].

Astronomy (Gen Four) Locating another Earth: With this powerful means of detection at hand, your nation can find planets of Earth's size within 100 LY (and Jovian size at 1,000 LY). In addition, you are also able to read the spectra of their atmospheres, to determine their composition and habitability. Required: Space Transit II [OTL 2030?].


Aviation

Aviation (Theoretical): Theoretical origins of aviation include experimentation with gliders and kites. Getting an object to stay airborne is precursor to understanding aviation as a field. Required: Engineering I [800 BC].

Aviation (Gen One) Balloon: The use of lighter than air gases, like Hydrogen or simply the use of Hot Air allows people to ascend to take their first steps in the sky. Balloons, although fragile, can play a very helpful role in reconnaissance. Requires: Chemistry I [Nov 1783].

Aviation (Gen Two) Fixed Wing Aircraft: Far faster, far sturdier and more mobile than Balloons, airplanes rely on fossil fueled engines to push forward, simultaneously using this force to push itself upwards. This discovery will allow air transit between locations (at far faster rates than blimps). Required: Engineering IV, Fossil Fuels II, Materials Science III [Dec 1903].

Aviation (Gen Three) Helicopters: The ability to create vehicles that can ascend vertically, that can hover and place, and tightly control where they move, is the next real advance in the field of aviation. Helicopters can be used to grant mobility to infantry, to provide heavy support for ground forces, as well as much more mundane tasks like dropping fire retardants or measuring traffic Required: Materials Science IV [1942].


B


C

Chemistry

Chemistry (Theoretical): To even contemplate a world made of elements, one needs to have researched Education I, so as to provide a base of knowledge to contemplate the very small.

Chemistry (Gen One) Standardized Chemical Exploration: The Investigation of Chemical Compounds and their properties is fruitless unless experiments are repeatable. Standardization of lab equipment can allow results to be repeated–and more importantly, for new compounds to be discovered. These kinds of experiments will not enable a nation to convert lead into gold, but can lead to creations of dyes, acids and eventually, gunpowder. Required: Writing I [776].

Chemistry (Gen Two) Conservation of Mass: This critical breakthrough that matter can not be converted nor destroyed leads to exploration of vapours and highly detailed explorations of the nature of chemicals. This advanced breakthrough is critical to understanding gases, as well as the results of many chemical reactions, such as combustion. Required: Education II [Feb 1773].

Chemistry (Gen Three) Atomic Structure and Radioactivity: One of the great phenomena of atoms, understanding radioactivity is critical to understanding nuclear reactions. In addition, understanding atomic structure is critical to understanding critical constraints of chemical reactions, and questions of “how” chemistry works. This level of chemistry is needed to explore radioactivity and high explosives, as well as plastics. Required: Education III [1912].

Chemistry (Gen Four) Exotic Chemistry: The study of odd chemical processes, in high atmospheres, temperatures, zero gravity or simply on minute scales leads to understanding extremely aberrant oddities of chemical behaviour, such as superconductivity, plasma chemistry and the observation of tiny particles that form atoms. Required: Computers II [1986].

Chemistry (Gen Five) Atomic Alchemy: Through assistance from quantum computers and a massive source of energy, atoms can be converted from one element to another in controlled fusion. While energy intensive, this process can allow atoms to be created from other atoms. Required: Computers V [2110?].


Combat Transportation

Combat Transport (Theoretical): Wanting a safe way to get around on the Battlefield is as old as battlefields themselves. No Preqs Required

Combat Transport (Gen One) Chariots A somewhat protected vehicle pulled by horses, chariots offer a mobile platform for soldiers on the move, but provide little cover. Still, Chariots offer advantages on ground based soldiers. Required: Agriculture II, [2000 BC].

Combat Transport (Gen Two) Stagecoach: Far more advanced than a Chariot, Stagecoaches are fully enclosed and proof against bows. They can be used to carry cargo or important leaders, although they are too expensive to use for much more than elite officials in a combat situation. The horses, of course, are still very vulnerable… Required: Engineering III [1250]

Combat Transport (Gen Three) Automobile: This machine requires no horses and offers large advantages in speed, the ability to travel more hours a day, and massive improvements on logistical situations. The Automobile will ultimately offer operational freedom on the battlefield, but it will require a steady source of fuel to operate. Required: Fossil Fuels II, Materials Science III. [1885]

Combat Transport (Gen Four) Tanks: Tanks were developed to break stalemates and deadlocks that resulted from the deployment of machine guns, and ultimately resulted in changing the entire scope of land warfare. Tanks aggressively chew through oil and other materials, but offer huge advantages on the battlefield. Required: Firearms IV (Provisional?), Fossil Fuels II (Provisional?) [1915]

Combat Transport (Gen Five) Dropships: Dropships are reorbital craft designed to handle the stresses of carrying soldiers into orbit and back to the planets surface. They are powerful, reusable, and offer incredible logistical advantages. These vehicles are also sufficient to move soldiers in a space theater, and expand the scope of combat to other planets. Requires Nuclear III, Materials Science V, Space Transit II[2050?]


Computers

Computers (Theoretical): The desire to automate calculation requires first a basic understanding of mathematics and machinery. Simple tools, such as an abacus, generally signal that computers are dreamed of but not available. Required: Nothing [2700 BC].

Computers (Gen One) Difference Engine or Electromechanical Computer This is either an massive mechanical design [30m x 10m] or a smaller but still impressively large machine utilizing vacuum tubes and punch cards. With the ability to handle thousands of calculations per second, this machine can reduce problems that would take days into minutes. Required: Engineering II, Infrastructure II [1945].

Computers (Gen Two) Minicomputer: This allows much smaller computers roughly the size of a refrigerator–far smaller in scale of computers of the previous generation, and far more powerful in terms of research, owing to uses of transistors and core memory. Although it stores only 4kb of information and can perform hundreds of thousands of calculations a second. Required: Chemistry III [1965]

Computers (Gen Three) Microcomputer Far smaller again then Generation Two computers, offers further advances, such as colour graphics and an operating system, such as DOS. While the earliest of these designs is still very primitive by modern standards, modern computers are simply far better optimized version of these machines. Required: Paper III, Engineering III. [1976]

Computers (Gen Four) Bio-Compatible Computers: Despite their great complexity, Computers share little in common with human thought processes. These crucial advances will allow the development of a Mental-User Interface and the ability to use computers to create perfect prosthetic limbs, as well as allow enhancements to upgrade the human mind. Required: Medicine IV, Engineering IV [2018?]

Computers (Gen Five) Quantum Computers: This is the left hand of god in the computational field. Due to particles ability to maintain highly nuanced superpositions instead of a simply 1 or 0 and the atomic size of these particles, Quantum Computers possess the power to handle calculations of incredible size with incredible speed. This is sufficient to calculate the location of every person on earth in realtime, or to “brute force” the locations of atoms. Suffice it to say, if a problem can be solved at any rate with a computer, it can probably be done in under a second with a Quantum Computer. A Quantum Computer can effectively model highly advanced paradigms, like the weather, or even project the course of bullets and missiles on the battlefield. Attached to some kind of laser beam, a Quantum Computer is simply able to eliminate all threats with perfect aim, constrained only by the recoil and fire rate of its weaponry. Requires Nanotech III [2080?]


D

Directed Communication

Directed Communication (Theoretical): Any society that reaches two distinct settlements not in frequent communication appreciates the benefits of long distance messages. Required: Nothing

Directed Communication (Gen One) Telegraphy: A more modern adaptation of the smoke signal, Telegraphy can be used to communicate a message overland through a relay of visual signals. While not invisible or private, this kind of directed communication can be critical in a war. Required: Chemistry I [1792]

Directed Communication (Gen Two) The Radio: The use of harmless radiation to carry a signal means that it is now possible to communicate overland with no intermediate infrastructure. Radio waves move at the speed of light, reducing delays to fractions of a second at most. Required: Chemistry II [1897]

Directed Communications (Gen Three)/ Mass Media (Gen Four) The Internet: Reducing communication times from days to seconds across the board, the Internet makes communication faster, and more selective as well, giving Mass Media the ability to better target specific audiences. The Internet is handy for many other purposes as well. Required: Computers I [Oct 1969].

Directed Communications (Gen Four)/Mass Media (Gen Five) Telepathic Network: The ability to give people the ability to communicate at the speed of their thoughts instead of words and to provide levels of communication that are unprecedented in human history. The effects of a Telepathic network means that anyone in your network can be contacted by the government at a moments notice (although most of the network would not serve this purpose). Required: Genetic Engineering II, Computers IV [2040?].

Directed Communications (Gen Five)/Mass Media (Gen Six) Unification: This is nothing less than the unification of all minds and thoughts of your people into one collective specimen of overwhelming intellect and nigh-unstoppable power. The ability to get 100% of a nation's people to give 100% when needed represents as much as a tenfold increase in a nation's power, through extreme optimization of resources and the ability to address needs and wants masterfully. Required: Genetic Engineering III, Computers V [2175?].


E

Education

Education (Theoretical): For most of human history, children have learned from their parents and all have learned from a wise man or woman in times long passed. Humanity has an inborn desire to learn, and any society that shares this basic need understands that Education is possible. Required: Nothing [OTL Prehistorical].

Education (Gen One) Socratic Tradition: Although little is known of Socrates, his willingness to die for the truth and his pursuit of knowledge despite political opposition and the views of the elite would crystallize the pursuit of knowledge as a field separate from politics. While not always respected by governments and leaders, to truly seek knowledge one must accept that it will not always agree with the point of views of those searching for it. This humbling principle leads to the pursuit of objective knowledge, and basically means that tutors and schools are much more likely to dedicate themselves to research instead of political justifications. Required: Writing I[399 BC].

Education (Gen Two) The University: Dedicated to sharing and researching specialized knowledge, Universities greatly facilitate research of all kinds. A Nation with a university as at a strong advantage over one that does not in researching sciences. Required: Paper II [July 1091].

Education (Gen Three) Education as a Social Development: Previously, education was exclusively the right of those who could afford it, but over time governments recognized that they could improve their populations through education, and began to establish universal public education, so that all men would be able to read, write, and do basic math. Required: Liberalism I [1773].


Engineering

Engineering (Theoretical): The idea of designing superior buildings, roads, and infrastructure involves, mostly, dreams related to designs. Given a basic level of development (a traditionalist government), people can consider Engineering as a field. Required: Nothing [OTL Prehistorical].

Engineering (Gen One) Simple Machines: The Pulley, Wedge, Lever, and Wheel. These very simple tools form the basic parts of most complex designs today, and enable a huge number of logical designs–gates, carts, jacks, screws, and other methods to gain mechanical advantages. Required: Education I [350 BC].

Engineering (Gen Two) Architecture: The study of creating large scale structures and buildings is a natural outgrowth of the use of simple machines applied on a larger scale. Architecture allows the creation of three story buildings and fanciful but functional designs. Required: Math I [100].

Engineering (Gen Three) Mechanical Engineering: The critical development of advanced engineering designs ties into gear works and other related models allows to the development of everything from locks to engines. This is clearly critical for any advanced society. Required: Math II [1206].

Engineering (Gen Four) Electrical Engineering: Alternatively known as Electronics, this field turns a current of electricity into many of the amazing processes known through motors and generators. Required: Infrastructure IV, Math III [1872].

Engineering (Gen Five): Computer Engineering: The emergence of computers enables Engineers to model their designs for greater accuracy and effects. This is not be understated; the use of computer models makes what used to be an impossible project very doable. Computer Engineering allows for sophisticated computers to aid them in their designs. Required: Computers II [1990].

Engineering (Gen Six): Super Scale Engineering: Building bridges across oceans and attempting to remodel planets to human aims requires a still greater level of engineering than has ever been seen on Earth. Super Scale Engineering allows for the truly amazing designs to become possible. Required: Computers III. [2050].

Engineering (Gen Seven) Ultra Scale Engineering: This is the magnitude of creating planets, carefully controlling the sun's spare output through a massive framework of mirrors to husband its energy, and stripping away mass from Jupiter in order to make it like Earth. Anything that involves the masses of planets, or the creation of objects over a million miles in size, requires this technological advance. Required: Computers V, Nuclear IV [2200?].


F

Firearms

Firearms (Theoretical) In order for Firearms to be discovered, explosive powders must be known. The knowledge of gunpowder precedes any development of a firearm. [OTL 800]

Firearms (Gen One) Firelance: This crude device launches darts through an inefficient use of gunpowder. The effective range may be short, and its highly inaccurate–but in close quarters it is useful. Required: Chemistry I [1000]

Firearms (Gen Two) Matchlocks: This early firearm simplifies the firing of a weapon, and allows the user to aim with both hands and keep their eye on their target when firing. While the design requires a continuously burning match and faces a real challenge with loading gunpowder near an open flame, this design is much simplier and more effective than the Firelance that precedes it. Required: Engineering III [1440]

Firearms (Gen Three) Flintlocks: A great advance on the firing mechanisms, Flintlocks offered greater ease of use than Matchlocks–and an answer to the problems of mixing gunpowder and fire unintentionally. Required: Education II [1630]

Firearms (Gen Four) Breech Loading: Up until this point, reloading a gun has been a difficult and time consuming process. Breech Loading guns (guns that reload from the back instead of down the barrel of a gun) are much faster to reload and don’t require standing to reload the gun. This has the effect of increasing firepower and lethality on the battlefield. Required: Materials Science III [1847]

Firearms (Gen Five) Submachine Guns: The development of Submachine weapons greatly increase the firing rate of weapons, allowing more bullets to hit their targets, resulting in a further increase of firepower and lethality. The increased firing rate, however, increases ammo needs considerably. Required: Chemistry III* [1916]

Firearms (Gen Six) Assault Rifles: The next generation of firearms emphasizes firepower even further than submachine guns or service rifles. While even more ammo intensive than the Submachine guns that predate them, Assault Rifles offer even more firepower in a combat situation. Required: Materials Science IV* [1947]

Firearms (Gen Seven) Beam Weaponry: Technically not firearms, the advent of beam weapons (Lasers and Masers) offers far greater accuracy, range, and eliminates the need for ammo entirely in favor of a strong energy source. With the coupling of computers to assist in firing rate and accuracy, These weapons break many of the constraints that conventional weapons have faced. Required: Computers III, Chemistry III [2025?]

Firearms (Gen Eight) Blasters: The addition of Antimatter and pure fusion weapons further increase the lethality of small arms. Such weapons can hit with force in excess of a ton of dynamite–despite being no larger than an ordinary bullet. Such weapons are necessary against highly armored forces. Required: Nuclear IV [2150?]


Fossil Fuels

Fossil Fuels (Theoretical) Understanding the inherent power of fossil fuels is as simple as finding pitch or coal and discovering how intensely it burns. With Education I, your nation is ready to discover the benefits of power. Required: Nothing [OTL Prehistorical].

Fossil Fuels (Gen One) Coal: The Importance of Coal as a fuel an not merely a curiosity requires applications of its energy. (There has to be a need for it to be useful) These developments, and not the discovery of coal itself, prohibit the use of Coal Power. Required: Engineering II [1000].

Fossil Fuels (Gen Two) Crude Oil A more volatile but also more useful source of energy, Crude Oil is the chemical parent of an endless number of plastics and lubricants–as well as a critical source of fuel. Required: Chemistry I [1719].

Fossil Fuels (Gen Three) Biodiesel: Created from various alcohols and vegetable oils, biodiesel offers similar benefits to oil, but is a renewable resource. Although initially just a technological marvel, this offers nations without fossil fuels but in possession of arable farmland to enjoy most of the benefits of Petroleum. Required: Chemistry II [1937].


G

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering (Theoretical) The basic princinple of Genetic Engineering–selective breeding–was practiced by humanity in the distant days of the late stone age. But to really modify DNA, DNA must first be discovered, which involves Chemistry III

Genetic Engineering (Gen One) Human Genome Project. By recording the entire contents of Human DNA, the foundation for enhancement can truly begin. This level of Genetic Engineering allows for a study of genetic defects. Requires: Computers III. [1991]

Genetic Engineering (Gen Two) Gene Therapy. The next stage, after acquiring Human DNA, is figuring out what to do with it. Gene Therapy is a matter of discovering how to improve the human condition, and resolve critical problems through genetic manipulation. It also offers other advantages in medicine, such as fixing birth defects and possibly granting immunities to diseases. Requires: Nanotechnology I. [2015?]

Genetic Engineering (Gen Three) Transhumanism. Up until this point, humanity has essentially lived within the constraints of evolutionary design and hard limits on genetic variation. Transhumanism calls for surpassing these limits–to help humanity become even more than it already way. Advances in Transhumanism, although they will take a full generation to recognize, will lead to a stronger, smarter and healthier population. It's awkward, but once created, transhuman genes will spread to all humanity. Requires: Computers IV. [2050?]

Genetic Engineering (Gen Four) Synthetic Life. DNA is a powerful tool and its permutations can be far more than exists today. While some denounce these methods as “playing god” with living creatures, such comments miss the point. Long burdened with stewardship of our biosphere, humanity has at long last gained the power to rebuild extinct species from scratch–and ones that never existed in the first place. The extremely high efficiency foods, the completely compliant insects and microbes, and the completely tamed dinosaurs are now at your beck and call. Requires: Computers V. [2100?]


H

Health Care

Health Care (Theoretical): The pursuit of medicines and medical treatment is as old as illness and injury itself. All societies can pursue Medical Care as a technological progression.

Health Care (Gen One) Herbalism: The matching of certain plants to alleivating certain symptoms is essentially prehistoric, but beneficial to human survival even long after its discovery. Required: Nothing [14,000 BC].

Health Care (Gen Two) Hippocratic Tradition: The formalization of the role of a doctor, and his social responsibilities, set essentially modern rules for the role of a doctor. By dedicating themselves to the highest standards and through a dedication to the patient's well being above all other concerns, medicine can advance above rivalries and political intrigue. Furthermore, medicine and aid is not the province of the divine or superstition, but a field for human progress. Required: Writing II [370 BC].

Health Care (Gen Three) Germ Theory: Many (if not most) diseases are caused by bacteria, and transmitted by certain methods. With simple treatments (washing ones hands), infections and plagues can be brought under better control. Required: Education II [1450].

Health Care (Gen Four) Antibiotics: The exploration of means to kill bacteria in the body leads to Antibiotics, and the first highly effective medicine to treat the causes, not the symptoms, of an illness. Required: Chemistry III [1928].

Health Care (Gen Five) Cure for Cancer: Breakthroughs in genetic engineering and nanotechnology enable doctors to fully regress cancer to a precancerous state, eliminating what used to be one of the worse causes of death in Humanity. Required: Nanotechnology I, Genetic Engineering II [2025?].

Health Care (Gen Six) Advanced Regeneration: Transferring the quirks of a Salamander's healing patterns to humanity is extremely powerful, but requires massive [temporary] adjustments to the human body to be successful. Required: Nanotechnology II, Computers IV [2060?].

Health Care (Gen Seven) Post Mortem Resuscitation: Despite all propaganda to the contrary, humans are made up atoms in highly complex forms. Despite this, the ability to reverse death–to fix a dead body to restore it to working condition–has not yet been achieved. Until Now. With this powerful research in hand, death itself becomes treatable, fixable and reversible. While the moral implications of a world without death are legion, the benefits are obvious–more, happier people in a world with unlimited ability to fix even the worst accidents. Required: Genetic Engineering IV, Computers V [2150?].


I

Industrialization

Industrialization (Theoretical): In order to consider Industrialization, one's society needs to have a surplus of food and labour for a long period of time.

Industrialization (Gen One) Industrial Revolution: This is one of the most critical technologies in the lineup! Through division of labour, the use of advanced machines, and the consumption of fossil fuels, one's society can begin to Industrialize. As a result, GDP and output will soar. Required: Engineering III, Trade II, and Agriculture III [1780].

Industrialization (Gen Two) Electricity and Automation: The Second Step in the industrialization process, the combination of these factors greatly enhances output by allowing all of the processes to run simultaneously. Further increases in GDP and Output will result. Required: Materials Science II and Fossil Fuels I [1870].


Infrastructure

Infrastructure (Theoretical): Infrastructure might not be desired in the earliest days of hunting and gathering, but all of humanity that's gotten past that point will appreciate the need for it. Any human society that's advanced into a “traditionalist government” instead of a tribal structure or even aspires to become a state instead of a tribe is a candidate for understanding infrastructure. Required: Nothing [5300 BC].

Infrastructure (Gen One) Roads, Ports and Pipes: These ancient technological advances make the establishment of cities possible by allowing foodstuffs (and trade goods) the ability to move and the ability of a people to use drinking water from nearby sources. Required: Nothing [3000 BC].

Infrastructure (Gen Two) Bridges and Aqueducts: These vital advances allow cities to grow still further through importation of water and the ability to build over obstacles, such as crevices, rivers and streets. Required: Math I, Masonry I [700 BC].

Infrastructure (Gen Three) Canals and Sewer Systems: Increasing the ability of people to transverse large distance, Canals are crucial to support maritime traffic. Sewer Systems are critical for human health in major cities, reducing disease transmission. Required: Engineering I [608 AD].

Infrastructure (Gen Four) Railroads, Power Grid, Telecoms: These advances enable the creation and transmission of electricity, as well as the ability to send large amounts of materials overland cheaply, and communicate to critical locations. Required: Engineering II, and Fossil Fuels I [1850 AD].

Infrastructure (Gen Five) Highways and Airports: The ability to navigate overland without relying on a massive rail lines. These advances offer critical benefits to national defence, and greatly reduce travel time for routes not serviced by railroads. Airports offer even greater speed advances. Required: Math II, Fossil Fuels II [1925].

Infrastructure (Gen Six) Space Elevators and Orbital Platforms: Infrastructure in space is a requirement for any attempt at any off world colony. Space Elevators are crucial for advancing space transit beyond its earliest stages, while Orbital Platforms serve as interplanetary “Spaceports” for avoiding the difficultly of planetary entry and egress. Required: Nanotechnology II, Space Transit I [2030?].

Infrastructure (Gen Seven) Superluminal Communications and Mazeworks: Essential for developing large connected areas off world (like cities), Mazeworks are essentially a requirement for any large city to exist outside of Earth or a similar environment. Superluminal Communications, the product of Quantum Entanglement, allow instant communication between any two locations that humanity has previously reached. Required: Engineering V, Computers IV [2060?].

Infrastructure (Gen Eight) Terraforming: Turning other worlds into the basic form of Earth makes all previous accommodations for survivability unneeded. The sheer scope of this project, as well as the tremendous resources involved, make this a formidable technology to acquire–but its application might well usher a new age for humanity. Required: Engineering VI, Computers V [2140?].


J


K


L

Legal System (Theoretical): Any society requires social norms and taboos on behaviour–many of them inborn in human nature. Any attempt to understand these rules leads to the theoretical knowledge of a legal system.

Legal System (Gen One) Religious Laws: The first major source of laws came from religious sources–among them, the Old Testament and others drawing upon long traditions of myth and legend. Religious Laws codify right and wrong and invoke divine sanction or wrath. While there are many difficult consequences of having these kinds of policies in place, a state of laws is preferable to a state without. Requires Religion I [1280 BC].

Legal System (Gen Two) Civil Code: By placing rules under the control of the state and streamlining the process by condensing laws into a simpler form, a Civil Code also grants the state a formal means to enforce permanent laws. This allows for the state to formalize the legal process, and fight crime and corruption more effectively. Required: Writing II [534].

Legal System (Gen Three) Presumption of Innocence: The next major development in legal theory is the presumption of Innocence–innocent, until found guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Justice is not a perfect system–but by erring on the side of innocence instead of guilt, abuses of the legal system can be mostly eliminated. Required: Liberalism I [1689].

Legal System (Gen Four) Commitment to Universal Human Rights: As much a political commitment as a matter of Law, this kind of commitment means sacrificing some national sovereignty in exchange for the right to declare war upon nations with poor Human Rights records. But this commitment works both ways–participant nations can not willingly opt to dishonour Human Rights after this point, and forswear taking hostages, torture, and the first use of W.M.D.s. In exchange for these sacrifices, a nation can warn and then wage war against abusive nations legally. Required: Liberalism II [2002].


Liberalism

Liberalism (Theoretical): Liberalism, as a possible avenue of study, requires an understanding that people deserve rights on the basis of being people alone, instead of heredity, having money, or being friends with the royal family. This can mean many things–philosophers advocating such rights, a historical tradition of the government respecting the dignity of its lowest inhabitants, or even a colonial tradition of having to produce a new government every so often. That said, Liberalism requires having a nice point of view of the people at the bottom of a system. A mean spirited or highly autocratic system does not support exploration of this kind, although having a neighbour that's experimented with this form of government might mean that revolutionaries that overthrow said government could consider it.

Liberalism (Gen One) Limited Indirect Democracy/Lassiez-Faire: This is an early version of a representative system, which includes a social contract with its constituents (which probably exclude large segments of its population) and therefore creates a somewhat democratic system. This also is a major development for free trade and capitalism, which supports economic growth. Required: Writing I, Trade II [1787].

Liberalism (Gen Two) Expanded Enfranchisement: Expanding the vote to many of those who were previously excluded due to questions of eligibility or public trust is a strong move toward improving the well being of a democratic state–increasing the loyalty of its citizens, and calling upon the poor, the women and the immigrants in defence of the homeland. Required: Nationalism I, Mass Media II [1913].

Liberalism (Gen Three) Trans-nationalism: The emergence of large trading blocs has brought about massive increases in trade and economic growth, as well as reducing tensions between neighbours. In many terms, Trans-nationalism means economically tying one's nation to its neighbours and sharing in their economic fortunes. Functionally, this would mean that a larger nation would enjoy alliances with other nations based upon economic co-operation, as well as higher trade income. Required: Mass Media III [1993].

Liberalism (Gen Four) Teledemocracy: Scaling a democratic system beyond a single planet is a formidable organizational challenge that requires major concessions of a leading power to that of its subordinate planets, and requires technology to avoid a lack of contact entirely. Thanks to the marvel of Quantum Entanglement, critical communications can be shared, but otherwise information moves at the speed of light (which might take hours or years to get there) This technology is required to establish an interstellar government, and strongly supports an interplanetary one. Required: Communications IV [2060?].


M


Maps

Maps (Theoretical): Any person who has ever gotten lost can appreciate the need for maps. Indeed, the earliest designs (drawings from memory) may predate written language. Required: Nothing [OTL: Prehistoric].

Maps (Gen One) Ethnocentric Maps: The first accurate maps are only useful for areas well known to one's own people. This is still a major technological advance (it means that the immediate area around your nation is understood.) But distant journeys are likely to wander into unknown area and become lost. Further expeditions are needed. Required: Paper I, Writing I [500 BC].

Maps (Gen Two) Continental Maps: Understanding an area as large as an entire continent is no mean feat, and requires a great deal of exploration and observation to record. This level of area requires the support of explorers and trade networks to achieve. Required: Trade I [1154].

Maps (Gen Three) A Global Map: Getting a map to “look right” involves as much math as knowledge, and transcribing a spherical world into a rectangular map is not easy, nor is getting information from the far corners of the world. But to truly understand the world, it needs to be accurate and known. Required: Trade II, Math II [1569].

Maps (Gen Four) Satellite Imaging: A Must for off world exploration and excellent for fine-tuning locations on Earth, Satellite Imaging is the ultimate advance in map design. Essentially, the entire world is known at street level detail. Required: Space Transit I, Computers I [1959].


Mass Media

Mass Media (Theoretical): Sometimes, someone surely must have wanted to tell something to the world, but before Mass Media was well known, the only way it could have worked was through word of mouth. Mass Media required communication, transit, and the ability to inform large numbers of people. Required: Nothing [OTL: Prehistoric].

Mass Media (Gen One) Town Criers: Although not able to reach anywhere near the audience of anything more advanced, Town Criers enable Renaissance era civilizations to spread messages with reasonable speed; and it works for those who can't read or write as well. Required: Writing I [1540].

Mass Media (Gen Two) Newspapers: The first of the real forms of Mass Media, Newspapers allow information, advertisements, and entertainment to reach a massive audience, and allow for the same story to retold tens of thousands of times. Required: Paper III, Printing [1783].

Mass Media (Gen Three) Television: Although it doesn't seem like it, Television can be a vital tool for mass communication, as well as propagandization. Television, mostly, is a social sedative that gives people a way to relax. TV is likely to reach into the tens of millions of viewers and can meet a global audience. Required: Infrastructure IV [1928].

Mass Media (Gen Four)/Directed Communications (Gen III) The Internet: Reducing communication times from days to seconds across the board, the Internet makes communication faster, and more selective as well, giving Mass Media the ability to better target specific audiences. The Internet is handy for many other purposes as well. Required: Computers I [Oct 1969].

Mass Media (Gen Five)/Directed Communications (Gen IV) Telepathic Network: The ability to give people the ability to communicate at the speed of their thoughts instead of words and to provide levels of communication that are unprecedented in human history. The effects of a Telepathic network means that anyone in your network can be contacted by the government at a moments notice (although most of the network would not serve this purpose). Required: Genetic Engineering II, Computers IV [2040?].

Mass Media (Gen Six)/Directed Communications (Gen V) Unification: This is nothing less than the unification of all minds and thoughts of your people into one collective specimen of overwhelming intellect and nigh-unstoppable power. The ability to get 100% of a nation's people to give 100% when needed represents as much as a tenfold increase in a nation's power, through extreme optimization of resources and the ability to address needs and wants masterfully. Required: Genetic Engineering III, Computers V [2175?].


Materials Science

Materials Science (Theoretical): Man's fascination with materials is prehistoric in nature and probably originated with the results of finding gold and silver, as well as carbon. From these extremely basic beginnings, an interest in materials science is born. Required: Nothing [OTL: Prehistoric].

Materials Science (Gen One) Bronze Working: One of the greatest an important alloys of the ancient world, Bronze Working was the first serious alloy to be put to use, and it essentially replaced either stone or copper items. For any kind of armor or weapons to be effective at all, Bronze Working is needed at a minimum. Required: No Preqs. [3100 BC].

Materials Science (Gen Two) Iron Working: The second stage of materials science, Iron is cheaper and more common than than tin or copper. Iron Working is crucial for many devices of the modern world; it is simply so fundamental to the development of society as to be irreplaceable. Required: No Preqs [1200 BC].

Materials Science (Gen Three) Steel: Critical for the construction of railroads, as well as endless architechural uses, Steel represents the combination of mass production and iron working, leading to stronger materials for many, many uses, as well as avoiding the high price of replacing rusted iron. Required: Chemistry II, and Fossil Fuels I [1830].

Materials Science (Gen Four) Plastics: Manufactured from crude oil, plastics offer new alternatives for materials science–Plastics have a staggering array of properties, among them weight, low cost, and if desired, high strength. The use of plastics offers huge implications for consumer goods, as well as military items. Required: Fossil Fuels II [1912].

Materials Science (Gen Five) Carbonlink Materials: Further exploration of carbon chemistry, this time at nothing more than a nanoscale level, leads to still more bizarre materials. Carbonlink materials can be as strong as diamonds, and represent nothing less than the coordinated manipulation of grams (or more) of material at the atomic level. Which intensive technologically, the products offer material advances far in excess of anything seen before Required: Nanotechnology I [2015?].

Materials Science (Gen Six) Superactinides and Dominated Radioactivity: This represents the exploitation of the sub-atomic level. The awesome computational power of quantum computers, matched with a mastery of nanoscale understanding, is not likely to be the end of Materials Science. The next step is dominion of the subatomic–the exploration of the ways and means that cause nuclei to collapse–and the ability to prevent it from happening. Materials that result include truly abberant variations of modern materials (greatly underweighted or overdense), the use of short lived atoms in a sustainable fashion (the entire 7th period of the Periodic Table), as well as other theoretical materials, like Neutronium Required: Nuclear IV, Computers V, Nanotech IV [2175?].


Mathematics

Mathematics (Theoretical): Even in prehistory, humans kept scores and tallies of their accomplishments. Rocks dated to 70,000 BC indicate geometric patterns and some concept of counting has truly ancient roots for humanity. Anyone with five fingers on a hand and five toes on a foot has the theoretical foundation for Mathematics. Required: Nothing [OTL: Prehistorical].

Mathematics (Gen One) Algebra, Geometry, and Arithmetic: The applications of these simple forms of mathematics are legion–measuring areas, deducing totals and devising budgets. It would be difficult to overemphasize the importance of censuses, tax revenues, government efficiency and keeping track of time. A Nation that lacks Mathematics I is probably unable to work as anything besides a Traditionalist Government. Required: Nothing [2800 BC].

Mathematics (Gen Two) Decimal System and Trigonometry: Trigonometry allows many tricks, such as triangulating one's location through a knowledge of angles, which is ultimately crucial to understanding ones location given basic information about their environment. A Decimal System greatly enhances the ease and efficiency of doing mathematics, as well as making division and multiplication far easier to achieve. A nation armed with such knowledge is able to avoid reliance on specialized calculators for such operations. Required: Education I [700 AD].

Mathematics (Gen Three) Calculus and Probability: Calculus is critical to understanding physics and bypassing the constraints of infinities. Probability can be used to assess risks in a hard, mathematical fashion–leading to actuarial tables and perhaps, formalized gambling and lotteries. Required: Education II [1700 AD].

Mathematics (Gen Four) Boolean Algebra: Boolean Algebra famously declared that 1+1 =1. While a curiosity at the time, this branch of mathematics will prove to be crucial in the development of computers. Required: Education III [1850 AD].


N

Nanotech

Nanotech(Theoretical): Nanotech is the study and application of molecular machines. To even consider this level of development, one must be familar with molecules. Requires Chemistry II

Nanotech (Gen One) Fullerenes: The advent of carbon bonding begins. Fullerenes, incredible linked networks of carbon molecules, offer incredible applications–the strength of diamonds, the conductivity of graphite, and the resistance to heat of carbon chains. It is hard to understate the importance of these discoveries for materials science and engineering. Requires Chemistry III, Computers III [1985].

Nanotech (Gen Two) Self-Replication: Getting Nanomachines to create more of themselves (within constraints) is an ideal means to acquire huge numbers of them, to much more efficiently amass a large army of themselves. Given the appropriate materials, such nanomachines can quickly emerge and then switch over to a secondary process that serves your nation more productively. Requires Chemistry IV [2020?].

Nanotech (Gen Three) Programmable Nanomachines: At this stage, Nanomachines have become multipurpose machines with many possible uses and effects. This kind of multifunctionality allows for far greater efficiency, but requires a relay system of assorted nanobots to carry this kind of message. This technological advance represents a fivefold advance in Nanotech efficiency Required: Computers IV [2060?].

Nanotech (Gen Four) Subatomic Constructs: The next logical point beyond nanotechnology (and admittedly a speculative development) is the exploration of devices smaller than atoms. Such designs would explore the various implications of quarks and non-standard leptons in materials. The use of Charm, Strange, Top and Bottom quarks opens up nothing less than a bold new world of materials designs, while stability is enforced in these otherwise unstable particles. Applications probably include superhard, superstrong materials, possible advances in superconducting, and nothing less than a whole new avenue to chemistry, all of which hinge on the critical ability to enhancing the binding “Strong” nuclear force. Required: Computers V [2150?].


Nationalism

Nationalism (Theoretical): Nationalism is the ability to get large numbers of people to see themselves as 'a people', so that they can better co-operate on their objectives. Nationalism, then, requires major contact with hostile powers and barriers, such as language, to emerge with other nations.

Nationalism (Gen One) Cultural Mythos: As a crucial formative step in the development of a national identity, a society needs a shared history of heroes, a shared language, and a “melting pot” that causes people within the state to see each other as of the same nationality. This is ultimately smooth out frictions from diverse people within the state. Requires Writing II, and a Victorious Major War (Achievement) [1400].

Nationalism (Gen Two) Ethnic/Cultural Nationalism With a cultural focus in place, the views of nationalism strengthen. your people see themselves as a people, and resist getting divided from their homeland or their own ethnic group. Requires Writing III [1800].

Nationalism (Gen Three) Expansionist Nationalism: This is the logical development of Nationalism, after another victorious war and a colonial tradition, as well as a view of some cultures as inferior to your own. Your nation now begins assimilating its neighbors and occupied territory with its own nationality, and might opt to eject those who refuse with this kind of ideology. Required: Totalitarianism II [1880].

Nationalism (Gen Four) Ultra Nationalism: The hardest of the Nationalist types as well as the most aggressive, Ultra Nationalism generally means that your people are the best people on Earth–and therefore deserve the best land and resources. Ultra Nationalist societies gain the ability to depopulate regions of their non-aligned nations, and replace them with people of your Nationality, increasing your people's resource base for generations to come. Required: Totalitarianism III [1933].


Naval Warfare (Theoretical): Naval Warfare is the ability to fight on ships. The theoretical requirement is nothing more sophisticated than rafts or canoes, both of which are truly ancient.

Naval Warfare (Gen One) Galley: The first known ships, Galleys essentially must keep in close contact with the shore to avoid getting lost and have no means to fight, except with boarding actions. Agriculture II [3000 BC].

Naval Warfare (Gen Two) Man of War: The addition of guns to ships, Man of War Ships are armed with cannon and powered by sails. The advantages of both developments mean that fighting is meaningful at long range and that fighting at sea begins at the range of guns instead of hand to hand fighting.Requires Artillery III, Materials Science II [1550].

Naval Warfare (Gen Three) Ironclad: The addition of metal armor and steam propulsion allow a ship to move faster, withstand much more damage, and provide great advantages on previous ship designs. Ironclads are the forerunners of modern surface warships. Required: Materials Science III, Fossil Fuels I [1859].

Naval Warfare (Gen Four) Submarines: The next major development in naval warfare is fighting beneath the waves. Submarines require diesel engines and solid waterproofing, but offer the element of surprise attack that is otherwise impossible Required: Fossil Fuel II, [1914].

Naval Warfare (Gen Five) Militarization of Space: The future in navy forces are ones the move through space, not through a planet's waters. The Militarization of Space will lead toward the first combat-ready ships in outer space and military operations beyond Earth itself. Required: Nuclear I, Space Transit I [2020?].

Naval Warfare (Gen Six) Deep Space Operations: Billions of miles from home and at a range where our mother star is just a brilliant point of light instead of a source of energy, Spaceships need to be fully self-sufficient in order to survive. This means advances in materials, computers and energy sources. If we someday hope to fight against another Star System, this will be the intellectual foundation of said effort. Required: Nuclear IV, Space Transit III, Computers V [2150?].


Nuclear

[This is a Critical Military Technology.]

Nuclear (Theoretical): to even consider the exploration of nuclear technology, questions must emerge with the idea of Conservation of Mass (Chemistry II)–this can include discovery of Chemistry III, or it would require some other odd exposure to radioactivity.

Nuclear (Gen One) Fission: The idea of causing atoms of special nuclei to collide and create a chain reaction leading to extraordinary outputs of energy can be used to create devastating weaponry. More humanely, this can also be harnessed as an energy source. Requires Chemistry III and Computers I. [1945].

Nuclear (Gen Two) Hydrogen Bomb: To scale a fission weapon up into the megaton range of power, fusion power needs to be employed to some degree. This means using hydrogen fusion to burn all of the fissionables, and then use that energy to fuse hydrogen into helium. No additional requirements [1954].

Nuclear (Gen Three) Pure Fusion: Creating Fusion without Fission would offer a source of energy without the difficult constraints of radioactive waste and mining for fuels. Pure Fusion is likely to be large in scale, perhaps replacing nuclear warheads, but unable to address weapons of smaller size. Required: Nanotechnology I and Computers III [2020?].

Nuclear (Gen Four) Antimatter: Antimatter combines with Matter to create pure energy, a factor of a thousand superior to Pure Fusion. Antimatter Catalysed Fusion Ammunition deals damage roughly equal to one ton of dynamite in a bullet and as much as a megaton in a artillery shell. Antimatter is also a highly efficient means to store energy. Required: Nanotechnology II and Computers V [2150?].


O


P

Paper

Paper (Theoretical): The Only Requirement for understanding a need for paper is having a written language and struggling to get it written on things like Silk, leather, and stone tablets. Required: Nothing [~8000 BC].

Paper (Gen One) Papyrus: Papyrus is fragile and comes from Cyperus Papyrus, which grows in marshland environments. While sufficient for long distance communication and far superior to rote memorization, Papyrus just doesn't work as a long term storage of information. Required: Agriculture II [3500 BC].

Paper (Gen Two) Modern Paper: The utilization of fibres from many forms of plants (Mulberries, Hemp, and Wasp's nests) makes Paper somewhat cheaper and much longer lasting. This form of paper, with special inks, is sufficient for long term storage and the use of paper money. Required: Education I [8 BC].

Paper (Gen Three) Printing: The combination of skilled craftsmanship, metalworking, and the pursuit of knowledge can lead to printing presses and their ability to mass produce information mechanically. Writing is no longer a months long project undertaken by a handful of literate scholars, but now can be done by experts at a far faster pace. Required: Engineering II [1436].

Paper (Gen Four) The Typewriter: Writing operates at a pace of at most 30 words per minute. Typewriters can increase this to as much 130 words per minute, a fourfold increase in the speed of communications. This eliminates the needs for specialized writers to spend hours writing mail or handling other communications. Required: Invention II [1855].


Q


R

Rocketry

[This is a Critical Military Technology.]

Rockets (Theoretical): any knowledge of an explosion, perhaps to due to mucking around with volatile compounds (Chemistry I) can understand Rocketry as a potential field.

Rockets (Gen One) Fire Arrows: Extremely Inaccurate but highly effective when it hits its targets, Fire Arrows are extremely loud devices that explode on impact, launching shrapnel as far as 2,000 feet from the impact. This is also sufficient to make flares and fireworks. Required: Gunpowder I [1264].

Rockets (Gen Two) Early Rockets: 32 pound weapons, Early Rockets are heavier, more (but still not very) accurate, and can travel further to their targets. Using a stick or later slowly spinning the rocket, these rockets are highly dangerous to unarmoured foes. Required: Chemistry II [1805].

Rockets (Gen Three) Liquid Fuelled Rockets: Using the Supersonic De Laval nozzle, these rocket designs increase the efficiency of the propellant from roughly 2% to 64%. These rockets have massively increased range as a result (Perhaps as far as 185 miles) and can carry a one ton warhead. This technology is also needed to create Rocket Artillery, a more effective but ammo intensive form of artillery. Required: Math III [1922].

Rockets (Gen Four) Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles: ICBMs offer a global reach to delivering a nuclear payload anywhere on a planet, or launching a satellite into orbit. This technology represents successes in engineering, computer controls and multi-stage rocket design. ICBMs can launch Required: Computers I, Engineering III [October 1957].

Rockets (Gen Five) Effective Anti-Ballistic Missiles: Owing to the great danger posed by ICBMs and their nuclear payloads, anti-ballistic missiles have existed for some time before, but simply lack the computational power to defeat their targets. With these advances in hand, ABM is not a matter of rolling dice, but a reasonable estimate of one's safety from nuclear attack. Required: Computers III [2012?].

Rockets (Gen Six) Interplanetary Ballistic Missiles: Getting any missile out of orbit and into open space and keeping it on course for hundreds of millions of miles is an engineering feat requiring a far stronger engine than presently exists. Such weapons would be far faster and stronger than modern designs, and raise the possibility of targeting another planet. IPBMs can carry massive warheads of up to a hundred tons (or a heavily MIRVed payload) Required: Nuclear III [2045?].


S

Space Transit

Space Transit (Theoretical): Theoretical ideas of Space Transit requires some basic knowledge of outer space, such as heliocentric model of the sky. Required: Education II [1542].

Space Transit (Gen One) Apollo Program: As a huge push towards outer space, your nation has developed the ability to reach high orbit and explore your planet's satellites by manned expeditions. At this point, manned missions to your planet's moons can begin. Required: Chemistry III, Computers I[1969].

Space Transit (Gen Two) Interplanetary Transit: Further advances in technological development and computing power now make longer expeditions possible; Humanity can send manned expeditions to all planets. Required: Chemistry IV and Computers III [2037?].

Space Transit (Gen Three) Civilian Space Transit: So far, Space has been the exclusive domain of hand picked government employees. Opening Space Transit to civilians involves reducing safety risks to minimal accidents, and building much larger vehicles capable of larger cargoes. The payoff, though, is the possibility of offworld colonization Required: Nuclear III and Infrastructure VI [2075?].

Space Transit (Gen Four) Relativistic Transit: So far, the distances involved in space are daunting–in the hundreds of millions of miles. The next big advance in space transit is increasing the engine power to make these trips tolerable, so as to strengthen ties to offworld colonies. Required: Nuclear IV and Computers V [2190?].


T

Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism (Theoretical): One guy wants all the power, all the land, and all the food. This kind of human greed is plausible in any human society that reaches a state. Required: Nothing [OTL Prehistorical].

Totalitarianism (Gen One) Slave Labour: Not all people are equal, but some aren't really people at all. With this research, those “non-citizens” can be put to work to provide labour cheaply for national benefit. Required: Trade I [1760 BC].

Totalitarianism (Gen Two) Absolutism: The next step for concentration of power is the legal framework for a leader to wield all of the power in the hands of the state. This advance eliminates informal checks and balances and allows the head of government unparallelled power. Required: Education II [1650].

Totalitarianism (Gen Three) One Party Rule: Beyond even having a single leader, a country can be dedicated to a party, or program of principles and ideas that further empower a government and increase its ability to turn the resources of the state toward its goals. Required: Mass Media III [1921].

Totalitarianism (Gen Four) Societal and Cultural Dominion: By turning language, society, and culture to maximum advantage, your nation can acquire still greater productivity and stability. Required: Nationalism II [2050?].


Trade

Trade (Theoretical): The earliest forerunners of humans trading are believed to date back over 150,000 years ago. Thus, all nations have a possible understanding of Trade.

Trade (Gen One) Metallic Currency: While bartering is as old as trade, the use of metals to serve as a medium of exchange and store of value means that savings can be accumulated. These developments help stimulate commerce, and allow for the government to develop its own store of wealth. No Preqs. [650 BC].

Trade (Gen Two) Mercantilism: The idea that a nation should stockpile money and build a fortune, much like a merchant would, is the first real kind of international trade model. This kind of model will greatly increase revenue from tariffs and foreign trade . Required: Maps II [1400].

Trade (Gen Three) Free Markets: Free Markets would later trump the Mercantilist model, allowing far greater economic growth and for trade to provide still greater revenues . Required: Liberalism I [1817].

Trade (Gen Four) Globalization: By Harnessing the resources of the entire world and increasing trade globally, your nation can achieve ever increasing economic growth with the support of other countries. Required: Directed Communications III [1995].


U


V


W

Weapons: Melee

Weapons: Melee (Theoretical): From its very earliest days, humans have improvised weapons to deal with threats, and along with tool use comes weapon usage. Discovery of these ancient spears, stone knives, and clubs are truly ancient. [OTL Prehistory].

Weapons: Melee (Gen One) Short Swords and Daggers: Bladed metal weapons, Short swords and daggers represent advances over the blunt weapons that preceded them. These weapons were small in size, as Bronze's tensile length presented a problem for larger weapons getting developed. Required: Materials Science I [2300 BC].

Weapons: Melee(Gen Two) Long Swords: The Roman Spatha, and other designs, require the use of Iron and appropriate craftsmanship to the task. The Longsword is better able to cut through armor and slightly increases the reach of a combatant–a large advantage on those without similar weapons. Required: Materials Science II [300].

Weapons: Melee (Gen Three) Zweihaenders: The last of the real innovations of melee weapons, the Zweihaenders (Two handed Swords) offer the advantages over long swords that long swords offered over short swords–length and leverage. Beyond these weapons, Melee Weapons simply become ceremonial or secondary to firearms Required: Chemistry I [1300].


Writing

Writing (Theoretical): The precursor to writing is drawing pictures–which seems to have led into hieroglyphics and Chinese Characters. If a few bored hunters can make tallies and draw pictures, theoretical knowledge of Writing is at hand [OTL Prehistory].

Writing (Gen One) Written Form: The use of symbols to represent real world concepts on paper (and even before paper) is truly ancient, but critical to share information without word of mouth. Required: Nothing [6600 BC].

Writing (Gen Two) Alphabet: The use of endless numbers of symbols to represent events is not really viable for human communication. (Even the Chinese only use a few thousand of the symbols they possess). An Alphabet increases the versatility of language and makes universal literacy possible. Required: Paper I [1700 BC].

Writing (Gen Three) Literature: The creation of essays, novels and nonfiction increases a nation's ability to relax and serves as a useful tool for political influencing. Required: Education II [1125].

Writing (Gen Four) Marketing and Propaganda: Businesses and Governments can use advertising and salesmanship to their own advantage, giving nations the ability to plead their case in the eyes of public opinion. Required: Mass Media II [1884].


X


Y


Z


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