1500-1550. A changing world 1498 The Infant Miguel de la Paz de Avis y Trastámara son of Manuel "o Venturoso" of Portugal and Isabel of Castile is born in Saragossa. 1500 POD The Prince Miguel of Castile, Aragon and Portugal recovers from an illness in Granada. (IOTL he died). The treaty of Granada between France and Castile-Aragon divides Italy between France that gets Milan and half of Naples and Aragon that gets Sicily and half of Naples. 1502-1503 Spanish victory over France in Naples, all of Naples goes to Castile-Aragon. The treaty of Blois in 1505 will acknowledge the Spanish sovereignty over Naples. 1506 Isabel of Castile manages to survive a bit more than IOTL, but she finally dies. Miguel becomes King of Castile under the regency of Cardinal Cisneros and heir to his grandparents Fernando of Aragon and Manuel of Portugal. 1508 Several North African outposts are captured by the Castilians and Portuguese around Melilla and the Moroccan Atlantic Coast. 1510 Disaster of Djerba. 1511 Creation of the Holy League formed by Castile-Aragon, the Holy See, Venice and England against France. 1512 Fernando of Aragon concerned about the possibility of Navarre's siding with France opening Castille and Aragon to an invasion decides to strike first and invades Navarre claiming the throne for his grandson and heir Miguel. The Burgos laws are proclaimed in order to protect the natives of the West Indies. 1515 Incorporation of Navarre to the Crown of Castile. 1516 Ferdinand of Aragon dies and Miguel is crowned King of Aragon. Quen Catherine of England, wife of Henry VIII, gives birth to her daughter Mary. 1519 Emperor Maximilian dies and Charles of Hapsburg, Francis of France, Henry of England and Frederick of Saxony dispute the Imperial throne. The electors are not willing to choose the French who has Papal support nor the English candidates, too powerful for their tastes, they cannot choose Charles as he is vetoed by Francis so they choose John Frederick of Saxony as Holy Roman Emperor. 1520 Martin Luther is excommunicated. Emperor John Frederick faces excommunication by protecting him, the Pope and the French King meet near Avignon to discuss the issue. 1521 Manuel "O Venturoso" of Portugal dies and Miguel is crowned King of Portugal. Hernán Cortés conquers the Mexica Empire. Miguel I of Spain (Castile, Aragon, Portugal and Navarre) leads an army that attacks Oran and Mostaganem. They manage to take the whole area but a counter-attack by the bey of Tlemcen puts the Spanish king in a difficult situation. Anabaptist revolts in Zwickau. The Ottomans take Beograd. Publication of the Defence of the Seven Sacraments by Henry VIII. 1522 The Ottomans take Rhodes. Juan Sebastian Elcano circumnavigates the Globe. Miguel I manages to defeat Muslim forces and keeps Oran and surrounding territories. Francis I is preparing war against the Empire but he need Spanish neutrality and he offers in exchange of it, recognition over the Spanish sovereignty over Basse Navarre, Rousillon and Naples. That same year Miguel marries Elisabeth of Jagellon. Charles of Hapsburg is offered the Imperial throne by the French King and the Pope. 1524 The Peasant’s war starts in Swabia, Franconia and Thuringia. France claims Newfoundland. Charles of Hapsburg claims the Imperial throne with the help of the Pope and the King of France. The Emperor answers by creating the Magdeburg League with the Lutheran Electors and Princes. 1525 Miguel decides to resume the African crusade and attacks again Oran, Algiers and Tunis that fall to his forces. The ottomans are a bit busy planning their new campaigns. Tunis will be ceded to the knights of St. John that will be known from now on as the Knights of Tunis. Battle of Trier in which a French Army defeats the forces of the Emperor. John Frederick meets Ottoman envoyees and signs an Alliance with the Ottoman Empire against France, the Papacy and the Hapsburg House. The Emperor converts to the Reformed Faith and declares the Lutheran Christianity as the only faith of his domains. The Peasant rebels join him merrily and start a terrible persecution of Catholics, Calvinists and Anabaptists. 1526 The Ottomans under Suleiman direct command conquer most of Hungary. Another army besieges Tunis but it is rejected by the knights of St. John. Birth of Infant Miguel the first son of King Miguel I. England and Spain join the Holy League against the Emperor. 1527 Philip of Hapsburg is born (same name as IOTL, but different person). 1529 The Ottomans of Suleiman besiege Vienna. The League forces heading north into Saxony are unable to react and Vienna is finally taken by the Ottomans after a siege of six months. Birth of Princess Juana. 1531 Fearing the defection of English forces in a critical situation Pope Clement VII agrees to the petition of Henry VIII and gives him an Act of Nullity for his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. Relationship between Papacy and England on one side and Spain on the other freezes. Miguel I does not abandon the League but his forces are relocated from the Tyrol to the Mediterranean and in the Iberian Peninsula where a Moorish rebellion has started to the south of Granada. The Ottomans take advantage of the situation and attack Munich. They fail to take the town, but most of Bayern is sacked and William IV of Baviera is killed in battle. 1532 The Holy League army defeats near Munich Suleiman’s army and pursues it to the gates of Vienna. Unfortunately they are unable of retaking the town and have to retire to Innsbruck. Imperial forces defeat a small French army in the Second battle of Trier, but they are unable of taking advantage of the victory and French forces push them back to the north. Birth of infant Fernando. 1533 The Moorish rebellion is put down and most of the Spanish Islamic population is forced to conversion or to move to the recently acquired territories in North Africa. 1535 Francisco Pizarro takes the Incan Empire for Spain. By the Laws of Wales act Henry VIII unites Wales and England. The Spanish navy defeats the Ottoman’s in a naval battle by Cyprus recovering the island of Rhodes and the Cycladic Archipelago. 1536 Henry VIII orders Anne Boleyn’s death. The Pope allows him to marry again on the condition of sending a catholic army to northern Germany. The northern part of Flanders rebels against Charles of Hapsburg. The Bavarian territories are claimed by the Hapsburg and France and the Papacy agree to it. Foundation of Buenos Aires. 1539 Caught between an English army in the north, French forces from the west and Hapsburg forces from the South, Emperor John Frederick agrees to hold Peace talks. John Frederick of Saxony, Charles of Hapsburg, Francis of France and Henry of England meet with Papal delegates in Strasbourg. Both sides are exhausted and the threat of the Ottomans makes the Hapsburg delegation to seek for a peaceful solution. Henry of England is also concerned about the situation in the British Isles as a Danish army could land in Scotland in order to help the Reformed Church there. The Empire is divided between two Caesars: the Holy Roman Empire under Charles leading the catholic Electors and the Lutheran Roman Empire under John Frederick leading the Lutheran and other Reformed princes. 1541 The Laws of Indians are proclaimed by Miguel I in order to protect the American natives, the ideas of the School of Salamanca can be clearly distinguished in them although the pressure of the colonists makes the king to allow the trade of African slaves to the American possessions. 1542 An ecumenical council is held in Bologna, however the differences between Catholics are impossible to overcome. Henry VIII, suffering from massive economic problems, tries to seize ecclesial properties. The Pope in a better situation threatens to excommunicate him, but to no effect. 1543 The Statute in Restraint of Appeals and the Act of Succession are approved by Henry VIII. The king is excommunicated. The Pope threats with a crusade against Henry VIII, but he answers beheading five Catholic bishops and confiscating all the properties of the church. Henry fortifies the English coasts. 1545 France, Spain, Savoy and the Papal States form the Restoration League against England. 1547 Death of Henry VIII 1549 Vienna is retaken briefly by Charles of Hapsburg, but he has to abandon it as a massive ottoman army approaches. The ottomans manage to advance deep into German territory. Charles proposes, John Frederick the creation of a League against the ottomans. 1550 The Pope blesses the Imperial league. The Spanish King proposes an Ecumenical Council to be held in order to unite Christendom. The French king becomes suspicious of Charles Hapsburgh real intentions and retreat forces from Germany and requires the Pope to start a crusade against the English heretics now that Henry VIII is dead.