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  #81  
Old May 5th, 2008, 02:46 PM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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By November, word had reached London that the Americans had purchased Louisiana from France. King George III flew into a rage. Parliament had, in May that year, declared war on France (Great Britain was also at war with France from 1793 to 1802), and the king had a few weeks earlier had reviewed the London volunteers at Hyde Park. The king was at the center of great national swelling of patriotism; he was the symbol of resistance to France. Because of this, Albion’s purchase of Louisiana from France was taken as a personal affront. “Betrayed by my own brother,” he shouted; “they’ve gone and sided with Bonaparte!” The next day, Albion’s ambassador to Great Britain, William Murray, who had been informed of the purchase upon its ratification by Congress, endured a two hour tongue lashing by the king. Speaking later with Chancellor Adams about the meeting, he said, “If I had a dollar for every time I said ‘yes your majesty’, ‘no your majesty’ and ‘I understand your majesty’ that afternoon, I would be a very wealthy man.”

Many in Parliament viewed the Louisiana Purchase as a violation of the terms of the Treaty of Free Association as it gave a financial boost it gave France at the expense of Britain and put the foreign policy of Albion at variance with that of Great Britain. War between Great Britain and Albion was a real possibility. On March 7, 1804 a resolution was passed giving Albion an ultimatum, declare war on and join the coalition against France or else Great Britain would consider Albion to be an ally of France and declare war on her. When Murray arrived in Americus with the ultimatum, the king, surprised by the strength of Britain’s response to the purchase, had little choice but to tell Chancellor Adams to request a declaration of war from Congress. Two days after presenting the situation to Congress, June 4, 1804, war was declared on France. Ambassador Livingston was recalled from France and Albion joined the British coalition. Concerning the ramifications of the Louisiana Purchase, Livingston wrote in his memoirs (published after his death), “Never did I imagine that the Louisiana Purchase would result in Albion becoming an active participant in the European wars. I surmised that, at most, diplomatic relations would be strained for a while and that Great Britain would exact some financial concessions form our government to counterbalance the boost the purchase gave to France’s ship building abilities.”

Two ships of the line, “St. Lawrence” and “Chesapeake”, three frigates, “Constellation”, “Congress” and “Intrepid”, two sloops and ten gunboats, along with their crews (totaling over 5,000 men) departed on September 30, 1804 for England, where they would join with the British fleet. Napoleon was amused by Albion’s entry into the war. He derided the British King for “dragging his little brother along into battle.” On December 12, Spain declared war on Great Britain. American Ambassador Charles Pinckney, who had been instrumental in securing Spain’s acceptance of the Louisiana Purchase a year earlier from France, was informed by the King of Spain that Albish ships supporting or joining the British navy in battle would be considered enemy combatants and fired upon.

Albion’s navy participated with the British fleet under Admiral Calder in the Battle of Cape Finisterre, off the Spanish coast on July 22, 1805. Their objective was to block the joint French-Spanish fleet, under Admiral Villeneuve, which was attempting to enter the English Channel in advance of Napoleon’s planned invasion of England. After a pitched battle, the French-Spanish fleet was repulsed. Twenty British-Albish ships had engaged twenty French-Spanish ships and captured two of Spain’s. British-Albish losses were 42 officers and men killed and 181 wounded. French-Spanish losses were 476 officers and men killed and wounded. The Albish public, King Edward and the Royal Cabinet considered the encounter a heroic victory. The British public and Admiralty did not see it that way. Calder was relieved of his command, court-martialled, and sentenced to be severely reprimanded for his failure to seek decisive action during the battle. He never served at sea again. Napoleon, for his part, was frustrated by the results. He considered the battle a grave defeat and realized that his dream of invading England had evaporated.

The French-Spanish fleet returned to Cadiz and remained there until October before emerging. A squadren from the British-Albish fleet subsequently caught at defeated them in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21. Twenty-nine British-Albish Ships of the line and 10 others met thirty-three French-Spanish ships of the line and eight others west of Cape Trafalgar in one of the more pivotal battles in 19th Century naval warfare. Twenty-two French-Spanish ships were captured and one destroyed; 7,000 soldiers were captured, 3,243 were killed and almost 2,000 were wounded. No British-Albish ships were lost; 482 men were killed and approxamatly 1,300 were wounded. Ambish Navy Captain Stephen Decatur demonstrated bravery and skill throughout battle. After the war, he would be awarded the Order of the Eastern Star by King Edward. The British commander, Lord Nelson, employed daring tactics throughout the battle and never missed or squandered an advantage. Nelson was killed in the battle, but became, and remains, one of Britain’s greatest naval war heros. A great victory was achieved that day on accouint of his actions and the readiness for battle exhibited by Decatur and thousands like him throughout the British-Ambish fleet.
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  #82  
Old May 6th, 2008, 07:23 AM
G.Bone G.Bone is offline
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Well - I guess in being tied to Britain does have it's disadvantages.

I wonder if Albion will ever get around to settle their new territories or will let it lay fallow for some time until the war ends.

Any efforts in Albion for some freedom away from Britain - perhaps sparking that difference that leads to a formal break between their motherland?
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  #83  
Old May 6th, 2008, 10:21 AM
mikegold mikegold is offline
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Originally Posted by G.Bone View Post
Well - I guess in being tied to Britain does have it's disadvantages.

I wonder if Albion will ever get around to settle their new territories or will let it lay fallow for some time until the war ends.

Any efforts in Albion for some freedom away from Britain - perhaps sparking that difference that leads to a formal break between their motherland?
I don't see so many disadvantages. There are a lot of prizes to be had from Spain now, especially Cuba and the OTL American West appear vulnerable.
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  #84  
Old May 6th, 2008, 10:32 AM
Analytical Engine Analytical Engine is offline
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I don't see so many disadvantages. There are a lot of prizes to be had from Spain now, especially Cuba and the OTL American West appear vulnerable.
Perhaps a general invasion of the Spanish and French Greater Antilles?
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  #85  
Old May 6th, 2008, 10:54 AM
mikegold mikegold is offline
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Originally Posted by Analytical Engine View Post
Perhaps a general invasion of the Spanish and French Greater Antilles?
The Dutch and Danish too, while you're at it.
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  #86  
Old May 7th, 2008, 03:27 AM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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As the naval expedition was underway in Europe, Albion launched a series of expeditions of a different kind in the newly acquired Louisiana Territory. In September 1803, Congress appropriated $9,000 “that at least three expeditions to the newly purchased territory called Louisiana might be indertaken for the purpose of studying the Indian tribes, botany, geology, terrain and wildlife in the region, evaluate the potential interference of foreign hunters and trappers who might already be in the area, as well as to search for direct and practicable water communication across the continent for the purposes of commerce.”

Geologist William Crawford was selected to lead the expedition which would travel to the far Northwest part of the territory via the Missouri River. Crawford selected Aaron Ogden as his partner. Crawford and Ogden along with 32 other men departed from their training site at the mouth of the Dubois River, near present day Hartford, Illinois, on May 14, 1804, crossed the Mississippi and headed up the Missouri River.

Several days later, they passed La Charrette, the last White settlement on the Missouri River. The expedition followed the Missouri through what is now Kansas City, Missouri and Omaha, Nebraska. By the end of August they had progressed to the edge of the Great Plains, a place abounding with elk, deer, bison and beaver. During the ensuing weeks they encountered the Yankton Sioux, the Teton Sioux (Lakota) and the Mandan Indians. During the winter of 1804/05, the group built Fort Mandan, near present day Pryor, Dakota. While there, they enjoyed cordial relations with the Mandan Indians. That winter, Toussaint Charbonneau, a French-Indian fur trapper was employed and joined the team along with his wife, Sacagawea. In April 1805, some members of the expedition were sent home (health and disciplinary issues) from Fort Mandan. Along with them went a written report of their discoveries, maps and several varieties of plants and spicies of animals.

That spring and summer, the expedition continued west along the Missouri River to its headwaters and over the Continental Divide at Midlothian Pass using horses. They descended the mountains by the Clearwater, Snake and Columbia Rivers. In the 1st week of December 1805 the group spotted Mount Hood, and they knew that they were nearing the ocean. After pressing on to the coast, the group built Fort Clatsop, near present day Astoria, Oregon for their winter quarters. The explorers began their journey home on March 23, 1806. After crossing back over the Continental Divide, the team split up for several weeks to explore more territory. Once reunited, the team quickly moved downstream on the Missouri River. They reached St. Louis on September 23, 1806.

The Crawford and Ogden expedition was a huge success. Through the efforts of the intrepid explorers:
– The government gained an extensive knowledge of the geography of the North American West through maps made of the region’s major rivers and mountain ranges
– Observed and described over a hundred plant and animal species and sub species
– Encouraged the fur trade in the region
– Opened diplomatic relations with the region’s Indians
– Established a precedent for the army’s exploration of the North American West
– Focused popular and media attention on the region
– Groundwork was laid for Albion’s claim to the Oregon Country
– Produced a large body of literature about the North American West through the diaries of Crawford, Ogden and others on the journey

Former army scout and Indian agent Aaron Burr was selected to lead the expedition which would travel to the Noretheast part of the territory to find the headwaters of the Missisippi River. Burr selected Meriwether Lewis as his partnes. Burr and Lewis along with 29 other men trained at the site used by Crawford and Ogden a year earlier. They broke camp on April 28, 1805 and headed up the east bank of the Mississippi. After several weeks they had progressed to present day Rock Island, Illinois, where they encountered the Sauk leader Black Hawk. According to Black Hawk's account, Burr was given meat and provisions and presented an American flag to him and his people. He considered Burr "a good man."

By the end of July, the group had reached the point where the Minnesota River flows into the Mississippi, at present day St. Paul, Mississippi. They stayed there for 10 days, calling the place Camp Watersmeet. As the fur trade, and later White settlement expanded in the region, St. Paul became the terminus for the Red River Trail, as well as the provincial capital. By mid-September they had reached Lake Winnibigoshish, whose name translates from Ojibwe into English as “putridly stagnant water”. They spent several days there, believing that this lake was the Mississippi’s source. They moved on when they realized that it was not. They soon reached Cedar Lake and then Lake Baymayjigamaug (today called Bemidji), whose name translates from Ojibwe into English as “lake that traverses another body of water”. There was an Ojibwe village just up streamk from the lake. The villagers were friendly and hospitable. As it was then early October, the group built Fort Ojibwe and spent the winter there.

During the spring snow melt the team ventured up stream (southwast) from the the lake. Soon they came to a place where two streams merged. With the water so high, it was impossible to tell which one was the tributary and which one was the main river. The group split into two parties. Lewis took half the team up the southeast stream and Burr led the others up the southwest one. Both teams mapped and measured their respective streams, and afterwards, they compaired their notes. Then, after the water level began to fall, they concluded that the stream followed by Burr’s team was the Mississippi. They named the river which Lewis’ team had followed the Detour River, and the lake at the end they named Lewis. The river at the head of the Mississippi, called Omashkoozo-zaaga’igan (Elk Lake) by the Indians was remaned Lake Itsaca (a combination of the Latin words veritas “truth” and caput “head”) by Burr.

The explorers began their journey home on April 28, 1806, exactly one year after it had begun. They headed southeast from their winter camp and reconnected with the Mississippi River near present day St. Cloud. It was there that Lewis and several other men became very sick, probably from drinking contaminated water. Between there and Camp Watersmeet Meriwether Lewis and one other man died. They were buried beside the mighty river which they had conquered. Burr and the expedition returned to St. Louis on September 3, 1806.

The Burr and Lewis expedition was a big success. Through the efforts of the intrepid explorers:
– The government gained an extensive knowledge of the geography of the Upper Mississippi through maps made of the region’s major rivers
– Observed and described nearly a hundred plant and animal species and sub species
– Opened diplomatic relations with the region’s Indians
– Established a precedent for the army’s exploration of the region
– Focused popular and media attention on the region
– Groundwork was laid for Albish fur trade interests in the region
– Produced a large body of literature about the flaura, fauna, geology and topography of the Upper Mississippi region thanks to the detailed maps and journals kept by Burr, Lewis and others during their 2½ year journey
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  #87  
Old May 8th, 2008, 06:38 PM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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Army Captain Stephen Tillis was selected to explore the midsection of the Louisiana Territory, specifically, the Platte and Penne Rivers. Both rivers, tributaries of the Missouri, were noted in the early reports sent back with the men from the Crawford and Ogden expedition who returned to St. Louis in the spring of 1805. On June 15, 1806, Tillis departed from Fort Bellefontaine, near St. Louis with 26 men. After leaving the fort, the group marched to and then up the Missouri River and then the Osage River. In what to day is western Missouri, they oversaw an exchange of prisoners and hostages between the Osage and Potawatomi tribes and talked with tribal leaders. Then, the team headed northwest, where just beyond the Penne River they mediated a dispute between the Pawnee and Kansas tribes and told them that the region was now under the jurisdiction of the Kingdom of Albion.

From there they continued going northwest to the Platte River. They followed the river for days, both impressed by the abundance of birds and bison along the way, but disappointed by the flat, dry landscape in the region. In one of his journal entries, Tillis wrote, “The Platte is too muddy to drink and too watery for planting.” When they came to the river’s fork present day North Platte, Nebraska, they chose to follow the north fork upstream. They would find its source and then seek out the source of the south fork and follow it downstream. They reached the North Platte’s source at North Platte Basin of Arapahoe 18 weeks after leaving Fort Bellefontaine.

There they built Fort Walden and spent the winter. When the snow melted the next spring, the team realized that the Continental Divide lay to their south and west, and so decided to go east in search of the South Platte River. They left their winter camp on April 27, 1807. After three strenuous weeks traversing the mountains, they reached a river they determined must be the South Platte and decided to follow it. Their hunch was correct. However, they had reached the river many, many miles down stream from its source. They rather quickly down the South Platte then continued along the south shore of the Platte River all the way to the Missouri. They arrived back at the fort on June 1, 1807

The Tillis expedition was indeed a success. Through the efforts of the intrepid explorers:
– The government gained an extensive knowledge of the geography of the Rocky Mountains through maps made of the region’s major rivers and mountain ranges
– Observed and described over a hundred plant and animal species and sub species
– Established Albion’s credentials as a friend and honest broker among the Indians
– Established a precedent for the army’s exploration of the North American West
– Focused popular and media attention on the region
– Produced a large body of literature about the Rocky Mountains through the diaries kept by Tillis and others during the journey
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  #88  
Old May 9th, 2008, 03:43 AM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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Army Captain Henry Kissell was selected to lead an expeditionary force of 25 men up the Arkansa River, explore its headwaters, then seek out and explore the headwaters of the Red River and follow it down stream to Natchitoches. As the rivers were presumed to lie just within the southern limits of the Louisiana Purchase, Kissell was instructed, “Be extremely guarded with respect to the Spaniards; neither alarm nor offend them unnecessarily.” These warnings and the mission as a whole were important for two reasons. 1st, the border between Albion’s Louisiana Territory and the territories of New Spain was poorly defined; and, 2nd, because Albion and Spain, as allies of Great Britain and France respectively, were technically at war with each other in Europe. Kissell’s group left Fort Bellefontaine one week after Tillis’ expeditionary force did, on June 23, 1806.

Kissell kept few notes on the flora and fauna he encountered along the way. He did write often about how disappointed he was by the prairie landscape around him. To Kissell it was a vast, empty wasteland. On September 26, Kissell and his men first saw the distant Rocky Mountains. Soon the wide, shallow banks of the river narrowed and the terrain grew hillier. Before long, the mountains, with all their grandeur rose up before them. During this time, the expedition was being observed from a distance by a Spanish army patrol. Kissell noted the presence of soldiers near his group with a sense of pride. As they pressed on, the weather began to change as summer gave way to autumn. On October 17, the group reached a spectacular canyon, which they named Royal Gorge. From its headwaters to Royal Gorge the Arkansa River runs as a steep mountain torrent through narrow valleys, dropping 4,600 feet in 120 miles.

After finding the gorge impassable, the team unsuccessfully attempted to follow two nearby tributaries in hopes that they might lead to the Arkansa’s source. In the process they did discover the headwaters of the South Platte and finally the headwaters of the Arkansa itself. By then the first heavy snows of winter had fallen. The team was cold, hungry, tired, emotionally drained and in much physical pain. None the less, the explorers headed south over the mountains, toward, Kissell hoped, the Red River’s headwaters.

Finally on December 18, Kissell reached what he thought was the Red River. There, finally, he permitted his men to stop and build a small fort. Though Kissell thought that he had reached the Red River, he had in fact reached the Rio del Norte. Though they hung an Albish flag between two pines and celebrated, they were in fact camped upon land that belonged to Spain. There Kissell attempted to regroup his men, who were strewn across miles of mountains behaind him. For two months they braved the elements, surviving mostly on water, bark, pinecones and meat occasionally. Amazingly, no one died that winter, rose in rebellion or deserted.

It was at this location that Kissell and his men were discovered on February 26, 1807 by a Spanish army unit out on patrol, arrested and marched south through Santa Fe, Albuquerque and El Paso to Chihuahua, the capital of Nueva Vizcaya Province. Along the way, Kissell made notes of the placement of towns and forts, the size of garrisons, natural resources and land formations. He met with priests and regular villagers along the way to gather information. Once in Chihuahua, Kissell was ordered to stop taking notes. The local authorities also confiscated all his journals and papers (which were not returned to the Albish government until 1900). He kept writing, though, and amazingly managed to keep the notes hidden. After Spanish authorities in Chihuahua determined Kissell had had no overtly subversive or hostile motives, they escorted him across Texas to Albion. Though some of the expedition’s team members were kept jailed in Chihuahua for several years, Kissell and sixteen men arrived at the border at Natchitoches on July 1, 1807.

The Spanish government formally complained to Albion’s Secretary of State, Rufus King, saying that the expedition’s presence had the appearance of a clandestine mission. In response, the Albish government maintained that the expedition had been one of exploration and domestic information gathering only. The government also apologized for their accidental incursion onto Spanish territory and invited the Spanish government to meet with the Albish government to define the boundary between them more precisely. Such a meeting would not take place for several years.

Kissell’s journal entries were routine and shallow in their description of what they experienced along the way and showed little imagination or creativity. Kissell made significant mistakes during the journey and seemed bewildered by the mountains. However, Kissell’s detail and energy level perked up during his detour through New Spain. His writings during this part of his journey provided the Albish government with invaluable information about Spanish North America, information that they never would have received otherwise. As an explorer, he was less than successful; but as a soldier doing reconnaissance in a foreign county, he did an outstanding job of gathering information and relaying it to his government. The Kissell Expedition has been a fertile field for historical discussions and debate over the past two centuries. In both its failures and in its successes, this expedition has had a significant impact on Albish history.

In a domestic event that caused a bit of political controversy, King Edward and First Lady Elizabeth’s youngest (6th) child Amelia married Congressman James Burney, Member of Congress from Virginia on May 26, 1804 and Second Presbyterian Church in the Federal City of Americus. Some thought it inappropriate that the daughter of the Chief Executive, the King, should marry a person serving in the legislative branch of government. The couple was very happy together and no political crises ever materialized. Burney served in the House until 1820, when he was elected governor of Virginia. On January 1, 1804, Haitian revolutionary leader Jean-Jacques Dessalines declared Haiti an independent nation and was chosen to assume the office of Governor-General. He proclaimed himself Emperor of Haiti, as Jacques I, and ruled there until his assassination in 1806. In Albion's the general congressional election of November 1804, the Federalist Party won 17 Senate and 70 House seats. The Populist Party won 5 Senate seats and 41 House seats. The Patriot Party won 5 Senate seats and 55 House seats. After the election, John Adams was selected to serve a 3rd term as chancellor.

Last edited by Lord Grattan; May 9th, 2008 at 04:05 AM..
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  #89  
Old May 9th, 2008, 08:08 PM
mikegold mikegold is offline
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I still see a Cuban and perhaps Puerto Rican operation as likely. With a friendly Britain and a distant France, Spain is the obvious main rival.
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  #90  
Old May 10th, 2008, 02:00 PM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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Originally Posted by mikegold View Post
I still see a Cuban and perhaps Puerto Rican operation as likely. With a friendly Britain and a distant France, Spain is the obvious main rival.
Quite likely.
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  #91  
Old May 10th, 2008, 02:01 PM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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The bulk of the Albish fleet remained stationed at Lisbon, Portugal during 1805-07, patroling the Portuguese coast with the British Navy, and escorting British and Albish merchant ships in the Western Mediterranean Sea. In December 1805, Austria left the 3rd Coalition after being defeated by Napoleon’s army, and the coalition collapsed. Early the next year a 4th Coalition, including Prussia, Russia and Sweden, was formed to continue the war against. Napoleon decicively defeated the coalition. Prussia fell in November 1806. The Swedes were driven from their possessions in Pommerania and Lithuania early in 1807. The Russian army was routed from Poland and surrendered, signing the Treaty of Tilsit in July 1807. In 1806, while in Berlin following his victory over Prussia, Napoleon declared a Continental Blockaide, forbidding British and Albish imports into continental Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, Great Britain was emerging as Europe's manufacturing center, and Napoleon believed it would be vulnerable to an embargo which cut off trade with the European nations under his control.

The economic threat worried many in Albion, who relied on imports from and exports to Europe for their livelihood. Portugal openly refused to join the Continental System. The kingdom had had a treaty of alliance with the British (and previously the English) since 1373. In November 1807, Napoleon launched an attempt to capture the Portuguese fleet, occupy Portuguese ports and expel the Albish and British from Portugal. He sent his army across the Pyrenees Mountains into Spain with the objective of conquering Portugal. Spain sent two divisions to help French troops occupy Portugal. The Portuguese army was positioned to defend the kingdom’s ports and coast from French attack, while the navy, along with the royal family and court escaped to Brazil, where they established a government in exile. Soon after their departure, on December 1, Lisbon fell to the French. French forces then turned on their Spanish ally and overthrew its government and placed the king, Ferdinand VII, under house arrest in France. Napoleon’s brother, Joseph became King of Spain. The British Navy, along with the Albish ships “St. Lawrence”, “Constellation” and “Congress” withdrew to England. The Albish ships “Chesapeake” and “Intrepid” returned to Baltimore. They would return in the spring to England, along with new crews, two additional frigates, 2 sloops of war, four gunboats and one ship of the line, “Americus”.

The additional ships which Albion sent to Europe in the spring of 1808 included 4,500 Albish artillary and infintrymen plus 250 Indian Special Tactical Warriors under the command of General Jacob Brown. Upon its arrival in England, this new taskforce, along with the ships and personnel who had wintered in England, were dispatched to Sweden along with a British fleet manned by 15,000 troops. Their mission would be to support the Swedish army and navy in its war against Russia and France. They arrived in the Swedish port at Gothenberg on May 26, but never landed due to various disagreements with Sweden’s king (among the issues was the ethnic composition of the Albish fleet, which was approximatly 15% black in addition to the Indians.). After three weeks, they weighed anchor and returned to England.

On June 18, a people’s uprising began in Portugal and later that month coordinated riots broke out across Spain. This partisan uprising marked the start of the gurrilla (Spanish for “little war”) war in Spain which would benefit Great Britain in the “big war” by tying down, hampering and bloodying thousands of French soldiers. This turn of events prompted the British Admiralty to send the recently returned British and Albish fleets once again to Portugal. The British propaganda machine was quick to capitalize on the popular uprisings against Napoleon, who was labled “ the Great Disturber of European Peace”. Newspapers throughout Albion featured cartoons of “Little Nappy” being chased by angry mobs and did all they could to drum up support for the continued war against the “Tyrant of France.” Congress was asked to allocate additional funds for soldiers, sailors and supplies, which they did.

Though pro-war sentiment was high in Albion, it was not universal. Those with anti-war sentiments also made their voices heard. The legislature of South Carolina passed a resolution criticsizing the federal government for taking Albion into a long and drawn out war. Dr. Thomas Jefferson, Professor of Political Theory and Government at the University of Virginia, posed the question, “Are our young men nothing but canon fodder for the British military?” in his famous 1808 “Open Letter to my King.” On Good Friday in 1809, The Reverend Alexander Holmes of Frederickton, Guelph, told his congregation that “The Iberian Peninsula has become for our nation a deep morass.” During congressiopnal debate on the appropriation of funds, Congressman Mark Alton of West Florida commented, “Is France really a threat to the economic secirity of this nation? I think not.”
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Old May 11th, 2008, 02:50 AM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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On February 11, 1808, Anthracite coal was first burned as fuel by Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. This discovery would lead to the use of coal as a key fuel source in Albion’s industrial revolution. In May that year, Rabbi Joseph Fine founded the Zion North America Society. The organization was established to encourage Jewish immigration to Albion, calling it “a land of unparalleled toleration and freedom for Jews.” On October 6, King Edward’s oldest son and heir presumptive, Edward York, died from Typhoid Fever. King Edward wrote in his diary soon there after that, "When I look into my grandson's eyes I see a sad emptiness that I remember all too well." The king's grandson was around the same age then that Edward was when his father, Frederick, Prince of Wales died in 1751.

In the general congressional election that November, the Federalist Party won 10 Senate seats and 66 House seats. The Populist Party won 4 Senate seats and 29 House seats. The Patriot Party won 12 Senate seats and 71 House seats. Chancellor Adams did not run for re-election to his House seat. As a result of the election, the Patriot Party became the majority party in the House of Representatives. After the election, James Madison (Patriot) was selected as the nation’s 3rd Chancellor.

In August, 1808, British forces landed in Portugal and together with the Portuguese Army took up positions at Rolica, Loison and Vimeiro. Their positions held and an armistice was agreed to. The French had been temporarily pushed out of Portugal. The British and Albish fleets provided convoy protection and gathered military intelligence around the southern edge of the Iberian Peninsula in 1808. Their presence there slowed the French advance into southern Spain and drained France’s military resources in the region.

Albish frigates commanded the strategic Gulf of Roses north of Barcelona, near the French border, and were heavily involved in the defense of Rosas. General Brown and the Indian Special Tactical Warriors held a cliff top fortress against the French for nearly a month, before surrendering it to a superior French force. Small gains were made by British and Albish forces during the summer. Portuguese and Spanish partisan brigades were frequently able to disrupt French supply lines and to generally make life uncomfortable for them.

The setbacks and difficulties experienced by his troops in Spain and Portugal convinced Emperor Napoleon that he needed to personally intervene. On October 1808, he led his quarter million plus man Grande Armée into Spain in a tidal wave of fire, steel and horses. They left death and devastation in their wake, reaching Spain’s capital, Madrid, just before Christmas. In January 1809, Napoleon’s army routed and decimated British forces under General John Moore, driving them out of Spain. Moore was killed during the exodus. Two months later, certain that he had stamped out the popular resistance and secured his brother’s position on the Spanish throne, Napoleon turned military control of Spain over to his Marshals and returned to France. In Central Europe that summer (1809) France would defeat British and Austrian forces in the bloody and brutal War of the 5th Coalition.


I have posted a flag of Napoleonic Spain on the flag thread:
http://www.alternatehistory.com/disc...postcount=5094

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  #93  
Old May 12th, 2008, 02:55 PM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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In March 1810, General Brown and a sizeable portion of his force left the Mediterranean and returned to Albion. They were relieved by a 2,500 man force led by General Henry Drake. In June, General Brown testified before Congress about the war. He reported on the previous year’s second French invasion of Portugal and how it was turned back by British forces under the Duke of Wellington. He also told of the progress made by British, Portuguese and Spanish forces in Spain. He told Congress, “I am optimistic that with a large force fighting at Great Britain’s side, France’s grip on Spain can be broken within three years.” Afterwards, Congress engaged in serious and sometimes heated debate on continued Albish participation in the war.

Regarding the proposed build-up, former Chancellor John Adams wrote, “Congress declared this war and it must now do whatever it takes in terms of funding, equipment and manpower to see that it is brought to a successful conclusion.” Senator Robert Davies of Ohio declared that “This is an unnecessary foreign entanglement, and the wages of this entanglement is death!” Senator Obadiah Morris of North Carolina said, “Fighting this war is essential to our nation’s economic interest, and to the cause of liberty.” Governor Richard Pettis of Narragansett wrote, “Albion is bound to Great Britain not only by treaty, but by cultural, economic, political and spiritual ties. We are family, and family members stand up for each other in times of need. We have been standing with our sister in this conflict for six years and we must continue to stand with her until this fight is concluded. We cannot abandon our sister now.”

In the end, Congress approved the funds necessary to raise and equip a large military force on August 6. Congress also passed the Wartime Transportation Act which compelled shipbuilders to make all ships under construction available to the armed forces of Albion upon request in time of war. This act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1813 (Philadelphia Shipyard vs. Albion). Thankfully, word that the French army under Marshal Masséna had reinvaded Portugal did not reach Americus until late September.

In September, the army and navy launched their first nation-wide recruitment drive. Generous bonuses were offered to young men who signed two year contracts. Several colonies instituted a military draft. Major Adrian Holzinger was put in charge of securing ships for the expedition and coordinating troop deployment. Colonel Cyrus Cobb was put in charge of coordinating combat training among the various provincial and regular army units. Commodore Oliver Perry was placed in command of the naval component of the force. Major General Andrew Jackson was put in overall command of the taskforce. By April 1811, 10,500 men (4,500 new recruits, 3,000 current troops and 3,000 veteran reenlistments) had signed on. It was an impressive and chaotic sight as the men converged upon the three staging sites: Boston, Baltimore, and Norfolk that October. Finally, during the 3rd week of December, the Grand Army of the Realm (GAR) arrived in Lisbon.
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  #94  
Old May 12th, 2008, 04:27 PM
Archangel Archangel is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Lord Grattan View Post
In August, 1808, British forces landed in Portugal and together with the Portuguese Army took up positions at Rolica, Loison and Vimeiro.
I have been following your timeline and I find it very interesting.
May I suggest just a minor nitpick: It should be took up positions at Roliça and Vimeiro.
Loison was a French general (whose ruthlessness and being one-armed, gave birth to a Portuguese expression that it's difficult to translate into English).
Keep up the good work!
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  #95  
Old May 12th, 2008, 05:04 PM
G.Bone G.Bone is offline
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A defeat in Spain is sad.

What will happen to the other Spaniards that fled the massive putting down?

&

How deep are these growing political divisions between Albion and England now? Are there smaller groups running around advocating a divide?
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  #96  
Old May 13th, 2008, 12:17 AM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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In the 1820's, after Edward I, George III and the founding generation are dead.
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  #97  
Old May 13th, 2008, 12:18 AM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Archangel View Post
I have been following your timeline and I find it very interesting.
May I suggest just a minor nitpick: It should be took up positions at Roliça and Vimeiro.
Loison was a French general (whose ruthlessness and being one-armed, gave birth to a Portuguese expression that it's difficult to translate into English).
Keep up the good work!
Thank you. I appreciate it.
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  #98  
Old May 13th, 2008, 10:56 AM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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While in Scotland during the summer of 1811, John Jacob Astor met Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, whose vision it was to establish a colony in Assiniboia, the land owned by Astor’s North West Company, where destitute Scottish farmers could experience a fresh start. At the time, there was social and economic upheaval in Scotland due to the introduction of sheep farming into the region and the often brutal land clearances that followed. He had conceived this plan after reading Alexander Mackenzie’s 1801 book on his adventures while exploring the northwest part of the continent. In 1793 MacKenzie had completed the first recorded transcontinental crossing of North America, north of Mexico, by a European. The two established a congenial working relationship, and the first group of settlers arrived in Assiniboia in June, 1812. While never very successful agriculturally, Selkirk’s vision and the determination of the thousand or so settlers who arrived over the ensuing years, helped ignite the westward expansion of the nation in the 1860s and 1870s.

King George III had two brief relapses into “madness” in 1802 and 1805, but aside from those periods, he was alert, engaged and active in the affairs of state during the 1st decade of the 19th Century. It was only in 1811 that permanent insanity descended upon him. On July 18, 1811 Parliament declared George, Prince of Wales Prince Regent of Great Britain. The king would live out the remaining years of his life in seclusion at Windsor Castle.

Church bells in several cities and villages ring mysteriously on February 12, 1812. Reports later would include stories of cracked walls and sidewalks along with minor personal injuries. In Baltimore, Edward York (King Edward’s grandson and heir presumptive) was thrown from his horse and injured that day when something spooked the horse, causing him to rear up and bolt. In the years that followed, stories about how the earth shook in St. Louis, Vincennes, Helmville and Nashville, and about how the Mississippi River ran backwards would spread. These things happened as the result of the New Madrid Earthquake (magnitude 8.0) which struck along the Reelfoot Rift Zone four miles beneath the Mississippi River, at New Madrid County in the Louisiana Territory (now Province of Missouri). The February quake was the strongest of four quakes (2 on December 16, 1811 and one on January 23, 1812) to shake the region.

On April 30, 1812 Congress established the Province of Louisiana form the southern section of Louisiana Territory (south of the 33rd Parallel). The remainder of the territory was renamed Missouri. In that year’s November general congressional election, the Federalist Party won 17 Senate seat and 67 House seats. The Populist Party won 5 Senate seats and 30 House seats. The Patriot Party won 6 Senate seats and 105 House seats. After the election, James Madison was selected to serve a 2nd term as Chancellor.

In 1812, John Jacob Astor became the majority owner of the North West Company. He also became the principle investor in the Mississippi and Missouri Company. The MMC was founded by George Shannon (who had participated in the Crawford and Ogden Expedition) and Stephen Long (who had participated in the Burr and Lewis expedition). The company would grow and monopolize the fur trade in the region for the next few decades. One of the company’s advantages was the ability to transport furs more quickly thanks to the introduction of steamships onto the Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers in the 18-teens. No longer did furs need to go through the Great Lakes and down the St. Lawrence to reach a sea port.

On August 23, 1812 the Treaty of Hamilton was signed by William Crawford and John Eaton on behalf of the federal government and 47 representatives of the Cree, Mississauga, Nipissing, Odawa, Ojibwa, and Saux tribes of the Anishinaabe Confederacy. In the treaty, the tribes each recognized Albish sovereignty over them and settled all land claims with the royal government. Afterwards, on March 15, 1813 the Congress established the Anishinaabe Territory out of the Augusta Territory from the border of Ontario north and west around Lake Superior and through a series of waterways between Lake Superior and Rainy Lake and bounded by the lands of the North West and Hudson’s Bay companies.
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Old May 14th, 2008, 11:22 AM
Lord Grattan Lord Grattan is offline
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When Tecumseh fled following his ill-fated meeting with William Henry Harrison he went south. His whereabouts were unknown until the spring of 1812 when George Mayfield, an army scout and interpreter, reported to General Thomas Pinckney at Fort Moore (Fayetteville, Tennessee) that Tecumseh was in SE Alabama living among the Creek Indians. Mayfield’s report also told how Tecumseh was attempting to stir up a rebellion among the Creek Indians living there. Colonel Winfield Scott was ordered to lead an expeditionary force into Alabama and to capture Tecumseh. Scott’s combined infantry and cavalry force left the fort on July 7, and crossed the Tennessee River into Alabama Territory.

Scott's first engagement with rebellious “Red Stick” Creeks occurred in September in the battles of Tallahatchie and Talladega. Over the winter, Scott and his men fought two indecisive battles at Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek. They endured shortages of men and equipment which hampered the army’s effectiveness and chilled their morale. Finally, in February 1813, Scott was in a position to move against Tecumseh. On March 27, he attacked Tecumseh and the Red Sticks with an army of 2,500, which included 600 Alabama Indian militiamen. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend was a decisive victory for Scott. The Red Stick resistance was mercilessly stamped out. 487 Albish soldiers and 52 Alabama militiamen were killed. Over 900 Red Stick warriors were killed. Thirty leaders of the rebellion were arrested and convicted of taking up arms against the government. Other leaders, including Tecumseh, headed south and eluded capture. Scott and his men pursued them as far as present day Tallahassee, East Florida before losing their trail. It would be over a year before their whereabouts would be known.

As a consequence of the Red Stick Insurrection, the progress made by the leaders of the Mississippi Territory to qualify for provincehood was stymied. The flow of settlers into the region slowed to a trickle and the territory gained the reputation of being unstable. A February 1814 bill to create the Province of Mississippi failed to pass the Senate. In April, the frustrated territorial governor, Robert Jackson, brother of General Andrew Jackson, wrote West Florida’s governor, Daniel Lester, to suggest that “if Congress could not see clear to grant provincehood to Mississippi, perhaps they would permit West Florida to annex it”. A few months later, the provincial legislature of West Florida petitioned Congress to annex the Territory of Mississippi to it. Congress narrowly approved the proposal on January 7, 1815.

When Brigadier General Edmund Gaines, the commander of Fort St. Mark at St. Augustine, East Florida, learned the whereabouts of Tecumseh in May 1814, he immediately requested reinforcements form Ft. Mansfield in Pensacola, West Florida and Fort Randolph in Savannah, Georgia. Colonel Duncan Clinch was put in charge of training and leading the taskforce. 1,200 regular soldiers and provincial militiamen departed St. Augustine on November 12. Tecumseh had been moving freely among the Seminole villages in southern and central East Florida, attempting to stir up rebellion. At the time, he and about 1,000 warriors were occupying an abandoned Spanish coastal fort south of St. Augustine at the Matanzas Inlet. They were there making final preparations for an attack on Fort St. Mark, set for the start of the New Year.

The Albish army and Tecumseh’s warriors fought a two day battle on November 28 and 29. Despite their defensive advantage, the army and the sea had the warriors surrounded. An attempt by the Georgia militia to storm the fort from the north on the 1st day failed. That night, about three dozen Indians attempted to slip out via the sea. None made it out alive. The next morning the army moved in from the south and bombarded the fort with canon fire. The fortress’ wall was breached just before noon and fierce hand to hand combat ensued. Tecumseh nailed a soldier with an arrow to the chest, and then a moment later was felled by a musket shot to the head. Fighting continued for a few hours after Tecumseh’s death. When it did stop, fewer than 80 warriors remained alive. Colonel Clinch was promoted and awarded the Order of the Morning Star by King Edward. Tecumseh, like Blue Jacket before him, would be remembered as a brave warrior and champion of traditional Indian ways.
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  #100  
Old May 14th, 2008, 05:34 PM
Herr Frage Herr Frage is offline
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Thus passes a great warrior, hunter and hunted his fate legend, carved with deep letters into the world tree.

So Astor's land will be part of ATL Canada?
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