1900 – Australia becomes unified as a British Dominion, with its capital at Melbourne; the capital is later moved to Albury, which eventually becomes a separate territory, with land taken from both New South Wales and Victoria.
1901 – The British government, mindful of the growing Zionist movement amongst Jews, offers a large land grant in East Africa. Though many Jews are adamant that they want a homeland in Palestine and nowhere else, many more agree to the offer, feeling that any homeland is better than none – the territory swells with Jewish settlers from across Europe, with many countries (such as Russia) offering financial incentives for them to emigrate to there (largely as a way to reduce their own Jewish populations).
1902 – The *Anglo-Japanese Alliance treaty is signed.
1903 – The Nicaragua Canal opens.
1904 – Acre War occurs between Brazil and Bolivia, over the disputed province, following an abortive rebellion there the previous year. Norway becomes independent of Sweden, and chooses a minor Danish prince as its new monarch.
1904-05 – The First Balkan War occurs, as a loose alliance of Bulgaria (backed by Russia), Serbia (backed by Austria), Montenegro and Greece attack the Ottoman Empire, weakened by an uprising of modernisers. The so-called Balkan Alliance wins several early victories, though they run out of steam in Ottoman Macedonia, as the Turks dig in. Eventually, the other Great Powers force the issue to the peace table; Serbia expands southwards, gaining the area around Nis and Pristina, along with Novi Pazar, while Austria annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina, placed under joint administration. Montenegro gains access to the sea, by acquiring the Kotor peninsula. Bulgaria obtains its independence, annexing the province of Eastern Roumelia in the process. Finally, Greece gains southern Epirus and lands up to Thessalonica, along with Crete.
1904-1906 – The Russo-Japanese War results in the establishment of a Japanese protectorate over Corea and recognition of their holding of Port Arthur; poor connections for the Russian army via the Trans-Siberian Railway and distractions in Europe leads to Japanese victory, though they are not able to wrest Sakhalin from Russian hands entirely – instead it is partitioned along the 50th parallel.
1905 – Capitalising on the war in the Balkans, Italy invades and seizes Ottoman Libya.
Austria-Hungary reorganises itself into Austria-Hungary-Illyria, as Croatia, Dalmatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina are united with Serbia into a third kingdom.
1906 – New Zealand becomes a British dominion.
The Grand Duchy of Finland becomes the first country to grant universal suffrage.
1907 – Newfoundland becomes a British dominion.
The *Anglo-Siamese Treaty cedes what is later described as the Unfederated Malay States to British control.
1908 – Cape Colony, Griqualand East, Griqualand West, Natal, Namibia, and Zululand unite as the Dominion of *South Africa; Zululand becomes something like a princely state, while the two Griqua provinces, and the various integral protectorates of Namibia – Damaraland, Hereroland, Namaland, Ovamboland and Rehoboth – become semi-autonomous territories.
1909-10 – The Second Balkan War occurs, between the Habsburgs (largely Illyrian forces), Greece and Bulgaria on one side and the Ottomans on the other. Ottoman Macedonia is partitioned in the peace treaty, with the north going to Bulgaria and the south going to Greece. The majority of Albania is annexed to Illyria, though additional lands in Epirus are added to Greece, along with many Aegean Islands.
1911 – Following numerous humiliating defeats by the European powers, the Chinese Ch’ing Emperor Liangchang is forced to accept the creation of a constitutional monarchy. General Chiang Liao-ch’ih becomes prime minister, and assumes a great deal of power for himself. Tuva is made independent and placed under Russian protection.
1912 – Ireland is granted Home Rule, though after having to use the Parliament Act to circumvent the House of Lords to achieve it; under this arrangement, the four traditional regions have a great deal of power – this helps to placate the Protestants in Ulster, who have a vast amount of devolution to their area, and an electoral system that ensures that they will have significant power in it.
1915 – Stellaland, Transvaal and the Orange Free State join *South Africa, having been in a customs union with them for several years. This prompts the eventual transference of the central capital to Kimberley, then a mining town near the border with the Free State, due to its a central location. The Boers are able to secure concessions allowing them (amongst other things) to maintain discriminatory voting practices, effectively disenfranchising the black majority.
The Great War begins.
1916 – Norway formally claims Bouvet Island, to forestall anyone else from grabbing it.
1916-1918 – The Napo War occurs, between Colombia and Peru on one side, and Ecuador on the other, over disputed territories in the upper Amazon.
1917 – With its Jewish population now getting quite large, Britain makes East Africa a dominion.