Images from the Footprint of Mussolini


Screenshot from the Anglo market version of Civilization II (actually the third in the overall series).

The Civilization series (titled La Civilizzazione in Italian) started out as the first project of the ENIVP (Ente Nazionale Industrie VideoPassatempistiche), a state-owned enterprise meant to do what the ENIC did for cinema way back in the Thirthies, after the world of videogames had shown promise of being an equally functional medium for both entertaiment and "value diffusion". The first game, released in 2003, was a turn-based strategy game which put the players in the guise of a "civilizing spirit" meant to drive a human culture to spread all over Earth, competing against other groups for domination either on the battlefield or with culture, and was a mild success that was severely impeded by the amount of unsubtle pushes the game gave you depending on which civilization of the eight avaible* for which victory type to pursue, as well as an overly-bombastic intro that became subject of jokes, while the suspicious resemblance of the Barbarian Leader to Menelik II and the overall "East African-ness" of that NPC faction made it a no-go for export later on.
*= Rome-Italy (Julius Caesar); Anglos-England (Elizabeth I); Germanics-Germany (Arminius); Gauls-France (Louis XIV); Slavs-Russia (Ivan the Terrible); Shang-China (Emperor Yongle); Hiberians-Spain (Charles V); Huns-Mongols (Ghengis Khan)

Due to this lukewarm success, the ENIVP decided to sell the game's rights and to focus on other kind of games (they famously developed Legionaria, I Fieramosca, La Nuova Odissea and other such "hack'n'slahses" to much better success in Italy and mild appreciation outside), which lead to the acquisition by Castello di Rigoletto, a nascent videogame company with some Portuguese components. The second installment, La Civilizzazione II: La Marcia del Progresso , with improved graphics, new mechanics such as religions and land improvments, the new victory type consisting in reaching Alpha Centauri, and a larger roster* was released in 2009, and managed to get a tentative release in other countries in the following two years. The game was a smash success both at home and elsewhere, helped by the fact that some markets, like Spain or Germany, managed to get some tweaks to better represent the country.

Rome (Julius Caesar/Trajan); England (Elizabeth I/Churchill); Germany (Arminius/Bismarck); France (Francis I/Louis XIV); China (Emperor Yongle/Chang-Kai-Shek); Russia (Ivan the Terrible/Catherine the Great); Spain (El Cid/Charles V); Mongols (Ghengis Khan/Kublai Khan); India (Asoka Maurya/Shah Jahan); Italy (Victor Emmanuel II/Mussolini); Israel [Judas Maccabeus/Ben-Gurion°Orde Wingate (in Israel)]; Portugal (João II/ Alfonso VI); American Indians (Geronimo/Sitting Bull); Phonecians (Dido/Hannibal); Babylonians (Hammurabi/Nebuchadnezzar II); Egypt (Ramnses II/ Cleopatra VII); Gauls (Brennus/Vercingetorix); Atzecs (Montezuma II/ Cuahatemoc); Greece (Pericles/Alexander The Great)

Castello di Rigoletto expanded with time, and, in 2016, it released the third installment, featuring all civilizations from the past two games plus a few newcomers*, fully-voice-acted cutscenes and units (albeit in a way that was clearly done with an Italian-to-[Language] dictionary without any regard to foreing syntax), the Religious, Diplomatic and Monopoly Victory condictions, scenario with special rules, and much more, with expansions like Plus Ultra and I Signori della Guerra adding even more features and scenarios. This installment was the most successful yet, and sparked enough interest for people in other countries to want a re-release of the first game of La Civilizzazione, which was ultimately done in 2019, with improved graphics, a few gameplay tweaks, the possibility to mod it all, and several disclaimers about the game's content (disclaimers which were removed in the Italian version as a compromise for its re-release).

Malians (Sunjata/Mansa Musa), Incas (Pachacuti/Athahualpa); Vietnamese (Le Loi/Gia Long); Japan (Tokugawa/Meji); Unisted States (Abraham Lincon/ George Patton)
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Shanghai, the most populous city in China and its main financial center. Nicknamed "China's New York" it is a cosmopolitan city and the country's main port and a major tourist destination.

It is also the site of an important annual commemoration to celebrate the nationalist victory during the Chinese War with many American, Italian and veterans from other nationalities attending each year.

Durazzo, capital city of region of Albania. Durazzo is still important Italian harbor city and it is too popular tourist destination. Most tourists come with popular Adriatic cruisings which ships visit on several Italian cities around Adriatic Sea. Durazzo like whole Albainian coast is totally Italised.

Rest of Albania is too mostly Italian speaking and Albanian is spoken mostly on rural areas. Albania is one of most famous Italian wine production regions. Albania was until 1950's quiet restless area thanks of some Communist and other separatist activities but Italians managed put these troublemakers down by mid-1950's. Nowadays Albania is quiet peaceful area and almost no one Alban even support separatism anymore. Most Albans are too bilingual speaking fluently Albanian and Italian.

Albanian Communist partisan leader Enver Hoxha photographed in 1940's.

Hoxha begun lead Albanian communists on early 1940's. He operated often from mountain regions and attacked often against Italians and Albanian collaboratists. He too targetted against any Albanian bourgeiouis people who might be anti-Communists and any religious group, no matter were they Muslims, Christians or Jews. Hoxha's terror campaign only made Albanians even more unwillingful to help him and his partisans. And even more antipathic they became after nuking of Warsaw by Soviet Union and revealation of Second Holocaust. Hoxha anyway continued to be staunch Stalinist. He too punished strictly his men if they failed causing much of deserting.

Hoxha got some support from Tito's Serbia but fheir relationships begun to become worse on early 1950's when Hoxha demand Greater Albania which would include Kosovo. It was something what Tito couldn't stand. Tito and Serbs saw Kosovo belonging to Serbia. And Tito didn't want another regional rival to Balkans. Italians managed get spy to Hoxha's inner circle and finally in 1954 they managed find him near of Serbian border in Kosovo and 14th August Italian Air Forces launched missile to his headquarter killing Hoxha and almost whole Communist leadership. This pretty much destroyed Communist resistance in Albania.

Ronald Reagan's star on Walk of Fame on Hollywood. He begun his movie career on 1930's and he acted on several b-movies through 1930's and 1940's. Him begun to become big name on 1950's after McCarthy's anti-communist acts purged all liberals and left-wing leaning people from American movie industry. Reagan got soon bigger roles and became one of biggest names on the movie industry. Through next decades he acted on several movies and TV-series.

Politically Reagan was strict anti-communist and leaned towards Republicans due their economy politics. Freedomites tried several times attract him to their camp but Reagan didn't care about social issues and was quiet indifferent over their economic politics.

During 1980's Reagan's career begun clearly decline and him had too lesser movie roles. Several years after his death was too revealed that since mid-1980's him begun to has difficulties with his memory. Last movie Reagan made in 1992 and then he retired from the industry. Reagan died on complications of Alzheimer's in 2004.

A photo of Bolzano, the second-biggest city in Trentino. Conquered by Italy in WWI, the city used to host a large German-speaking community of Tyroleses. During Mussolini's regime, the language was severely suppressed: while people did organize underground schools to try and preserve Tyrolese German, in the end, with the end of WW2 and general mistrust towards Germanophones, the community was either fully assimilated or kicked out and forced to take refuge in North Tyrol.

Nowadays only 0,1% of Trentino's population speaks Tyrolese German, and attempts reviving it have remained mostly in the purview of linguistical reconstructionists and tiny groups of secessionists who, at best, manage to draw a small crowd in the main plaza and accomplish very little.

Beirut, capital of Lebanon. In 1960's Beirut and Lebanon recovered amazingly quickly from brutal occupation of UAR and Second Arabian War. Beirut became one of most important financial centers of Middle East. Nowadays Lebanon is active center of bank activity and unfortunately too infamous tax haven and place where criminal organisation are laundering their dirty money. It has raised much of critics towards government of the country.

Singapore, the second most populous city in the United Kingdom after London. After the construction of the Kra Canal, the city lost much of its strategic position, so it had to rethink its economic and geostrategic model. Thanks to the competent management of Mayor Lee Kuan Yew, the city reinvented itself as an important financial and banking center, a fertile startup ecosystem as well as an important stopover for flights between Europe and Australia.

A bird’s eye view of Luxor, the capital city of South Egypt (formally known as the Republic of Egypt).​

Due to the omnipresence of the ancient ruins, in addition to the lasting psychological effects of the Second Arab War, a huge resurgence in appreciation, admiration, and even adoption of Ancient Egyptian culture has risen in the South. In the 1970’s, Kemetism was becoming a significantly rapidly growing minority religion in the country – a trend which continues to this very day (Kemetism is the revival of Ancient Egyptian religion and related expressions of religion in classical and late antiquity).

A Kemetic shrine dedicated to Anubis, the Egyptian god of mummification and the afterlife as well as the patron god of lost souls and the helpless, in an apartment in downtown Luxor, circa 2020.​
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Aerial photo of Tolstoygrad, formerly known with many names. It was known centuries as Tsaritsyn until in 1920's it was named as Stalingrad after Josiph Stalin. In years 1942 - 1943 there was gigantic battle between Germans and Soviet troops which ruined city badly. After WW2 the city hosted conference where Soviet Union and some of its slave states established Stalingrad Pact. The city anyway didn't recovered from the battle many decades and still on 1970's there was several ruins around cities and on many walls was still bullet holes. Surrounding areas is still founded nonvolantive explosives.

In 1972 Stalingrad was re-named as Tolstoygrad after Lev Tolstoy, whom ideas became leading ideology of post-Soviet Union Russia. The city begun recover from Communism and WW2 and the city was totally reconstructed in 1990's. In city is some light industry and it is too quiet popular tourist destination altough not nearby as popular as Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Hindu Temple in Karachi, India. Karachi was capital of separatist Pakistan during Indian Civil War in years 1950 - 1952. The city was almost totally destroyed on bombing near of end of the war. Soon after collapse of separatist regime Indian troops expelled almost all Muslims from the city and demolished these remaining mosques which survived from bombing. These were replaced by Hindu temples. Pretty same things happened on many other cities which were controlled by Pakistani separatist government.

Despite that constitution of India gives equeal rights for all religions, Muslims are still pretty discrimanted and mistreated. Even building of mosques has done really difficult. Recently Muslims have begun claim real rights altough nowadays Muslim civil right movements are quiet peaceful and not usually promote clerical violence. Several human rights organisations too have demand India treat Muslims much better.
It is very possible. But I think that Bond is now chasing remaining Nazis, Baathists and Communists. Fascists might be friendly rival.
James Bond, Her Royal Majesty’s top hunter of Nazis, Ba'athists, and Communists!

I can already imagine a title of one of these Bond films, “The Man from Odessa”.

It’d be quite interesting if Skorzeny made a cameo (though that’s highly doubtful).
So, the whole Footprint of Mussolini thing is "what if Benito was sort of a good guy"?

I have to say I find that improbable, even if the FoM originator seems to belong in the "Magnificent Bastard" file.
So, the whole Footprint of Mussolini thing is "what if Benito was sort of a good guy"?

I have to say I find that improbable, even if the FoM originator seems to belong in the "Magnificent Bastard" file.
Allied anti-Nazi Mussolini is not so improbable at it seems. And Mussolini is not very good guy, Ask for example for Slovenes what they think about him. Ratherly like "ours noble dictatorial ally".
So, the whole Footprint of Mussolini thing is "what if Benito was sort of a good guy"?

I have to say I find that improbable, even if the FoM originator seems to belong in the "Magnificent Bastard" file.
Benito’s more of a Noble Demon than a Good Guy. His extermination of Slovnene culture, his naked imperialism in the Middle East, and his initial reluctance to enter the Second World War are not exactly “Good Guy” traits.