In Look to the West, Lithuania was separated from the Kingdom of Poland after the War of the Polish Partition. Some Belarusian-speaking territories in the east were annexed to Russia, but the bulk of the country was left as an independent state under the Russian Tsarevich, Paul, as Grand Duke.
Pauline rule turned out to be surprisingly moderate, with Catholic institutions remaining alongside new Orthodox ones and the Lithuanian language being no more suppressed than it had under Warsaw. Paul helped create a new national identity by sponsoring the creation of a Lithuanian Baltic and trading fleet, which went on to be important in the Russo-Lithuanian Pacific Company.
Lithuanian public opinion remained in favour enough of Paul - or at least preferring him to the alternatives - that in the Russian Civil War (which eventually became the Great Baltic War) the Lithuanians continued to support him rather than joining the Poles when they rebelled against the Prussians. After the war was won and Paul became Emperor of all the Russias, his own heir Peter became Grand Duke.
1709-1733: Augustas II - Augustus II the Strong (also King of Poland and Elector of Saxony)
1733-1736: Stanislovas Leščinskis - Stanisław Leszczyński (also King of Poland)
1736-1765: Augustas III - Augustus III (also King of Poland and Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus II)
1765-1767: Interregnum as the Sejm is deadlocked
1767-1771: War of the Polish Partition: Lithuania separated from Poland
1771-1795: Povilas - Paul I
1795-1829: Petras - Peter I
1829-: Konstantinas - Constantine I
The flag of Lithuania (not standardised until the 1810s) combines the traditional Lithuanian banner of the Vytis and the colours of the Russian Empire.