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Look to the West : The Timeline

This is the second page of the simplified timeline overview for Look to the West.


Part 2: The Exile (1727-1749)

1727:

Death of King George I of Great Britain. His son becomes George II of Great Britain. Much like his father, he does not get on with his eldest son, Frederick. At George's coronation (POD) the King stumbles and falls and Frederick laughs at his father's public humiliation. This caps a series of violent disagreements from the two, with the result that George II disinherits Frederick, making his younger brother William the Prince of Wales, and sends him into exile to the North American colonies, giving him the sinecure of Lord Deputy of the Colonies. In Virginia (which has not yet heard the news of Frederick's fall from grace), the new town of Fredericksburg, named in his honour, begins construction.

1728:

Prince Frederick arives in Virginia (the “Third Wave of Germanna”). He decides to settle in the town named in his honour (Fredericksburg), at the quite modest house later known as Little St. James'.

1729:

Treaty of Seville forbids British ships from trading with Spanish colonies in the Americas - it is very often violated. Spanish ships commonly stop British ones for inspection.

1730:

Virginian House of Burgesses passes the Tobacco Inspection Act, which improves the quality of Virginian tobacco overall and places it in high demand in Europe. The scheme is the brainchild of William Gooch, the Royal Lieutenant-Governor (and de facto governor) of Virginia. Prince Frederick, a political ally of Gooch, invests heavily in tobacco plantations and uses the profits to build his still quite meagre funds.

With the assistance of British envoys, the Cherokee people of America politically unify under the leadership of the Chief of Tellico, who becomes Emperor Moytoy II.

1731:

A particularly brutal inspection by the Spanish of a British ship in the Caribbean; the British captain, William Jenkins, has his ear cut off.

1732:

A scandal almost breaks as Prince Frederick is found to have made Mildred Gregory (twice-widowed sister of the Virginian planter Augustine Washington) pregnant. It would ruin his chances of regaining the kingship if news broke out, so Frederick reluctantly agrees to marry her, and to restore the Washingtons' lost lands and titles in England if he becomes King, in order to keep Augustine quiet. The son will go on to become King George III.

In Sweden, Carolus Linnaeus travels to Lapland for his study of the local flora and fauna.

In Britain, the future Lord North is born. Due to Prince Frederick's disgrace, he is named William rather than Frederick as in OTL.

1733:

Prince George Augustine of Cornwall, the future George III, is born. He is nicknamed George FitzFrederick by Williamites who do not recognise his father's marriage as legitimate.

In China, Hongli the Prince Bao, tipped to succeed his father the Yongzheng Emperor, dies when he drowns in a river.

1733-1738: The First War of the Polish Succession. France, Spain and Savoy vs. Russia, Austria and Saxony over whether the elected King of Poland-Lithuania should be Stanisław Leszczyński or Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony (respectively). George II of Britain wants to enter the war, but Walpole refuses, and the infuriated King is only able to assist Austria via his position of Elector of Hanover. Walpole recovers some popularity in Britain thanks to his decision to stay out of the war. Although the French-led side wins, the Saxon becomes King Augustus III of Poland at the compromise peace settlement. Austria receives Tuscany and Palma but transfers Naples and Sicily to Don Carlos, the former Duke of Parma and future King Charles III of Spain. This is the beginning of the end for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which decays under Augustus III's indifferent rule.

1734:

Frederick tours the American colonies, while Mildred remains behind and gives birth to Princess Mildred, the future Queen of Denmark. He forms a political alliance with the Lieutenant-Governor of Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon, and then becomes involved in New York politics, backing the “Morrisite” opposition party against the tyrannical Lieutenant-Governor William Cosby, a fierce Georgian loyalist. He also visits New England and writes about the questionable loyalties of the French-descended people in British Nova Scotia. In Britain, Robert Walpole's majority is reduced after he attempts to introduce an unpopular customs and excise tax. A new opposition party, the Patriot Boys, is formed. They support Prince Frederick and are led by skilled political orators such as William Pulteney, William Pitt and George Grenville.

1735:

Prince Frederick returns home to Virginia briefly, then tours the Carolinas before finally returning to Fredericksburg at the end of the year.

Linnaeus publishes his seminal work 'Systema Naturae' in the Netherlands. This is a controversial work, as it argues for a purely empirical system of classification, with no regard for the Great Chain of Being.

1738:

When Robert Jenkins exhibits his pickled ear in a jar in the House of Commons, British outrage is such that even Robert Walpole gives in and declares war on Spain - the War of Jenkins' Ear, which bleeds into the War of the Austrian Succession.

1740-1748: The War of the Austrian Succession, aka the Second War of Supremacy. After Charles VI of Austria's death, the powers of Europe conveniently forget they agreed to the Pragmatic Sanction, and war is declared. Maria Theresa's accession is really just a casus belli, however - in truth the war is mainly about Prussia's desire to take Silesia from Austria. Prussia, France, Spain, Bavaria, Naples and Sicily, and Sweden vs. Austria, Britain, Hanover, the Netherlands, Saxony, Sardinia and Russia. The war sees Maria Theresa appeal for assistance to her Hungarian subjects and receive important levies - a contrast to the Hungarian rebellion against Joseph I in the War of the Spanish Succession - and the powers of Europe astonished by the performance of the Prussian army under Frederick II. The Prussians use powerful new drills and tactics, and deploy an entirely professional army, not using unreliable (but cheaper) mercenaries. This leads to Maria Theresa, and others, copying the Prussians to some extent.

1741:

British general election reduces Robert Walpole's majority, especially in the rotten boroughs.

Admiral Edward Vernon, whose captain of Marines is Major Lawrence Washington (Augustine's elder son), is embarrassingly defeated in an attempted descent on the Spanish city of Cartagena-des-Indes in New Granada. This overshadows his earlier victory over the Spanish at Porto Bello in Darien.

Frederick II of Prussia wins an important victory at Mollwitz, bringing France and Sweden into the war on his side.

Governor George Clarke of New York puts down a slave revolt. He is the ancestor of future Supremacist Party leader Matthew Clarke.

1742:

Robert Walpole, his government having lost numerous constituencies in the 1741 General Election, resigns as Prime Minister and accepts a seat in the House of Lords as 1st Earl of Orford. He is succeeded by Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, but real power rests with the Secretary of State for the Northern Department, John Carteret.

Admiral Vernon takes Guantanamo from Spain, but is eventually repulsed by Cuban irregulars.

The Battle of Bloody Fields sees the repulsion of a Spanish attack on Georgia by the local militias. However, Georgian/Carolinian attempts to take Spanish Flordia are equally inconclusive.

A poorly coordinated Franco-Saxon-Bavarian army under Marshal de Broglie manages to take most of Bohemia from Austria.

Heinrich Mühlenberg immigrates to America from the Germanies, founding a political dynasty and the Lutheran Church in America. He anglicises his name to 'Henry Mullenburgh'.

1743:

Sweden knocked out of the war by Russia, which annexes parts of Finland; however Russia also leaves the war soon afterwards. Austria, backed by Hungarian levies, ejects the French and their allies from Bohemia. Britain enters the European war, blockading the Neapolitan fleet in port, while King George II goes to Hanover and raises an army, which he leads into battle personally (though his son William, Prince of Wales and Duke of Cumberland, acts as general).

The Anglo-Hanoverians meet the French, led by the Duc de Noailles, at Dettingen. Despite Noailles' superior generalship, George's forces win the battle, but George himself is killed.

Wilmington dies and is replaced by Henry Pelham as Prime Minister. Pelham shares power with his brother Thomas, the Duke of Newcastle.

Death of Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark in a riding accident, thus making his younger brother Christian the heir apparent to King Christian VI.

1744:

In Oman, patriotic forces drive the Persians from the country and it becomes fully independent under the elected Imam Ahmed ibn Sayyid as-Sayyid. In TTL there is no Qais branch of the family and he is peacefully succeeded by his son Sayyid in time: Oman remains united.

Platinum is discovered in New Granada by Antonio de Ulloa y de Torre-Girault and Jorge Juan.

1745:

Prince William, now William IV, is defeated by Marshal Saxe at Fontenoy. He returns to Britain and puts down the Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland led by Bonnie Prince Charlie.

In North America New England forces, including Prince Frederick, take the fortress of Louisbourg from France.

Death of King Christian VI of Denmark; his second son succeeds him as Christian VII, and enacts a radical reform programme. Christian VII reverses his father's introduction of adscription (essentially serfdom), restores the Danish Diet to play off the commoners against the nobility, and sells off Denmark's overseas colonies to finance a new military buildup in the Baltic.

Dutch inventor Pieter van Musschenbroek invents the Leyden Jar, the first primitive means for storing electric charge.

1746:

French forces in India under La Bourdonnais take Madras from the British East India Company.

1747:

French invasion of Austrian Netherlands leads to internal dissent in the Dutch Republic. A new settlement is established whereby the stadtholder of the provinces of Friesland and Gronigen becomes Stadtholder William IV, ending the stadtholderless period, and the office is also made hereditary, paving the way for a shift from oligarchic republic to monarchy.

British general election returns a shaky majority for the Pelhamites in the 10th Parliament of Great Britain.

In India, Dupleix attacks British-held Cuddalore, but is repulsed by an army under the British-allied Nawab of the Carnatic, Anwarooddin Mohammed Khan.

1748:

Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle. Maria Theresa remains Holy Roman Empress, but Austria loses Silesia to Prussia and various territories in Italy to Parma and Sardinia. France returns the Austrian Netherlands to Austria, a highly unpopular move among the French people. King William IV of Britain agrees to return Louisbourg to France in return for Madras. However, this is equally unpopular with the Americans. Prince Frederick seizes his chance and, backed by American supporters who sign a Declaration of Right, claims the throne. The War of the British Succession begins.

Spain and Portugal enter negotiations aimed at refining the outdated zones of control in the Americas defined by the old Treaty of Torsedillas.

1749:

January - Hearing of Frederick's claim, William invokes the Treason Act 1702 and imprisons some of Frederick's most prominent Patriot supporters. This clumsy response makes William less popular with the English people in general.

April - Williamite fleet, under the command of Admiral John Byng, sets sail for America;

Bonnie Prince Charlie leads a Jacobite fleet to Limerick in Ireland and starts a rising there against the absentee William. Fourth Jacobite Rebellion, including a minor rising in Scotland led by Lord Cosmo Gordon, which is rapidly crushed. Ireland, however, rages on.

August - cunning plan by Frederick leads to William being assassinated at range on the deck of Byng's flagship by American riflemen. Frederick smooths things over and the war fizzles out. Byng's fleet winters in America, having turned to Frederick.

In India, Dupleix supports Chanda Sahib in his attempt to overthrow Anwarooddin Mohammed Khan, the Nawab of the Carnatic (and latterly his son Mohammed Ali).


timelines/lttw_2.txt · Last modified: 2016/08/15 20:45 by petike