This is a map showing the geo-political state of affairs at the later end of my Romanian Althist. I call it the 'Byzantine Butterfly' due to the rule I've set concerning butterfly emanation from a surviving Roman Empire. The main areas of Roman butterfly effects are in two 'wings' extending across East and Central Europe and the Middle East and adjacent regions of Africa. Beyond this butterfly effects fade. The POD is back in 1169 where Bela-Alexios of Hungary becomes official heir to Manuel Komnenos, doesn't really matter how, only that Bela 1) Supports Manuel by turning the Battle of Myriokephalon in Roman favour in 1176 and 2) Reigns from 1180 to 1196. During his reign he eliminates the Seljuk of Rum and the Danishmends, vassalises Armenia and arranges a marriage alliance between Tamar of Georgia and his brother Geza. He establishes suzerainty over the Kingdom of Jerusalem after defending it from Saladin and subsequent Emperors increase influence over the Crusader States in the Levant and Egypt, gradually albeit not so smoothly, incorporating them into the Empire. Now for a rundown of some key events on this this vague timeline up to 1900. In the intervening centuries all kinds of intrigues and challenges occur including Mongols, Timurids, Mamluks and Cossacks. Egypt, following it's annexation in 1291 is torn apart by a series of violent Mamluk rebellions, inflaming tensions between the Muslim majority and the Coptic minority under Roman protection. The Coptic Kingdom of Makuria becomes influential in Egyptian affairs as an ally with mutual interests to the Romans. The Romans embroil themselves in Italy and the Mediterranean starting in the 1500's, ostensibly to combat Barbary pirates but soon the Papacy wish for them to be booted out. The Cossack Hetmanate drives back the Golden Horde on the Steppe with Roman, Polish and Russian support but respectively conflicting aims serve to upset a delicate balance through the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the rapid crumbling of the Timurid Empire after Timur's death, Romania and Safavid Persia effectively split his conquests between them. Initially co-operative at first, they became rivals and fought violently over the Caucasus and Mesopotamia. Later their struggle extended to the Indian Ocean where the two powers wanted to hijack the Portuguese trade networks in the Arabian Sea. Ultimately Romania overpowered Persia and seized all it's possessions in India and Isle of Hormuz. In the 19th century Romania had to suffer the final loss of her Italian territories at the hands of Napoleon who then had to be repelled from the Adriatic Coast and Egypt. By this time Hungary has been long independent of Romania but generally aligned with it, having split Croatia between them. At the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Croatia was allowed to form all be it with Hungary being permitted military access. In Africa, beginning in the 1880's, the Scramble was in earnest and Romania had to define her long standing region of influence in Northeast Africa from Libya, through Egypt, down the Nile to Eirenia and Somalia. The Suez canal was built by the Anglo-French and Roman Company (AFRC) and opened only recently. France renounces it's claim over Madagascar in exchange for a place on the strategically important project. After 1900, things are going to get complicated. You can feasibly make major changes to pre-modern history and be safe in the knowledge that further away in the world things could be as they were to an extent until 1900. Then, as history becomes faster paced and globalised you've got a whole checklist of prerequisites to look over before you can predict how certain events pan out. Anyway here is the Roman Empire in 1900.