[thread=32411]Discussion thread here[/thread] For the beginning an overview: Where and when Genghis (and his successors) changed history IOTL. 1205-09: Tangutes / Hsi-Hsia 1207: Southern Siberia 1209: Uighurs 1212: Kara-Kitai 1211-15: Northern China 1220: Iraqi Seljuks, slight influence on Georgia/Armenia 1219-25: Choresm 1223: Battle of Kalka - slight influence on Russian princedoms 1227: Hsi-Hsia destroyed 1231: Influence on Korea under the Goryeo Dynasty 1233/34: Strong influence on Northern China 1237: Volga Hungarians, Volga Bulgars defeated 1236-40: Strong influence on Russia except Novgorod 1239: Armenia since ~1240: Small changes (well, compared to the results of a Mongolian conquest) spread through Europe and Northern Africa. 1240/46: Influence on Tibet 1241/42: All of Eastern Europe - Teutonic Order, Drang nach Osten , Poland, Silesia, Moravia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria is influenced. 1243: Rum-Seljuks 1253: Kingdom of Dali in SW China 1255: Remains of Kerman-Seljuks 1256: Strong influence on Korea; Assassins destroyed 1258: Strong influence on Caliphate of Baghdad 1260-: Slight influence on Sultanate of Delhi and Egypt, strong influence on Syria (1258) 1268-79: Southern China 1274/81: No attack on Japan, no "divine wind" necessary 1283: Khmer Empire 1284/85 and 1287/88: Vietnam 1287: Pagan Empire in Burma 1290: No Expedition to Java 1337-52: No / delayed Black Death; influences all of Europe, Asia and Northern Africa. 1398 (OK, probably indirect changes will happen earlier here): Sultanate of Delhi America, Australia, and parts of Africa south of Sahara will stay unchanged until they're discovered by travelers from other continents. But I won't tell when that's going to happen. [post=533587]Read a story here...[/post] -- Note my experiment with the font colors: Red is for events that happened IOTL but not here, blue is for events that happened IOTL and ITTL, and black is for all events which happen differently ITTL. Ogadai against Jalal-ad-Din 1200: Temujin dies by an accident. Since his four sons (Jochi, Chagatai, Ogadai, and Tolui) are still too young (they're between 10 and 15 years old now), he has no clear successor. Enemies of Temujin, like his former friend and blood brother Jamukha Gurkhan, some of the clans and people he defeated and some people who're simply ambitious try to use the situation, and the people Temujin already united fall apart. Some of Temujin's "Dogs of war" (Subodai, Chilaun, Jelme and Borchu) and his family are still willing to fight to preserve his heritage, but for the beginning his dream has suffered a setback. The following years are filled by infighting between the various steppe tribes and people, with too many battles and changing alliances to mention them. (as OTL) Sultan Ala ad-Din Tekish of Choresm dies and is succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad. 1205: Ogadai, the most talented and charismatic of Temujin's sons, is old enough to fight by himself for his father's dream, but he still needs the support of his elder brothers and the supporters of his father. He'll never be able to be a ruler as strong as his father. (as OTL) Muhammad has conquered all of Great Seljuk and declared himself Shah. 1207: Jochi (who is suspected that Temujin isn't really his father) is killed by his brother(?) Chagatai. 1210: After Chagatai dies in a fight, Ogadai finally becomes the accepted Khan of the Mongols. Now he can continue the suspended work of his father to unite the steppe people. He'll take longer for that than his father and won't be 100% successful, though. 1212 (as OTL): Shah Muhammad defeats the Gur-Khan Kutluk and conquers the lands of the Kara Kitai, to whom the Choresmians once had to pay tribute. 1213: Ogadai defeats the Merkites. Now he plans to fight the Tatars who once killed his father's father, but the attacking Keraites force him to postpone the plan. To make things worse for him, the subjugated people often rebel because he makes them introduce the Mongols' Code of Law. 1216: Keraites defeated by Ogadai. Now he's ready to fight the Tatars. 1217/18 (as OTL): Shah Muhammad plans to attack the Caliphate of Baghdad, but too many of his soldiers die in a blizzard in the mountains, so he has to postpone the attack. 1221: After many bloody fights, the remaining Tatars join his horde. 1222: Shah Muhammad dies, is succeeded by his son Jalal-ad-Din. (OOC: There's not too much known about him; IOTL, he managed to save himself by jumping from a dangerously high place into a river after having lost against the Mongols; even Genghis is said to have been impressed by his courage, so I'm giving him the benefit of doubt and make him a courageous warrior ITTL.) Jalal-ad-Din reigns a great empire, consisting of today's Iran and all the -stans. However, this also means he has to care for various groups trying to rebel against him. Being a good warrior, he eventually succeeds and keeps the empire together. 1225: Naimans defeated. 1227: Uighurs defeated. Ogadai notes that they use writing, which the Mongols don't know yet. He thinks it would be a good idea to use this new knowledge. Since 1229: Ogadai starts writing down the Yassa, the old and new Laws of the Mongols. 1230: Jalal-ad-Din has consolidated his empire. 1230-32: Ogadai leads the united steppe people against the Tangutes / Hsi-Hsia. Their country is overrun, many of their villages burnt down and their people enslaved. The Mongols don't have the necessary technics to storm their cities, though. OTOH, they manage to capture the secret of gunpowder. Ogadai wants to take the cities by besieging them, but after two years the other Mongols think they have a) spent enough time here and b) there's not enough left to loot for the effort. So Ogadai leaves the country for a high tribute (mostly camels). The Hsi-Hsia empire has suffered extremely under the occupation, and won't recover from it. 1233: Jalal-ad-Din demands formal recognition from the caliph in Baghdad. When the caliph Al-Mustansir rejects his claim, the Shah proclaims one of his nobles caliph and marches towards Baghdad to depose the caliph. 1234: Kara-Kitai defeated by Mongols. Ogadai now reigns the biggest (if sparely populated) empire on the planet. 1235-38: Various campaigns in Southern Siberia against the Kirghiz and Tuvans. 1236: Choresmians take Baghdad, topple the old Abbasid caliph. Al-Mustansir is imprisoned, some of his relatives flee to Egypt and the lands of the Rum-Seljuks. 1239: Choresm Shah Jalal-ad-Din marries his daughter Khadiya to his puppet Caliph. 1240: After a governor of the Choresm Shah insults Ogadai by killing his diplomats, he decides to attack Choresm. In the battle near the city of Otrar, Ogadai and Jalal-ad-Din meet each other. The attack of the Mongols is successful at first, but the courageous Shah manages to collect his men and prevents a catastrophy. The situation at other frontiers is also indecisive. 1241: Ogadai dies. His son Guyuk (not the same-named from OTL) is the designed successor, but some of his family members won't accept him, and some of the allied non-Mongol people (Tatars, Kara-Kitai, Naimans, Merkites) wish for more independency. Jalal-ad-Din can use the situation for a counter-attack and drives the Mongols back behind Lake Balchash. He also manages to get the secret of gunpowder, which will become important in the future. The steppe people once again fall apart, not to be united at least for decades, waiting for another strong leader. [post=535366]Read a story here...[/post] -- East Asia 1200-1300: 1201/04?: Muslims start attacking Bengal, conquering it during the next decades, ending the Sena dynasty. 1203: Khmer ruler Jayavarman VIII occupies Champa (South Vietnam) and makes it a Khmer province. 1206: General Aibak takes power in the Sultanate of Delhi. 1211 / 2908, Yin Metal Sheep (Chinese Calendar): Khitan chief Yelü Liuge doesn't revolt in Liaodong, and the general (and IOTL later warlord) Puxian Wannu doesn't have to fight him. 1213 (2910, Yin Water Chicken): Northern Chinese (Jin) emperor Wányán Yongjì isn't killed, continues to reign twenty more years. 1214/15 (2911, Yang Wood Dog / 2912, Yin Wood Pig): Jin don't move their capital to Kaifeng, as they did IOTL. 1216: Chola Empire in South India falls apart, later to be replaced by the Pandyan Empire. 1220: Champa regains independence. 1221: End of the Kediri kingdom in East Java, becomes part of Singhasari. 1223: Start of Japanese piracy. 1230s: Song don't cooperate with Mongols, don't win Kaifeng, Luoyang. 1232: The royal court of Goryeo stays in Songdo. In Japan, Joei Code (militarized Code of Law) is introduced. 1234 (2931, Yang Wood Horse): Goryeo creates the world's first metal-based movable type printing press. Jurchen / Jin Empire doesn't fall. 1235 (2932, Yin Wood Sheep): Wányán Yongjì dies, is replaced by Wányán Shouxù. 1236: Raziah / Raziyyat becomes the first female sultan in Delhi, until she is toppled and killed in 1240. 1238: Two Thai chieftains, Pho Khun Pha Muang and Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao, declare their independence from the Khmer Empire and establish a Thai-ruled kingdom. 1243-99: Jayavarman VIII in Kambuja (Cambodia). Being Hindu and radically anti-Buddhist, he is said/estimated to have destroyed 10,000 Buddha statues. 1244 (2941, Yang Wood Dragon): Jin empire demands from Hsi-Hsia to pay them tribute. When the Tangutes (who have suffered under Ogedei's attacks only a few years ago) decline, the Jin decide to make war. 1247 (2944, Yin Fire Sheep): War between Jin and Tangutes begins. 1249: Choe-U (the man behind the throne of Goryeo) dies, to be replaced by his son Choi Hang. [post=546905]Read a story here...[/post] 1250s: Various border clashes between Choresm and the Sultanate of Delhi. 1251-68: Jatavarman Sundara in Pandyan (South India). He invades Ceylon successfully. 1253 (2950, Yin Water Ox): Kingdom of Dali in SW China survives. 1256 (2953, Yang Fire Dragon): Hsi-Hsia are incorporated into Jin China again. No Mongol conquest of Korea. 1258 (2955, Yang Earth Horse): No Mongol attack against Szechuan as OTL. The mighty Choi family continues to be the power behind the throne of Goryeo. 1259: Lanna kingdom in northern Thailand founded. 1263 (2960, Yin Water Pig): Reforms by Chancellor Jia Sidao in Song China begin. He plans to take land from all the owner of latifundiae bigger than 1/4 sq km, which the state will pay. The surplus land is supposed to become property of the state, to make up for the needed tax money. No wonder there's much resistance, which he counters with all kinds of intrigues. 1267 (2964, Yin Fire Rabbit): Some Mongols under the relatively mighty Khan Khaishan harass Jin China, without being a real danger. 1268-79: No Mongol conquest of Southern China. 1274 (2971, Yang Wood Dog): Song Emperor Duzong dies of natural causes. The new Emperor Gongdi is only five years old! 1274/81: No Mongol attack on Japan, no "divine wind" necessary. Consequences are difficult to estimate - Buddhism, especially Zen Buddhism, stays a bit weaker. 1275: Choi Hang of Goryeo dies, putting his son Choi Ui (not the same as OTL) in power behind the throne. 1277 (2974, Yin Fire Ox): The ruler of Pagan, Narathihapate feels confident in his ability to defeat the Chinese and advances into OTL today's provinces Guizhou / Guangxi. Although theoretically much weaker, he manages to make a lot of trouble for Song China. Rebellions of latifundia owners in the provinces complicate the situation even further. 1279: End of Chola Empire, taken over by Pandyas. 1280 (2977, Yang Metal Dragon): Jia Sidao toppled as chancellor and killed afterwards. The new government decides to make peace and cedes Pagan some areas along the border, to avoid paying tribute, which they could barely afford. They send the message through all provinces that Jia Sidao's planned reforms are off - and that all those who rebelled have to be killed for their disobedience against the state, which is against Confucianism. The property of the rebels is confiscated and sold, which helps the state for some years. 1283: Khmer Empire doesn't have to pay tribute to the Mongols. King Ramkhamhaeng the Great of Sukhothai (Thailand) invents the Thai alphabet. 1284/85 and 1287/88: Vietnam not attacked by Mongols under Kublai. 1287: Pagan (that's the name, not the religion!) Empire in Burma not conquered by Mongols under Kublai. 1290, September 27th (2987, Yang Metal Tiger): Earthquake in Chihli (Province Hopeh), 150,000 people killed. (Even more than IOTL, since the Mongols didn't kill half of North China's population.) 1290: Singhasari drives Srivijaya out of Java. Slave dynasty in the Delhi Sultanate overthrown by the Khilji. ~1290: No Expedition of Kublai Khan's navy to Java. Pasai in Northern Sumatra converts to Islam. 1291: Veera Ballala III comes to power in Hoysala (South India). 1292: Lanna annexes Mon kingdom of Haripunchai in NW Thailand. 1292/99: No Mongols before Delhi. 1293: Jayakatwang, a rebel from Kediri, usurps and kills Kertanagara, king of Srivijaya. Kertarajasa or Prince (Raden) Wijaya fights him. 13th century generally: Philippines experience cultural influence of Majapahit. [post=568999]More about the declining Song here...[/post] -- Western Europe 1200-1300: 1209-29: France eradicates the Albigensians. 1214: Battle of Bouvines, France wins; Angevine Empire ends 1215: Magna Charta in England. 4th Lateran council. Teachings of Cathars and Waldensians condemned, Jews are forced to wear the infamous special hats. 1216: Order of the Dominicans founded. 1217: Civil War in Norway between the Baglers and Birkebeiners ends. 1220-30: German Customary Law written down in the so-called Sachsenspiegel. 1221: Bonaventura (Franciscans) born. 1223: Franciscans acknowledged by the pope. 1225/26: Thomas of Aquin born. 1226: France becomes hereditary monarchy. 1227: Denmark loses Northern Germany in the Battle of Bornhöved. German poet Walther von der Vogelweide dies. 1229-35: Aragon conquers the Baleares. 1230: Castille united with Leon by Hernando III the Holy. He conquers Cordoba, Murcia, Jaen, Sevilla; Moslems reduced to Granada. 1231: Papal Inquisition created. 1233/34: The bishop of Bremen calls for a "crusade" against the peasants of Stedingerland, which they lose. 1237: Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II defeats the Lombard army at Cortenuovo. 1241: Friedrich II occupies the Papal states. In the same year, his enemy Gregor IX dies. After the short papacy of Coelestin IV there's a time of two years when there's no pope. 1246: The French side line Anjou founded. In the same year, they get the Provence. (OK, until here it's the same as OTL, but I wanted to make a list in preparation for what comes later.) 1247-64: Hessian-Thuringian war of succession. Sophie of Brabant (who's supported by the Teutonic Knights) makes sure that Hesse stays independent and goes to her son Heinrich "the Child". ITTL he even gets a slightly bigger share, at the expense of Thuringia. 1250: Friedrich II dies. Birger Jarl ruler in Sweden. Portugal conquers the Algarve. In Florence, the people elect for the first time the 36 caporali di popolo, a political counterweight to the nobles. 1252: Pope Innocence IV allows the inquisition to use torture to get confessions. 1253: Genoa acquires Safi in Morocco. 1254: In the German princedom of Nassau, Count Otto I is killed after getting in trouble with the Teutonic knights. His brother Walram II gets all of Nassau. 1254-1273: Interregnum in the HRE. 1255: Bavaria divided: Lower Bavaria goes to Heinrich XIII, Upper Bavaria and the Palatinate to Ludwig II. 1256: Holy Roman king Wilhelm of Holland dies. Portugal's capital moved to Lissabon. 1257: Alfonso of Castille and Richard of Cornwall elected Holy Roman kings. 1258-65: Uprisings of the barons in England. The king has to accept the Oxford Provisions. 1259: First German trading alliance (Lübeck, Hamburg, Rostock, Wismar), which will later develop into the Hanseatic League. England loses all possessions in France but Guyenne. 1260: Saxony divided into the lines of Saxony-Wittenberg and Saxony-Lauenburg. After the Mamluks took some cities in Palestine, a new crusade is planned. But since Charles of Anjou has other plans, it has to be postponed. At first, France has to recover from the war with England; then, the pope gives Charles of Anjou the kingdom of Naples, which is more important... 1261/62/64: Greenland, Iceland become Norwegian. 1266: Scotland buys the Hebrides and Man from Norway. Charles of Anjou comes to power in Naples-Sicily after defeating and killing regent Manfred. King Henryk of Poland dies, to be succeeded by his son (also called Henryk). 1268: Childless duke Ulrich III of Carinthia and Carniole makes a secret contract with Otakar Przemysl, that the latter one will inherit his lands after his death (which comes next year). Konradin, last descendant of Friedrich II, killed by Charles of Anjou. 1270: French start Seventh crusade against Tunis (Palestine was planned, but Charles thinks Tunis is better - it's certainly closer to his new lands in Italy), which ends in a defeat and king Louis IX's death. ~1270: First portolan charts (maps for sea travel). 1271: French kings inherit Toulouse. Gregor X elected pope. 1273: After the death of HRE king Richard and the forced abdication of Alfonso the HRE has to elect a new king. Among the candidates are the French king Philippe III and Otakar Przemysl of Moravia and Carinthia. ITTL, he isn't absent from the election and can influence it better. The other princes also consider him less dangerous since his nephew reigns independent from him. Since his nephew, the elector of Bohemia, votes for him, the Upper Bavarian duke Ludwig II and the three archbishops support him too, he is elected king Ottokar I of the HRE. 1274: Summa Theologiae written by Thomas Aquinas. Catholic Second Council of Lyon. 1275: King Ottokar leads the Empire against Hungary, defeats the new king and gets Styria back for the HRE. Styria is divided: Western Styria becomes part of Austria (thus connecting the Przemysls' possessions), the rest (two thirds) become (Upper) Bavarian. 1276: Philippe III of France fights Castille for reasons of succession, without success. 1276 or 1290: Marsilius of Padua born. 1282: Sicilian vespers. All French on the island killed, Sicily becomes part of Aragon. Magna Charta in Denmark. 1284: Wales annexed by England. Genoa defeats Pisa, acquires Corsica, Elba and Sardinia. 1285: Aragonese crusade as revenge for Sicilian vespers, with no success. 1286: The "maid of Norway" doesn't drown, arrives in Scotland. Rudolf of Habsburg elected new king. 1287: Great flood swallows lots of lands in the Netherlands, creating the Zuider Zee, which makes it possible for Amsterdam to become an important harbor later. 1288: Gotland becomes Swedish. 1290: Jews evicted from England. In Scotland, the young queen (nine years) dies. King Edward I of England interferes for the succession, Balliol becomes new king. 1291: Rudolf of Habsburg dies. His lands in SW Germany are divided between his sons Albrecht (same as OTL) and Rudolf (not the same as OTL) - quite dangerous, since the lands of the Habsburgs are already smaller, but the younger son insisted that he gets his share. The Upper Bavarian duke Ludwig II (Ludwig IV as king) is elected Roman king. The first three cantons of Switzerland make an anti-Habsburg alliance. Tarifa conquered by Castille. 1294: Pope Coelestin V, a former eremite, elected, but resigns in the same year. His successor Boniface is quite the opposite of him. The Habsburgs try to annex the Swiss Confederation, but are defeated at Morgarten, and the king (who's been in competition with the Meinhardiner in Tyrol, relatives of the Habsburgs) rather supports the Swiss. 1295: Roman king Ludwig dies (one year later than OTL). Ascanian Otto IV of Brandenburg becomes new king of the HRE. 1296: Auld Alliance between France and Scotland (everything happens one year later than OTL). 1297: King Philippe IV the Fair attacks Flanders. War between England and Scotland begins. 1298: Scottish uprisings under William Wallace. And BTW, the Americas and Oceania are unchanged too. Important events there: 1200: Cuzco founded 1200+: Younger culture of Totonaks around Cempoala. 1221: A revolt in Chichen Itza. Maya decide to build a new capital, Mayapan. 1250: Tenochca migrate to the valley of Mexico. 1250: Founding of the Arioi cult at the island of Raiatea, Polynesia. 1250-1300: Discovery of bronze in the Andes. 1299: Cocoxtli, ruler of Culhuacan, allows the Mexica / Aztecs to settle in Tizapan. -1300: Maori come to New Zealand. ~1300: Possible second wave of immigrants to Hawaii, from Tahiti. [post=556901]Read the story here...[/post] -- The Middle East (incl. Byzantium, the Caucasus and Egypt) 1200-1300 1204 (as OTL): Fourth Crusade. Byzantine Empire conquered, Constantinople plundered, Latin Empire founded, which gets one quarter of the lands of the old Empire. Other parts go to Venice or Genoa or become independent. One of the new states is the Empire of Nikaia, which ruler Theodor Laskaris wants to throw out the invaders. 1208 (as OTL): Theodoros Laskaris, ruler of Nikaia, crowned official Byzantine emperor by the patriarch. 1213 (as OTL): Queen Tamara of Georgia dies. During her reign, capital punishment and dismemberment were abolished. 1223: (Armenia desn't secede from Georgia. No Battle on the river Kalka. Kipchaks / Kumans / Polovtzy still rule the steppes in Southern Russia.) 1224 (as OTL): Kingdom Thessaloniki conquered by Epirus. 1225 (as OTL): Latin Empire cedes almost all of Asia Minor and some islands in the Aegean Sea to Nikaia. Rum-Seljuks conquer Crimea. 1226 (as OTL): Rasulide dynasty takes over in Yemen. Early 13th century: (OTL Mamluk sultan Baibars isn't captured by the Mongols, stays Kipchak.) 1227 (as OTL): Theodore of Epirus and Thessalonica drives the Nikaian garrison out of Adrianople and annexes much of Thrace. Bulgaria and Nikaia ally against him, defeating and capturing him and dividing his lands in 1230. 1230s: (The Choresmians under Jalal-ad-Din who fled from the Mongols don't confuse the Middle East.) 1239-42 (as OTL): Kay Khusrau II has to quell an upspring led by the popular preacher Baba Ishaq. 1240 (as OTL): Latin Empire meanwhile almost reduced to the capital. 1242: (Armenia not conquered by Mongols.) 1243: (Mongols don't attack Rum-Seljuks.) 1244 (as OTL): Jerusalem conquered by sultan as-Salih of Egypt. This was expectable, since the city lacked the hinterland for a better defense. Only difference to OTL: He uses Mamluk soldiers for the attack instead of hired Choresmians. The city is damaged less than IOTL. 1245: Nikaia makes a peace treaty with the Rum-Seljuks (as OTL); but since the latter aren't threatened by the Mongols, Nikaia has to pay a tribute. 1246: Little countries of the Zangids conquered by Choresm. Bulgaria defends better than OTL against Nikaia, keeps most of the conquered (former Byzantine) areas, has to cede only Adrianople and Athos and help Nikaia against the Latin Empire. 1248-54 (as OTL): Sixth Crusade against Egypt stays without success. 1250 (as OTL): Mamluks under Aybak take power in Egypt. At the moment, he shares power with the widow of the last Ayyubid sultan, Shajar ad-Durr. [post=541337]Read a story here...[/post] 1252: Choresm tries to attack the rich kingdom of Ormus, but is surprisingly defeated by the strong fleet of the latter. 1253 (as OTL): Nikaia attacks Epirus / Thessalia. After hard fights they conquer Thessaloniki. 1254 (as OTL): After the death of Ioannis III Vatatzes, Michael VIII Palaiologos comes to power in Nikaia by a coup. 1255: Shah Jalal-ad-Din of Choresm dies. Some areas of his empire (Kara-Kitai, Afghanistan) try to break away. Kara-Kitai manage to stay independent, but Afghanistan is pacified in the following years and stays in the fold. 1256: Assassins not destroyed. They continue to play a more or less important role in the Middle East. Being Ismailites, the Sunni Muslims are their worst enemies. 1257 (as OTL): Shajar ad-Durr murdered after she has Aybak murdered. Qutuz becomes new sultan of Egypt. 1260: (Baibars I does not become ruler of Egypt.) Mamluks attack Crusader states, conquer Gaza, Askalon and Jaffa (earlier than OTL). 1261: Nikaia attacks Morea, hurts the allied states of Sicily and Epirus (similar as IOTL), but can't establish itself permanently in Mistra, which falls back to the crusaders in the same decade. 1262: Ayyubid sidelines still reigning in Syria who fear the raising power of the Mamluks and Rum-Seljuks appeal to the Choresm Shah (and power behind the Caliph, we remember) for protection. Thus, Choresm's sphere of influence now borders the Mediterranean. 1263: France under Louis IX plans a crusade as retail for the lost cities in Palestine, but Charles of Anjou is busy in Italy. 1265: Rum-Seljuks attack Nikaia, threaten the capital. This time they're content to get some areas (i.e. they don't want the whole empire). Genoa gets the Aegean islands of Lesbos, Chios and Samos, which Nikaia can't defend alone. 1268: The little crusader states of Antiochia and Tripolis (in Lebanon, not in Libya) conquered by Syrian and Choresmian troops. 1270: Seventh Crusade. France attacks Tunesia, without success. 1272: Charles of Anjou conquers the area of Albania. 1273: Baldwin II dies. His son Philip of Courtenay becomes last Latin Emperor. 1276: Finally, Constantinople's conquered by Nikaia (some defenders changed sides, after receiving a big bribe). The Latin Emperor flees to Athens. He becomes dependent of the mighty dukes of Athens and Achaia. Nikaia's energy and power isn't sufficient for further attacks on Epirus and other Crusader states. Emperor Michael has to start talks with the west about a reunification of the churches. 1277: Charles of Anjou conquers Akko, makes himself new king of Jerusalem. This comes in a very unfortunate moment for the crusaders... 1278: Achaia acquired by Charles of Anjou. 1279: Michael VIII Palaiologos dies. 1281: Last Crusader states in Palestine conquered by the Muslims. Teutonic Order moves headquarters from Akko to Venice. 1283: Philip of Courtenay dies. 1284: Rum-Seljuks attack East Roman Empire and conquer Brussa, Nicomedia and Nikaia. (IOTL the Ottomans took eleven years for that, but they were one of many little princedoms in Anatolia then. The Rum-Seljuks, OTOH, already own most of Anatolia...) 1285: Charles of Anjou dies. 1286: King Otakar has decided to go on a crusade against the Muslims, after the pope promised him to crown him Holy Roman Emperor. But while he always fought valiantly against the pagans in Prussia and Lithuania, which gave him the epiphet of "the Iron king", he's not so lucky now. Having reached Constantinople with his army, he dies. The crusade is cancelled, and the chance to rekindle actual interest in it is lost. 1287: Catholic and Greek Orthodox church officially reunited, as a last resort. Actually, many Byzantines don't like this idea at all - as they say, they prefer the Sultan's turban to the cardinal's hat. 1290: Aragon and Egypt make an alliance - the first important alliance between a Christian and a Muslim state. 1292: West of Lesser Armenia conquered by the Rum-Seljuks. [post=564221]Read the story here...[/post] -- Eastern Europe, 1200-1300: Early 13th century: (OTL Mamluk sultan Baibars isn't captured by the Mongols, stays Kipchak.) 1212: Vsevolod "The big nest" III dies. 1219: Denmark conquers Estonia. 1221: Nishnij Novgorod founded. 1223: (No Battle on the river Kalka. Kipchaks / Kumans / Polovtzy still rule the steppes in Southern Russia.) 1225: Rum-Seljuks conquer Crimea. 1227: Teutonic Order comes into the Kulmer Land (East Prussia, at the Vistula). Jaroslav of Novgorod attacks Finland. 1230: Livonia completely subjugated. 1236-40: Mongol attacks on Russia except Novgorod don't happen. 1237: Friar Julianus returns to the Volga Hungarians, starts to convert them to Christianity and tries to recruit them to settle in Hungary. A delegation of them visits Hungary proper and likes the idea of settling there. The Pope and Hungary support him, too. Unification of the Teutonic Order and the Brotherhood of the Sword. (Volga Hungarians, Volga Bulgarians not defeated by Mongols.) 1238: Russian prince Aleksandr Yaroslavich who's the fourth son of his father and has no chance of ever becoming a ruler goes to Vladimir-Suzdal, who are often busy fighting the Volga Bulgarians. 1240s: Kara-Kitai tribes displaced by the Mongols under Ogadai defeat eastern Kipchaks, cross the lower Volga, attack the area south of Don and Volga and destroy the little country of the Alans, a leftover of the völkerwanderung. 1240: Russian prince Aleksandr doesn't have to defeat the Swedes at the Neva. Since 1240: Christianized Volga Hungarians settle down in Hungary proper, mostly in the Banat (western Vlachia). Vlachia and Moldavia become Hungarian sphere of influence. Fewer German settlers go to Poland (except Pomerania and Silesia), Hungary, Romania or Bulgaria. Instead, they press into Pomerania, East Prussia and (later) the Baltic. Silesia north of Oder river becomes an area similar to OTL Kashubia during the next centuries, with a population of mixed German-Slavic culture. 1241: Bulgarian czar Ivan Asen II dies. Bulgaria loses influence on Serbia and Epirus. 1241/42: The battle of Liegnitz (Legnica) doesn't happen, and neither does the savaging of Poland, Silesia, Moravia, Hungary (which lost half its population IOTL, according to some sources), Romania and Bulgaria by the Mongols. The Teutonic Order doesn't have to pay a high blood toll either. 1242: Aleksandr doesn't have to fight the Livonian knights on frozen Lake Peipus. 1243: King Bela IV of Hungary conquers Bosnia. 1246: King Bela IV of Hungary fights Austria, killing the last duke Friedrich II. His widow Margarete governs in his place. She and his niece Gertrud (wife of Vladislav of Moravia, elder brother of Otakar Przemysl) are the only living heirs. Baibars who became a Kipchak leader defeats the Kara-Kitai, throws them back behind the Don. He now reigns in the biggest of the six Kuman cities, Sharukan (in OTL Charkov's place). 1247: The elder brother of Otakar Przemysl Vladislav doesn't die. 1250: German settlement has reached the Oder river, and even crossed it in some places, also including southern Silesia. [post=553125]Read the story here...[/post] To make long things short: Russia stays disunited, although some centers of power are established: Novgorod reigns in the North and slowly starts to expand East; Vladimir-Suzdal controls the thrones of the East, Chernigov those of South-East. The western principalities are weaker, threatened by the Teutonic Order, the freshly united Poland, and the strong Hungary. And Kiev suffers since the trade with Byzantium is cut off until 1276. There are many little wars for control of the thrones, deposings of princes and coups - too many to mention. 1251: Prince Vladislav of Bohemia has a son, later king Venceslaus / Vaclav II. 1253: After being defeated by Aleksandr, the Volga Bulgars have to allow the Russians of Vladimir-Suzdal to go with their ships on the Volga without harassing them. This helps Vladimir's trade down to the Caspian Sea, with Choresm. Lithuanian leader Mindaugas christened. King Venceslaus / Vaclav I. of Bohemia dies. Vladislav inherits Bohemia, and also reigns Austria. Otakar Przemysl only gets Moravia. Heinrich / Henryk II the Pious of Silesia, who already rules in Greater and Lesser Poland, is crowned king of Poland, first one since 1079. Although many Piast princes continue to reign in other parts of Poland, his family can keep the king's title. 1254: Hungary "divides" Styria with young king Venceslaus / Vaclav II. Hungary gets the better part, only a few border cities become Austrian. 1255: Vladislav of Bohemia dies. His little son inherits Bohemia, and Austria. Otakar Przemysl administrates his lands until his adulthood. Otakar tries to improve the situation, wages war against Hungary, but is defeated. In the next few years, he has to suppress Bohemian and Austrian nobles discontent with his rule. He becomes a bit more humble and more pragmatic in the future, looks for new allies, makes peace with the Bavarian dukes and marries Sophie of Wittelsbach. Teutonic Order founds Herzogsberg (named after Ottokar) at the site of OTL Königsberg. Hungarian prince Stephen / Istvan marries a princess of the Volga Hungarians. 1257: Otakar Przemysl goes to Prussia, helps to suppress a big uprising of the Prussians. Constantine Tikh I is elected new Czar of Bulgaria. After the difficult years after Ivan Asen II's death, he gives the country more stability. 1260: Prussians subjugated. Western Farther Pomerania and parts of East Prussia are already settled. 1261: Otakar has a son, called Heinrich. 1262: Hungarian prince Stephen rebels against his father, practically gets his own kingdom in Eastern Hungary. 1263: Lithuanian leader Mindaugas murdered by his own people, who become pagan again. The stronger settlement of Germans in Prussia makes them feel threatened. Although they could probably quite successful if they hid in their dense forests, they dare to leave them and attack the Teutonic knights on their turf. This only leads to their defeat. 1268: Prince Istvan of Hungary invades Bulgaria. Only the weakness of Byzantium and the crusader states, the Hungarian threat to Serbia and the fact that Hungary itself is close to be overextended prevents that Bulgaria is even worse off. 1269: Last uprising of the Prussians defeated. 1270: Germans settle everywhere in Pomerania, and in half of East Prussia. Settlement in the Baltic extended. Teutonic knights decide to subjugate the Lithuanians too. King Bela IV of Hungary dies. A rebellion of peasants against the rich boyars in Novgorod. Aleksandr (Nevsky) goes to Chernigov to fight against the Kumans under Baibars, who became more powerful recently. 1274: Hungary occupies Serbia. 1277: No revolt of Ivailo the swineherd in Bulgaria, Constantine Tikh I continues to reign. Zemgale and Samogitia conquered by the Teutonic knights. Despite the dangerous situation in the crusader cities, Charles of Anjou conquers them and makes himself king of Jerusalem. 1278: Achaia acquired by Charles of Anjou. 1280s: Kumans in Romania cross the Danube, conquer the Karvuna (OTL Dobruja) for themselves, threaten Bulgaria. 1280: After Constantine Tikh I's death, Macedonia becomes independent. In the following decades, the states of Epirus, Byzantium and Bulgaria will compete for this area. Michael Asen II becomes new Bulgarian czar. German settlement everywhere through Danzig and East Prussia. 1281: Teutonic Order moves from Akko to Venice. 1282: Belgrad not conquered by Serbia. 1283: Vladimir-Suzdal finally overwhelms Ryazan, its old challenger. 1284: Stefan Uroš II Milutin of the former Serbian Nemanjić dynasty rebels against the Hungarians. Fightings go on for several years, but at the end, the Hungarians are stronger. 1286: Otakar Przemysl dies. The two Przemyslid heirs, Wenzel / Vaclav and Heinrich are still too unexperienced to play an important role in the HRE, which the other princes don't exactly dislike. 1289: Lithuania subjugated and administered by the Teutonic knights. (Sorry, legolas!) Later becomes the province of Littauen. At the moment, however, the Teutonic knights are mostly restricted to the valley of Memel / Nyemen river. 1290: Andras III, last king of the Arpad dynasty in Hungary, comes to power. 1293: Poland attacks Galicia-Volhynia, taking about one third of the latter's territory. 1295: After the death of Aleksandr, the Russians found the city of Aleksandrskoye at the Volga, at the site of OTL Kazan, also to control the Volga trade better. 1300: Another Lithuanian uprising defeated. [post=572595]An adventurous story here...[/post] -- History of sub-Saharan Africa 1200-1300: ~1200: Jolof (in OTL Senegal) settled as small kingdom. Early 13th century: Ilé-Ifè (OTL SW Nigeria) reaches its peak. 1200+: Empire of Kongo at lower Kongo river emerges. 1203: Soumaoro Kante of the Sosso people occupies Koumbi Saleh, the old capital of Ghana (not today's Ghana, it was more around Mauretania / Mali). 1221-59: Reign of Dunama Dabbalemi of the Sayfawa dynasty in the Kanem Empire (present-day Chad). He expands his empire, initiates diplomatic exchanges with sultans in North Africa and arranges for the establishment of a special hostel in Cairo to facilitate pilgrimages to Mecca. Through his wars he captures many slaves that he sells to the northern kingdoms, so enriching his country. The empire's influence extends westward to Kano (in present-day Nigeria), eastward to Ouaddaï, and southward to the Adamawa grasslands (in present-day Cameroon). 1230s: Sosso's vassals start to rebel. Among them is Mali, rich thanks to gold and salt. 1240: Sundiata Keita of the Mandinka people defeats Sosso king Sumanguru Kante, the murderer of his father and eleven brothers, at the battle of Kirina. After that, he converts to Islam. Following this victory, Sundiata expands his Empire to include most of the important parts of West Africa, including the towns of Walata, Tadmekka, and Gao at the southern end of the desert trade routes. The Mali Empire is made up of 3 allied states and 12 tributaries. The three states are Mali (which helds the capital of the Empire, Niani), Mema, and Wagadou, the former Ghana Empire. The 12 tributaries are referred to as the 12 doors of Mali to which only the Mansa (emperor) holds the key. They are Djebeda, Tabon, Negueboria, Kankigne, Togom, Sili, Krina, Koulikoro, Diaghan, Kita, Ka-ba, and Do. 1255: Sundiata dies, to be succeeded by his son Mansa Wali Keita. During his reign, he makes Hajj. 1270: Mansa Wali Keita dies. End of the (Falashan) Zagwe dynasty in Ethiopia. Yekuno Amlak comes to power, (re-)starting the Solomonid dynasty. 1272: The Mamluks invade the little Christian country of Makuria, north of Ethiopia. 1276: They invade again to put king David's cousin Shekanda on the throne. In the same year, they annex Al-Maris, former Nobatia. Soon afterwards, Alodia / Alwa is also islamized, making Ethiopia the last Christian kingdom in Africa. 1285: After three weak Mansas, the general and former slave Sakura seizes control of Mali. 1300: Sakura killed near Tripoli.(?) North Africa: 1207: An Almohad emir, Muhammad bin Abu Hafs, establishes the Hafsid dynasty in Libya. 1230: Berber Hafsids come to power in Tunis. 1236: Abdalwadid kingdom of Tlemcen in West Algeria. 1268: Marinids come to power in NW Africa. 1269: Last Almohad sultan killed. -- History of science in the 13th century 13th century: The spinning wheel is brought to Europe (probably from India). "Mathematical Renaissance" in China. 1202: Leonardo of Pisa introduces Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe with his book Liber Abaci. 1204, December 13th: Maimonides / RAMBAM dies. 1210: Roger Bacon born. 1238 (3835, Yang Earth Dog): Yang Hui born (invents his version of Pascal's triangle - later important for statistics) 1240: Bartholomeus de Glanvilla concludes De proprietatibus rerum. The most widely read and quoted encyclopedia in the late-medieval period. 1250: Fibonacci dies. 1253: Robert Grosseteste dies. He introduced a kind of scientific thought. 1260: Vincent of Beauvais concludes Speculum Majus. The most ambitious encyclopedia in the late-medieval period over 3 million words. 1261 (3858, Yin Metal Chicken): Qin Jiushao, who introduced the 0 to China, dies. ~1270: Paper manufacture begins in Italy. 1274: Nasir al-Din Tusi (said to be most eminent astronomer between Ptolemy and Copernicus; also established trigonometry as independent science) dies. 1277: A treaty between the crusader Bohemond VII, titular prince of Antioch and the Doge of Venice for the transfer of glassmaking technology isn't signed, so the transfer of Syrian glassworkers and their trade secrets doesn't happen. The famous Venetian glass industry isn't born. late 1280s: Eyeglasses are invented in Italy. 1285: William of Ockham born. General state of the art: Western Europe: The "12th century Renaissance" has already started, with men like Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon. Scholastics. The nominalists (those who believe that Plato's "ideal entities" are just names, but not the real things) slowly win over the "realists" (those who support Plato). Islamic World: Algebra, Non-Euclidean geometry. Lots of knowledge about Optics, f.e. refraction. Also good in mechanics. India: Also many ideas in mathematics and physics - including ideas for an atomic theory, law of gravity, and a heliocentric system. Geometry, trigonometry, binary system, floating point operations, even calculus. China: Lots of mathematics, f.e. about solving of equations of higher grades, the Rule of Three and matrix methods for linear equations. First law of motion. -- General summary of the 13th century: Mongols: Temujin (who isn't called Genghiz yet) dies early in 1200. The Mongols and other steppe people fall apart, fight among themselves instead. Temujin's son Ogadai manages to unite them for a second time, fights the Kara-Kitai, the Tangutes / Hsi-Hsia and even challenges the Choresmians, who still are victorious under their Shah Jalal-ad-Din. After Ogadai's death, the steppe people fall apart again. East Asia: Hsi-Hsia are eventually conquered by the Jin. Song China has to struggle with internal problems and loses a border war against Pagan. Khilji dynasty comes to power in Delhi. Muslim world: Choresm conquers Baghdad, makes the Caliph its puppet, extends its influence down to the Mediterranean. The Shiites stay stronger. Assassins survive. Rum-Seljuks kick out Byzantium / Nikaia from Asia Minor. Mamluks come to power in Egypt, conquer crusader states in Palestine. Eastern Europe: Hungary controls Bosnia, Serbia and OTL Romania. Volga Hungarians go to Hungary proper, convert to Christianity. Bulgaria stays more stable. Nikaia can reconquer Constantinople eventually, but has to agree on a union of the churches, and is dangerously weakened. Teutonic Order subjugates Prussians earlier, conquers Lithuania. Vladimir-Suzdal expands at the expense of Volga Bulgarians. Kara-Kitai attack the Kumans, but the latter under Baibars can defend successfully. Western Europe: Poland is (mostly) reunited, a new king is crowned. Hungary expands into Austria for short time, but is beaten back by Otakar Przemysl, who doesn't inherit Bohemia ITTL, but can keep Austria in the family and is elected king of the HRE. The Przemyslid lands are split between two lines of succession. Other than that, no changes. America, Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa: No changes.