Decades of Darkness

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Jared, Nov 29, 2004.

  1. Grimm Reaper Desperate But Not Serious

    And don't forget that most of Minnesota and effectively all of Montana, North Dakota, Washington State and possibly Alaska are Canadian, not to mention the area where OTL Chicago exists. If all other population trends remained the same as OTL, this would leave Canada at close to 40 million.

    The estimates I found for immigration to the US in the ACW was approximately 900,000 for the four years of actual fighting.

    I believe the British actually had a mechanically reliable armored car sometime in the 1880s, with armor capable of resisting all rifles and machine guns(although machine guns at close range might have shaken it up), a pair of Maxim machine guns of its own, and a 'pom-pom' along with 200 shells.

    Test driven in Egypt and Norway among other places.

    The thing was obviously too expensive, required people to have some level of mechanical training and was prone to scaring the horses. Clearly it had no real future... :p
  2. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    It was subtly pro-Brazilian (note that he basically ruled out Brazilian interference with their own ship, but was happy to lay blame on the Argentines), but he was writing for an international market, so it was a bit less blatant than in some other cases.

    There is still a link, although this is Dom Pedro II, Dom Pedro I having gone back to Portugal some years ago. The link is weakening however, since the Brazilians are leaning more toward slavery and the USA. This doesn't make Portugal an enemy, just not their closest friend either.

    Dom Pedro II died of a heart attack. I'd probably better insert a tangential mention of that in the post, actually.

    The Brazilian equivalent of "His Majesty's Ship" - either Navio Do Seu Majesty or Seu Navio De Majesty, depending on which babblefish translation works. I picked that latter, since Brazilian ships in OTL are designated SNB (at least according to one source I found).

    Kaiser Wilhelm III
    Matt likes this.
  3. G.Bone lurks

    Jan 1, 2004
    Hon., HI
    Just curious-

    With the US a merging of the Deep South and Russia pre-liberation of the serfs, isn't this sort of hobbling itself by having a large amount of people in it's lower class? Aren't there any smart people around with the realization that the large amount of people could be a boon in their army or is their racism too entrenched? What's the Brazilian viewpoint of their slaves, since you mentioned in the visit to Columbia City that:

  4. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    Canada has extra land area, but it didn't automatically gain the extra people to settle that. Many of the settlers of Minnesota et al came from areas which were part of the USA, New England, Pennsylvania, and the Midwest principally. ITTL, many of those settlers end up in other places (the US ones go further south), so while Minnesota and so on are inhabited, this largely means lower Canadian populations further north. And yes, Canada does have Alaska, they grabbed it when Britain was at war with Russia during the 1860s.

    I'll have to check that out, but I'd be surprised if they had a practical offroad model during the 1880s, the ICE was pretty new then. Got any handy references? This is one area I need to do a bit more research on.

    Kaiser Wilhelm III
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  5. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    The USA tends to have division of labour, with "whites" going into the military and more senior occupations, and with the other classes supplying the industry which will back a war. But in the right circumstances, they will recruit debt-slaves and so on into the army, with the promise of freedom after so many years of service. They are just naturally wary of putting such troops into frontline roles: are they more likely to go over to the enemy?

    The Brazilian viewpoint of their slaves is overall not as harsh as the US one, since they still allow freedom for their slaves, but it is nonetheless harsh. The landowners really don't want to grant their slaves freedom.

    Kaiser Wilhelm III
  6. Guilherme Loureiro Member

    Jan 1, 2004
    Navio de Sua Majestade would be the correct translation. As for designations of Brazilian ships, it's a bit complicated. OTL Brazilian Navy ships don't have a national prefix like HMS or USS. Instead they are designated by ship type. Examples include NAe(Navio Aeródromo, literally "Aerodrome Ship" - Aircraft Carrier) São Paulo, and CT(Contratorpedeiro - destroyer) Pará. However, although frigates and submarines are designated like that, I've never seen the abbreviations for those ship types(they are still oficially referred to as Fragata somethingorother or Submarino someindiantribewhosenamebeginswithaT).
  7. G.Bone lurks

    Jan 1, 2004
    Hon., HI
    hey Kaiser- are you going to put up the latest installment of DoD up? I saw it on google and not here-
  8. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    Yes, I will be, but I managed to delete some of the more important sections of the post. So I'll be rewriting those sections over the next couple of days, then posting it here and doing a repost on google.

    Kaiser Wilhelm III
  9. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    Decades of Darkness #89: Under The Southern Cross

    “The first step to getting what you want out of life is this: Decide what you want. The second step is to work out who else wants it too.â€
    -- Doña Maria Inês Isabel Catarina de Bragança e Bourbon, Empress of Brazil

    * * *

    2 May 1884
    Rio de Janeiro
    Empire of Brazil

    “His Majesty’s Government is troubled by the prospect of unnecessary bloodshed between Brazil, Uruguay... and other nations,†said James Henry Fox, the British ambassador.

    “I dislike the blood which has already been shed,†Empress Maria replied. “Brazilian blood cowardly spilled, in a ship sent on a mission of peace.†She didn’t know, and had no way of finding out, whether the Argentines or the Uruguayans had been responsible for planting a torpedo to sink the Riachuelo. But either way, the government at Montevideo was responsible either for the sinking or for incompetence in failing to prevent Argentine agents operating on their soil. And she was sure that Argentina would declare war soon enough either way, so if the Argentines had caused it, they would receive their rightful punishment.

    “Wouldn’t it be better to negotiate a settlement rather than spill further Brazilian blood?†Fox said. “Britain’s Foreign Secretary, the Viscount Howick, offers himself as a mediator between your two sides.â€

    That offer surprised Maria; she would have thought that the British government would have been too busy in Europe to send such a powerful man to the New World. But it changed nothing in her mind. “The war began because Uruguay refused to admit its responsibility. If we stop before we have fired a shot, it will merely embolden them in their refusal. No, while I think your foreign secretary for his generous offer, there is no place for negotiations with Uruguay.â€

    Fox looked as if he had bitten onto a lemon, but he nodded. Maria exchanged a few more meaningless statements of peaceful intentions and good wishes with their struggle against the Bonaparte, then Fox left. He conspicuously avoided asking what Brazil’s plans were for Uruguay once the war was won, which gladdened Maria. There could be only one answer to that question, but she would much rather present the world with a fait accompli.

    She placed more weight on the telegram she had received from U.S. President Corbin, relayed by the American ambassador. Without that, she might have been more circumspect in rejecting the British mediation proposal:


    * * *

    5 May 1884
    By the Rio Jaguarão
    Near Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul
    Empire of Brazil

    His Excellency Lieutenant-General Bruno Gomes had gathered his leading officers in a private group to give them their final orders. The engineers had already prepared the pontoon bridges which they would deploy across the Rio Jaguarão, along with a host of boats to bring the first crossing of men. If the Uruguayans chose to contest the crossing – and why wouldn’t they? – his men were ready. A shame he did not have more artillery; the reports from his liaison officers in Mexico were emphatic that the power of artillery was worth more than brigades, sometimes. He had already sent a request that some American artillery units would be sent, but for now, he would continue with what he had.

    With his officers gathered, Gomes said, ‘Men, you know your roles. If one of us advances, follow him. If one of us retreats, defend him. If one of us dies, avenge him. For Brazil and the Empress!â€

    The officers ran to rejoin their units, stumbling in the pre-dawn darkness. He waited alone for the moment, offering a brief prayer that God would grant them good fortune on the day of battle. When the appointed time arrived, his artillery opened up in a barrage aimed a little behind the riverbank, to weaken the defenders. After a few moments later, he heard the first boats push into the water. The Uruguayans lacked any significant artillery to respond.

    “And so it begins,†he murmured.

    * * *

    8 July 1884
    USS Iowa [1]
    Rio de la Plata
    Near Montevideo, Uruguay

    Captain Henry Morrison raised his binoculars, to confirm with his own eyes what the lookout had reported. Sure enough, he saw the yellow-lozenge on a green background flag of Brazil rising above Montevideo, with its coat of arms showing the globe and the imperial crown above it [2]. He sometimes wondered about the wisdom of the United States in supporting an emperor in the New World – what point to the Revolution, otherwise? – but Brazil was a valuable friend to the United States in an otherwise hostile world.

    “So, General Gomes has completed his “March to Montevideoâ€,†Morrison said. “Took him long enough.†The Uruguayans must have been defeated inland and declared Montevideo an open city rather than plunge it into bloodshed. A prudent move on their part. “The Argentines nearly beat you there; I hope you realise how much our navy has helped you.â€

    Argentina had entered the war the previous month, but had been unable to provide much support for Montevideo. The U.S.-Brazilian navies had complete control of the Rio de la Plata, having driven the Argentines out completely. Montevideo would receive no reinforcements by sea, and the Iowa had been among the ships shelling Argentine forces when they tried to advance into Uruguay to support. Those forces had kept advancing, but further inland. Montevideo had fallen, and with any luck that meant the war was over, and that the Argentines would give up and go home…

    * * *

    18 July 1884
    Eastern Republic of Uruguay (Brazilian-occupied)

    “Sir, an Argentine officer has approached under flag of truce,†the messenger said.

    Gomes raised an eyebrow. “I doubt he’s come to surrender. Ah well, bring him in.â€

    A rather dusty Argentine in a colonel’s uniform reached him a few minutes later. “I am Colonel Rodrigo Martinez,†he said.

    A relation of President Martinez? Gomes wondered. It was far from the least common of Argentine names, but then Martinez was famous even in Brazil for giving his relatives offices. Not that it mattered. “Lieutenant-General Bruno Gomes, Knight-Grand Cross of the Southern Cross. Why have you come here?â€

    “Sir, you are aware that our armies have approached Montevideo.†The colonel didn’t wait for Gomes’s nod before continuing, “What you may not have known that the governments of Paraguay and Chacras [3] have also issued a joint declaration of support for the government of Uruguay, with the promise of war if Brazil does not withdraw.â€

    Gomes shrugged. “I had not heard that, but why did you bother to mention it to me?â€

    Colonel Martinez said, “Because this news may well mean that your government is willing to return to negotiations. If this is so, why fight a pointless battle? My commander proposes a temporary truce until you can communicate with Rio de Janeiro.â€

    “Let us have a truce for, hmm, four days. After that... we shall see.†Gomes smelled foreign influence in this news of a “quadruple allianceâ€, almost certainly that of Britain. The British had always valued Uruguay’s independence from both Brazil and Argentina. Chacras and especially Paraguay would likely have joined the war sooner or later, but not both at once, not with some encouragement from outside.

    “Do not give up Uruguay, Your Majesty,†Gomes murmured, as he spared a glance to the northeast.

    * * *

    21 July 1884
    Rio de Janeiro
    Empire of Brazil

    “No, Your Excellency, I respectfully decline your foreign secretary’s offer of mediation,†Empress Maria said. “I did not begin this war, but I will not stop until it is finished properly.†Neither Paraguay nor Chacras would have threatened war if they were willing to recognise Brazil’s recapture of Uruguay. So what need for pointless negotiations?

    Ambassador Fox nodded, then left without another word.

    Maria smiled. “Send for the Chilean ambassador.†Fox would learn that Britain was not the only nation who could play at diplomacy. Chile had never settled its northern border with Chacras to its satisfaction. They would now have an opportunity to amend that.

    * * *

    18 August 1884
    Near Mal Abrigo,
    Eastern Republic of Uruguay (recognised)
    Provincia Oriental del Rêo de la Plata (Brazilian-claimed)

    “Colonel Duarte still determined to get us all killed?†Sergeant Ricardo Barbosa said.

    Corporal Rocha, who had ever so discreetly been waiting nearby when Duarte gave the orders, nodded glumly. “The Argentines are there, he says, and we have to drive them out.â€

    “Never mind that there are more of the Argentines than us, and never mind that they are waiting for us,†Barbosa finished. No-one was around except the crew of the four cylinder guns [4], and they wouldn’t repeat what he said. Not that Barbosa particularly cared, at the moment.

    Rocha said, “And he doesn’t plan to deploy our gun to the frontlines, either.â€

    “Why would he?†Barbosa muttered. Duarte had never seen a cylinder gun being fired, as far as Barbosa knew, and he had definitely not seen one of the new Cromwell guns [5]. While he appreciated artillery, he didn’t understand how best to use cylinder guns. “We’ll set up positions in the rear, on that ridge over there, then. And wait for our troops to fall back.â€

    “Sir?†Rocha said.

    “Just deploy them, corporal,†Barbosa said. Rocha would understand, soon enough.

    The battle went much as Barbosa expected. It didn’t take much experience to predict what would happen. Their two regiments were only meant to reconnoitre the area around Mal Abrigo and take up defensive positions or withdraw if they encountered superior numbers of Argentine and Uruguayan defenders. But here they were, lined up on a battlefield and ready to charge into the opposition. After a brief but powerful burst of artillery, the order came to charge.

    And, a few bloody minutes of fire from entrenched defenders later, the order came to withdraw. An order which came after some of the soldiers were already fleeing. The Argentines pursued, but were held off for a few precious moments by brave Brazilians who charged into the enemy lines to slow them down while their comrades escaped.

    Barbosa barked out orders, and his men stayed at their posts while their comrades ran around them. Some of his fellow soldiers had an idea of what the cylinder guns could do, and the rest followed their lead. The Argentines didn’t know, or at least didn’t know enough. The rapid mechanical fire of the Cromwells cut through the midst of their ranks, and the surviving Argentines fled as fast as they had came. The Brazilians behind Barbosa rallied, and advanced again...

    By the day’s end, Barbosa had become a lieutenant, and recommended for the Military Order of the Tower and Sword...

    * * *

    Taken from: “The Sword and the Cross: A History of Imperial Brazilâ€
    (c) 1949 by Prof. Ahmad Sharif
    Trinity College, University of Dublin
    Liberty Press: Dublin, Ireland.

    10. The War of the Quadruple Alliance

    The roots of the war go far beyond the immediate casus belli of the destruction of the SNM Riachuelo. There is no doubt that the government of Brazil genuinely believed that the sinking was a hostile act, or that the public believed the same. Perhaps the naval court of inquiry blamed a mine to avoid any suggestion of incompetence on their own part, or perhaps to confirm what was already widespread belief.

    But Brazil had sought to dominate Uruguay since its formation as a nation. Only the ongoing rivalry with Argentina, and the British support for a neutral port on the Rio de la Plata, had prevented Brazil from doing so. Brazil had the capacity to defeat Uruguay since at least the 1840s; all that had held them back was the potential reaction from Argentina and Britain. With Britain busy in Europe, and with what they believed to be justifiable cause for war, Brazil no longer feared that intervention. And the prospect of Argentine opposition no longer fazed the Brazilian government, who believed, correctly as it turned out, that their military was much readier for war than Argentina.

    As the course of the war showed, it became more of a question if the Brazilian military was superior to that of Argentina and Paraguay and Chacras combined. It has been popular in popular historical writing, and occasionally in professional writing, to ascribe the formation of the Quadruple Alliance to British action, but this is far from the case. The myth of British hostility was largely one perpetuated by some figures within Brazil after the war. It belies the obvious fact that Britain was perfectly willing to cooperate with Brazil where necessary; as witness their mutual support of Portugal while the War of the Quadruple Alliance raged.

    The origins of the myth come from the repeated British proposals for mediation. Britain did seek an end to the war as soon as possible, but that was because they wished commerce to continue uninterrupted, and because they sought an end to bloodshed. Paraguay and Chacras chose Britain to represent their case because they wanted to avoid war with Brazil if possible, but they acted out of desperation. They believed that Brazil would declare war on them next once it was finished with Uruguay, and thus that they would do better fighting together than alone. When it became clear that their military was not up to the task, and particularly when Chile intervened, they abandoned the war, and sought instead to develop their own militaries so that they would not be caught unready again...

    Important Dates in the War of the Quadruple Alliance:


    15 February
    Unexplained explosion sinks the SNM Riachuelo with heavy loss of life.

    24 March
    Brazilian naval court of inquiry finds that a mine from an unidentified source sank the Ricachuelo.

    25 April:
    Brazil declares war on Uruguay.

    4 May:
    United States declares war on Uruguay in support of Brazil.

    5 May
    Brazilian forces under command of Lieutenant General Gomes cross the Rio Jaguarão, brushing aside the Uruguayan defenders and beginning the “March to Montevideoâ€.

    United States sends a naval task force consisting of four capital ships, two Jefferson-class battleships (East Florida and Iowa) and two Illinois-class battleships (Missouri and Arkansas), along with supporting vessels, to Brazil.

    18 May
    Brazilian forces defeat Uruguayan defenders in Battle of Vergara.

    3 June
    Brazil wins battle of Treinta y Tres and forces crossing of the Rio Olimar Grande.

    16 June
    Argentina declares war on Brazil in support of Uruguay.

    20 June
    U.S.-Brazilian naval raid on Buenos Aires damages the port facilities, fortifications, and sinks several Argentine naval vessels.

    24 June
    Brazilian forces occupy Minas, Uruguay, after defeating Uruguayan defenders.

    7 July
    Battle of Montevideo fought on the outskirts of that city, ending with Brazilian victory.

    8 July
    Brazilian forces occupy Montevideo after Uruguayan government declares it an open city and withdraws.

    16 July
    Argentine supporting forces link up with remnants of Uruguayan Army near Las Piedras, Uruguay.

    22 July
    Paraguay and Chacras declare war on Brazil in support of Uruguay.

    23 July
    Inconclusive battle fought between Brazilian and Argentine-Uruguayan forces outside Montevideo. The battle is a tactical draw, but the Argentines and Uruguayans withdraw due to lack of supplies and the Brazilian capacity to receive reinforcements by sea.

    Brazilian forces spread across most of Uruguay to enforce their claimed annexation, gradually driving the Argentines back to Cardona, while further Brazilian forces invade the north through Rivera.

    18 August
    Border clash between Brazil and Chacras at Corumba ends in Chacrian victory but they do not pursue further into Brazil due to lack of supplies.

    21 August
    United States despatches an expeditionary force to Brazil under command of General Robert E. Lee, Jr., consisting of three regiments of artillery, two regiments of cavalry and four regiments of infantry (approximately 10,000 men total, including supporting troops).

    Continuing indecisive border clashes between Brazil and Chacras continue until Chilean entry into the war, after which there is a de facto truce along the border as both nations concentrate on fighting other enemies.

    4 September
    Brazilian forces occupy Ciudad del Este, Paraguay.

    14 September
    Argentines cross Brazilian border and advance on Foz do Iguacu, threatening the flank of the Brazilian advance into Paraguay.

    Argentine and Paraguayan forces advance into Brazil’s Parana Province, reaching as far as Porto San Jose.

    24 September
    Argentine forces defeat probing Brazilian attack outside Cardona, and both sides adopt defensive positions.

    29 September
    Chile declares war on Chacras.

    2 October
    Argentine forces occupy Panorama, Brazil. American General Robert E. Lee, Jr announces that he sees no need to drive into northern Argentina to cut off their supplies, stating “Let us occupy Buenos Aires, and then let them decide if they can still see such a panorama.â€

    16 October
    Battle of Santa Fe Do Sul ends the Argentine advance into Brazil. Argentine forces retreat to Panorama and adopt a defensive position.

    18 October
    Brazilian forces occupy Artigas, Uruguay.

    19 October
    Chilean forces occupy Antofagasta, Chacras.

    26 October
    The planned naval assault on Buenos Aires is postponed since some of the American and Brazilian troops are to be diverted to Europe. Generals Gomes and Lee prepare a new strategy to push the Argentines out of the rest of Uruguay.

    6 November
    Battle of Iquique Bay fought between Chilean Navy and Chacrian Navy [6] ends with decisive Chilean victory.

    14 November
    Paraguayan forces cross Brazilian border in a fresh assault driving on Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul Province, Brazil.

    Desert war between Chacras and Chile sees gradual Chilean occupation of the Chacrian coast, helped by Chilean naval supremacy.

    9 December
    Second Battle of Cardona between Brazilian-American and Argentine-Uruguayan forces ends in decisive Brazilian-American victory. The surviving Argentine forces withdraw toward Mercedes, Uruguay.

    16 December
    Brazilian forces occupy Bella Union, Uruguay, and then begin a push south along the Rio Uruguay toward Salto.


    2 January
    Brazilians occupy Salto, Uruguay.

    8 January
    Brazilian-American forces defeat Argentines at Battle of Mercedes, and the Argentines withdraw toward Paysandu, the last major unoccupied city in Uruguay.

    28 January
    Paysandu captured after joint Brazilian attacks from north and south. All of Uruguay is occupied.

    2 February
    Uruguayan government-in-exile established in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    3 February
    Brazil offers peace to Argentina and Paraguay (but not Chacras) on status quo ante bellum borders, except for their recognition of Brazil’s annexation of Uruguay. The peace terms are rejected three days later.

    Large-scale fighting ceases along the Uruguayan-Argentine border, with Brazilian forces seeking to drive the Argentines out of Panorama and thus to counter the Paraguayan offensive toward Campo Grande.

    3 April
    Argentine forces withdraw from Panorama.

    Paraguayan forces capture Campo Grande, Brazil.

    16 April
    Brazilian counterattack pushes the Paraguayans back toward Ponta Pora. Brazilians announce a “drive on Asunciónâ€.

    2 May
    Brazilian forces occupy Ponta Pora and begin advance into Paraguay.

    5 May
    Planned small-scale Brazilian raid into Chacras becomes a major advance because the border has been largely stripped to defend against Chile.

    8 May
    American-Brazilian forces capture Gualeguaychú, Argentina, and prepare for a drive south toward Buenos Aires, with naval support and transportation along the Rio de la Plata.

    10 June
    Brazilian forces reach outskirts of Asunción, Paraguay, and halt there rather than stage an assault.

    * * *

    16 June 1885
    Rio de Janeiro
    Empire of Brazil

    “Ambassador Fox, I have invited you here to request British mediation between Brazil and Chile on the one hand, and Argentina, Paraguay and Chacras on the other hand,†Empress Maria said, allowing herself a smile.

    “Not with the government-in-exile of Uruguay?†Fox said warily.

    “Uruguay is a historic province of Brazil, and has now been restored,†Maria answered. She savoured the moment; this almost made up for what Britain had done to Brazil during her youth. Uruguay would be Brazilian, along with substantial border territories of Paraguay and Chacras. The Chileans would get the guano coast they craved so much too, although that was of less concern to Maria.

    “I will relay your request to London, although I suspect the Foreign Secretary will have too many commitments in Europe to mediate personally,†Fox said.

    Maria nodded. “That is unfortunate, but understandable.†For that matter, Brazil had commitments in Europe too, even if the number of soldiers had been kept small with the more pressing war closer to home. “I am sure the negotiations will go well.â€

    If not, she could always return to war. The conflict so far had demonstrated for all to see which nations in South America had well-organised and well-equipped armies, and which did not.

    Fox said, “I hope that the negotiations bring peace.â€

    Which was not quite the same thing, but Maria let him depart without contradicting him. Let him have the last word here; Brazil would have the last word at the negotiating table.

    * * *

    [1] USS Iowa is the third ship of the Jefferson-class, a four-gun mastless ironclad roughly equivalent to the OTL British Colossus-class, although with slightly better engines.

    [2] See for an image of the Brazilian imperial flag.

    [3] OTL Bolivia.

    [4] Machine gun. The name arose from the first Hoovers (*Gatling guns), and machine guns are often colloquially called Hoovers in North America, but usually cylinder guns in South America and Europe.

    [5] Self-acting machine gun similar in principle to the OTL Maxim gun.

    [6] Not a large navy, consisting of a few obsolete ships bought off Peru and New England.

    * * *


    Kaiser Wilhelm III
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  10. G.Bone lurks

    Jan 1, 2004
    Hon., HI
    Huh. I think you added a couple of extra scenes in there. A couple of things:

    -> There's people of Muslim faith in Ireland?
    --> Is there some reason behind this?
    ---> Who was the King of Ireland or was it given independence through other means?
    -----> Did the Kingdom process go well in Ireland?

    I also noticed that there was Robert E. Lee the 3rd commanding the Expiditionary Force. Was his grandfather the same sharp mind as OTL's Lee? I've noticed that I haven't seen his name in the scenes...

    Is Barbosa a Portugeuse name? I thought it was German, given that one of their Emporer's was named Barborossa.

    I assume the realm of Chacras= Bolivia. Care to explain why?

    Overall, a better tone and explanation on the minor quibbles on the first time you posted.
  11. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    Yes, I added the scene from Barbosa's perspective and one from a historical overview of the war. Not quite sure how they got omitted from the original post, but it made things look rather bare in terms of describing the war.

    He's a foreign academic from elsewhere in the Restored Empire who was invited to do some work in Trinity College's history pepartment, and ended up staying. Academics move around a fair amount ITTL, just like OTL. (Well, except for American ones). He wouldn't have all that many co-religionists in Ireland, although there would be a handful here and there. But writing the "book" from his authorship was meant to show that there's substantial religious tolerance in Ireland ITTL.

    Ireland gained Kingdom status in 1862, under Charles I, youngest brother of then-King Edward VII of the UK. It has gone moderately well since then, with occasional revolts and unrest but generally calmer than in OTL. Ireland is also the subject of Interlude #2, which gives a snapshot of Ireland in 1953.

    He's Robert E. Lee Jr, not the 3rd born ~1837). OTL's General Robert E. Lee still appeared (he was born pre-PoD), but didn't get the same fame as OTL. He rose to become a Colonel during the War of 1833, occupied New Mexico during the First Mexican War, and died of disease on campaign during the Second Mexican War.

    Lee Jr. is a good general, who distinguished himself during the Third Mexican War occupying the Pacific Coast of Mexico. He was sent to Brazil on the recommendation of General Mahan, the commanding general in Mexico. His closest comparison to an OTL general would probably be Stonewall Jackson; they have similar ability to inspire the troops, make good use of terrain and manouvreability, and so on. There will be more scenes from his perspective, but I'm not sure if I'll write one set in Uruguay during that war.

    I'm not sure of its precise origins, but it's used in Brazil today. The man in question could quite easily be descended from German immigrants, though - there's been a fair amount of German migration to Brazil since 1849.

    The area of OTL Bolivia (plus maybe, depending on which historian you ask, a strip of coast corresponding to the northern third of OTL Chile) was variously called Upper Peru or Chacras before independence, when it was renamed for Simon Bolivar, who liberated it from Spain. Bolivar was busy elsewhere ITTL, fighting off the counter-revolutionary forces of the Holy Alliance, and thus he didn't get to liberate Bolivia, but it eventually gained independence on its own. So it stuck with the name of Chacras instead. (Upper Peru not having quite the same ring to it).

    Kaiser Wilhelm III
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  12. G.Bone lurks

    Jan 1, 2004
    Hon., HI
    ah. Two more things:

    I'm supposin' that this is sort of them putting their influence to use over Brazilian opposition? The title is a very apt description of the TL.

    Also- does Barbosa become sort of a Sargeant York in his home region or are things more larger for him?
  13. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    Maria believes that the British actions in trying to force Brazil to stop the slave trade (even shipping between Brazilian ports) and in signing a defensive pact with Venezuela (and thus stopping the border war) were proof that Britain is hostile to Brazil.

    She also believed, with less justification, that Britain had tried to form a hostile alliance against Brazil to stop them from conquering Uruguay. The alliance in fact formed on its own, but the alliance members tried to use Britain as a mediator to avoid a war if possible.

    Over the longer-term, relations will be cool between Brazil and Britain as long as Maria is Empress. This doesn't stop them cooperating in the right circumstances (e.g. their mutual defence of Portugal) but it does mean that they'll be generally unfriendly. Especially since Maria is unlikely to issue any equivalent of Brazil's OTL Golden Law ending slavery.

    Bigger things are on the horizon for him, although being a nationally-decorated war hero doesn't hurt his home reputation either... :)

    Kaiser Wilhelm III
  14. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    Decades of Darkness #90: As I Look At The World

    This is a brief tour of the wider world through to 1885-6. It summarises some of the main developments in the timeline, and expands on some of the other history which has not been previously mentioned. This timeline continues to deal mainly with events in North America and Europe, but this post fills in some of the details of what is happening elsewhere.

    * * *

    The KINGDOM OF AUSTRALIA [OTL Australia and New Zealand], formed in 1882 out of the union of the seven colonies of New South Wales, Macquarie [Victoria], Kingsland [Queensland], New Zealand, Tasmania, South Australia and West Australia, is one of the most rapidly-developing parts of the British Empire. What was founded as an outpost for surplus convicts was transformed by the gold rushes of the 1830s and widespread immigration from Europe (particularly Ireland and Germany) into a new nation of 6 million people in 1885 [1]. The expansion of navigational technology since the 1850s has brought Australia ‘closer to Europe’. Australia also administers some of the nearby portions of the Pacific, including New Caledonia (acquired 1834) and New Guinea (acquired 1872). Internally, Australia is peaceful and prosperous on the back of a wool and mining boom, with the last of the Maori Wars ended in the 1870s. Externally, Australia was automatically at war with the Axis powers in the Second Napoleonic Wars, but its main involvement was in supplying troops for the struggles in the colonies, particularly the capture of the Philippines and the French colonies in the Indian Ocean.

    * * *

    The SANDWICH ISLANDS [Hawai’i] were for a long time in a curious position, seeking formal British recognition as a protectorate, and receiving informal protection but not direct recognition. They saw some small-scale immigration from Europe, New England and (after 1870) Nippon. In 1868, a group of American filibusters under ‘Colonel’ William Quigley attempted to take over the islands but were resoundingly defeated and executed as bandits. Reports of preparations for a much larger and well-organised filibuster expedition, along with displeasure of the U.S. annexation of Mexico, led Britain to extend a formal protectorate over the islands in 1882, and they continue under the rule of the native monarchy. However, the booming population of the American West Coast since the opening of the transcontinental railroads has led to increasing numbers of Americans arriving in Hawai’i, where they are warily tolerated if they do not cause trouble.

    * * *

    In NIPPON [Japan], two centuries of isolation came to an end with Admiral Fokker’s expedition in 1856, forcing the Nipponese to grant more or less open trading access. This was followed by a series of trading treaties forced on the Nipponese by Britain, France, the United States, New England and Russia (after the end of the Turkish War). The Nipponese resentment over this foreign encroachment and national weakness led to the overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate in the “Renewalâ€, a movement which culminated in the establishment of a new government in 1868, theoretically under the rule of the Emperor. Nippon has since modernised extremely rapidly, using carefully-chosen foreign advisors to reform its military and economy. The success of their modernisation was demonstrated to the world in 1884, when Nipponese forces defeated the (admittedly rather weak) Spanish garrisons in the Ladrones [Marianas] and retained these as the newest Home Islands during the peace settlement. This has led to division within the Nipponese government, with some leading figures advocating gaining influence or even direct rule over Choson, the “dagger hanging over the Home Islandsâ€. Other government leaders are recommending a period of internal consolidation and avoidance of foreign adventures, saying that Nippon’s growth has alarmed the Western powers, and that Nippon needs further time to absorb the foreign knowledge into Nipponese wisdom. The Emperor listens to both but has not yet offered an opinion.

    * * *

    In CHOSON [Korea], the ruling monarchs have long attempted to keep the nation isolated from the world by closing its borders to all but Chinese traders. Emissaries of the Germans, New England, Britain, Russia and the United States have attempted to secure trade treaties but have so far been rebuffed. Thus far these nations have preferred to concentrate on their perceived greater pickings in China and Nippon rather than trying to force open the country.

    * * *

    CHINA, for so long the most advanced nation on earth, received a harsh awakening with its defeat in the Opium War (also called Anglo-Chinese War of 1839-1842) which showed how unprepared the Middle Kingdom was to deal with modern European technology. This was followed by France and Germany establishing treaty ports in China. The humiliations inflicted by the foreign powers led to the development of new ideology, such as that of Hong Xiuquan, who inspired the Taiping Revolution and ultimately became Emperor in 1864. China also has a Manchurian state ruled by the deposed Qing Emperor, who is under Russian protection, and there are Muslim revolts in the west and southwest. The Qings staged a counter-offensive in 1869, which recaptured Beijing and much of the north. While officially still at war, large-scale fighting between the two Chinas (Taiping White China and Qing Black China) has been rare since that time. The Taipings suffer from considerable internal factionalism, and with the death of Hong Xiuquan, they have become a de facto military dictatorship which has made some attempts at modernisation but which has been largely unsuccessful.

    * * *

    In SOUTH-EAST ASIA, the Dutch rule the DUTCH EAST INDIES as a separate colony, outside of the direct rule of the German Reich. The entirety of TIMOR remains a Portuguese colony. INDOCHINA has been annexed to Germany after the defeat of France during the Second Napoleonic Wars. BURMA long fought to maintain its independence and modernise itself as a country, but after three wars with Britain was finally annexed as a colony in 1884, on the eve of the war in Europe, and in 1886 was made a province of India. The kingdom of SIAM has also seen monarchs seeking to modernise its army and economy, and has so far remained independent because Britain and France regarded it as a useful buffer-state between their colonies. Siam’s status with the Germans in Indochina now appears more precarious. The PHILLIPPINES, a Spanish colony for more than 300 years, have now become a part of the British Empire, with their conquest by Imperial (mostly Australian) troops and subsequent annexation in 1886. There have been some murmurings of rebellion within the Philippines, as there were against the previous Spanish rulers, but no overt hostility. Discussions within Britain centre around whether to prepare the colony for Kingdom status or maintain it as a crown colony indefinitely. FORMOSA was occupied by the Reich in 1854, receiving some German immigration, and has become the their strategic bastion in the Western Pacific, and was much-used as a staging area during the Second Napoleonic Wars. The British maintained rule over MALAYA after the First Napoleonic Wars, establishing SINGAPORE as a major port and fortress, and have subsequently added BRUNEI and SABAH to their empire.

    * * *

    INDIA has become the jewel of the British Empire, built by conquering both the Indians themselves and by driving out the other European powers. By 1858, Britain ruled virtually the whole of the Indian subcontinent (except for the Portuguese enclave of Goa), having conquered the last French vestiges in the War of 1833, but British power suffered a severe setback with the Indian Mutiny of 1858-1861 coming perilously close to driving them out of India entirely. The Mutiny was eventually suppressed by those Indians who remained loyal, and volunteer regiments from Australia. After 1861, India was officially declared part of the British Empire under the rule of Edward VII, Emperor of India, although governed through Viceroys, inaugurating the days of the British Raj. India has remained largely loyal to the British, but there has been some discontent recently with a bill by the Indian government, which would have empowered Indian judges to judge Europeans in India, revoked in the face of protests from local British residents.

    * * *

    PERSIA [Iran] is currently in a civil war (since 1883) between the Qajar Dynasty and a would-be rival shah. The Russian-backed Qajars control the majority of the country, while the British-backed Mirza Reza Shah Jamaluddin seeks to take control of the country and then modernise it as he has seen Nippon successfully do.

    * * *

    The MIDDLE EAST has seen the collapse of the Ottoman Empire during a war with Russia (the Turkish War of 1858-1862). The bulk of the Ottoman Empire has survived as the Sultanate of Turkey, a British protectorate including Mesopotamia. SYRIA became a French colony, one of the few which remained in French hands after the Second Napoleonic Wars. The British rule PALESTINE as a separate colony, where there is some talk of establishing it as a Kingdom, and the British have a formal protectorate over EGYPT. The Arabian Peninsula has seen French influence largely replaced by British influence on both the Red Sea coast and around the Persian Gulf, but the only formal British colonies are along the Indian Ocean, with ADEN, YEMEN and OMAN all under British rule. The French also established a colony over ALGERIA, to which they have recently added TUNIS, but Algeria has been occupied by Napoleon IV, the former Emperor of France, while the Germans have replaced the Italians as rulers of TRIPOLI.

    * * *

    AFRICA has recently been the target of European attention, with colonial wars by the British and Portuguese to drive the French and Spanish out of Africa, and then to divide up the continent according to European policies. The divisions of the Third Congress of Vienna often do not correspond to the facts on the ground; some borders are merely lines on a map, the interior has been only partially explored, and some areas have been assigned to European powers which such as Aragon which lack the capacity to occupy them yet. ABYSSINIA [Ethiopia] is the only recognised nation in Africa still under native rule, although part of the Somali coast has been left unclaimed. The nation of LIBERIA [OTL southern Angola and northern NAMIBIA] has seen large migration of former slaves and free blacks from the United States, including Spanish and French speakers from the Caribbean, and some migrants from New England, and is developing into a democratic republic under New England protection. Southern Africa includes a set of overlapping claims, with Portugal claiming the land between ANGOLA and MOZAMBIQUE, and with some unrecognised Boer republics inland, while the British in the Cape Colony are seeking to extend their control over the nearer Boer republics of ORANGE FREE STATE and TRANSVAAL, with their diamond and gold wealth.

    * * *

    In northern SOUTH AMERICA, the United States purchased the former colonies of French Guiana and Suriname, selling the interior territories of both to Brazil, and also acquiring an unsettled but dormant claim to parts of BRITISH GUIANA [OTL Guyana], which is a stable British colony but also has a dormant border dispute with Venezuela. In VENEZUELA, the eventual independence from Colombia in 1848 produced a long period of ongoing civil disturbance, military takeovers and two brief civil wars. The domestic political situation stabilised somewhat during the 1870s, although Venezuela had a border war with Brazil during the middle of the decade. The establishment of the Bogotá Pact, a defensive alliance between Britain, Venezuela, Colombia and Costa Rica ended this war, and stabilised Venezuela’s foreign relations, although the border dispute with Brazil remains unsettled.

    * * *

    COLOMBIA [OTL Colombia, Ecuador and Panama] has become one of the few nations in Latin America with stable civilian rule, with a democratic tradition established since the days of President Bolivar. A brief period of military rule followed the secession of Venezuela in 1848, but civilian rule was restored within a year. After the seizure of Nicaragua and President Davis’s ‘manifest destiny’ speech, Colombia opened negotiations with Costa Rica for a defensive pact, which took several years to bear fruit. These were initially treated as of little importance in Costa Rica, but the discussions became more urgent after the United States annexed Cuba and Puerto Rico, and established influence in Honduras. In 1864, Colombia invited military advisers from the German Reich (Prussian army officers and Dutch naval officers) to modernise their army and navy. In 1877, Colombia joined the Bogotá Pact, and has developed the most modern and well-equipped army and navy in South America. This has produced some grumblings from elements in Venezuela, who fear Colombian desires for reunification, but both nations’ wariness of their massive northern neighbour has so far kept such complaints quite low-key.

    * * *

    In southern SOUTH AMERICA, PERU has been in effect an independent nation since the end of European intervention in 1825, although Spain did not recognise this claim until 1871. CHACRAS [Bolivia] had a long dispute with CHILE regarding the Pacific coast in the Atacama Desert, which was solved by force when Chile invaded as part of the War of the Quadruple Alliance (Brazil and Chile versus Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chacras), which also saw Chacras forced to concede some border territory to Brazil. PARAGUAY and ARGENTINA, also defeated in that war, have begun frantic searches for advisors to reform their armies (and Argentina’s navy).

    * * *

    The EMPIRE OF BRAZIL has become increasingly closely linked to the United States since the 1820s. Slave-trading contacts have become increasingly common, with Brazil becoming one of the major transshipment points for slave-trafficking from Angola and other parts of Africa, and then onto Cuba and the United States. Some of the more Americophile leaders in Brazil are beginning to adopt some of the US ideas, particularly racist theory which looks down on intermarriage between those of “European†blood and other races. U.S.- and British-financed railroad expansion in Brazil since the 1840s has increased Brazil’s economy considerably. Brazil has unresolved territorial disputes with Venezuela, and less formalised claims over parts of Peru and Colombia. The death of Dom Pedro II in 1884 brought the Americophile Empress Maria to the throne of Brazil, and this led to the War of the Quadruple Alliance over the sinking of a Brazilian battleship and the subsequent Brazilian annexation of Uruguay and parts of Paraguay and Chacras.

    * * *

    In the CARIBBEAN, New England has claimed a protectorate over DOMINCA (still frequently called Santo Domingo by both New Englanders and Americans), while HAITI is an independent state but effectively a de facto New England protectorate. The rest of the Caribbean is divided between Britian and the USA, with Britain ruling Jamaica, the Bahamas, and a string of islands in the Lesser Antilles, while the United States controls Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the rest of the Antilles.

    * * *

    In CENTRAL AMERICA, the United States of Central America lasted from 1823 until its dissolution in civil war during the late 1830s. The states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica declared their independence during that war. Since then, the United States has annexed all of those nations except COSTA RICA, which remains a small but stable country and part of the Bogotá Pact. BRITISH HONDURAS [Belize] is a British colony and a minor but niggling source of irritation to the United States.

    * * *

    The continent of NORTH AMERICA is currently divided between three nations: the United States of America, the Republic of New England, and the Kingdom of Canada, plus the British enclaves of Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. The United States has become dominated by slaveholding interests, and engaged in three wars which eventually led to the seizure of all of Mexico, although there is an ongoing guerrilla resistance in Mexico in 1886. New England is rapidly industrialising and its commerce is active throughout much of the globe. The Kingdom of Canada is rapidly expanding in population as its vast western territories are slowly developed, but there is some discontent amongst the Nephites [Mormons] who have settled on Vancouver Island.

    * * *

    The UNITED KINGDOM did not form Liberal governments as early as in OTL, with the first Liberal government in 1837. The nation has since adopted Catholic Emancipation, limited parliamentary reform, and abolished slavery within the Empire in 1842. Its colonial empire has gradually expanded since then, although the British have abandoned some of their areas of colonial influence in Central America under pressure from the United States. Following the success of the Canadian experiment, Britain granted Kingdom status to Ireland in 1862, and Australia in 1882. There is discussion of granting Kingdom status to other parts of the Empire, including South Africa, Newfoundland, and Palestine. Britain engaged in a long war with Russia over Turkey, and has acquired considerable colonial interests in the Mediterranean as a result, including Turkey, Palestine and Egypt, and built a Suez Canal. The Second Napoleonic Wars saw the British and Germans defeat the Franco-Russian-Spanish Axis alliance and divide up much of Europe and the world between them.

    * * *

    FRANCE was involved in the War of 1833, which cost her some colonial possessions in India and New Caledonia, and led to the 1834 revolution and the December Monarchy. That monarchy was toppled in 1849, and led to the short-lived Second Republic which fell after the Confederation War and was replaced by the Second Empire under Napoleon III. The Second Empire engaged in colonial expansion in much of Africa and Indochina, but eventually became involved in the Second Napoleonic Wars, which saw France stripped of Nice, Savoy and Corsica (all to Italy), and most of her colonial empire except for French West Africa, Algeria and Syria. Algeria is currently under the rule of Napoleon IV, who fled France after his abdication. France also surrounds MONACO, and under the terms of the Second Congress of Vienna, Monaco will revert to France if the monarch dies without male heirs.

    * * *

    SPAIN has had an unhappy nineteenth century. The events of the First Napoleonic Wars saw her lose her colonial empire in Central and South America, and the support of other European nations for Spanish counter-revolution only further weakened the authority and resources of the Spanish monarchy. Spain had a series of civil wars (the Carlist Wars) and suffered further depredations of its colonial empire. Eventually, the civil tensions rose to the point where Spain was partitioned and the northern kingdom of ARAGON established. Napoleon IV and Spain tried to reconquer Aragon and partition it between themselves, but this led to the Second Napoleonic Wars and the dismantling of the remnants of Spain’s colonial empire. Aragon was restored with increased territory and a claim to most of the Congo basin, while Spain deposed King Felipe VI for uselessly prolonging the war, and re-named itself the kingdom of CASTILE.

    * * *

    PORTUGAL has seen an ongoing conflict-friendship relationship with its main colony, Brazil, since the First Napoleonic Wars. The royal family fled there to escape Napoleon, and Brazil was raised to the status of a kingdom, equal with Portugal. However, after the French tyrant was defeated, and João VI took the throne of Portugal, Brazil's status began to be reduced. Pedro declared himself Emperor of Brazil in 1822, and succeeded to the throne of Portugal in 1826. He briefly considered establishing his own son Miguel [the child who in OTL would have been Maria] to the throne of Portugal, but rumblings of discontent from his brother Miguel led to him delaying this decision until his son Miguel reached his eighteenth birthday in 1837. After this date, Miguel I began the modernisation of the country, establishing a constitutional monarchy, and trying to balance the legacies of the past, particularly the ongoing slave trade between Angola and Brazil, with the need for reform within his country. His modernisation included improvements to roads, railways and public health, and the introduction of the telegraph. Portugal acquired the Galiza and Olivença regions from Spain during the Congress of Versailles (1872), and was invaded by Spain during the Second Napoleonic Wars. Portugal defeated this invasion with the assistance of Brazil, Britain and the United States, and acquired further colonial territories and parts of Spain bordering Galiza at the end of the war. Miguel I remains on the throne, aged a vigorous 67, as of 1886.

    * * *

    ITALY was mostly unified as a nation during the Swiss and Italian War, although Austria holds Lombardy and Venetia, and SAN MARINO is still an independent republic. Italy acquired Rome as its national capital more recently. Italy was on the losing side in the Second Napoleonic Wars, which cost her the colonies of Tunis, Tripoli and Albania, but which saw the restoration of Nice, Savoy and Corsica. However, there are considerable rumblings of discontent with Italy from people who believe that Italy should have done better during the war, directed at the king and his government rather than outsiders.

    * * *

    GREECE won its independence in 1829, aided in part by their supply of frigates from New England. New England was also the first nation to recognise Greek independence, and there has been ongoing commercial and military contact, especially between the Greek Navy and the NEN. Greece has since acquired the Ionian Islands from Britain in 1834 in exchange for their neutrality during the Russo-Ottoman War of 1834-6, Grevena from the Ottomans at the end of the war, Epirus and Macedonia during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Second Congress of Vienna, and part of Albania from the Third Congress of Vienna.

    * * *

    BULGARIA and SERBIA are independent nations on the Balkan Peninsula. Serbia was on the losing side during the Second Napoleonic Wars, and this meant that it is now governed by a monarch from a cadet branch of the Habsburgs. Bulgaria [smaller than OTL Bulgaria, with the southern regions still Turkish-ruled] was long part of Russia, but the end of the Second Napoleonic Wars saw it established as an independent state under a Swedish prince, who has pledged to create a constitutional monarchy. ALBANIA was long an Italian colony, and after the war suffered some loss of territory to Greece but the rest became an independent nation under a Habsburg monarch. Similarly, MONTENEGRO’s defeat during the war saw it drawn into the German orbit with a new monarch from the Bavarian royal family.

    * * *

    GERMANY has emerged from the Second Napoleonic Wars as the colossus of Central Europe. It now includes the territory of virtually every German-speaker in Europe (including the Dutch-speakers of the Netherlands [and OTL Belgium and northern France]), except for the ethnic Volga Germans in Russia, some of whom have elected to return to Germany. Germany slowly emerged as a political unity from the old German Confederation formed after the First Napoleonic Wars, including the three Great Powers of Prussia, Austria and the Netherlands, as well as lesser German states. The revolutions of 1849 led to the creation of a strengthened Diet in Frankfurt, and other common defensive measures. Fighting together in several wars both greatly increase the sense of national unity, and acquired further German-speaking territories from Schleswig-Holstein (acquired without war), Switzerland, and from France. Germany also includes some non-German-speaking areas, such as Venetia, Lombardy, Bohemia and Moravia in Austria, the French-speaking parts of the Netherlands, and some Polish-speaking areas in Prussia. HUNGARY, CROATIA, and POLAND are separate states in personal union within the Holy Roman Emperor, effectively economically unified with Germany, and with German-trained but separate military forces. COURLAND [most of OTL Lithuania and parts of Latvia] is a recently formed nation under a Hohenzollern prince, and falls heavily within the German sphere of influence. German princes have also been created over several Balkan states (Serbia, Montenegro and Albania), although it remains an open question whether these monarchs will look out for the interests of their own subjects first.

    * * *

    The RUSSIAN EMPIRE has greatly expanded in power throughout the nineteenth century, pushing into Central Asia and the Far East, and for a time into Europe, but it has also suffered some setbacks. Its centuries-old struggle with the Ottoman Empire saw it acquire more territories, Moldavia and Wallachia, and for a time Kars and Bulgaria, but the latter two were lost in the Second Napoleonic Wars. The same war also saw Russia stripped of most of its Polish and Lithuanian territories in Europe, and Alaska was lost during a previous war with Britain, but Russia still controls vast territories. It has acquired much of Manchuria and props up the Qings who rule the rest of Manchuria and parts of northern and western China. After the recent defeat, Russia had an attempted revolution which was ended when Tsar Peter IV granted the formation of a Duma and elections from across Russia. It remains unclear how much authority the Duma will have, with the Tsar seeking to govern mostly through a Cabinet of ministers who report to him rather than to the Duma.

    * * *

    In SCANDINAVIA, the two kingdoms of SWEDEN and DENMARK have become increasingly close since Germany acquired Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. Both powers have proclaimed neutrality from most world affairs, and were the only major powers in Europe to remain neutral during the Second Napoleonic Wars. There have been calls in both kingdoms for the formation of a united nation of Scandinavia, but this has not yet come about despite close links including a royal marriage between the Danish Crown Prince and a Swedish princess.

    * * *

    [1] The increased Australian population is the result of overall higher levels of immigration, but particularly the demographic boost of having a further generation of rapid population growth with an earlier gold rush.

    * * *


    Kaiser Wilhelm III
    Matt and jjstraub4 like this.
  15. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    Decades of Darkness #91: Old Reliable

    “A diamond must be cut before it will shine. A nation needs trials before it can become great.â€
    -- Edward Mahan, during his 1888 American presidential campaign, explaining why he thought that the expense and bloodshed of the Third Mexican War had strengthened the USA.

    * * *

    The Presidential Elections of 1888
    From “The Atlas of American Political Historyâ€
    (c) 1946 By Karl Wundt
    Lone Pine Publishing Company
    Hammersford [OTL Salem, Oregon], Oregon State
    United States of America

    With the 1888 presidential elections, the American people had a choice between the “accidental president†and the hero of the Third Mexican War, conqueror of Mexico, whom his supporters nicknamed “Old Reliableâ€, although he was still in his early fifties during the campaign.

    David Richards had only become president due to the much-lamented death of Thomas Corbin, and for a time it was uncertain if he would be renominated. He was famous mainly for owning a sugar plantation at the southern extremity of Louisiana that produced some of America’s finest rum, and throwing elaborate parties even by the generous standards of nineteenth-century planters. He did not deliver particularly ornate speeches, nor did his old money background necessarily appeal to the diverse Patriot constituency. Yet the Patriots eventually nominated him, partly for his incumbency, and partly because it was believed that he might have success in carrying some of the cotton states. For the same reason, they chose as vice-presidential candidate the much more gifted speaker Senator Charles Ramsey of North Carolina, hoping that his substantial personal following would deliver that key state.

    Opposing the sitting president was the Democrat candidate Edward Mahan, still popularly referred to as “General†although he resigned his commission before beginning his campaign. Mahan had a strong record as a military man. The son of Dennis Mahan, a professor at Wilkinson Military Academy, the younger Mahan grew up living and breathing war. He served in the Second Mexican War, rising to the rank of major before that war’s end, and he rose rapidly through the army to become one of America’s most distinguished generals even before the Third Mexican War began. Although born in Ohio, Mahan lived in Virginia, where he owned a small tobacco plantation, and he proved popular in that state. For a vice-presidential candidate, Mahan secured the young and fiery Lewis Mitchell of Westylvania, who would only turn 35 four days before the election date, and thus sought to deliver a state which had voted Patriot for more than two generations.

    Yet for all the disparity between their public profiles, the final election result would be much closer than most people expected. Mahan’s record as a war hero provoked mixed responses, for many people felt that the struggle against the Mexican guerrillas should have been won sooner, particularly with some fresh guerrilla actions right before the election, which suggested that the war was in fact not over...

    Popular Votes Electoral Votes
    State Richards Mahan Richards Mahan
    Alabama 37,987 52,458 0 11
    Arkansas 23,097 37,684 0 7
    Chihuahua 12,910 8,972 4 0
    Coahuila 26,182 21,416 6 0
    Colorado 19,718 11,091 4 0
    Delaware 14,193 7,312 3 0
    E. Cuba 20,454 30,713 0 7
    E. Florida 10,029 14,715 0 4
    E. Texas 48,023 42,586 9 0
    Georgia 51,213 108,821 0 17
    Honduras 10,009 12,234 0 6
    Idaho 9,588 3,916 3 0
    Illinois 103,212 68,808 14 0
    Indiana 89,054 75,648 13 0
    Iowa 80,419 55,884 11 0
    Jackson 4,999 10,150 0 3
    Jefferson 41,829 43,681 0 9
    Kansas 58,790 44,350 10 0
    Kentucky 106,533 110,856 0 19
    Louisiana 37,373 34,493 9 0
    Maryland 70,350 55,275 11 0
    Mississippi 26,905 43,897 0 9
    Missouri 89,328 79,215 15 0
    Nebraska 60,154 38,459 9 0
    Nevada 9,962 4,688 3 0
    New Leon 17,264 25,895 0 8
    New Mexico 17,487 12,152 3 0
    Nicaragua 13,731 16,782 0 8
    N. California 100,915 47,489 13 0
    N. Carolina 80,911 85,408 0 17
    N. Durango 9,693 11,379 0 4
    Ohio 270,377 249,579 39 0
    Oregon 33,755 20,688 3 0
    Pennsylvania 229,017 220,030 34 0
    Potosi 10,740 12,608 0 3
    Puerto Rico 12,615 18,923 0 8
    Sinaloa 12,373 11,429 4 0
    Sonora 9,666 7,292 3 0
    S. Carolina 25,948 55,092 0 11
    S. Durango 9,665 8,922 5 0
    Tamaulipas 18,622 27,932 0 7
    Tennessee 108,352 127,196 0 21
    Veracruz 13,313 16,271 0 7
    Virginia 129,917 152,524 0 26
    Washington 43,277 59,764 0 10
    W. Cuba 31,049 50,659 0 13
    W. Florida 29,198 68,130 0 11
    W. Texas 10,039 7,888 3 0
    Westylvania 96,991 101,086 0 16
    Wilkinson 49,315 28,963 7 0
    Wyoming 13,805 6,800 3 0
    Yucatan 7,874 12,315 0 8
    Zacatecas 7,347 8,284 0 3
    Total 2,475,565 2,488,803 241 273

    In the aftermath of the election, it transpired that three states had been crucial: Kentucky, Westylvania and North Carolina. Mahan successfully carried all three, albeit narrowly. Kentucky returned to the Democrats now that it was no longer electing “Old Tom Silverâ€. The capture of Westylvania marked the end of the “Free Trio†as voting consistently Patriot – although Ohio was no longer a free soil state in any event – and the low victory margins for the Patriots in Ohio and Pennsylvania were also quite ominous for them. Ramsey could not quite capture North Carolina for the Patriots, despite a good showing, and thus Edward Mahan became the 17th President of the United States...

    * * *

    4 April 1889,
    New White House
    Columbia City, Federal District
    United States of America

    “Sir, Mr Clay has arrived,†the secretary said.

    “Let him wait, oh, ten minutes, then send him in,†President Mahan said. He had been looking forward to this meeting with Brutus Clay since the day his election was confirmed. And, in truth, several years before that. But he could afford to wait a couple more minutes. Let this be Clay’s first reminder that while he was a powerful man, he was not the most important man in America.

    Mahan spent the next few minutes skimming through the reports on railroad pricing, factory placements, and other related matters. He didn’t really need to read the papers; he had the relevant information stored safely in his head by now. But he believed in being ready, in politics as much as in war.

    After a few minutes, his secretary ushered Clay into the room. “Congratulations on your election, Mr President,†Clay said, extending his hand.

    Mahan shook it, and invited Clay to take a seat.

    Clay said, “You ran a particularly effective campaign, if I may say so. How did you put it...? “Let us remember both the dollar and the gun, the dollar that any man may grow wealthy, and the gun so that no man or nation can steal our wealth from usâ€.â€

    Mahan nodded. Clay could be pleasant enough, even affable, when he thought he was getting his way. Hence the praise, which was only a prelude for Clay to give voice to his own agenda for continued corporate business dominance. Clay’s expectation of that was the main reason he had supported Mahan’s campaign.

    Well, Clay would soon be disappointed. Before he began his own campaign, he had taken careful note of what Gould had done, up in New England. Gould had been planning throughout the campaign to declare war on France, but he had never mentioned it until after his inauguration. Mahan had his own plans for a different kind of war before the election, and made sure they did not leak out.

    Mahan said, “My main goal as President is to ensure that America remains wealthy and strong. And this means I must take steps to ensure the success of American commerce.â€

    That last phrase he had repeated over and over during the campaign. Yet he had not meant quite what many people had assumed by it. The Jaguars had a useful phrase which Mahan had picked up in Mexico: hiding in plain sight. Now Mahan got to reveal what he meant by it. “And the most important way to do that is to ensure that no single entity can dominate an industry, since if they do so, they can exclude the commerce of others.â€

    The grin on Clay’s face vanished.

    Mahan said, “Therefore, one of my first actions will be to appoint a commission to investigate pricing policies, monopolies, and the other practices of those individuals and trusts which are endangering the free pursuit of commerce. The first thing I want this commission to investigate will be the railroad industry.†And the only industry, at least that Mahan had planned for now.

    “How dare you?†Clay demanded. He half-rose out of his chair, but subsided again when Mahan raised an eyebrow. Wise of him.

    “Because the United States must be strong,†Mahan said. “It serves our commerce poorly to have railroads which the people cannot afford to travel on.†Which was true, but not the main reason Mahan had proposed this commission. He had never forgotten how Clay had dictated policy to President Corbin. This would be an object lesson, to those who had the wisdom to learn. The power of the government should always be greater than that of any individual, no matter how wealthy he was.

    “I have heard enough, Mr President,†Clay snapped. He rose and stormed out.

    Mahan chuckled, and spoke to the empty air. “You’ll hear more, if you try to bribe legislators to block this commission.†Mahan had not let the Mexicans defeat him, and he would not let Clay beat him either. This was a different kind of war, one fought with words and lawyers instead of bullets, but Mahan was ready for it.

    * * *

    Population Data for the United States: 1890
    Taken From “The United States In Expansion, 1850-1950: A Century of Triumphâ€
    (c) 1952 By Harold Wittgenstein
    Columbia Press: Columbia [OTL Knoxville, Tennessee]

    State Slave[1] Non.[2] Ind. White Total
    Alabama 526,970 47,028 0 873,562 1,447,561
    Arkansas 265,460 338 0 475,607 741,405
    Chihuahua 36,428 53,835 93,050 210,056 393,368
    Coahuila 153,304 33,943 16,766 380,783 584,796
    Colorado 4,698 19,118 4,673 456,474 484,963
    Delaware 4,046 4,286 0 175,273 183,605
    E. Cuba 249,196 14,489 0 409,333 673,019
    E. Florida 93,878 92 0 193,623 287,593
    E. Texas 233,414 1,481 0 729,012 963,907
    Georgia 798,990 11,773 0 1,252,264 2,063,027
    Honduras 32,838 364,680 0 182,947 580,464
    Idaho 3,539 22 0 110,620 114,181
    Illinois 48,170 53,315 0 1,446,162 1,547,647
    Indiana 43,875 51,887 0 1,379,615 1,475,377
    Iowa 25,981 7,094 0 1,150,428 1,183,503
    Jackson 92,776 6,116 0 136,195 235,087
    Jefferson 202,406 7,462 0 794,084 1,003,953
    Kansas 195,190 66,745 0 1,025,122 1,287,057
    Kentucky 392,330 53,983 0 1,701,068 2,147,381
    Louisiana 355,062 56 0 617,349 972,467
    Maryland 146,611 33,271 0 983,020 1,162,902
    Mississippi 483,616 367 0 554,026 1,038,009
    Missouri 270,828 1,025 0 1,407,516 1,679,369
    Nebraska 14,842 55,269 0 1,188,903 1,259,014
    New Leon 227,780 75,877 181,536 370,272 855,464
    New Mexico 24,356 24,049 22,858 229,688 300,951
    Nevada 15,956 6,882 5,766 107,573 136,178
    Nicaragua 206,840 423,718 0 238,764 869,322
    N. California 121,415 17,998 18,625 1,299,237 1,457,276
    N. Carolina 583,289 5,979 0 1,301,442 1,890,709
    N. Durango 161,293 5,326 6,348 181,577 354,544
    Ohio 6,238 59,127 0 3,977,660 4,043,025
    Oregon 10,610 4,876 0 365,029 380,515
    Pennsylvania 6,407 32,292 0 3,356,625 3,395,324
    Potosi 56,049 347,565 171,573 182,801 757,988
    Puerto Rico 320,529 387,168 0 246,782 954,479
    Sinaloa 28,551 111,375 58,470 240,411 438,807
    Sonora 19,996 31,022 63,723 160,660 275,402
    S. Carolina 680,157 336 0 634,139 1,314,633
    S. Durango 135,232 111,950 66,233 168,697 482,111
    Tamaulipas 326,063 45,360 86,338 384,431 842,192
    Tennessee 436,906 55,650 0 1,843,168 2,335,724
    Veracruz 66,052 349,674 165,886 256,667 838,279
    Virginia 763,927 26,635 0 2,210,096 3,000,657
    Washington 237,488 443 0 806,300 1,044,231
    W. Cuba 662,783 237,465 0 639,363 1,539,611
    W. Florida 514,459 7,528 0 761,593 1,283,579
    W. Texas 82,230 17,821 1,407 143,420 244,877
    Westylvania 4,550 17,478 0 1,515,286 1,537,314
    Wilkinson 10,862 29,746 0 746,218 786,826
    Wyoming 1,677 240 0 102,913 104,830
    Yucatan 182,545 161,541 576,963 181,511 1,102,560
    Zacatecas 46,736 279,801 135,656 137,693 599,885
    Total 10,615,422 3,762,596 1,675,871 40,623,061 56,676,950

    Territory Slave[1] Non.[2] Ind. White Total
    Deseret 3,472 863 2,806 208,763 215,905
    El Salvador 2,186 473,944 125,895 140,698 742,723
    Guatemala 341 542,305 627,932 256,881 1,427,460
    Indian 25,468 882 82,695 238,559 347,604
    S. California 7,097 813 11,188 24,952 44,050
    Suriname 80,795 0 2,402 48,123 131,320
    Tobasco 27,149 62,029 29,920 56,103 175,201
    Total 146,508 1,080,835 882,840 974,080 3,084,263

    Caribbean Territory
    District Slave[1] Non.[2] Ind. White Total
    Aruba 3,495 521 1,202 1,119 6,337
    Bonaire 5,303 0 0 958 6,261
    Curacao 27,647 0 0 5,355 33,002
    Guadeloupe 125,379 0 0 148,955 274,334
    Guiana 0 3,286 1,564 40,082 44,932
    Martinique 64,793 0 0 36,251 101,044
    Saba 2,769 0 0 647 3,415
    Sint Eustatius 2,508 0 0 770 3,279
    Sint Maarten 3,701 0 0 1,007 4,709
    Tobago 37,404 0 0 4,943 42,348
    Trinidad 160,788 7,324 0 35,242 203,354
    Virgin Islands 67,716 0 0 35,204 102,920
    Total 501,504 11,131 2,765 310,534 825,935

    Mexican Region [3]
    Territory Slave[1] Non.[2] Ind. White Total
    Chiapas 0 140,928 71,745 43,560 256,233
    Guanajuato 0 637,092 324,338 196,919 1,158,349
    Guerrero 0 180,073 91,673 55,659 327,405
    Jalisco 0 783,081 398,659 242,043 1,423,783
    Mexico 0 991,444 504,735 306,446 1,802,626
    Michoacan 0 435,776 221,850 134,694 792,320
    Oaxaca 0 421,109 214,383 130,161 765,653
    Puebla 0 515,426 262,399 159,313 937,138
    Total 0 4,104,928 2,089,782 1,268,796 7,463,506

    Total USA 11,263,434 8,959,491 4,651,258 43,176,472 68,050,655

    * * *

    Population Data for New England: 1890
    Source: New England Bureau of Statistics

    State Black White Total
    Connecticut 9,760 982,963 992,723
    Hudson 17,509 3,184,682 3,202,190
    Long Island 26,679 2,526,480 2,553,160
    Maine 1,235 855,879 857,114
    Massachusetts 8,052 2,737,399 2,745,451
    Michigan 50,328 2,805,567 2,855,895
    New Brunswick 492 396,319 396,811
    New Hampshire 2,184 526,147 528,330
    New Jersey 37,113 1,532,121 1,569,234
    Niagara 13,208 2,407,497 2,420,706
    Nova Scotia 2,434 639,791 642,225
    Rhode Island 3,239 319,510 322,749
    Vermont 1,111 581,137 582,247
    Total 173,344 19,495,492 19,668,836

    * * *

    Population Data for Canada: 1890
    Source: New England Historical Archives, Hartford, Connecticut

    Province Population
    Alaska 40,829
    British Columbia 291,732
    Caroline 160,458
    Manitoba 296,519
    Northwest Terr. 55,591
    Ontario 2,849,457
    Quebec 1,680,620
    Wisconsin 3,057,698
    Total 8,432,903

    * * *

    Population Data for British North America: 1890
    Source: New England Historical Archives, Hartford, Connecticut

    Province Population
    Newfoundland 209,401
    Prince Edward Island 102,408
    Total 311,809

    * * *

    Selected Important Dates in North American History: 1881-1890
    Taken from “The Compleat Textbook Series: Early American Historyâ€
    By J. Edward Fowler (Principal Author)
    Sydney, Kingdom of Australia.
    (c) 1948 Eagle Publishing Company: Sydney. Used with permission


    Thomas Corbin (Kentucky), Patriot, inaugurated as the 15th President of the United States.

    Zacatecas admitted as the 47th state in the Union.

    Dedication of the Colossus of New York (14 July), in New England.

    United States declares war on Mexico (4 October), citing claimed acts of sabotage on the Mexico and Veracruz Railroad, beginning the Third Mexican War.

    U.S. Congress passes an act banning the importation of “persons in bondage†from Africa, although permitting the trade to continue with Brazil.

    Albion Weapons (located in Detroit, Michigan) begins to manufacture the first smokeless power repeating rifles, called Adams repeaters.

    “Leviathanâ€, the first of a new class of big-gunned mastlesss ironclad battleships, launched in Providence, Rhode Island, New England.


    United States proclaims annexation of all of Mexico, and places it under military occupation “until civil authority can be restoredâ€. Guerrilla resistance continues unabated.

    Potosi admitted as the 48th state in the Union.

    Oregon admitted as the 49th state in the Union.

    Ohio amends its constitution to permit slavery within its borders, although slaves have been present in some numbers before that year due to federal “right of transit†provisions.

    Ratification of the Sixth Amendment to the New England Constitution, granting male suffrage to all citizens, and thus abolishing religious and property qualifications for the franchise.

    Colt Holdings (of Hartford, Connecticut) begins the first commercial production of the Cromwell gun, a self-acting cylinder gun [4].

    “Howeâ€, the first Admiral-class battleship, launched in Portsmouth, UK [5].


    New Mexico admitted as the 50th state in the Union.

    United States separates Guatemala from Mexico and establishes it as Guatemala Territory.

    El Salvador annexed to United States at request of its government, and becomes El Salvador Territory.

    “West Texasâ€, an American equivalent to the New England Leviathan-class, launched in Baltimore.


    Nevada admitted as the 51st state in the Union [6].

    Wyoming admitted as the 52nd state in the Union [6].

    United States declares war on Uruguay in support of Brazilian alliance, and subsequently Argentina, Paraguay, and Charcas [Bolivia] after those nations declare war on Brazil.

    United States declares war on Spain according to its terms of alliance with Portugal, entering the Second Napoleonic Wars as a co-belligerent but not ally with Britain and Germany.

    New England entrepreneur and inventor William Lewis patents the first North American horst powered by an internal-combustion engine. (His design was independent of the first gasoline-powered internal-combustion horst developed in the Netherlands the previous year).


    Thomas Corbin (Kentucky), Patriot, re-elected as 15th President of the United States. David Richards (Louisiana), Patriot, elected as Vice-President.

    Stephen Jay Gould (Hudson), Federalist, inaugurated as 18th President of New England. Cornelius Montgomery (New Hampshire), Federalist, inaugurated as Vice-President.

    New England enters the Second Napoleonic Wars in Europe, declaring war on France, Spain, Russia, Italy, and Serbia.


    USA’s Mexican annexations are organised into the territories of Chiapas, Guanajuato [OTL Guanajuato and Querétaro de Arteaga], Guerrero, Jalisco [OTL Aguascalientes, Colima, Jalisco and Nayarit], Mexico [OTL Federal District, Hidalgo, Mexico and Morelos], Michoacan, Oaxaca, and Puebla [OTL Puebla and Tlaxcala] [7]. Some parts of these territories, particularly much of Guerrero, remain under military occupation due to continuing guerrilla resistance.

    “Poseidonâ€, the first of a new class of New England battleships, launched in New York. This class had a higher freeboard, greater speed and was much more seaworthy than the preceding classes of ships [8].


    U.S. President Thomas Corbin dies from a heart attack (3 May). David Richard becomes the 16th President of the United States.

    “Redoubtableâ€, the first of a new British class of battleships, is launched in Pembroke, UK. Redoubtable is the first battleship to have its guns mounted in turrets rather than barbettes, an innovation copied on later ships of the Poseidon class [9].

    “Nebraskaâ€, the first of a new class of American battleships, is launched in Charleston, South Carolina. Unlike most previous classes of American battleships, the Nebraska is a novel design rather than an imitation of New England ships, with three independently-mounted turret main guns rather than the paired guns of New England and British shipbuilding. The Nebraska class was also the first major warship class to be fitted with water-tube boilers [10].


    Third Mexican War declared over after the death of the last major resistance leader, General Jose Juarez, although scattered guerrilla activity continues.

    Idaho admitted as the 53rd state in the Union [6].

    U.S. presidential elections see former General Edward Mahan (Virginia), Democrat, defeat sitting President David Richards.


    Edward Mahan (Virginia), Democrat, inaugurated as the 17th President of the United States. Lewis Mitchell (Westylvania), Democrat, inaugurated as Vice-President.


    New England Congress approves a proposed constitutional amendment (which would become the Seventh Amendment if successful), granting universal suffrage to all men and women, regardless of race. Michigan and Long Island ratify the amendment the same year, but it is defeated in Massachusetts, Maine, and New Brunswick.

    * * *

    [1] The figure for slaves is sometimes inaccurate, particularly in the northern-tier states such as Maryland and Delaware, who tend to mark some of the de facto free blacks as slaves, or just discount them from the census altogether. Legally, of course, blacks cannot be classed as free, although some still have de facto freedom in 1890.

    [2] Non-citizens, which includes peons, debt-slaves, and others not classified.

    [3] The population figures for the Mexican region, i.e. the rump state of Mexico annexed after the Third Mexican War, are not always considered to be reliable. For example, it is recognised that there were slaves within the region by 1890 (albeit quite few), but none of them were recorded on the census.

    [4] The Cromwell gun is similar to OTL’s Maxim gun.

    [5] This class of ships is somewhat superior to the OTL Victoria-class ships, not the OTL Admiral class, using triple-expansion engines.

    [6] Nevada and Wyoming (in 1884) and Idaho (in 1888) were admitted as states despite extremely low populations, with only a few weeks before rolls closed for the 1884 and 1888 presidential and congressional elections. This formed one of the USA’s more blatant cases of gerrymandering, according to the Democrats, and a partial compensation for the larger number of small states in the Democrat-dominated parts of the USA, according to the Patriots.

    [7] These states were combined because President Corbin, unlike most U.S. Presidents, cared very little as to whether he added more stars to the flag, and because without some mergers the smaller states would not have a sufficient ‘white’ population.

    [8] This ship is similar to the British Royal Sovereign-class battleships of OTL, although with somewhat inferior gunnery.

    [9] The Redoubtable is roughly equivalent to HMS Hood of OTL (the Royal Sovereign-class ship, not the later Admiral-class battlecruiser of the same name), although with marginally superior engines. Some of the later ships of this class will be partially oil-fired.

    [10] The Nebraska-class is roughly equivalent to the French Brennus, although it retained a third turret where the French vessel did not.

    * * *


    Kaiser Wilhelm III
    Matt likes this.
  16. Chrispi Byzantine Logothete

    Feb 11, 2004
    Constantinople, Capital of the World
    What happens to New Zealand in Decades of Darkness? Do the Brits or the Americans take it? Is it an independent Maori confederacy? :confused:
  17. Bill Cameron Banned

    Oct 8, 2004

    Superb as always. Thank you.

    Is there any chance of this all being knitted together into a single document?

    One extremely tiny quibble:

    Providence isn't the best of harbors. It is narrow, runs almost directly south to north, and it requires continual dredging. The size of vessels it can handle due to these physcial constraints is somewhat limited and that put a kink in Providence's old role in the oceanic shipping trade(1) quite early on in the 1800s. Clippers even had trouble docking there for example.

    I'd build Leviathan in Brooklyn, Boston, and even Portsmouth before I'd build her in Providence proper. If you have a need to place that vessel in Rhode Island for som reason, build her further down Narragansett Bay at Quonset, Jamestown, or Newport.

    Providence does handle a fair bit of coastwise shipping trade and some of the smaller oceanic traffic, but those larger vessel docking in Rhode Island do so much further down the Bay. Quonset is a RO/RO port for auto imports.

    During both world wars, merchantmen were mass produced at Providence. However, an unladen freighter is a much different animal than a 1880s turreted battleship.

    BTW, I grew up in Rhode Island.

    Thanks again for sharing your excellent work.


    1 - Providence had been one of the 'points' in the slavery triangle trade.

    edited 'cause I forgot the postscript!
  18. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    New Zealand is part of Australia in this TL, joining with them in *Federation in 1882. This was proposed OTL, and was widely assumed to be likely, although for various reasons they didn't end up joining. (Mostly to do with not enough perceived economic benefits and that it wouldn't strengthen Imperial unity). In this TL, with greater economic union between them earlier, they joined. And, in time, will have a truly stunning combined rugby team.

    Kaiser Wilhelm III
  19. Jared first one to PM me gets a bonus chapter of LoRaG

    Mar 9, 2004
    Kingdom of Australia
    It already is, on the website there's a link in the text on the main page (near the bottom) which has a single rich text document. This won't contain the last couple of posts yet, but it has all the older ones. I'm redoing the website tonight anyway (my last fix on the display problems didn't work, I'll try something else) and I'll post an updated version of the text document, and a new map of the world post-1885.

    Ah, I've had most of the big naval vessels produced in New York and Boston to date, but I thought the contracts would be placed in various states (every senator gets their own form of pork-barelling, after all). But I just realised I've overlooked something rather glaring: Halifax, Nova Scotia will be a major shipbuilding centre. I'll move it to having been built there. Some of the later ships may be built in RI, and it sounds like Quonset would be the best choice out of those options.

    Kaiser Wilhelm III
    Matt likes this.
  20. Bill Cameron Banned

    Oct 8, 2004


    Drat! How'd I miss that?!? Time for glasses I suspect... :(

    Ah, I see you are a realist! ;) Rhody's pieces of pork could then be those she enjoyed in the OTL; the Naval War College, various navy bases (vessels, aircraft, seabees, etc.), and a few specialized outfits like the Torpedo Works.

    D'oh! I keep forgetting that the Maritimes are part of New England in DoD.