Keeping the British Liberal Party flag flying high

A general election for the Legislative Assembly was held in Rhodesia on 22 September 1962. The number of seats won by each party was as follows:
United Federal Party: 34
Rhodesian Front: 30
Independent (Ahrn Palley): 1
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Total: 65
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Roy Welensky continued as Prime Minister.

The result of the general election held on 29 April 1966 was as follows:
Rhodesian Front: 46
United Federal Party: 18
Ahrn Palley: 1
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Total: 65
------------
Ian Smith became Prime Minister.
 
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On Friday 11 November 1966, Ian Smith and his cabinet declared that Rhodesia was an independent sovereign state. This was called the Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Within hours a resolution of the League of Nations overwhelmingly condemned UDI with only Portugal and South Africa voting against.

The next day the Council of the League unanimously declared that the UK government should put an end to UDI, because it was a threat to international peace and security. The Council called upon all nations not to have diplomatic or economic
relations with Rhodesia.

Speaking in the House of Commons on 14 November, the Prime Minister, Roger Fulford, said that the British government totally deplored and tejected UDI, which was illegal. He confirmed the government's policy of No Independence Before Majority Rule (NIBMAR) in relation to Rhodesia, and said would impose stringent and
effective economic sanctions against Rhodesia.

The League of Nations Committee on Decolonization strongly advised British military intervention in Rhodesia. However a report by the Ministry of Defence advised the British government against such a policy, saying that the 'consequences of failure would be appalling'. (1)

(1) This was as in OTL. See http://www.independent.co.uk/news/military-chiefs-reviewed-plan-to-invade-Rhodesia-1321929.html.
 
A general election for the Legislative Assembly was held in Rhodesia on 22 September 1962. The number of seats won by each party was as follows:
United Federal Party: 34
Rhodesian Front: 30
Independent (Ahrn Palley): 1
-------------
Total: 65
-------------
Roy Welensky continued as Prime Minister.

The result of the general election held on 29 April 1966 was as follows:
Rhodesian Front: 46
United Federal Party: 18
Ahrn Palley: 1
------------
Total: 65
------------
Ian Smith became Prime Minister.
Oh dear maybe Jeremy Thorpe gets his wish for the UK to bomb Rhodesia
 
Archbishops of Canterbury from 1945:
Alwyn Williams: 1945 to 1958
Maurice Harland: 1958 to 1966
Robert Stopford: 1966 onwards.
Up to 1944, when William Temple died, as in OTL.

When Cardinal Arthur Hinsley died in 1943, the Pope appointed the Archbishop of Liverpool, Richard Downey as his successor. After Downey's death in 1953, the Pope appointed Abbot Christopher Butler OSB as Archbishop of Westminster.
 
In November 1963, Pope John XXIII appointed a Commission on Population, Family and Birth. Its President was Cardinal Bernard Haring, Secretary of the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office. Its Vice-presidents were Cardinal Christopher Butler, Archbishop of Westminster, and Cardinal Valerian Gracias, Archbishop of Bombay. Although most of the members of the commission were archbishops, bishops and theologians, a significant minority were married couples.

The report of the commission was published in the National Catholic Reporter on Saturday 30 April 1966, and in the New York Times on 2 May 1966. By an overwhelming it recommended that the Pope allow married Catholics to use birth control in the context of responsible and generous family planning.

On 27 September 1966, the papal encyclical Amoris Conjugalis (Of Married Love in English) was published. It states that:
"The morality of sexual acts between married couples takes its meaning primarily from their actions in a fruitful married life, that is one responsible and generous parenthood. It does not depend upon each and every particular conjugal act being open to conception."

In other words it became permissible for Catholic married couples to use contraception, as long as their marriage is open to having children.
 
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Here is a summary of Amoris Conjugalis :
Conjugal love which makes marriage a true union of persons is not exhausted in mutual self giving. Married people can establish a true community only if their love is
made fruitful in the creation of new life, God created human beings male and female so that joined together in the bonds of love, they help each other grow in holiness and prepare their children, the fruit of their love, for a truly human life.

A married couple will decide according to conscience before God the number of children they will have, according to the teachings of the church. Married couples need morally good means for the regulation of conception if they are to cultivate the essential values of marriage. It is right that man should intervene in physiological processes. This is in accordance with the mission which God has given to men, whom he has made his co-operators.

Then comes the paragraph quoted in my previous post.

The tradition of the church as regards conjugal relations developed in argument and conflict with heretics such as the Gnostics, Manicheans, and the Cathari, all of whom condemned procreation as evil. In the course of centuries the words in which this tradition was expressed, and the reasons on which it was based, were proper to the times.

It is not to contradict the genuine sense of this tradition if we speak of the regulation of conception to favour fecundity in the totality of married life. The reasons for this evolution of doctrine are social changes in matrimony and the famlly, especially in the role of women, new bodies of knowledge in biology, psychology and sexuality. Also the sense of the faithful that the condemnation of a couple to a long, and often heroic, abstinence to regulate conception, cannot be based on the truth.

In exercising responsible parenthood and deciding on the size of their families, married couples will thoughtfully take into account both their own welfare and that of their children, those already born and those which may be foreseen. But their conscience must always be in conformity with the Divine Law and submissive to the teachings 1 of the church.

Episcopal conferences should be concerned that priests and married lay persons
have a more moral and spiritual understanding of Christian matrimony. Christianity does not teach an ideal for a small number of elect, but the vocation of all to the essential values of human life,

Every responsibility and task of the conjugal and family community shines with the clear light of love of one's neighbour. May the spirit of Christ's love enable married couples, parents and children, to understand more deeply the profound relation between love of God and love of one another.

I have taken this summary of Amoris Conjugalis and the paragraph in my previous post, from the Final Report of the Pontificial Commission on Population, Family and Birth in OTL, in the book The Encyclical that Never Was: The Story of the Pontificial Commission on Population, Family and Birth, 1964-1966 , by Robert Kaiser, London: Sheed and Ward, 1987
 
The encyclical Amoris Conjugalis had a mixed reception, though considerably more favourable than unfavourable. An editorial in the Catholic weekly The Tablet welcomed it with enthusiasm. It was a radical move away from the church's old act centred approach to sexual morality, to the consideration of factors such as justice, responsibilty and freedom as important moral agents. It recognised that physical, pyschological, economic and social conditions were relevant to birth control decisions by married couples.

The encyclical was warmly welcomed by about eighty-five theologians in the United States, by around twenty of Europe's leading moral theologians, and by the international Catholic organisation the Christian Family Movement.
 
In three by-elections on 15 October 1964, cabinet ministers in the previous Conservative government who lost their seats in the June 1964 general election, returned to the House of Commons.

Lord Dunglass, the former Foreign Secretary, was elected for Dumfriesshire. The by-election was caused by the resignation of Niall Macpherson and his election to the Senate as Conservative Senator for the South of Scotland.

Joseph Godber, the former Minister of Labour, won the Fylde North by-election caused by the resignation of Richard Stanley who was elected to the Senate as Conservative Senator for Lancashire North.

Reginald Maudling, the former Home Secretary, was elected for Woking. The by-election was caused by the resignation of Harold Watkinson, the former Minister of Transport, to concentrate on his business interests.

Anthony Marlow, the Conservative MP for Hove, resigned in June 1965 following a heart attack. In the subsequent by-election on 22 July 1965, Anthony Barber, the
former Minister of Power, was elected.
 
The number of seats for each party in the House of Representatives and Senate after the mid term elections on 8 November 1966 were as follows (after November 1964 elections):
House of Representatives:
Democratic: 158 (133)
Social Democratic: 145 (158)
Republican: 132 (144)
--‐------------------
Total: 435 (435)
--------------------

Senate:
Democratic: 56 (53)
Republican: 23 (26)
Social Democratic: 21 (21)
-----------------------
Total: 100 (100)
-‐---------------------
Commentators attributed the good result for the Democrats to their being in
opposition to a Republican President (Nelson Rockefeller) and a Social Democrat Vice President (John Burroughs).
 
The Senate Reform Act 1966 fixed the number of Life Senators at 175, of which 50 would be Conservative, 50 Liberal, 50 Socialist Labour and 25 Independents, These figures include two Life Senators nominated by each for the Northern Ireland allies of these parties. That is the Ulster Unionist, Progressive, and Northern Ireland Labour parties.

This was an increase from 149. The Socialist Labour Party was given parity with the other two parties as recognition that they were the second largest party in the House of Commons. Under the terms of the Parliament Act 1936, the number of Life Senators increased proportionally for each party which increased the number of their elected Senators, in the Senate elections held every six years. The number of new Life Senators for each party and their Northern Ireland allies were as follows: Conservative: 3, Liberal 4, Socialist:Labour: 19.

Three former Conservative cabinet and ministers who had lost their seats in the 1964 general election were made Life Senators. They were Nigel Birch, former Secretary of State for Wales; John Hare, previously Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food; and Patricia Hornsby-Smith, former Minister of Education. They had been MPs for Monnouth, Woodbridge, and Canterbury respectively.

The general election to the Senate took place on 2 March 1967. The number of Senators elected for each party were as follows (after March 1961 election):
Conservative and Unionist: 123 (93)
Socialist Labour and Northern Ireland Labour: 83 (76)
Liberal and Progressive: 71 (102)
Independents: 4 (8)
Plaid Cymru: 2 (3)
Irish Nationalist: 1 (2)
Scottish National Party )SNP); 1 (1)
‐---------------------
Total: 285 (285)
----------------------
The compostion of the Senate, including Life Senators, after the election was as follows (after March 1961 election):
Conservative and Unionist: 173 (140)
Socialist Labour and Northern Ireland Labour: 133 (107)
Liberal and Progressive: 121 (148)
Independents: 29 (33)
Plaid Cymru; 2 (3)
Irish Nationalist: 1 (2)
SNP: 1 (1)
--------------------
Total: 460 (434)
---------------------
 
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The Conservative performance in the Senate election was about average for an opposition party. However to win a majority in the House of Commons in the next general election, they would need bto do substantially better than average.

The Prime Minister reshuffled his government in July 1967. The Colonial Office was abolished and merged with the Commonwealth Relations Office. The Colonial Secretary, Peter Calvocoressi, resigned from the government and as Liberal MP for Nuneaton, to take up the post of Reader in International Relations at the University of Sussex.
 
Here are the cabinet changes:
Aline Mackinnon resigned as President of the Board of Trade;
Nancy Seear from Minister of Housing and Local Government to President of the Board of Trade ;
Richard Wainwright from Minister of Health to Minister of Housing and Local Government;
Basil Wigoder promoted from Minister of Power outside cabinet to Minister of Health in cabinet;
Frank Owen resigned as Minister of Labour;
Wallace Lawler promoted from Minister of State at the Home Office to Minister of Labour;
Ian McColl resigned as Secretary of State for Scotland;
Donald Leach promoted from Under-Secretary of State at Scottish Office to Secretary of State for Scotland;
Emrys Owen Roberts resigned as Secretary of State for Wales and Liberal MP for Merioneth. He was appointed Chairman of the newly created Welsh Development Agency;
Glyn Tegal Hughes from Minister of Transport to Secretary of State for Wales;
Thomas Grenville Jones promoted to the cabinet from Postmaster-General to Minister of Transport.
 
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Changes of ministers outside the cabinet:
Philip Watkins from Parliamentary Secretary Ministry of Housing and Local Government to Minister of Power;
Desmond Banks from Parliamentary Secretary Ministry of Environment Protection to Postmaster-General;
Lawrence Robson resigned as Minister of Pensions and National Insurance;
Manuela Sykes promoted from Parliamentary Secretary Ministry of Health to Minister of Pensions and National Insurance;
Sir Dingle Foot resigned as Attorney-General;
Sir Emlyn Hooson promoted from Solicitor-General to Attorney-General;
Ralph Kilner Brown was promoted from Minister of State at the Foreign Office to Solicitor-General and given the customary knighthood:
Humphrey Berkeley promoted from Under-Secretary of State at the Colonial Office to Minister of State at the Foreign Office;
Sir Andrew Murray resigned as Chief Secretary to the Treasury;
Lance Mallalieu from Minister of State at the Board of Trade to Chief Secretary to the Treasury;
William Rogers from Parliamentary Secretary Ministry of Expansion and Industry to Minister of State at the Board of Trade;
John Dodds resigned as Financial Secretary to the Treasury ;
John Pardoe joined the government as Financial Secretary to the Treasury.

The posts of First Lord of the Admiralty, Secretary of State for Air and Secretary of State for War were abolished, and became Ministers of State for the Navy, Air Force, and Army respectively in the Department of Defence.

The Torquay by-election on 24 March 1965 caused by the death of Deryck Abel (Liberal) was a Conservative gain from Liberal, by a majority of 2.1%. Abel's majority had been 5.5%. The swing from Liberal to Conservative was 3.8%.
 
The by-elections in Merioneth and Nuneaton caused by the resignations of Emrys Owen Roberts and Peter Calvocoresssi respectively, took place on 14 September 1967. The percentage votes were as follows (June 1964 general election):
Merioneth:
Geraint Howell (Liberal): 44.9 (59.3)
Socialist Labour: 26.8 (17.4)
Plaid Cymru: 19.4 (17.8)
Conservative: 8.9 (5.5)
‐‐------------------------------------
Liberal majority: 18.1 (41.5)
--------------------------------------
The swing from Liberal to Socialist Labour was 11.9%.

Nuneaton:
Simon Goldblatt (Liberal): 38.0 (44.7)
Socialist Labour: 36.2 (32.7)
Conservative: 25.8 (22,6)
---‐-------------------------------
Liberal majority: 1.8 (12.0)
‐--------------------------------
There was a swing of 5.1% from Liberal to Socialist Labour.
 
The Ministry of Environment Protection had a very good relationship with the Civic Trust, Council for the Protection of Rural England, the National Trust, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, the Georgian Society, the Victorian Society and other similar organisations. The Minister, Mark Bonham-Carter, was responsible for several important Acts of Parliament.

The Countryside Act 1965 created the Countryside Commission with powers to protect the Countryside and establish Country Parks for people to enjoy it. The Urban Conservation Areas Act 1966 empowered local authorities to designate streets and squares in the historic core of a city or town as Conservation Areas. Within these areas, property owners had to apply for consent to change the external appearance of a building or architectural feature. (1) The National Parks Protection Act 1967 empowered the Minister of Environment Protection to make Conservation Orders to protect moorland in National Parks. This was in response to the loss to farming of moorland in Exmoor National Park.

There was growing concern about the drastic loss of hedgerows, flower-rich lowland meadows, woodland, and lowland bogs because of the intesification of agriculture fuelled by subsidies to farmers. The Countryside and Wildlife Protection Act 1968 provided that farmers could develop their land only if it did not damage natural habitats. However they would receive compensation for profits foregone.

The New Forest was designated as a National Park in 1965. This was in addition to the existing National Parks: Brecon Beacons, Cairngorms, Dartmoor, Exmoor, Lake District, Loch Lomond and the Trossachs, Northumberland, North York Moors, Peak District, Pembrokeshire Coast, Snowdonia, and Yorkshire Dales.

(1) This was similar to the Civic Amenities Act 1967 in OTL.
 
The Liberal government implemented the proposals in Traffic in Towns by Colin Buchanan. [1] He argued that in towns and cities the first priority should be people, not traffic.

In this TL there is no Milton Keynes. Instead the market town of Stony Stratford was designated a new town in 1967. [2] In 2021 it has an estimated population of around 52,000.

The Post Office Tower in London was not constructed, nor was Spaghetti Junction in Birmingham.

[1] See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_in_Towns.

[2] For Stony Stratford see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stony_Stratford.
 
The Town Planning Act 1965 restricted the height of residential buildings to four storeys. It repealed the Town Planning Act 1961 which abolished the previous four storey height limit on residential buildings.

Also in 1965, the Minister of Housing and Local Government, Nancy Seear, issued a circular to local authorities instructing them that new buildings must reflect local styles and traditions.
 
The Home Secretary, Honor Balfour, oversaw several pieces of social legislation. Theatre censorship was abolished in 1965, and also in the same year capital punishment, except for treason.

In February 1966, David Steel (Edinburgh Pentlands - Liberal) introduced the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill in the House of Commons. It allowed abortion in certain circumstances up to the 28th week of pregnancy. (1) The bill received a second reading by 239 votes to 42 votes. MPs of all parties had a free vote. 23 Socialist Labour, 13 Conservatives and 6 Liberals voted against giving the bill a second reading. One of those who did was Sarah Macleod, the Socialist Labour shadow Minister of Health and MP for Glasgow Maryhill. (2) She was a practising Catholic. She spoke in the debate in a private capacity, and not as a shadow minister. She said that she opposed the bill because it permitted the killing of innocent human life. She had voted in favour of the Sexual Offences Bill in 1958, which decriminalised consensual homosexual acts by adult men over 21 years old in private in England and Wales, and the Criminal Justice Bill in 1965, which abolished capital punishment.

After its second reading, the bill went to a Standing Committee of the House of Committee. Macleod was one of the Socialist Labour MPs on the committee. She voted in favour of amendments to restrict the scope of the bill, all of which were unsuccessful. After the Committee Stage went through the Report Stage and Third Reading. Then the Bill went to the Senate, where it passed through all its stages. It became law in July 1966. It applied to Great Britain only.

(1) Its provisions were the same as those of the Abortion Act 1967 in OTL. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_in_the_United_Kingdom. However with a term limit of 28 weeks of gestation, not 24.

(2) She is a fictional character.
 
The Race Relations Act 1967 made illegal discrimination against any national or racial group in any public place., including hotels and guest houses, and in the provision of housing, employment and services. It made discrimanatory advertisements unlawful, and also incitement to racial hatred by written or spoken words.

The Sex Discrimination Act 1968 made discrimination on grounds of sex unlawful in employment, education, training and the provision of housing, goods and setvices. It
also made discriminatory advertisements illegal.
 
Norma Jeane Baker enjoyed writing (in OTL she was known as Marilyn Monroe). She wrote articles for her high school newspaper in California. When she left school she got a job as a reporter for theLos Angeles Times . She was politically aware and from 1944 campaigned for Democrat candidates in elections. She left the Los Angeles Times and became a journalist on left wing papers in California. She switched her party allegiance from Democrat to Social Democrat in 1956.

She suffered from depression. In July 1962 she took an overdose of barbituates. Fortunately a girlfriend found her in time and rushed her to hospital. After her suicide attempt, she campaigned to raise awareness of issues of depression, suicide, and the ease with which legal drugs could be obtained. In November 1964 she was elected to the House of Representatives as the Social Democrat Representative for the 34th District of California (in the Los Angeles area), when she was 38 years old. She was re-elected with an increased majority in 1966. She is a passionate and eloquent speaker, and has what is widely described as 'film star' good looks.
 
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