Keeping the British Liberal Party flag flying high

1964 was election year in the United States. Because Henry Cabot Lodge had served two terms as President, he could not seek re-election and the Republican nomination was open.

The Democrat national convention was held Atlantic City, New Jersey, from 24 to 27 August. (1) The delegates chose John Pastore, Senator from Rhode Island, as candidate for President, and William Fulbright, Senator from Arkansas, as Vice Presidential candidate.

The Republican Party met in San Francisco for their convention from 13 to 16 July. (2). The delegates voted for Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of New York as their candidate for President and Margaret Chase Smith, Senator from Maine, for Vice President.

At the Social Democrat convention held in Pittsburg from 27 to 30 July, Gaylord Nelson, Senator from Wisconsin, was chosen as candidate for President, and John Burroughs, Governor of New Mexico, as Vice Presidential candidate.

(1) This was in OTL.

(2) This was in OTL.
Interesting, both the Democratic and republican Parties run vaguely centre-right tickets, the Democratic Party being, on average, slightly to the right of the the Republicans, and with the Social Democrats offering a regular centre-left ticket.
 
Margaret Chase Smith as the Republican candidate for Vice President attracted much comment, as the first woman on a major party's presidential ticket, and if elected would be a heart beat from the presidency. However Rockefeller was in good health and unlikely to die from natural causes in the next four years. Republicans hoped that she would attract women voters. The Republican Party platform stated that they were in favour of the Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution.

The Democrats positioned themselves to the right of the Republicans. They condemned the Cabot Lodge administration 'wasteful tax and spend' policies. The Social Democrat Party platform pledged universal health care on the lines of the British National Health Service.

Election day was 3 November and polling was reported as moderately heavy. As the results came in it soon became clear that it was a two horse race between Rockefeller and Nelson, with the former in the lead, but not decisively. Of the New England states, Rockefeller won Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, while Nelson took Massachusetts and Rhode Island. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Ohio were all won by Rockefeller, while Nelson won Maryland and Washington DC. Pastore took most southern states, though Louisiana and North Carolina, unexpectedly went to Nelson. Rockefeller won Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia, while West Virginia was won by Nelson.

Rockefeller took Indiana, and Nelson won Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The states of Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota,
were won by Rockefeller, while Oklahoma was taken by Nelson. Pastore won Texas. Rockefeller won Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, Nelson took Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico. When Nelson was declared the winner of California's 40 electoral votes, there was no way that Rockefeller could win the 270 votes necessary for a majority in the Electoral College. Nelson could not because he was behind Rockefeller. Of the remaining states, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington were won by Nelson, and Rockefeller took Alaska,

When all the votes had been counted, the electoral votes for each party ticket were as follows:
Rockefeller/Smith: 230
Nelson/Burroughs: 214
Pastore/Fulbright: 94
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Total: 538
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This means the result will be decided by the US House of Representatives, IIRC.
What were the results for each ticket in percentage?
 
This means the result will be decided by the US House of Representatives, IIRC.
What were the results for each ticket in percentage?

The percentage votes for each ticket were as follows:
Rockefeller/Smith: 37,7
Nelson/Burroughs: 37.4
Pastore/Fulbright: 24.7
Others: 0,2
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Total: 100
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Elections to the House of Representatives and to the Senate were also held on 3 November 1964. The composition of the House of Representatives after the election was as follows (after 1962 election)
Social Democrat: 158 (142)
Republican: 144 (156)
Democrat: 133 (137)
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Total: 435 (435)
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Adam Clayton Powell (Social Democrat) continued in office as Speaker.

The number of Senators for each party after the election was as follows:
Democrat: 53 (55)
Republican: 26 (29)
Social Democrat: 21 (16)
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Total: 100 (100)
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The Majority Leader of the Senate was Lyndon Baines Johnson (D - Texas). The Minority Leader was Everett Dirksen (R - Illinois). Estes Kefauver (SD- Tennessee) was the leader of the Social Democrats.
 
The implication of the results seems to be that only rural deep South white voters are turning out for the Democrats enough to get them elected. Burroughs might have been born in Robert Lee but Nelson/Burroughs isn't the ticket to engineer a Republican lockout with the Democrats over segregation. The question becomes how much the lame Democrat senate can obstruct appointments until the executive considers electoral reform.
 
American newspapers explained to their readers the procedure for a contingent election to elect the President and Vice Presidentm when no ticket has received at least 270 votes in the electorap college. The incoming House of Representatives votes to elect the President. Each state delegation has one vote, and a candidate must receive a majority of the delegations, that is fifty. to be elected. If a state delegation does not give an overall majority of its votes to any candidate, it is designated as divided, and does not vote for any candidate. The District of Columbia does not have a vote in contingent elections. Representatives vote for the top three candidates in the electoral college.

Senators vote individually for the Vice President from the top two candidates in the electoral college. The 12th Amendment requires a majority of the total number of Senators (that is 51 out of 100) to elect the Vice President. (1)

Congress met in the first week of January 1965, after the electoral college had formally voted, with the same result as in the general election. In the House of the state delegations voted as follows. For Rockefeller- Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas. Maine, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Wyoming. A total of 17 state delegations.

The following delegations voted for Nelson: California, Colorado, Hawaii, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma Rhode Island, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin. A total of 13 state delegations.

Pastore received the votes of these state delegations: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas. A total of 11 state delegations.

The following nine state delegations were divided; Illinois, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia. So their vote was not given to any candidate. With no candidate having received the required 26 votes, a second ballot was necessary.

The Senate voted on strict party lines as follows: Smith 26 votes, Burroughs 21 votes, abstentions 53. So a second ballot was required.

(1) Here is the Wikipedia article about contingent election: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contingent_election.
 
The Democrats in Congress were inundated with advice as to how they should vote to break the deadlock in the contingent election. Republicans and Social Democrats told them to vote for their candidates, but some non partisan commentators discussed the electoral advantages and disadvantages to the Democratic Party of a Republican or of a Social Democrat administration.

Democrats in Congress considered if voting for Nelson for President and Burroughs and Vice President, would give credibility to the Social Democrats as a party of government, or if they would make a mess of things. But if they did, the Republicans, not the Democrats might be the beneficiaries. There was also the option o f voting for Rockefeller for President and Burroughs for Vice President, or Nelson for President and Smith for Vice President.

The Democrats decided to split their vote. In the House of Representatives they voted for Rockefeller for President. In the Senate they gave their votes to Burroughs for Vice President. They justified their decision on the grounds that the Rockefeller/Smith ticket had won a plurality of the electoral and popular vote, so Rockefeller should be President. But the Nelson/Burroughs ticket was very close behind so Burroughs should be Vice President.
 
Few people liked the result of the contingent election in Congress. There was a great deal of support for the abolition or reform of the electoral college. The Social Democrats were in favour of abolition and of the direct election of the President and
Vice President; the Democrats wanted to keep the electoral college unchanged; the Republicans were divided between reform and abolition. Reform would be for the electoral college votes to be in proportion to the votes cast for each ticket, rather than winner takes all.

An editorial in the New York Times presented the arguments both for reform and abolition, and said that Congress must make a decision one way or the other.
 
A general election was held in the Dominion of Ireland on Wednesday 2 October 1963. The number of seats in the Dail won by each party were as follows (March 1959 general election):
Fianna Fail: 74 (70)
Labour: 58 (54)
Fine Gael: 21 (23)
Clann na Talmhan: 6 (9)
Independents: 2 (5)
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Total: 161 (161)
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The Labour/Fine Gael/Clann na Talmhan coalition continued in office, with Brendan Corish (Labour) as Taioseach and James Dillon (Fine Gael) as Tanaiste.

In the Northern Ireland general election on Thursday 21 September 1962, the number of seats in the House of Commons won by each party were as follows (April 1958 general election):
Ulster Unionist: 17 (23)
Progressive Unionist: 15 (13)
Northern Ireland Labour: 14 (10)
Nationalist: 6 (5)
(Independent: 1)
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Total: 52 (52)
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The Progressive Unionist/Northern Ireland Labour coalition continued in office, but without confidence and supply from the Nationalist Party, which was no longer needed. Terence O'Neill (Progressive Unionist) stayed as Prime Minister.
 
In Australia a federal election was held on 2 December 1961. The number of seats in the House of Representatives won by each party were as follows (December 1958 election):
Liberal: 61 (44)
Labor: 44 (63)
Country : 17 (15)
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Total: 122 (122)
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Robert Menzies returned to office after six years as Prime Minister of a Liberal/Country coalition government with a majority of 34 over Labor, in place of Herbert Evatt (Labor).

In the next federal election on 29 November 1964, the coalition was re-elected but with a reduced majority of six over Labor. The result was as follows:
Liberal: 50
Labor: 58
Country: 14
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Total: 122
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Menzies continued in office as Prime Minister.
 
A general election took place in Canada on Monday 28 March 1960. The number of seats in the House of Commons won by each party was as follows (March 1958 general election):
Liberal: 135 (106)
Progressive Conservative: 69 (83)
Commonwealth Co-operative Federation [CCF]; 57 (69)
Social Credit: 4 (6)
(Liberal-Labor: 1)
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Total: 265 (265)
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Paul Martin continued in office as Prime Minister at the head of a majority Liberal government, but without confidence and supply from the CCF, which was no longer needed.

The result of the next general election on Monday 5 November 1962 was as follows:
Liberal: 152
Progressive Conservative: 62
New Democratic Party (formerly CCF): 47
Social Credit: 4
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Total; 265
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Paul Martin stayed in offIce as Prime Minister.

In the general election in New Zealand on Saturday 14 November 1959, the number of seats won by each party in the House of Representatives were as follows (1956 general election):
National: 44 (34)
Labour: 36 (46)
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Total: 80 (80)
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Keith Holyoake became Prime Minister at the head of a National government, in place
of Walter Nash (Labour).
 
A general election was held in New Zealand on 10 November 1961. The number of seats in the House of Representatives won by each party were as follows (1959 general election);
Labour: 45 (36)
National: 35 (44)
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Total: 80 (80)
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Walter Nash became Prime Ministerat the head of a Labour government.

In South Africa, Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom died on 24 August 1958. He was suceeded as leader of the National Party and Prime Minister, by the Deputy Prime Minister, Charles Roberts Swart. For the next three years events in South Africs were much the same as in OTL. Such as, the policy of the imposition of apartheid continued, the Sharpeville massacre, the banning of the African National Congress, and South Africa left the Commonwealth and became the Republic of South Africa.

In the general election held on 18 October 1961, the number of seats in the House of Assembly won by each party was as follows (1958 general election):
National: 95 (92)
United: 61 (71 )
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Total: 156 (163)
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Harry Lawrence was the leader of the United Party, which he had been since 1950. Because the United Party was more liberal in this TL, there was not the Progressive Party breakaway from the United Party.
 
Among the Acts of Parliament passed during the first eighteen months of the Liberal gpvernment up to the end of December 1965, in addition to those bills listed in posts #2,842 and 2,843 on page 143 which became law in 1964 and 1965, were the following: The Redundancy Payments Act 1965 which obliged businesses with more than five hundred employees to make payment to redundant workers, and established a redundancy fund to which employers must contribute; the Land Bank Act set up a Land Bank which gave loans to farmers at a low rate of interest; the Finance Act 1965 replaced estate duty with a graduated legacy duty.

The referendum in Wales on the establishment of a Welsh Parliament was held on Thursday 28 April 1966. The result was as follows:
For: 51.2%
Against: 48.8%
The majority in favour was only 2.4%. The turnout was 80.6%.
 
Reg Prentice (Socialist Labour - West Ham North) came third in the ballot for Private Members Bills in July 1964, early in the 1964-65 parliamentary session. He decided to introduce a bill to establish an open university, as promised in the Socialist Labour manifesto for the 1964 general election. The second reading was timetabled for Friday 27 November 1964.

Prentice's proposed bill was discussed by the Socialist Labour shadow cabinet. He had the support of most members, including the party leader, Edward Shackleton, the shadow Leader of the House of Commons, Ted Short, and most passuonately, the shadow Education Minister, Rosa Bancroft. (1) However the shadow Housing and Local Government Minister, Richard Crossman, was the most hostile. He argued that a university which only taught and did not do research could not be a true university. Its degrees 'would not be held in high esteem'. The shadow President of the Board of Trade, Anthony Crosland, was also sceptical of an open university. He thought the money would be better spent on schools (2) However the shadow cabinet agreed to support Prentice's Bill, and help draft it.

(1) A fictional character.

(2) These were the opinions of Crossman and Crosland in OTL when a university of the air was discussed by the cabinet in 1965. See the book Jennie Lee: A Life by Patricia Hollis, Oxford University Press, 1997.
 
The Socialist Labour Deputy Leader, Frederick Peart, the shadow Chancellor Harriet Slater, and the shadow Home Secretary, Barbara Castle, were strongly in favour of the bill to establish an Open University.

Reg Prentice moved the second reading of the Open University Bill in the House of Commons on 27 November 1964. He said that the Labour movement from Chartism to the Workers' Educational Association, to the book clubs of the 1930s, always insisted that education was liberation from 'the mind-forged manacles' of oppression. Only four per cent of British school-leavers went to university. In Europe it was double that number, and four times as many in the United States.

H igher education was not only limited, but entry was narrow and favoured middle -class children. Working-class children started school behind those who were middle class, and then fell further behind. Nearly half in the top 10 per cent of the ability range left school at age 16. These were working-class children voting with their feet after eleven years of failure in school.
.
In the last few years new universities had been established - Brighton, Canterbury, Coleraine, Lancaster, Norwich, Stirling, Warwick, York - but they attracted the traditional university intake of 18-year-old middle class school leavers,

With the shining exception of Birkbeck College, London, universities had not developed part-time degrees to suit local people who were obliged by work, marriage, children , or disability, to study at home. Instead universities sent lectures to local cimmunities and village halls, where they offered extra-mural and Workers' Education Association lectures and short courses. But these could not meet the needs of adults wanting a university degree. Local Education Authority evening classes and correspondence colleges were often of a low standard. They made their profits from the fees of those who had dropped out. (1)

Prentice went on to say that the proposed university would be autonomous, independent, and degree-giving. Professor Richard Hoggart, the author of The Uses of Literacy , had accepted the invitation to be its Vice-Chancellor. Also the BBT had agreed to establish a third channel, in addition to BBT One and BBT Two, to btoadcast the Open University programmes.

He ended his speech by saying that he commended this bill to the House, and sat down to loud cheers from Socialist Labour members, but silence from the Liberal and Conservative benches.

(1) I have taken the information in Prentice's speech from the biography of Jennie Lee by Patricia Hollis, cited in my previous post.
 
The Minister of Education, Ruth Crisp English, said that the government opposed the bill. There was an extensive network of technical colleges, evening institutes and adult education classes. It showed Socialists at their most endearing but impractical worst. It was more suited to the deprived 1930s. The money spent on an Open University would be more usefully spent elsewhere in the education system, such as nursery classes, reducing classroom size and training more teachers. it would not attract the working class, but the lower -middle class, teachers and middle-class, middle-aged women. [1]

In the vote at the end of the debate, the bill was refused a second reading by 288 votes to 152 votes.

[1] These were the arguments used against the Open University in OTL. I have taken them from the life of Jennie Lee by Patricia Hollis, cited in post #2877.
 
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