October: PoD – a fragmented comet strikes the Earth’s northern hemisphere. Most of the pieces are Tunguska-sized objects; many airburst, destroying several cities. Others slam into the ground, launching vast amounts of dust into the atmosphere, causing severe global cooling and disruption of weather patterns. The largest fragment hits the Atlantic, causing a massive tsunami, causing massive devastation and a huge death toll by itself. Smaller ones cause more localised destruction, such as devastating the Aegean and surrounding area, flooding Constantinople and killing most of the people.
The Second Indian Mutiny occurs.
Sir William Thompson (later Baron Kelvin of Brampur) gives an impassioned series of lectures on the dangers of the cold weather continuing. Though controversial, it does spur the government to begin plans for evacuation.
“Flight of the 10,000” occurs – The evacuation of the British gentry (including the Royal Family and most of the government) to the colonies, mostly to India, though many also go to Australia and the Cape.
Griqualand East is annexed to the Cape Colony.
Many countries (mostly those with colonies) evacuate large numbers of people to their other holdings – France (along with Spain and Italy) evacuates to Algeria and the devastated Morocco, displacing many of the natives in their wake. Britain evacuates mostly to India, and it, along with many north European states, to Australia and the Cape.
Transvaal declares itself independent.
Russia experiences a mass internal migration from the northwest southwards, into the Ukraine, the Don and Volga delta region and the Caucasus. Led by Grand Duke Nikolai, nephew of Tsar Alexander II, takes command of the effort. Following the conformation of the death of the Tsar’s immediate family, Nikolai is crowned emperor Nicholas II in Tsaritsyn in 1881.
The so-called “Gun War” occurs in Basutoland.
The Japanese invade and conquer Formosa [Taiwan]
August: Disraeli, who stayed behind to coordinate the evacuation, is killed just before the last transports leave. This act later immortalises him as a martyr.
Queen-Empress Victoria dies. She is succeeded by her son, as Edward VII.
France invades Tunisia with the assistance of Italian refugees.
France invades Morocco with the assistance of Spanish refugees.
A series of treaties transfers control of Mozambique to the British Empire.
Walvis Bay is transferred to the Cape Colony.
France invades Tripolitania in conjunction with Egypt.
Napoléon-Jérôme Bonaparte is declared President and later Emperor of France.
A series of Indian Government Acts are enacted, forming the basis of the post-Mutiny government, which eventually come intro force in 1905.
As the Second Mutiny burns itself out, the re-colonisation of northern India begins.
The Viceroyalties of Australia and South Africa are created.
Western Australia gains responsible government.
Nepal joins India as a Princely State.
Kashmir Act detaches the Princely State of Jammu, which is Hindu, from the rest of the Kashmir, which becomes a province of the Raj.
New Zealand joins the Viceroyalty of Australia.
Zululand joins South Africa as an Integrated State, not unlike the Princely States of India.
Basutoland joins South Africa as an Integrated State.
Western Australia joins the Viceroyalty of Australia.
Mozambique is annexed to South Africa.
Japan completes the recolonisation of Honshu.
The Indian capital is moved from Calcutta to Delhi.
Japan conquers the Corean island of Cheju.
The first General Election is held in India.
Japan begins to colonise the almost deserted island of Karafuto [Sakhalin].
Japan begins the invasion of mainland Corea.
Japan takes Kwangju, the then capital of Corea, completing the first stage in the peninsula’s conquest.
Ceylon joins India.
British Burma joins India.
Japan completes the recolonisation of Hokkaido.
Malaya, Cochinchina, Cambodia and the British East Indies join India.
Japan takes the Aleutian Islands.