Austria: Never Forget Thy Past

The Interregnum and Restoration
(November 11, 1918 - March 1, 1920)


November 11, 1918
Karl I, Emperor of Austria, formally abdicates in Austria. He chooses the words in his address releasing his government officials carefully, stating that the Austrian people have a right to decide their own fate. Monarchists and other supporters of the Emperor protest his abdication in the streets for days.

January 3, 1919
Protests calling for the restoration strengthen as it becomes apparent that negotiations between the Allies, specifically Italy, and German Austria are completely tipped toward Italy.

September 10, 1919
The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, besides requiring Austria to pay war reparations, Austria loses large amounts of land to Italy, the loss of South Tirol enrages the Emperor's supporters in both Austria and South Tirol.

September 11, 1919
Full blown riots breakout in Vienna, Innsbruck, Graz, Linz, Salzburg, and most cities in South Tirol calling for reunification of Austria and South Tirol, as the Archduchy of Austria under a constitutional Habsburg Monarchy.

September 13, 1919
The Italian Embassy in Vienna is bombed. No one is killed, and only 3 are injuried with minor wounds(the bomb was poorly placed and defective). Italy withdraws diplomatic relations with Austria.

September 16, 1919
Italian troops trying to occupy South Tirol meet riots and in some places armed resistance. Nearly 75 people die with in the next week as a result of defying the Italians.

October 1, 1919
The Government of the Republic of Austria announces it will hold a nation wide plebsicite as to the direction of Austria's future in 1 month's time.

November 1, 1919
In Austria the plebiscite is held. In South Tirol, violence against the Italian forces grows, in response the Italians impose martial law and a series of violent acts, against often innocent Tirolians, occurs carried out by members of the Italian Army.

November 3, 1919
The plebiscite overwhelming ends up being a show of support for the Monarchist cause, the Republican government is forced to invite Emperor Karl back. In South Tirol, an agreement is reached by Austrian Nationalists and Italian delegates to end the violence. Areas of South Tirol will with in 6 months hold plebiscites as to whether they wish to remain part of Italy or reunite with Austria. Both these announcements are joyously recieved by the former Emperor, now living in Switzerland.

November 11, 1919
Emperor Karl returns to Vienna. He has been asked to lead a constitutional committee that will draw up a constitution for the new Constitutional Monarchy of the Archduchy of Austria. Preparations for his coronation as Archduke begin.

December 25, 1919
Karl is coronated Karl IV, Archduke of Austria, on Christmas Day in Saint Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna. The traditional Crown of Rudolph II is used instead of the Archducal Hat.

January 27, 1920
The plebiscite in South Tirol is held with the world watching. As expected most of South Tirol votes to reunite with Austria. Italian speaking areas, like around Trentino, vote to remain in Italy. To many's surprise Italy does not contest the results.

March 1, 1920
Austria and South Tirol are formally reunited.
 
The Year of Referendums
(March 3, 1920 - December 25, 1920)


March 3, 1920
The United States, France, Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, and Czechoslovakia recognize the Archduchy of Austria as the legal successor to the Republic of Austria and Karl IV as its legal Head of State. They further recognize South Tirol as a core Austrian territory. Notiably Yugoslavia and Hungary do not recognize the new government. On the same day Pope Benedict XV also gives his blessing to the Archduke.

March 23, 1920
Miklós Horthy declares that until Burgenland is returned to Hungary, Hungary is a Monarchy with no one on the throne. He had hoped to trick Karl IV into trying to claim the Hungarian throne by ceeding Burgenland back to Hungary, only for the Hungarians to reject him. His plan fails, Karl and the Allies ignore this statement.

March 27, 1920
The Constitutional Committee chaired by the Archduke begin meeting in Vienna.

March 29, 1920
Italy reestablishes diplomatic relations with Austria under mounting pressure from Britain and France.

May 16, 1920
Joan of Arc is canonised in Rome by Pope Benedict XV. Karl IV and his family travel to Rome to personally attend the ceremony, as a gesture of friendship and respect to the French people. It works, in the coming years, the Imperial Austrian Family will increasingly become some what of romantic icons in France with Archduchess Zita being an icon of fashion for decades to come.

June 22, 1920
Major fighting resumes between the Greeks and Turks in Asia Minor.

July 7, 1920
Calls for reunification with Austria quietly restart in German Bohemia. Germans constituted 1/3 of the population in Bohemia, and many feel that while their rights were suppose to be guaranteed, the national government was actively discriminating against them.

August 3, 1920
Karl IV announces the constitution for Austria has been finished, and promises to hold a referendum in 2 months for the general population to ratify it. The constitution is largely based on both the British and American systems of government, with a legislature designed after that of Britain, while giving the Monarch power similar to, how ever not as extensive as the American President. The Head of Government is titled Kanzler, and is largely charged with domestic governance, while the Monarch oversees Foreign relations, has the right to veto legislation he feels is not in the best interest of his people, however in actuality the bill just goes back to the Legislature requiring a 2/3's majority to supercede the Monarch, and allowing members of the Archducal Family limited participation in National politics, subject to the Legislature. A special post known simply as the Foreign Liaison is called for to ensure that the interests of the Legislature and Monarchy do not come into conflict. The document also gives women the right to vote and hold public office.

October 1, 1920
The Constitutional Referendum takes place under Allied observance.

October 3, 1920
The Constitution for the Archduchy of Austria is approved by a very large margin in all of the Crownlands(Austrian States, name taken from regions of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire).

October 4, 1920
The Allies and League of Nations accept the new Austrian Constitution.

October 10, 1920
The Carinthian Plebiscite takes place. Carinthia, although dominated in many parts by Slovenes, votes to join with Austria. Yugoslavia in no way happy about the results contesting them even though these demands are ignored by the League of Nations as the plebiscite is ruled to have been fair. Relations between Austria and the Kingdom of the Southern Slavs worsens.

November 2, 1920
Warren G. Harding is elected President of the United States. This signals the beginning of relatively isolationist policies by the American Government for the next decade or so.

December 5, 1920
Constantine I of Greece is reinstated by popular vote to the chagrin of France and Great Britain. The Greek Army nears Ankara.

December 25, 1920
Karl IV, with the support of the National Diet(the legislature), creates his styling. He styles himself His Imperial Highness, and well as comissioning the creation of a standard for Austria(see the first post). The Nation Diet symbolically accepts both these things on Christmas Day, the one year anniversary of Karl's coronation.


Questions? Comments? Concerns?
Also, that quote by Churchill is obviously ITTL, and I'm looking for more like it if anyone would like to propose one or two. They either need to be about TTL Austria or from some famous ITL Austrian and can be about anything you think might happen. Post them or send them to me if you like, if I like any I'll throw them in somewhere and give you credit of course. If not I can always just come of with them myself :D
 
No, Czechoslovakia is a republic, Hungary is a Monarchy with no one on the throne, thus a dictatorship, and most of the other Slavic lands are in Yugoslavia. I started a TL like a week ago with a surviving Habsburg Monarchy Confederation thing, but no one seemed to like it so I gave up.
 
No, Czechoslovakia is a republic, Hungary is a Monarchy with no one on the throne, thus a dictatorship, and most of the other Slavic lands are in Yugoslavia. I started a TL like a week ago with a surviving Habsburg Monarchy Confederation thing, but no one seemed to like it so I gave up.
I am referring to the lands still under Habsburg rule.
 
I must be misunderstanding you, as I'm not sure what you're getting at, the only lands the Habsburg's have is the Archduchy of Austria.
 
I like this TL. Please do continue.

Question on Carinthia: is the OTL Austrian State of Carinthia, or is it that plus the OTL Slovene province of Carinthia (aka, the old Duchy)?
 
Top