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2001: A Space-Time Odyssey

This page covers major events and dates in the 2001: A Space-Time Odyssey Timeline by SpaceGeek and Michel Van.

Key Dates

1957

October 4: the Soviet launch Sputnik 1, the first artificial Satellite into Space

December 6: the USA try to launch Vanguard 1, the Rocket explode over launch pad life on US TV, the Incident was label in world press as “kaputnik”.

1958

during the year: Sergei Khrushchev get a job at OKB-1 of Sergei Korolev

May 23: the USA launch successful “Explorer 1” into Earth Orbit

1959

January 2: The Soviet Union launch “Luna-1” toward the Moon

1960

February 13: France detonates its first atomic bomb.

October 24: Successful first launch of Soviet R-16 ICBM.

1961

January 20: John F. Kennedy is inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States of America.

February: in meeting of COSPAR the europeans came to agreement for join-venture Space program under agency “European Space Research Organization” and “European Launcher Development Organization”

February 9: An IL-18 plane carrying the nominal Head of State of the USSR, Leonid Brezhnev, strays into French Algerian airspace. The plane is accidentally shot down by French fighter jets, killing all on board. A major international crisis ensues between the Soviet Union and France. de Gaulle decides to pursue closer relations with NATO to avoid a more serious confrontation with the USSR.

March: the climax of french Soviet crisis, Former french prime minister Michel Debrè sacrificed him self, by going to Soviet embassy in Paris and giving himself up,

April: The UN releases its report on the shooting down of Brezhnev’s IL-18, blaming lack of communications between the Soviets and French and pilot error.

April 12: Vostok 1 is launched; Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human being in space. Gagarin orbits the Earth once in a 108-minute flight.

April 17: The Bay of Pigs invasion, which is easily defeated by Fidel Castro’s Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev declared that Cuba is now under the nuclear protection of USSR

May 5th: Launch of Mercury Redstone-3 (Freedom 7) with Alan Shepard on board for fifteen minute suborbital mission. First American manned spaceflight.

May 25: In a speech in front of a special joint sitting of Congress, President Kennedy declares “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth.”

June 1: Khrushchev authorises draft work for a booster and spacecraft capable of landing and returning cosmonauts from the surface of the Moon.

June 23: USSR create “Ministry of General Machine-Building Industry” it's Space Agency

July 21: Mercury Redstone-4 (Liberty Bell 7) launched with Virgil “Gus” Grissom on board. Second suborbital Mercury mission.

August: The Soviet R-16 ICBM becomes operational and deployment.

August 6: Vostok 2 launched with Gherman Titov for a one-day mission in Earth orbit.

August 13: East Germany begins constructing the Berlin Wall. Beginning of the Berlin Wall crisis.

August 29: Mercury Redstone-5 (Freedom 7) with John Glenn on board launched. Third and final suborbital Mercury flight.

September: The UN begins its investigation into the shooting down of an airplane carrying the UN Secretary-General over Congo by Belgium mercenaries.

October 27: Standoff between US and Soviet tanks at Checkpoint Charlie, Berlin. High point of the Berlin Crisis.

November 9: X-15 reaches speed of Mach 6.04.

November 18: U.S. President John F. Kennedy sends 18,000 military advisors to South Vietnam.

1962

January 26: Ranger 3 is launched to study the Moon, it later misses the Moon by 22,000 miles.

February 10: Gary Powers is released by the USSR as part of a prisoner exchange with the United States. Powers had flown a U-2 spyplane over the Soviet Union and was shot down.

February 20: Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7) launched. John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth. Glenn also becomes the first human to travel to space twice.

April 26, The Ranger 4 spacecraft crashes into the Moon.

May 24: Mercury-Atlas 7 (Aurora 7) launched, carrying Scott Carpenter. Carpenter repeats Glenn's three orbits of Earth before returning safely to Earth.

July 17: Flight No-62 of X-15 sets altitude record of 95.9 kilometres. Pilot Robert M. White qualifies for USAF Astronaut Wings by crossing 80 kilometre threshold. White’s flight would be followed by thirteen other X-15 flights that crossed this barrier.

August 11: Launch of Vostok 3, carrying first two-person crew to Earth orbit (Pavel Popovich, Vladimir Komarov). First flight of Vostok 3KD spacecraft. Komarov conducts the first human spacewalk, which nearly ends in disaster.

August 12: Launch of Vostok 4, three-man crew breaking Vostok 3's record set the day before (Andrian Nikolayev, Boris Volynov, Valery Bykovsky). Vostok 4 passes to within 6.5 kilometers of Vostok 3 on its first orbit.

August 15: Vostok 3 and 4 successfully return to Earth. Popovich and Komarov set four-day spaceflight record.

October 3: Mercury Atlas-8 (Sigma 7) launched with Walter M. Schirra on board. Schirra's nine-hour flight tests the endurance of the Mercury spacecraft; it returns in perfectly operating condition.

November 9 X-15A-2 damaged in crash landing. The crash prompted immediate talk of improving the X-15 design by adding delta wings and upgraded engines in light of a (baseless) rumour that the Soviet Union was designing its own spaceplane.

1963

Early 1963?: CIA reconnaissance satellites show an increase in activity at OKB-1 factory and the beginning of further construction work at Baikonur. With President Kennedy banning U-2 flights, the CIA looks at other options for its surveillance programs.

May 15: Mercury Atlas-9 (Faith 7) with Gordon Cooper launched on a one-day mission in Earth orbit.

May 16: A series of technical failures forced Cooper to manually land Faith-7. Although successful debate raged within NASA whether to continue the Mercury program or end it and focus on Gemini. Eventually it was decided to continue with Mercury, given with the already long lead the Soviets had on the Americans.

July 20: First Mach 3 test flight of the A-12 Oxcart.

August 5: The Partial Test Ban Treaty is signed by the UK, USA and USSR. The three nations agree to prohibit the testing of nuclear weapons everywhere except for underground.

August 25: Launch of Vostok 5. Valery Bykovsky completes eight-day endurance flight and safely returns on 2 September.

August 27: Launch of Vostok 6, with Valentina Tereshkova, Valentina Ponomaryova and Irina Solovyova. Vostok 6 launched the first women into space for a one-day mission, performing a second rendezvous with Vostok 5 and coming within 4.5 km of each other.

November 22: President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. His Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson is inaugurated as the 36th President of the United States.

December 10: Cancellation of USAF Dyna Soar project.

September-December: Vostok 7 flight, with Boris Volynov. Vostok 7 is launched into an elliptical orbit with an apogee of just over 1,000 kilometres. Volynov becomes the first human being to see the Earth as a whole from space, returning after ten days in orbit.

1964

No Date Italy, Netherlands, Belgium Join ESDO, while Australia cooperate in ELDO

March 30: The democratically-elected President of Brazil, Joa Goulart, is overthrown in a military coup d’etat.

April 4: Vostok 7 launched with Boris Volynov. in high elliptical orbit of 200 x 1000 km. for a 10 day mission of intensive bio-medical experiments.

April 4?: Vostok 8 launched with Pavel Belyayev and Yevgeni Khrunov. Vostok 7 travelled in the same elliptical orbit that Vostok 7 did, but the mission only lasted a single day. Belayev performed the Soviets’ second spacewalk, with none of the problems encountered on Vostok 3.

April 12: Gemini 1 (unmanned) launched into Earth orbit. First flight of the Gemini spacecraft.

April 20: President Johnson and Premier Khrushchev announce plans to reduce production of materials for making nuclear weapons.

July the first Nositjel-3 is roll out and launch successfully.

August 4: Gulf of Tonkin Incident. Two US Navy destroyers are supposedly fired upon by North Vietnamese vessels. As a result the US adopts the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, leading to deeper involvement in the Vietnam War.

October 16: China detonates its first nuclear weapon.

October 14: First Deputy Premier Alexander Shelepin and KGB Chairman Vladimir Semichastny are arrested for conspiring against Khrushchev. Both are sentenced to seventeen years’ imprisonment and barred from any political activity.

1965

No Date Vostok-9 fly as “Kosmos-57” with three dog on board,

March 19 Vostok-10 launch for 19 day Mission

March 23 Vostok-10 and Gemini 3 are in orbit, firs time USA and USSR mission are synchronous.

June 3 Gemini 4 is launch with James McDivitt and Edward H. White, First US-EVA in orbit.

July first Test launch of Nositjel-2 bringing a Proton satellite into orbit.

August 21 Launch of Gemini 5 with Gordon Cooper and Charles Conrad, Rendezvous experiment failed, doProblems with the fuel cell onboard Gemini 5.

October: Upgraded X-15 design first dropped from a B-52,

December 4 Launch of Gemini 7 with Frank Borman and James A. Lovell, first rendezvous with a spacecraft Gemini 6

December 14 Launch of Gemini 6 with Walter Schirra and Tom Stafford, first rendezvous with a spacecraft Gemini 7, 14 day mission.

1966

Mao Zedong start The Cultural Revolution in China

January 14 Sergei Pavlovich Korolev died during operation in Moscow.

February 2 Nick Piantanida parachuted from out ballon in 123,500 feet hight. the first private attempt at this.

February 22 Vostok-12 is launch with Georgi Beregovoy and Georgi Petrovich for record braking mission of 21 days in space.

March the Politburo designated Sergei Khrushchev as new Head of OKB-1

March 16 Launch Gemini 8 with Neil Armstrong and David Scott, first docking in space, mission abort do failure in RCS.

May 22 Launch of Vostok 13 the final Vostok spaceflight. with Yevgeni Khrunov and Anatoli Voronov for a 20 day mission, testing new equipment or Soyuz and EVA hardware. final use of R-7 rocket.

Summer on Biggin Hill International Air Fair presented the Soviet a complete Vostock R-7 Rocket, Labeling it a discontinued model.

June 3 Gemini 9 is launch, with Tom Stafford and Eugene Cernan, GATV failed to orbit,Rendezvous with malfunction ATDA.

July 18 Gemini 10 is launch, with John Young and Michael Collins, & docking with GATV

September 12 Gemini 11 is launch. with Charles Conrad and Richard Gordon, docking with GATV

October Tass reported the New Soviet rocket naming them Soyus and Proton,

November 11 launch of Gemini 12 the final Gemini mission. with James A. Lovell and Edwin Aldrin, Rendezvous with GATV and new record on EVA of 5 hours and 33 minutes.

December 14 Kosmos 134 launch attempt, N3 soyuz rocket explode on Pad after SAS launch. 1 men killed.

1967

January 27 during the Plugs-Out Test on manned SA-204, died Gus Grissom, Ed White and Robert Chaffee in a Fire inside the Apollo Capsule, The Apollo Program comes to halt of 21 months.

Spring the Chinese Cultural Revolution escalated into civil war The Situation escalate In industrial City of Wuhan as there Mao Zedong is killed by Red Guards by mistake.

the “30 day crisis” a battle over control of People’s Republic of China. the winner is the Chinese People’s Liberation Army under commando of Marshall Lin Biao,

September 27 unmanned Zond 4 launch flying within 2,000 kilometers of the Moon.

October Marshall Lin Biao restored law and order in China

November In Moscow happen a special meeting of MoM, to determine the future of Soviet Space program. they outline space station, advance launder mission and manned flight to Mars, this Program is called Galatika (Galaxy)

November 09 Apollo 4 First test of Saturn V

November 15 X-15 Testpilot Michael Adams dieds as his X-15 went out of control and crash.

November 27 Launch of manned Soyuz 1 with Sergei Komarov

November 30 Launch of manned Soyuz 2 with Bykovsky, Khrunov, Yeliseyev. First soviet docking in Orbit, EVA were Khrunov and Yeliseyev went to Soyuz 1, first crew transfer in Space!

December 28 An A-12 crashes during takeoff at RAF Mildenhall in Great Britain, known as “the Mildenhall Forest incident.” All A-12 flights are suspended and the Oxcart is succeeded by the SR-71 Blackbird.

1968

beginn of year North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh dies, begin of power struggle in vietnamese Politburo between Pro China forces and Vietnamese Nationalist.

January Apollo 5 unmanned Test Lunar Module

April 4th Apollo 6 the second test flight Saturn V show problem.

June Lunokhod 1 the first moon rover land on Moon

July N1-L5 launch, rocket destroy after malfunction on engine 4

September Lunokhod 2 successfully landed on Moon in same region where Lunokhod 1 lost contact with Earth

September 15 Launch of manned Zond 8 (7K-L1 mission 1) to moon

September 18 Bykovskiy and Rukavishnikov are first humans who fly by the moon

September 21: NASA administrator James Webb resign, do Soviet victory with Zond 8

October N1-L6 Launch despite problem the N1 is operational

October 11 Soyuz 5 & 6, manned rendezvous/docking, EVA crew exchange, four cosmonauts. Crew Shatalov, Volynov, Shonin, Volkov

Same date Apollo 7 launch

October 22 Apollo 7 return to Earth

November 10 launch of Zond 9 with with Kolesnikov and Popovich around the Moon

December Apollo 8 goes in Moon Orbit

1969

Jaunary 20 Zond 10 launch with Kolesnikov and Popovich around the Moon

February Lunokhod 3 landed in Oceanus Procellarum

March Last test flight of N1 rocket called official Luna

June Zond-11 Mission with Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Gorbatko in Moon Orbit, landing of unmanned LK

July 4 Vladimir Milhaylovich Komarov landed as First human in history on the Moon.(Zond-12)

Same Day President Nixon fires NASA Administration Thomas O. Paine because of this.

July 8 Zond 12 crew return save to USSR

July 18 Chappaquiddick incident, Senator Edward “Ted” Kennedy dieds in car accident.

July 20 Niel Armstong sept as second human on Moon (Apollo 11)

September Nixon take George E. Mueller as New Administrator of NASA

September Vice president Spiro Agnew presented the Space Task Group result on Study what NASA had to do next, there called it: The Intergraded Program Plan

September President Nixon take The Intergraded Program Plan Who get Name ODYSSEY Program

November 14 Mission of Apollo 12 to Surveyor 3 landing site.

1970

January Lunokhod 4 landed on the lunar surface

Beginn April Zond 13 is launch bring LK backup to Lunokhod 4

April 11 Apollo 13 is launch with Lovell, Mattingly, Haise

April 13 Apollo 13 report “Houston, we have a master alert here”

April 17 Crew of Apollo 13 land save in pacific

April 22 Oleg Makarov land on Moon with Zond 14 celebrate Vladimir Lenin 100th Birthday

April ESC Meeting they started the selection of ELDO Europa-3

November 4 in the ESC meeting in Brussels, Australia, Britain and Italy left ELDO.

unknown Date the group The “Don't Make a Wave Committee” made a meeting about there Future and Goals, they vote for armed fight and Rainbow Warrior become first eco terrorist group

1971

January 31 Apollo 14 is launched with Alan Shepard, Edgar Mitchell and Stuart Roosa

February Lunokhod 5 lands on Moon

February 05 LM land on Moon Alan Shepard first human to play golf on moon

February 09 Apollo 14 land save in pacific

March 10 Launch of Zond 15 with Lev Dyomin and Gennadi Sarafanov

March 17 landing of LK near Lunokhod 5 and Luna 13 landing site, Sarafanov drill core sample and collect piece of Luna 13 probe, end of EVA he play with Football.

March 20 Zond 15 land in Soviet union.

April Lunokhod 6 crash on the lunar surface, delaying the Mission of Zond 16

May Lunokhod 7 landed in Mare Crisium

June 29 The Zond 16 LK land on Moon

July 29 Apollo 15 LM land near crater Censorinus at Mare Tranquillitates

August 12 Caspar Weinberger responsible for US budget, try last effort at Nixon on the subject of NASA budget reduction.

September 11 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev died of a hearth attack in Moscow Hospital. Alexei Kosygin become his successor

November 5 ELDO Test launch Europa-2 (F11) from French Guiana was a fiasco

1972

Begin 72 Production starts for the new Saturn Rockets

February Lunokhod 8 land in Mare Fecunditatis to collect sampels over next two months.

April 16 Launch of Apollo 16 with legendary John Young, Charles Duke and John Swigert.

April 21 Apollo 16 LM land on Moon

May 13 launched the Luna rocket with Boris Volynov and Vitaly Zholobov in Zond 17.

May 19 during EVA to LOK, Zholobov lost the Sample container

May 22 Zond 17 “The Empty handed Mission“ return to USSR

September 5–6 “The Munich Miracle” a group of Terrorist try unsuccessful to kidnap the Israeli Olympic team,

December 20 ESC Metting in Brussel, about the Future of the European Spaceflight program.

December 21 ESC Meeting ELDO become part of ESRO, Europa-3 rocket is stop in favor of Phoenix

1973

May 11 Soviet launch there first space station Salyut 1

May 14 Soyuz 7 is launch and dock at Salyut 1

June 14 Soyuz 7 mission ended after 30 days

July Soyuz 8 is launch and dock at Salyut 1

July 14 Zond 19 is launch to the Moon 4 cosmonauts in space

August After Soyuz 8 left Salyut 1, Cosmos 557 dock for 3 months at Salyut 1

October 6 The Yom Kippur War, a coalition of Arab started surprise attack against Israel

December Apollo 19 unmanned test of Saturn VB.

December 12 Zond 20 launch to Moon

1974

No Date US company PepsiCo. becomes the first American company to sell products in the Soviet Union.

February ELDO became a sub-branch of ESRO

February MARS 6 reach, Mars lander lost

March MARS 7 reach Mars Lander operate 60 minutes and deployed a small rover PROP-M.

April French president George Pompidou died in office, succeeded by Valèry Giscard d’Estaing.

April IBM present the 8080 the first 8-bit microchip

May 18 India successfully tested successful their first Atomic Bomb.

May 23 Pioneer 12 is launch on Saturn IC to Jupiter

May 30 Application Technology Satellite-6 is launch

June New president Valèry Giscard d’Estaing terminate the Phoenix launch vehicle program.

June Salyut 2 is launch

June 26 The world's first Barcode is scanned in an American Supermarket on package of Chewing Gum.

July 3 Soyuz 9 is send To space station Salyut 2

July 20 Turkey invade Cyprus later establishing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

August Zond 21 launch first Geologist Cosmonaut Fyodor Kuznec to the Moon

August 7 Soyuz 9 return to earth

September Soyuz 10 launch to Salyut 2

September Apollo 20 launch to Moon

October 15 NASA launch Second space station “Spacelab”

October 16 Spacelab 2 is launch for 3 months mission to Spacelab.

December Zond 22 launch second Geologist Cosmonaut Yevenly myrgjol Sapozbik to the Moon

December 2 Pioneer 11 reach Jupiter successful fly by to Saturn.

December 10 Helios 1 German first deep space probe is launch.

December 16 Return of Spacelab 2 Mission, the station hibernate until next year mission

1975

During this year the USSR conduct several test with a New Generation ICBM the R-36.

January Spacelab 3 is launched with Robert Crippen, Henry Hartsfield and astronomer Karl Gordon Henize for a 90 day stay on Spacelab.

April 20 Launch of Apollo 21 the last mission of Apollo program.

May 14 Zond 23 was launched to the moon, last Zond mission and first Woman to Moon

May 19 Sevtlana Yevgenyvna Savitskaya conduct first EVA and First Moon landing by Woman

June 27 Pioneer 12 arrive at Jupiter, it's catapult the Probe 80° over ecliptic toward the sun.

August 1 Spacelab-4 is launch with Thomas P. Stafford, Robert Parker, Anthony W. England

August and September Two Saturn ICs sent the Viking Orbiter/Landers on route to Mars.

December 10 Richard Nixon get Nobel Peace price for efforts in disarmament of Cold war.

1976

During this year Switzerland conducted it's first nuclear weapons test

July Democratic National Convention in New York City, John Glenn is nominated for presidential nominee.

August, Republican National Convention in Kansas City. John Connally is nominated for presidential nominee

November 2 US presidential election is won by democrat John Glenn

1977

1991

1992

2005

timelines/key_dates.txt · Last modified: 2017/01/15 08:17 by michel_van