Russia and the Ottoman Empire agree to the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula.
Austrian Emperor Joseph II suspends the Hungarian Constitution due to rebellions in Transylvania.
The India Act forces the British East India Company to choose its governor-general from outside the company and makes directors subject to parliamentary supervision.
The Quebec legislature ratifies French as its official state language, the first US state to officially recognize its language as a language other than English.
The United States unanimously accepts the dollar to be its form of currency.
Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro premiers in Vienna.
Francis Light acquires the island of Penang from the Sultan of Kedah, the first piece of BEIC territory in Southeast Asia.
Several Caribbean states led by Jamaica begin minting their own currency also called the dollar citing an inability of the government to get enough quantities of currency to the region.
Shay's Rebellion begins in Massachusetts. It will be put down by February of 1787.
Delegates from across the United States convene in Philadelphia with the goal of amending the obviously failing Articles of Confederation. They will in fact completely throw out the Articles and replace it with the Constitution of the United States. It will be adopted on September 17 with the various states ratifying it over the next five years.
The Northwest Ordinance is established providing rules and governance for organized territory in the region around the Great Lakes.
John Fitch gains the first US patent for a steamboat design when he tests a crude steamboat on the Delaware River.
Arthur Phillip and his fleet of convict settlers land at the present site of Sydney Australia to establish a colony.
Austria enters the ongoing Russo-Turkish War (1787-1792) by attack Moldavia.
Great New Orleans fire leaves much of that port city devastated.
Louis XVI makes the official call for a spring meeting of the Estates-General, the first meeting of that assembly since 1614.
King Charles III of Spain dies and is succeeded by Charles IV.
George Washington is unanimously elected the first president of the United States along with representatives in the House and Senate. Guy Carleton becomes the first Vice President of the United States. They will meet at Federal Hall in New York for some time and declare the Constitution to be in effect.
Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul Hamid I dies and is succeeded by Selim III
Survivors of the Bounty, including William Bligh, reach Timor after a 4,000 mile voyage after a mutiny.
Frustrated third estate delegates are locked out of the assembly hall by Louis XVI but take the Tennis Court Oath agreeing not to disband until a constitution has been created. Three days later Louis XVI urges the estates to work together for the good of the nation.
The National Assembly in France forms the National Constituent Assembly with the explicit goal of creating a constitution. In the meantime Louis XVI fires chief minister Necker to the dismay of much of the public. Paris begins arming and mobs begin protesting the firing of Necker. On July 14 citizens of Paris storm the Bastille.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man is declared
The US Congress presents the Bill of Rights to the states to be ratified.
Washington D.C. on the Potomac River between Maryland and Virginia is decided to be the new site of the US capital.
Louis XVI accepts the prepared constitution and France becomes a constitutional monarchy.
The National Assembly passes a number of acts meant to reduce the power of the French clergy.
Tipu Sultan attacks Travancore sparking the Third Anglo-Mysore War.
The French royal family is discovered and returned to Paris after attempting to flee the country.
U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton levies an excise tax on whiskey to help pay for the national debt. This tax angers many western farmers which leads to the Whiskey Rebellion which took place most notably in western Pennsylvania.
The Haitian slave rebellion begins in the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, takes office.
Gustav III of Sweden is shot at a party and dies two weeks later. Gustav IV Adolph succeeds to the throne.
Kentucky becomes a state.
George Washington is reelected unanimously to a second term as President of the United States. John Adams becomes the second Vice President of the United States as Guy Carleton steps down but is overwhelmingly elected to be governor of Quebec.
The Legion of the United States is created and placed under the command of Anthony Wayne to suppress and battle native resistance and outlaw groups in the Old Northwestern frontier.
September Massacres in the French Revolution see three Roman Catholic bishops murdered along with over 200 priests.
The French government declares war on Austria. Prussia declares war on France.
Prussian troops checked at Valmy in northeastern France.
Louis XVI is arrested and France is declared a republic.
French Reign of Terror begins as Maximilian Robespierre takes control of the Committee of Public Safety.
Louis XVI of France is executed.
Marie Antoinette is executed
Russia and Prussia further partition the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
France declares war on Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Spain.
Eli Whitney is granted a patent for his cotton gin
The Whiskey Rebellion comes to a close as federalized militia under the command of Virginia governor Henry Lee III marches into western Pennsylvania to enforce the taxes collection and arrest conspirators.
Battle of Boulou in the French Revolution sees French soldiers repulse a joint Spanish-Portuguese attack and in the process recapture swathes of territory they had lost to Spanish soldiers to previous year. Effectivley ends the threat of Spanish offensives into France.
Congress at the urging of Washington re-creates the United States Marine Corps under the command of Commodore, and governor of St. Kitts, William Briggs. It also authorizes the navy to build 10 new ships that will play an instrumental role in the coming years.
Battle of Fleurus sees French forces defeat Austrian forces which leads to the loss of the Austrian Netherlands and eventual destruction of the Dutch Republic.
Robespierre is arrested and executed as an enemy of the French public.
Jay's Treaty is signed between the United States and Great Britain helping to stabilize relations between the two nations at the expense of Franco-American relations.
French soldiers and Dutch revolutionaries capture Amsterdam and declare the formation of the Batavian Republic.
The Peace of Basel is signed between France and Prussia
Napoleon captures Milan for the French Republic
Piotr “Peter” Raczyński leaves Europe for America.
The Austrian Netherlands is annexed to France proper
Poland is partitioned a third and final time
The Qianlong Emperor abdicates in favor of the Jiaqing Emperor in China
Tennessee is admitted as a state
British forces seize Ceylon from the Dutch
White Lotus Rebellion begins in poorer mountains provinces of China with the aim of rebelling against taxes and restoring the Ming dynasty.
John Adams defeats Thomas Jefferson in the election of 1796.
Peshwa Baji Rao II comes to the Maratha throne.
Catherine II of Russia is succeeded by Paul I.
The French Exédition d’Irlande under General Lazare Hoche lands at southern Ireland on Christmas Day with about 16,000 soliders.
Tens of thousands of United Irishmen under Teobold Wolfe Tone begin to rise up against the English with the support of the French.
Franco-Irish forces secure Cork and begin to move inland.
Battle of Cape St. Vincent sees British Admiral Sir John Jervis defeats a much larger Spanish fleet as it attempts to link with its French counterparts in the Atlantic.
Daniel Boone, Dominic Ellis, and the Virginia Brigade depart for Europe.
Battle of St. George's Channel sees British Admiral Alexander Hood defeat the French invasion fleet, stranding the French force on Ireland without support.
Napoleon conquers Venice as part of his ongoing campaigns in northern Italy
Irish general James Fitzmaurice defeats protestant yeomanry at Liffey River. Several days later Dublin is sacked, the Irish Parliament burned, and Lord Chancellor John FitzGibbons is executed after being captured.
Teobold Wolfe Tone and the United Irishmen announce the creation of the Irish Catholic Republic on February 14, heavily alienated protestant Irish in the process.
Dublin recaptured by British reinforcements from the north.
Lazare Hoche and the bulk of the remaining Franco-Irish force is defeated at Kilkenny
Cork is captured bringing a close to the organized Irish Catholic Republic. Teobold Wolfe Tone is captured and commits suicide after being denied death by firing squad. However underground warfare and terrorism between the fractured remnants of the United Irishmen and between Catholics and Protestants will plague Ireland for years. The whole ordeal also leads to the end of the planned Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland
The Treaty of Camp Formio brings to a close the War of the First Coalition by ending fighting between France and Austria and seeing many Austrian lands transferred to France.
In an attempt to smooth things over with France, John Adams authorizes an American delegation to go to Paris which is met with French officials dubbed X Y and Z who demand exorbitant bribes and loans just to negotiate. The XYZ affair leads to passionate anti-French feelings in the U.S. which combine with continuing French harassment of U.S. shipping to lead Congress to declare war on France late this year.
The Virginia Brigade plays an instrumental role in the Peasant's Revolt but is defeated along with the revolt leading to the Brigades eventual disintegration.
Colonel Dominic Ellis and 70 men head south to join Russian forces under Suvurov in the Alps.
French forces invade the Papal States and create the Roman Republic, capturing the Pope in the process.
French forces occupy Malta.
Nova Scotian militia capture St. Pierre and Miqueleon without a fight.
Napoleon lands in Egypt.
Guadeloupe is taken with little bloodshed.
Martinique sees the destruction of the French Caribbean fleet and the capture of that island.
The Alien and Sedition Acts are passed making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the United States government.
Battle of the Pyramids sees Napoleon defeat Ottoman forces and allows him to occupy Cairo several days later.
Battle of the Nile sees the Royal Navy under Horatio Nelson defeat the French fleet supporting Napoleon's operations.
American general Richard Fordham allies his Caribbean forces with Haitian rebels in order to capture Port-au-Prince and secure Haiti.
US forces capture Cayenne and secure Guiana.
Adams and the Federalist congress pass the Alien and Sedition Act.
The Battle of Seringapatnam sees British soldiers defeat Mysore and the death of Mysorean leader Tipu Sultan.
Ranjit Singh conqueors Lahore and becomes ruler of the Punjab.
In the wake of the Irish invasion and exhausted by the wars Prime Minister William Pitt resigns in favor of Henry Addington. Admiral John Jervis, hero of the Battle of Cape St. Vincent, will also replaced George Spencer as High Lord of the Admiralty.
Battle of Castricum sees a Franco-Dutch force repel a joint Anglo-Russian invasion.
The Second Battle of Guadeloupe sees a French fleet sent from Europe destroyed effectively securing the Caribbean theater of the war.
In an attempt to bring France to the negotiating table American marines capture Mahe, Yanam, and eventually Pondicherry, the three main port towns of French India.
Queen Maria I of Portugal is declared insane and the throne is declared to be in regency under her son John VI.
Hundreds of Irish political prisoners arrive in Australia.
Treaty of Madrid ends the Franco-American War with transfer of French colonies to the United States and the granting of independence to to the Indian ports.
Napoleon overthrows the French Directory and becomes First Consul of France.
George Washington dies at Mount Vernon in December.
An attempted coup of Haiti by Jean Jacques Dessalines is found out and put down before it can get off the ground. To stabilize the factions Dessalines is pardoned but pressured bu Toussaint L'Ouveture and Alexander Petion to go to Washington as a representative.
The Royal Navy takes Malta from the French
Treaty of Liege brings conflict between Great Britain and France to an end.
The Prime Minister of the Maratha Confederacy dies paving the way for a civil war amongst the powerful Maratha families, notably the Scindia and the Holkar.
Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans capture the presidency over as split Federalist party and their main candidates, John Adams and Richard Fordham.
Haiti is confirmed as a state of the U.S.. L'Ouveture is elected governor, Dessalines elected a congressman, Petion a senator, and Henri Christophe a senator in the first election…all becoming America's first creole and black elected officials.
John Adam's appoints dozens of “midnight” judges on his last night as president.
Britain and China sign the Treaty of Hong Kong which gives Britain extensive trading rights through the island of Hong Kong in an effort to rebuild Chinese coffers.
Washington D.C. officially becomes the capital of the United States.
Ranjit Singh crowned Maharajah of the Sikhs
Paul I of Russia is murdered and succeeded by Alexander I.
Thomas Jefferson named Piotr Raczyński his “Envoy to Eastern Europe” much to the ire of Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
Baji Rao II has Yashwantrao Holkar's brother executed in Pune.
The India Act of 1801 creates the “United States Un-incorporated Territory of India” which places the former French India ports under the aegis of the U.S.
Guiana, Martinique, and Guadeloupe are all admitted as states. St. Pierre and Miqueleon are added to Newfoundland with little dispute.
Portugal and Spain sign the Treaty of Badajoz ending the short War of the Oranges and seeing Portugal lose the city of Olivenza.
British forces capture Cairo.
The Alien and Sedition Act expires and is not renewed. Furthermore Jefferson pardons those imprisoned under the act.
Bey of Tripoli Yussif Karamanli begins attacking U.S. shipping in the Mediterranean Sea. This leads to the start of the Barbary War in the fall of this year.
The Italian region of Piedmont is annexed onto France
Battle of Tegal between the Dutch East India Company the British East India Company leads to direct war between Britain and the Dutch and France.
Yashwantrao Holkar seizes Pune and sends Peshwa Baji Rao II fleeing to Bombay where he signs as a British puppet in exchange for protection.
U.S. Supreme Court case Marbury vs. Madison establishes judicial review and the Supreme Court's ability to rule something “Unconstitutional”.
Ohio is admitted as a U.S. state.
France occupies Hanover, the German territory ruled by the British monarch.
Baji Rao II returns to Pune as a British client.
Tripoli is captured by U.S. forces in December of this year. Yussif Karamanli is killed and replaced by his pro-U.S. brother Hamet Karamanli.
Napoleon transfers control of Louisiana Territory from Spain back to France.
France transfers control of Louisiana to the United States after the Louisiana Purchase.
First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire.
Tunis surrenders without a fight to U.S. forces
Castle Hill rebellion in Australia sees hundreds of convicts and Irish political prisoners rise up against British guards. It is put down after several very blood months.
The Kilny Affair in China sees the Jiaqing Emperor forced to purchase 500 chests of opium from British merchant John Kilny after his wife is taken hostage by the port master. He is also forced to allow British soldiers on Hong Kong island to protect trade from further problems. It is a deep humiliation for the Chinese and the Jiaqing Emperor.
White Lotus Rebellion is crushed in China after a reinvigorated campaign by the Jiaqing Emperor starting in 1799 with the overthrow of Prime Minister Heshen. In the end the long rebellion claimed 16 million lives.
The Napoleonic Code is adopted as French Civil Law.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition begins
Alexander Hamilton dies after being shot in a duel with Aaron Burr
Algiers surrenders to to U.S. forces after a weeks long blockade and siege. The Dey of Algiers abdicates and the local citizenry establish a republic under American guidance.
Britain reoccupies the Cape and invade Java.
Thomas Jefferson defeats Charles Pinckney in the 1804 U.S. election.
Napoleon crowns himself French Emperor at the Notre Dame in Paris.
Spain declares war on Britain.
Believing it to be his divine duty to dislodge the Americans from North Africa, Moroccan Sultan Slimane I sends his forces to Algiers to defeat the Americans. His fleet however finds the Americans well prepared and waiting for them and is destroyed at Algiers Harbor.
Commodore William Briggs, commander of US African forces, throws his support behind Slimane's brother and Moroccan throne claimant Hicham I. With U.S. forces supporting Hicham the Moroccan Civil War begins.
Battle of Rabat, U.S. forces pacify the pirate base of Rabat.
Napoleon creates the Kingdom of Italy from the old Cisalpine Republic.
Hicham's forces capture Casablanca in a heated battle against Slimane's forces.
Battle of Ulm, Austrian General Mack von Leiberich is forced to surrender his entire army to Napoleon after being surrounded.
Battle of Trafalgar, British naval fleet led by Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain; however, Admiral Nelson is fatally shot.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches the Pacific Ocean.
An attempted U.S. landing at Tangier is repulsed.
Britain organizes a Third Coalition of Britain, Sweden, Austria, the two Sicilies, Portugal against Napoleon and his allies.
Hicham's forces capture the Moroccan palace town of Fez making it his capital
Battle of Austerlitz sees French troops under Napoleon decisively defeat a joint Russo-Austrian force.
The Peace of Pressburg is signed between France and Austria.
William Pitt dies and William Grenville becomes Prime Minister.
Napoleon organizes the Germanic states into a United States of the Rhine with Bavaria and Wurrtemburg elevated to Kingdoms.
Hicham's forces take Meknes securing the majority of northern Morocco for the claimant Sultan.
Selim III of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the United States
Sliman'e forces win a Pyhrric victory at Hadjar over Hicham's supporters.
Captain William Bligh arrives in Australia to run the colony and maintain order, especially after the failed Castle Hill rebellion.
Ships carrying the royal family of the Two Sicilies from the Italian mainland to Sicily are intercepted by a French fleet which attacks them, killing all of the royal family save for prince Leopold who is crowned Leopold I after narrowly arriving in Sicily.
Cape Colony becomes a British colony after Dutch forces surrender to the Royal Navy.
Hamet Karamanli puts down an Ottoman/Islamist rebellion in Tripoli.
Louis Bonaparte is appointed as King of Holland by his brother, Emperor Napoleon I.
A British invasion of Rio de la Plata from the Cape Colony is repulsed with ease by more motivated and better organized La Platans.
The Bey of Tunis is deposed and replaced with a pro-Ottoman Bey. Tunis declares war on the U.S., Hicham I, and Karamanli.
Ottoman forces secure pro-Ottoman Cyrenacia with little fighting
Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates, thus ending the Holy Roman Empire.
Prussia declares war on France in response to the creation of the United States of the Rhine, and is joined by Saxony and other minor German states.
Combining with U.S. marines sent from Casablanca, Hicham's forces capture Marrakesh. Slimane is killed in the fighting and the civil war comes to an end with Hicham proclaimed Sultan.
Battle of Jena-Auerstädt: Napoleon defeats the Prussian army of Prince Hohenlohe at Jena while Marshal Davout defeats the main Prussian army under the Duke of Brunswick, who is killed.
Peter Raczyński organizes and leads the Great Polish Revolt. Warsaw is liberated and under the control of the new Republic of Poland by weeks end.
French forces enter Berlin in October. Prussian King Fredrick William III flees to Memel.
Napoleon meets with Peter Raczyński while his army rests and resupplies in Warsaw. Alliance between France and Poland signed.
Ottoman forces capture Tripoli with US and pro-US forces retreating to Annaba in Algeria.
French and Polish forces defeat Russian forces at Friedland forcing negotiations at Tilsit to end the War of the Fourth Coalition.
Treaty of Tilsit ends the War of the Fourth Coalition enforcing a harsh peace on Prussia, confirming Polish independence, and allying Russia with France. Fredrick William III's marriage with Louise comes to an end after Russian Tsar Alexander I impregnates her during the negotiations.
U.S. Congress passes the Army Act of 1806 and Navy Act of 1806 raising ships and an army to help out Brigg's beleaguered forces in North Africa.
Pro-Republican and Pro-Ottoman groups clash in Algiers for a week before the city is narrowly secured by the republican government. This causes the republican government to relocate to safety at Constantine.
Napoleon declares a Continental Blockade against the British.
U.S. forces begin to supply Mamluk Egyptians, Greek rebels, and the House of Saud with armaments and funds.
Islamist protesters clash with royal troops in Fez, Morocco as part of the anti-American Islamic ideology wave sweeping North Africa.
Mamluk forces secure Luxor and Qena in southern Egypt declaring their intention to depose Muhammad Ali as Wali of Egypt.
Night of Terror massacres in northern Egypt as Ali's forces round up, arrest, and execute hundreds of Mamluks and their supporters. Effectively divides Egypt in two halves.
The Battle of Annaba sees the U.S. navy repel the Ottoman fleet and secure Algeria from direct invasion for the time being.
Protests in Morocco wind down with the Fez Proclamation by Hicham I who confirms that “Morocco is and always will be an independent and proudly Muslim country”.
Moroccan forces secure the pro-Ottoman stronghold of Oran in a night operation that sees few casualties. Several days later Algerian forces occupy the last major pro-Ottoman stronghold at Setif.
Saudis capture Aquaba in southern Palestine.
U.S., Algerian, and Moroccan forces secure Algiers. The republican government returns to the capital city.
Saudi forces capture and sack Amman before being repulsed by Ottoman forces scrambled from Jerusalem.
Russian forces occupy Moldavia and Wallachia, nominally Ottoman territories, in an attempt to outflank French soldiers operating in central/eastern Europe.
U.S., Algerian, and Tunisian forces recapture Tunis and install a republican government.
The Bosphorous is closed to Russian shipping further straining ties between the two nations.
Emboldened after the capture of Tunis, U.S., Algerian, Tunisian, and Tripoli republicans combine to retake Tripoli from the Ottomans and place Karamanli back in charge.
The HMS Leopard fires on the USS Chesapeake after the Chesapeake refuses to allow the Leopard to search the ship for deserters.
The Royal Navy attempts to reopen the Bosphorous in the highly botched Dardanelles Operation which is a Turkish victory but heavily strains ties between the nations. Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia. This will also force much of the Ottoman navy and its military forces to withdraw to more pressing fronts.
Thomas Jefferson and Congress pass the Embargo Act, forbidding any trade between the U.S. and Britain. The Act will have disastrous results for much of the American economy and will indirectly lead to the Caribbean “Sugar War”.
A janissary revolt occurs citing the Sultan's inability to achieve victory of protect the empire. Selim III is deposed and replaced with Mustafa IV.
St. Lucian planter Alexander Patterson begins organizing his vast smuggling Caribbean trade ring meant to give beleaguered Caribbean planters a way to ship their crops to Britain and past the embargo act.
Mustafa signs the Treaty of Ragusa with U.S. and North African republicans to end the fighting in North Africa.
The Constitutional Convention of Tripoli creates the Constitutional Sultanate of Tripolitania with Hamet Karamanli appointed Sultan. The new Constitution also brings about the “25 year clause” in which every 25 years the people of Tripoli would vote on whether or not to change their system of government.
A sweep of the Caribbean by the U.S. Navy heavily damages the illegal trade ring and Alexander Patterson is arrested. He will be later pardoned by Thomas Jefferson just before he leaves office.
The imprisonment of Patterson and the destruction of the trade ring brings the Caribbean to the point of succession. The Circle of Eight, eight powerful planters and politicians from the Caribbean begin plotting their rebellion led by Senator Ethan Smithson of Jamaica.
The Circle of Eight leads a rebel militia in capturing Kingston, Jamaica. The island is divided and Kingston is placed under martial law.
James Madison and Napoleon sign the Treaty of Emergency Alliance putting the U.S. and France into an alliance that can be enacted when the other is in desperate need of an ally.
Toussaint L’Ouverture and Thomas Jefferson agree to terms that allow Haiti to put down the Jamaican revolt in exchange for the repealing of the Embargo Act.
Toussaint L’Ouverture and a creole Haitian militia put down the rebellion in Jamaica put fail to find and capture rogue senator Ethan Smithson.
King Leopold I of the Two Sicilies lands with his Sicilian forces south of Naples starting the L’attacco Opposta, the Counterattack.
James Madison defeats Charles Pinckney to becomes President of the United States.
Continue to The Napoleonic Wars