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timelines:empty_america_-_archived_version [2018/06/20 05:47]
petike [27: Take Off (to the Great White North)]
timelines:empty_america_-_archived_version [2018/06/20 06:04] (current)
petike [27: Take Off (to the Great White North)]
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 It has the desired effect - Brihtwine is flabbergasted. North of Hyperborea! [FN27.02]. There is a way! He had thought that there must have been a route through the vast expanse ice that surrounds the giant magnetic mountain at the top of the world. Excited to talk to these sailors who must have seen many unknown lands, he wangles himself an invitation to the feast King Ricard was having for Admiral. He excitedly [FN27.03] quizzes the Admiral Chao Yen-Wei and his subordinates at length, asking them to describe the islands, currents and ice-floes he and his men encountered on the way through the frigid waters. The Archbishop and the King repeatedly try to change the subject, but Brihtwine is dogged in his curiosity. It has the desired effect - Brihtwine is flabbergasted. North of Hyperborea! [FN27.02]. There is a way! He had thought that there must have been a route through the vast expanse ice that surrounds the giant magnetic mountain at the top of the world. Excited to talk to these sailors who must have seen many unknown lands, he wangles himself an invitation to the feast King Ricard was having for Admiral. He excitedly [FN27.03] quizzes the Admiral Chao Yen-Wei and his subordinates at length, asking them to describe the islands, currents and ice-floes he and his men encountered on the way through the frigid waters. The Archbishop and the King repeatedly try to change the subject, but Brihtwine is dogged in his curiosity.
  
-King Ricard II, a good-natured fellow who has been patronizing Brihtwine'​s +King Ricard II, a good-natured fellow who has been patronizing Brihtwine'​s studies, but who is eager to talk trade and other matters with the Admiral, finally laughs and says, "Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?"​ A couple of his knights start to get up from the table, but the King rolls his eyes and bids them to sit.
-studies, but who is eager to talk trade and other matters with the Admiral, +
-finally laughs and says, "Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?"​ +
-A couple of his knights start to get up from the table, but the King rolls +
-his eyes and bids them to sit.+
  
-Embarrassed,​ but not knowing what to do, Bishop Brihtwine suddenly turns to +Embarrassed,​ but not knowing what to do, Bishop Brihtwine suddenly turns to Admiral Yen-Wei and implores him to accept baptism and the love of Christ. The Admiral smiles benevolently and asks Brihtwine if he would have him worship the Christ whose pope is in the land of the Franks, Luoma [Rome] or Xila [Greece, i.e. Constantinople]?"​
-Admiral Yen-Wei and implores him to accept baptism and the love of Christ. +
-The Admiral smiles benevolently and asks Brihtwine if he would have him +
-worship the Christ whose pope is in the land of the Franks, Luoma [Rome] or +
-Xila [Greece, i.e. Constantinople]?"​+
  
-"There is but one Lord Jesus Christ!"​ the anguished Bishop exclaims, +"There is but one Lord Jesus Christ!"​ the anguished Bishop exclaims, surprised that a Cathayan would know so much about the affairs of the Church.
-surprised that a Cathayan would know so much about the affairs of the +
-Church.+
  
 "Then why," Admiral Yen-Wei asks placidly, "do your peoples quarrel so?" "Then why," Admiral Yen-Wei asks placidly, "do your peoples quarrel so?"
  
-Abashed for all of Christendom,​ Brihtwine slumps in his chair. The Admiral +Abashed for all of Christendom,​ Brihtwine slumps in his chair. The Admiral laughs kindly, saying that it was an unfair question, since it is the same world over. The Buddhists in his homeland, he says, are forever arguing amongst themselves, as were the Taoist and Confucian luminaries. No doubt no more than two Qing Zhen [Muslim] or Yěn Dů Jiŕo [Hindu] clerics could be found to agree with one another. To make it up to Brihtwine, Admiral Yen-wei invites him to visit his flagship the next day. Brihtwine beams.
-laughs kindly, saying that it was an unfair question, since it is the same +
-world over. The Buddhists in his homeland, he says, are forever arguing +
-amongst themselves, as were the Taoist and Confucian luminaries. No doubt +
-no more than two Qing Zhen [Muslim] or Yěn Dů Jiŕo [Hindu] clerics could be +
-found to agree with one another. To make it up to Brihtwine, Admiral +
-Yen-wei invites him to visit his flagship the next day. Brihtwine beams.+
  
-And the next day, the Bishop is ferried in a lighter out to the great +And the next day, the Bishop is ferried in a lighter out to the great Cathayan ship and he spends hours poking through it, marveling at the individual cabins for the merchants, the ingenious water-tight compartments for the cargo and the general bustle of activity. Admiral Yen-Wei tells him that the ship can carry a year's supply or rice for the crew and they can set out barrels to catch rainwater on lengthy voyages. Amazing! thinks Brihtwine. These men could sail around the world without ever touching land. They can grow food plants and raise animals on deck and live better than most men on shore. God, how he envied them and their travels! The high point of the visit was a stop in the Captain'​s cabin, where he spent an 
-Cathayan ship and he spends hours poking through it, marveling at the +hour intently studying the ship's charts and maps, committing as much as he could to memory, and when his tour is over, it is with great reluctance that he makes his way back to dry land.
-individual cabins for the merchants, the ingenious water-tight compartments +
-for the cargo and the general bustle of activity. Admiral Yen-Wei tells him +
-that the ship can carry a year's supply or rice for the crew and they can +
-set out barrels to catch rainwater on lengthy voyages. Amazing! thinks +
-Brihtwine. These men could sail around the world without ever touching +
-land. They can grow food plants and raise animals on deck and live better +
-than most men on shore. God, how he envied them and their travels! The +
-high point of the visit was a stop in the Captain'​s cabin, where he spent an +
-hour intently studying the ship's charts and maps, committing as much as he +
-could to memory, and when his tour is over, it is with great reluctance that +
-he makes his way back to dry land.+
  
 <​nowiki>​* * *</​nowiki>​ <​nowiki>​* * *</​nowiki>​
  
-Back in his study, Bishop Brihtwine looks at his map and sighs. It is not +Back in his study, Bishop Brihtwine looks at his map and sighs. It is not all wrong, but from the Cathayan maps he can see that his representation of the West Coast of Ultima Thule is way off and his depiction of Hyperborea is just fanciful. He flips the big sheet of paper over and decides to begin all over again. And he will need to add much to 'The Ultima Thule Chronicle,'​ as well.
-all wrong, but from the Cathayan maps he can see that his representation of +
-the West Coast of Ultima Thule is way off and his depiction of Hyperborea is +
-just fanciful. He flips the big sheet of paper over and decides to begin +
-all over again. And he will need to add much to 'The Ultima Thule +
-Chronicle,'​ as well.+
  
-The years of studying Ultima Thule have dangled some troubling conclusions +The years of studying Ultima Thule have dangled some troubling conclusions before the Bishop'​s eyes. What a wondrous strange place, teeming with creatures never before seen by man - olifaunts, giant beavers, enormous bears, sloths, tigers and wolves, long, sleek cats that can outrun the swiftest horses, and flocks of birds so numerous they darken the sun[FN27.031]. It is an article of faith within the Church that this land, with all its riches, was set aside and left unpopulated by God for the benefit of Christendom. After the Flood, the world was divided among the sons of Noah: Shem, Japeth and Ham. Each received their share of the thousand peoples and the lands and nations. But none received Ultima Thule 
-before the Bishop'​s eyes. What a wondrous strange place, teeming with +and Terranova, which were held back for a thousand years after the birth of Christ, so that His People could settle there.
-creatures never before seen by man - olifaunts, giant beavers, enormous +
-bears, sloths, tigers and wolves, long, sleek cats that can outrun the +
-swiftest horses, and flocks of birds so numerous they darken the +
-sun[FN27.031]. It is an article of faith within the Church that this land, +
-with all its riches, was set aside and left unpopulated by God for the +
-benefit of Christendom. After the Flood, the world was divided among the +
-sons of Noah: Shem, Japeth and Ham. Each received their share of the +
-thousand peoples and the lands and nations. But none received Ultima Thule +
-and Terranova, which were held back for a thousand years after the birth of +
-Christ, so that His People could settle there.+
  
-That, of course, has been shaken with the realization that the pagans of +That, of course, has been shaken with the realization that the pagans of Cathay actually hold more of Ultima Thule and _much_ more of Terranova than do Christian powers. This continent of riches, untouched by the hand of man for thousands of years after Creation, was just sitting there, waiting to be taken by whoever - Christian or pagan - came across it first. This is particularly troubling to Brihtwine because, through his studies, he realizes that the Cathayans not only do not believe in the God of the Bible, 
-Cathay actually hold more of Ultima Thule and _much_ more of Terranova than +they evidently believe in nothing even remotely resembling the God of the Jews, Christians and Saracens.
-do Christian powers. This continent of riches, untouched by the hand of man +
-for thousands of years after Creation, was just sitting there, waiting to be +
-taken by whoever - Christian or pagan - came across it first. This is +
-particularly troubling to Brihtwine because, through his studies, he +
-realizes that the Cathayans not only do not believe in the God of the Bible, +
-they evidently believe in nothing even remotely resembling the God of the +
-Jews, Christians and Saracens.+
  
-But he thinks he understands it now. The New World is was set aside by God +But he thinks he understands it now. The New World is was set aside by God for the peoples of the world to meet, and learn to live in harmony. The Cathayans from the East have brought their wondrous knowledge of nature and the artes machinae, and the Christians of the West have brought the Word of God.
-for the peoples of the world to meet, and learn to live in harmony. The +
-Cathayans from the East have brought their wondrous knowledge of nature and +
-the artes machinae, and the Christians of the West have brought the Word of +
-God.+
  
-They could build something here, something new... Brihtwine sighs again, and +They could build something here, something new... Brihtwine sighs again, and gets back to work on his map.
-gets back to work on his map.+
  
 <​nowiki>​* * * * *</​nowiki>​ <​nowiki>​* * * * *</​nowiki>​
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 Religion in Cocagne is preeminently orthodox Catholicism,​ heavily influenced by French conciliarism. Of the major heresies that stalk Europe in the mid-to-late Thirteenth Century, the Reformed Spiritine Church has the largest presence, since the French Kings have seen Cocagne as a convenient dumping ground for heretics that they do not see fit to burn. Although they are spared the stake, the Reformed are not permitted to practice openly, so their services primarily take place in private homes. The Dukes of Cocagne have pretty much taken a "​don'​t ask, don't tell" approach to heresy - so long as the Reformed do not flaunt it, he will not seek it out. The Cathars have almost no presence in Cocagne, since even now they prefer to steer clear of the domains of the King of France. All the major orders have received land grants in Cocagne and go diligently about improving the land and, as usual, stir resentment and envy on the part of the lay clergy. Religion in Cocagne is preeminently orthodox Catholicism,​ heavily influenced by French conciliarism. Of the major heresies that stalk Europe in the mid-to-late Thirteenth Century, the Reformed Spiritine Church has the largest presence, since the French Kings have seen Cocagne as a convenient dumping ground for heretics that they do not see fit to burn. Although they are spared the stake, the Reformed are not permitted to practice openly, so their services primarily take place in private homes. The Dukes of Cocagne have pretty much taken a "​don'​t ask, don't tell" approach to heresy - so long as the Reformed do not flaunt it, he will not seek it out. The Cathars have almost no presence in Cocagne, since even now they prefer to steer clear of the domains of the King of France. All the major orders have received land grants in Cocagne and go diligently about improving the land and, as usual, stir resentment and envy on the part of the lay clergy.
  
-Like all the states of Ultima Thule, Cocagne gets a quick infusion of +Like all the states of Ultima Thule, Cocagne gets a quick infusion of fortune-hunters when word gets around that the Cathayans have discovered vast amounts of gold and silver in Mu-lan-P'​i. And, much to the surprise of everyone but the diggers themselves, they do stumble across significant gold deposits [FN27.08]. Nothing like the big strikes the Cathayans have made, but enough that the Duke of Cocagne can make a tidy profit taxing the diggers and panners and selling mining rights to enthusiastic immigrants. The fortune hunters will prove to be a disruptive element in time, but for now, the Duke of Cocagne has, for the first time in the history of Ultima Thule struck the first ever gold coin bearing the likeness of a Monarch of Europe, Phillip the Bold. The King receives a small chest of the coins in honor of the occasion.
-fortune-hunters when word gets around that the Cathayans have discovered +
-vast amounts of gold and silver in Mu-lan-P'​i. And, much to the surprise of +
-everyone but the diggers themselves, they do stumble across significant gold +
-deposits [FN27.08]. Nothing like the big strikes the Cathayans have made, +
-but enough that the Duke of Cocagne can make a tidy profit taxing the +
-diggers and panners and selling mining rights to enthusiastic immigrants. +
-The fortune hunters will prove to be a disruptive element in time, but for +
-now, the Duke of Cocagne has, for the first time in the history of Ultima +
-Thule struck the first ever gold coin bearing the likeness of a Monarch of +
-Europe, Phillip the Bold. The King receives a small chest of the coins in +
-honor of the occasion.+
  
-For all the good as it will do him ...+For all the good as it will do him...
  
 - County of Avalon [roughly OTL's South Carolina][FN27.09] - County of Avalon [roughly OTL's South Carolina][FN27.09]
  
-The founders of the County of Avalon clearly took a page from the early +The founders of the County of Avalon clearly took a page from the early Norse land-naming scheme. Give a howling wilderness an intriguing name (Green-land,​ Vin-land), and the settlers will come. A traveler visiting Avalon will not, unfortunately,​ encounter the Once and Future King, but will see a State that is on its way to becoming the wealthiest in the League. In 1280, Avalon, a feudal dependency of the King of England, is on the verge of a great expansion. Up until now, Avalon has prospered, in its small way, 
-Norse land-naming scheme. Give a howling wilderness an intriguing name +starting with subsistence agriculture,​ then moving towards an export driven economy. Like Cocagne, once it has managed to meet its own food needs, it exports. But the big export for Avalon is rice. The coastal wetlands of Avalon are primo rice country and the Count of Avalon, by way of his close relationship with the King of England, has very good contacts with the Hansa cities of the Holy Roman Empire. And that means slaves. Baltic pagans and Russian schismatics can both be enslaved by good Catholic Christians. And they are. They are seized in raids, marched to the ports of the Mongol dominion, crammed into the great ships of the Hansa, freely exported (after the fall of the Anskar Union) out into the Germanic Sea and across the Western Ocean to toil in Avalon'​s rice paddies. Avalon'​s biggest port, Newcastle [Charleston] is choked with shipping, delivering rice to the Ursulines and to Mu-lan-P'​i'​s new settlement at Ti-chu Shih [OTL's Veracruz]. Rice flows out, silver flows in. But that is only the beginning. Circa the late 1270s, the Indian method for indigo dying arrives in Europe [FN27.10] and indigo cultivation arrives in Avalon. It fits perfectly into the crop rotation with rice. Indigo flows out, primarily to Europe, where it is sucked up by the booming textile industry.
-(Green-land,​ Vin-land), and the settlers will come. A traveler visiting +
-Avalon will not, unfortunately,​ encounter the Once and Future King, but will +
-see a State that is on its way to becoming the wealthiest in the League. In +
-1280, Avalon, a feudal dependency of the King of England, is on the verge of +
-a great expansion. Up until now, Avalon has prospered, in its small way, +
-starting with subsistence agriculture,​ then moving towards an export driven +
-economy. Like Cocagne, once it has managed to meet its own food needs, it +
-exports. But the big export for Avalon is rice. The coastal wetlands of +
-Avalon are primo rice country and the Count of Avalon, by way of his close +
-relationship with the King of England, has very good contacts with the Hansa +
-cities of the Holy Roman Empire. And that means slaves. Baltic pagans and +
-Russian schismatics can both be enslaved by good Catholic Christians. And +
-they are. They are seized in raids, marched to the ports of the Mongol +
-dominion, crammed into the great ships of the Hansa, freely exported (after +
-the fall of the Anskar Union) out into the Germanic Sea and across the +
-Western Ocean to toil in Avalon'​s rice paddies. Avalon'​s biggest port, +
-Newcastle [Charleston] is choked with shipping, delivering rice to the +
-Ursulines and to Mu-lan-P'​i'​s new settlement at Ti-chu Shih [OTL's +
-Veracruz]. Rice flows out, silver flows in. But that is only the +
-beginning. Circa the late 1270s, the Indian method for indigo dying arrives +
-in Europe [FN27.10] and indigo cultivation arrives in Avalon. It fits +
-perfectly into the crop rotation with rice. Indigo flows out, primarily to +
-Europe, where it is sucked up by the booming textile industry.+
  
-Just as the Count of Avalon is a feudal subject of the King of England, the +Just as the Count of Avalon is a feudal subject of the King of England, the great plantation owners of Avalon are feudal subjects of the Count. Fortunately for Avalon, they are generally too busy making money to fight amongst themselves in any serious fashion. That and the Count has by far the largest armed retinue and he is very interested in keeping the peace. To compensate for the lack of combat, it is always pretty much always tournament time in Newcastle, and many of the nobles do their quarantine with the Knights of Ultima Thule. Tournaments earn the condemnation of the clergy, including Brihtwine who characterizes the "​Normans"​ of Avalon as the "most extravagant and bellicose of any race in Christendom."​
-great plantation owners of Avalon are feudal subjects of the Count. +
-Fortunately for Avalon, they are generally too busy making money to fight +
-amongst themselves in any serious fashion. That and the Count has by far +
-the largest armed retinue and he is very interested in keeping the peace. +
-To compensate for the lack of combat, it is always pretty much always +
-tournament time in Newcastle, and many of the nobles do their quarantine +
-with the Knights of Ultima Thule. Tournaments earn the condemnation of the +
-clergy, including Brihtwine who characterizes the "​Normans"​ of Avalon as the +
-"most extravagant and bellicose of any race in Christendom."​+
  
-Among the free inhabitants of Avalon, religion is orthodox Latin +Among the free inhabitants of Avalon, religion is orthodox Latin Christianity,​ with no noticeable outbursts of Cathar or Spiritine heresy. The Counts take the conventional thirteenth-century English line that heresy is something for Continentals. As of 1280, Avalon has a Cathedral Chapter, but no cathedral, and its clergy elect its own bishops. Among the slaves, a minority cling to their traditional faiths in the face of forcible baptism and aggressive evangelization,​ but they have neither ordained priests nor churches of their own and with each generation born in Avalon, the former religions of the enslaved begin to fade into memory.
-Christianity,​ with no noticeable outbursts of Cathar or Spiritine heresy. +
-The Counts take the conventional thirteenth-century English line that heresy +
-is something for Continentals. As of 1280, Avalon has a Cathedral Chapter, +
-but no cathedral, and its clergy elect its own bishops. Among the slaves, a +
-minority cling to their traditional faiths in the face of forcible baptism +
-and aggressive evangelization,​ but they have neither ordained priests nor +
-churches of their own and with each generation born in Avalon, the former +
-religions of the enslaved begin to fade into memory.+
  
 - Kingdom of Nova Catalonia [approximately OTL's Georgia] - Kingdom of Nova Catalonia [approximately OTL's Georgia]
  
-Unlike the other major members of the Fjaraland League, Nova Catalonia is +Unlike the other major members of the Fjaraland League, Nova Catalonia is not a feudatory ruled by a hereditary Duke or Count, it is a Kingdom of the Crown of Aragon (for most of this period, occupied by Jaime I of the House of Barcelona). Pursuant to its Cartae Populantionis [charter of settlement],​ Nova Catalonia is jointly ruled by a representative of the Crown called a Batle and a territorial legislature called the Consell. Candidates for the Consell are nominated by a combination of a lottery and nominations by the Jurats (the judiciary, such as it is - a handful of circuit judges) and are then elected by a reasonably inclusive electorate [free inhabitants can meet the property qualification without great 
-not a feudatory ruled by a hereditary Duke or Count, it is a Kingdom of the +
-Crown of Aragon (for most of this period, occupied by Jaime I of the House +
-of Barcelona). Pursuant to its Cartae Populantionis [charter of +
-settlement],​ Nova Catalonia is jointly ruled by a representative of the +
-Crown called a Batle and a territorial legislature called the Consell. +
-Candidates for the Consell are nominated by a combination of a lottery and +
-nominations by the Jurats (the judiciary, such as it is - a handful of +
-circuit judges) and are then elected by a reasonably inclusive electorate +
-[free inhabitants can meet the property qualification without great+
 difficulty] in a popular vote [FN27.11]. difficulty] in a popular vote [FN27.11].
  
-From its beginnings around San Braulio [OTL's Savannah], Nova Catalonia +From its beginnings around San Braulio [OTL's Savannah], Nova Catalonia struggles at first, and gets a leg-up from the Papacy in the same vein that helped settle the Ursulines. Particular types of sinners (arsonists, those who sold weapons to the Saracens or assaulted priests, etc) can expiate their sins by moving to the new colony. On top of the land grants just about all colonial rulers offer in the New World, Jaime also grants settlers a sliding scale of fiscal and legal incentives In addition to peasants, Jaime gives tax exemptions (usually for a fixed period or a generation or two) to blacksmiths,​ masons, carpenters and others who move to the new colony. And these incentives, as well as the land grants, increase with family size. The free inhabitants of Nova Catalonia are predominantly Tributarii - peasants who owed tribute to the King, rather than serfs who are bound to the land.
-struggles at first, and gets a leg-up from the Papacy in the same vein that +
-helped settle the Ursulines. Particular types of sinners (arsonists, those +
-who sold weapons to the Saracens or assaulted priests, etc) can expiate +
-their sins by moving to the new colony. On top of the land grants just +
-about all colonial rulers offer in the New World, Jaime also grants settlers +
-a sliding scale of fiscal and legal incentives In addition to peasants, +
-Jaime gives tax exemptions (usually for a fixed period or a generation or +
-two) to blacksmiths,​ masons, carpenters and others who move to the new +
-colony. And these incentives, as well as the land grants, increase with +
-family size. The free inhabitants of Nova Catalonia are predominantly +
-Tributarii - peasants who owed tribute to the King, rather than serfs who +
-are bound to the land.+
  
 Nova Catalonia, like Avalon, has the rice export business as the backbone of its trading economy, with the paddies being owned by magnates whose holdings range greatly in size. The rice-lands are worked primarily by Greek and Sardinian slaves. The latter, who are seen as wild and tribal, are rounded up in great numbers by Aragonese slave-raiders. The slave population also contains many Muslim captives of the frequent skirmishing between Aragon and neighboring Grenada. Slaves in Nova Catalonia, while legally non-persons,​ can, with the consent of their masters, contract a valid marriage and own personal property. Following the lead of the Italian planters on San Erasmus [Cuba], the Catalonians are shifting some of their land to cotton cultivation for both domestic manufacture and export to Europe, dar al Islam and Mu-lan-P'​i. Nova Catalonia, like Avalon, has the rice export business as the backbone of its trading economy, with the paddies being owned by magnates whose holdings range greatly in size. The rice-lands are worked primarily by Greek and Sardinian slaves. The latter, who are seen as wild and tribal, are rounded up in great numbers by Aragonese slave-raiders. The slave population also contains many Muslim captives of the frequent skirmishing between Aragon and neighboring Grenada. Slaves in Nova Catalonia, while legally non-persons,​ can, with the consent of their masters, contract a valid marriage and own personal property. Following the lead of the Italian planters on San Erasmus [Cuba], the Catalonians are shifting some of their land to cotton cultivation for both domestic manufacture and export to Europe, dar al Islam and Mu-lan-P'​i.
Line 3329: Line 3203:
 about a dozen or so dedicated followers. Among those he left behind, disorder ensues, as does a series of [in]felicitous accidents, homicides and what-not, the Welsh settlers find themselves almost entirely without a noble class. The peasantry, by now quite discontent and disillusioned with the people who led them across the Mor Werydh ["​western seas"] only to desert them, turn on the few surviving nobles. When all is said and done, they are left on their own to clear the land and make a life for themselves. As Brihtwine puts it, "the Welsh of Annwyfn will suffer no governance and do not hesitate to raise their hands against any man who attempts to issue commands or take on lordly airs." In other words, they have a state with no government above the village level - no king, no Thing, no aristocracy,​ no logretta, no folkhagi, no doge, no armadir, no podesta, no khan, no sultan. There are no feudal obligations or regular taxation. Every man is obliged to keep arms and join in the militia when it is summoned by the village governments,​ all of whom have pledged mutual aid in case of attack. about a dozen or so dedicated followers. Among those he left behind, disorder ensues, as does a series of [in]felicitous accidents, homicides and what-not, the Welsh settlers find themselves almost entirely without a noble class. The peasantry, by now quite discontent and disillusioned with the people who led them across the Mor Werydh ["​western seas"] only to desert them, turn on the few surviving nobles. When all is said and done, they are left on their own to clear the land and make a life for themselves. As Brihtwine puts it, "the Welsh of Annwyfn will suffer no governance and do not hesitate to raise their hands against any man who attempts to issue commands or take on lordly airs." In other words, they have a state with no government above the village level - no king, no Thing, no aristocracy,​ no logretta, no folkhagi, no doge, no armadir, no podesta, no khan, no sultan. There are no feudal obligations or regular taxation. Every man is obliged to keep arms and join in the militia when it is summoned by the village governments,​ all of whom have pledged mutual aid in case of attack.
  
-But there is law. Judges, juries are and sheriffs chosen on an as-needed +But there is law. Judges, juries are and sheriffs chosen on an as-needed basis and the few literate men, the vast majority of whom are priests, are charged with recording the Common Law of Annwyfn. And speaking of the Church, the Popes do not forget about the Christians who have departed for the end of the world. The Church appoints Bishops for Annwyfn, although its exact location is not exactly well-known, even in Wales. This is a ready-made situation for absentee Bishops well until the early thirteenth century. And so Christianity suffers among the Welsh of Annwyfn. Their priests are decidedly uncelibate and the priesthood becomes predominantly,​ but not exclusively,​ hereditary. The liturgy is rather peculiar by European standards. Latin has largely vanished and Mass is conducted in the vernacular, with the entire congregation receiving communion in both types. Once more sustained contact with Europe is established after da Conti'​s expedition, Rome dispatches a resident bishop and priests in an attempt to get the Annwyfnians back on the doctrinal reservation. But they meet with great resistance - the Annwyfnians have been having things their way for two generations and they wind up simply ignoring the newcomers, and the Bishops tend to stay in Tremadoc [Mobile], where the fishermen and others, who have more sustained contact with the outside world, are a bit more receptive.
-basis and the few literate men, the vast majority of whom are priests, are +
-charged with recording the Common Law of Annwyfn. And speaking of the +
-Church, the Popes do not forget about the Christians who have departed for +
-the end of the world. The Church appoints Bishops for Annwyfn, although its +
-exact location is not exactly well-known, even in Wales. This is a +
-ready-made situation for absentee Bishops well until the early thirteenth +
-century. And so Christianity suffers among the Welsh of Annwyfn. Their +
-priests are decidedly uncelibate and the priesthood becomes predominantly,​ +
-but not exclusively,​ hereditary. The liturgy is rather peculiar by European +
-standards. Latin has largely vanished and Mass is conducted in the +
-vernacular, with the entire congregation receiving communion in both types. +
-Once more sustained contact with Europe is established after da Conti'​s +
-expedition, Rome dispatches a resident bishop and priests in an attempt to +
-get the Annwyfnians back on the doctrinal reservation. But they meet with +
-great resistance - the Annwyfnians have been having things their way for two +
-generations and they wind up simply ignoring the newcomers, and the Bishops +
-tend to stay in Tremadoc [Mobile], where the fishermen and others, who have +
-more sustained contact with the outside world, are a bit more receptive.+
  
-Annwyfn, like the other European settlements,​ starts with subsistence +Annwyfn, like the other European settlements,​ starts with subsistence agriculture,​ with land-use patters similar to those in Niwe Wessex - villages surrounded by fields that are plowed in furlongs, with each 
-agriculture,​ with land-use patters similar to those in Niwe Wessex - +household owning strips. Like the early Serendibians,​ the settlers of Annwyfn brought little livestock with them, so they adapt their animal husbandry to the local fauna. And a musk-ox, once broken, does make a good plow animal. By 1280, the Annwyfnians,​ like the Cocgainois, are also growing tubbaq for export. The Annwyfnians also trade with their neighbors and buy salt, torsk [salted fish], wadmal [cloth], raw iron and other goods that make their way down the Afon Ganol [Mississippi] River from Hrafenmark, Vinland and Solbjorgland.
-villages surrounded by fields that are plowed in furlongs, with each +
-household owning strips. Like the early Serendibians,​ the settlers of +
-Annwyfn brought little livestock with them, so they adapt their animal +
-husbandry to the local fauna. And a musk-ox, once broken, does make a good +
-plow animal. By 1280, the Annwyfnians,​ like the Cocgainois, are also +
-growing tubbaq for export. The Annwyfnians also trade with their neighbors +
-and buy salt, torsk [salted fish], wadmal [cloth], raw iron and other goods +
-that make their way down the Afon Ganol [Mississippi] River from Hrafenmark, +
-Vinland and Solbjorgland.+
  
-There are those who would prefer to conquer a settled land than go through +There are those who would prefer to conquer a settled land than go through the laborious process of creating their own, and towards the late thirteenth century, they cast their covetous eyes upon Annwyfn as well as Serendib.
-the laborious process of creating their own, and towards the late thirteenth +
-century, they cast their covetous eyes upon Annwyfn as well as Serendib.+
  
  
 - County of Hy-Brasil [roughly, OTL's southern Louisiana] - County of Hy-Brasil [roughly, OTL's southern Louisiana]
  
-The County of Hy-Brasil (quickly truncated to Brasil in common usage), like +The County of Hy-Brasil (quickly truncated to Brasil in common usage), like Nova Catalonia, is a possession of the Crown of Aragon. However, because of its origin, it is a County confederated with those of Catalonia. The King of Aragon is merely the Count of Hy-Brasil. Unlike Nova Catalonia, Hy-Brasil is divvied up among magnates (Seniores or Accaides) holding large areas of land and enjoying a great deal of autonomy - almost all have received certain Immunities from the Count, mostly from feudal duties or payment in lieu of those duties. Almost all the Accaides hold judicial powers within their lands, and the most powerful ones can render judgments that are not appealable to the Count. The Count himself is represented by his Vicari, who routinely consults with the nobles of Hy-Brasil and ensures that the Count'​s writ, when applicable, is obeyed.
-Nova Catalonia, is a possession of the Crown of Aragon. However, because of +
-its origin, it is a County confederated with those of Catalonia. The King +
-of Aragon is merely the Count of Hy-Brasil. Unlike Nova Catalonia, +
-Hy-Brasil is divvied up among magnates (Seniores or Accaides) holding large +
-areas of land and enjoying a great deal of autonomy - almost all have +
-received certain Immunities from the Count, mostly from feudal duties or +
-payment in lieu of those duties. Almost all the Accaides hold judicial +
-powers within their lands, and the most powerful ones can render judgments +
-that are not appealable to the Count. The Count himself is represented by +
-his Vicari, who routinely consults with the nobles of Hy-Brasil and ensures +
-that the Count'​s writ, when applicable, is obeyed.+
  
-Generally speaking, anything that can be said about the plantation colonies +Generally speaking, anything that can be said about the plantation colonies in the Ursulines and Ultima Thule can be said about Hy-Brasil - sugar, rice, slaves, etc. But there is one thing that makes Hy-Brasil exceptional. It sits at the mouth of the Afon Ganol River, and thus has easy access to the exports from the Norse colonies. The usual products make their way down-river either in one-shot flatboats that are subsequently dismantled and sold for the timber, or in more conventional Norse longships. The interaction between the Nordic boatmen and their Iberian trading partners is a bit uneasy. It is a profitable business and everyone wants it to continue, but the more pious Christians are uncomfortable being routinely visited by pagans, especially considering their reputation. The King, who has a significant number of Saracen subjects, is more sanguine. He grants the pagans the right to transit and sojourn in Brasil and even gives them leave to build a froharg, at which they can give thanks to their gods for a safe journey through the wilderness.
-in the Ursulines and Ultima Thule can be said about Hy-Brasil - sugar, rice, +
-slaves, etc. But there is one thing that makes Hy-Brasil exceptional. It +
-sits at the mouth of the Afon Ganol River, and thus has easy access to the +
-exports from the Norse colonies. The usual products make their way +
-down-river either in one-shot flatboats that are subsequently dismantled and +
-sold for the timber, or in more conventional Norse longships. The +
-interaction between the Nordic boatmen and their Iberian trading partners is +
-a bit uneasy. It is a profitable business and everyone wants it to +
-continue, but the more pious Christians are uncomfortable being routinely +
-visited by pagans, especially considering their reputation. The King, who +
-has a significant number of Saracen subjects, is more sanguine. He grants +
-the pagans the right to transit and sojourn in Brasil and even gives them +
-leave to build a froharg, at which they can give thanks to their gods for a +
-safe journey through the wilderness.+
  
-Also, the Vicari of Hy-Brasil has sent expeditions up the valleys of the +Also, the Vicari of Hy-Brasil has sent expeditions up the valleys of the Afon Ganol and its tributaries,​ scouting deep into the interior of Ultima Thule. These expeditions have brought back reports of just incredible flora and fauna, of vast mountain ranges and blazing deserts. But still they keep pushing north and west. The goal, you see, is Jen Men. The Aragonese are unhappy with the Venetian hammer-lock on the seaborne trade with Mu-lan-P'​i. So they are thinking overland. There are some obstacles, of course, deserts, mountains - the Riphean Mountains, which Brihtwine firmly believes encircle the world - and ferocious beasts.
-Afon Ganol and its tributaries,​ scouting deep into the interior of Ultima +
-Thule. These expeditions have brought back reports of just incredible flora +
-and fauna, of vast mountain ranges and blazing deserts. But still they keep +
-pushing north and west. The goal, you see, is Jen Men. The Aragonese are +
-unhappy with the Venetian hammer-lock on the seaborne trade with Mu-lan-P'​i. +
-So they are thinking overland. There are some obstacles, of course, +
-deserts, mountains - the Riphean Mountains, which Brihtwine firmly believes +
-encircle the world - and ferocious beasts.+
  
-But the doughty Aragonese explorers keep going, certain that they can make +But the doughty Aragonese explorers keep going, certain that they can make it all the way to the ocean.
-it all the way to the ocean.+
  
  
 Terranova Terranova
  
-There are a number of small plantation and other colonies in Terranova +There are a number of small plantation and other colonies in Terranova (Whitsunland),​ but we will not be discussing them all at this point. By way of example, in the 1270s, Genoese explorers, searching for gold in Miniera Di Oro [OTL's Guyana] stumble upon significant deposits of alum, which is valuable as a dye fixative for cloth. Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoese merchant/​admiral/​buccaneer/​mercenary and capo [FN27.132] of the family company that bears his name, organizes a massive (for the time) enterprise 
-(Whitsunland),​ but we will not be discussing them all at this point. By way +to exploit the deposits. Bulk-carrying ships were constructed,​ settlers were recruited and textile firms in Lombardy, Aragon and England were committed to buying the output of the mines. Zaccaria'​s endeavor is 
-of example, in the 1270s, Genoese explorers, searching for gold in Miniera +noteworthy for the fact that it was the first settlement endeavor to import slaves directly from West Africa. Other Africans had been imported as slaves to the Ursulines and Nova Catalonia, but they were first routed along the old caravan routes through the Sahara to Ifriqiha and Tlemcen on the Mediterranean,​ then shipped overseas from there. Zaccaria, in need of slaves to work the mines and ready (like all Genoese traders) to stick it to Venice by defying their attempted monopoly on the slave trade, goes straight to the source. He takes his round ships down the coast of Africa, to the far side of the mouth of the Senegal, where - as his Moroccan informants led him to believe - he encounters the Wolof people. The Wolof, a tributary people of the Empire of Mali, have a large equestrian class well-versed in the practice of slave-raiding and slave-trading. A deal is quickly made for a significant quantity of slaves, who are duly rounded up and herded into Zaccarias'​ ships, then off to Miniera Di Oro. This process is repeated several times, consuming what remains of the working capital of the Zaccaria enterprise, and much besides. But soon the alum mines are up and running. Settlers work the fields to feed the miners and the miners load the great ships with precious alum. It all goes swimmingly for a while - of course, from the perspective of the Zaccaria investors and not the slaves toiling in the mines - but then the bottom falls out. Great new deposits of alum are found north of Rome, which causes the market price to drop just enough to put Zaccaria out of business. So the enterprise collapses. Some of the settlers - and all of the miners - wish to return home, but the ships and their crews have hi-tailed it to Dieppe, where they will be safe from attachment by Zaccaria'​s creditors. So the miners and the settlers are left to make what they can of this fiasco. And they do. But we will get back to them later. Right now, we are going to discuss:
-Di Oro [OTL's Guyana] stumble upon significant deposits of alum, which is +
-valuable as a dye fixative for cloth. Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoese +
-merchant/​admiral/​buccaneer/​mercenary and capo [FN27.132] of the family +
-company that bears his name, organizes a massive (for the time) enterprise +
-to exploit the deposits. Bulk-carrying ships were constructed,​ settlers +
-were recruited and textile firms in Lombardy, Aragon and England were +
-committed to buying the output of the mines. Zaccaria'​s endeavor is +
-noteworthy for the fact that it was the first settlement endeavor to import +
-slaves directly from West Africa. Other Africans had been imported as +
-slaves to the Ursulines and Nova Catalonia, but they were first routed along +
-the old caravan routes through the Sahara to Ifriqiha and Tlemcen on the +
-Mediterranean,​ then shipped overseas from there. Zaccaria, in need of +
-slaves to work the mines and ready (like all Genoese traders) to stick it to +
-Venice by defying their attempted monopoly on the slave trade, goes straight +
-to the source. He takes his round ships down the coast of Africa, to the +
-far side of the mouth of the Senegal, where - as his Moroccan informants led +
-him to believe - he encounters the Wolof people. The Wolof, a tributary +
-people of the Empire of Mali, have a large equestrian class well-versed in +
-the practice of slave-raiding and slave-trading. A deal is quickly made for +
-a significant quantity of slaves, who are duly rounded up and herded into +
-Zaccarias'​ ships, then off to Miniera Di Oro. This process is repeated +
-several times, consuming what remains of the working capital of the Zaccaria +
-enterprise, and much besides. But soon the alum mines are up and running. +
-Settlers work the fields to feed the miners and the miners load the great +
-ships with precious alum. It all goes swimmingly for a while - of course, +
-from the perspective of the Zaccaria investors and not the slaves toiling in +
-the mines - but then the bottom falls out. Great new deposits of alum are +
-found north of Rome, which causes the market price to drop just enough to +
-put Zaccaria out of business. So the enterprise collapses. Some of the +
-settlers - and all of the miners - wish to return home, but the ships and +
-their crews have hi-tailed it to Dieppe, where they will be safe from +
-attachment by Zaccaria'​s creditors. So the miners and the settlers are left +
-to make what they can of this fiasco. And they do. But we will get back to +
-them later. Right now, we are going to discuss:+
  
  
 - Tarshish [OTL's Cumana, Columbia and environs] - Tarshish [OTL's Cumana, Columbia and environs]
  
-Tarshish, a possession of the Emir of al-Andalus [FN27.14], is the only +Tarshish, a possession of the Emir of al-Andalus [FN27.14], is the only Muslim colony in Terranova, and the largest European colony on Terranova. And it is truly a colony - its government is wholly appointed by the Emir. The Emir's power is primarily wielded by the Hajib [governor], who is responsible for the defense and domestic peace of the colony. Beneath him, the Sahib al-Shurta is in charge of the police, and the Sahib al-Suq supervises the markets, guarding against fraud, theft and other practices contrary to Islamic law. There are a number of Mosques in Tarshish, and in a corner of each sits a Qadi, an Islamic jurist who dispenses justice in civil cases between Muslims.
-Muslim colony in Terranova, and the largest European colony on Terranova. +
-And it is truly a colony - its government is wholly appointed by the Emir. +
-The Emir's power is primarily wielded by the Hajib [governor], who is +
-responsible for the defense and domestic peace of the colony. Beneath him, +
-the Sahib al-Shurta is in charge of the police, and the Sahib al-Suq +
-supervises the markets, guarding against fraud, theft and other practices +
-contrary to Islamic law. There are a number of Mosques in Tarshish, and in +
-a corner of each sits a Qadi, an Islamic jurist who dispenses justice in +
-civil cases between Muslims.+
  
-Since Tarshish is on the mainland, it is exempt from Venetian economic +Since Tarshish is on the mainland, it is exempt from Venetian economic control pursuant to the agreement between al-Andalus and the Republic. The inhabitants of Tarshish are, therefore, free to trade with whomever they want. Given its location, it is perhaps inevitable that Tarshish develops a very prolific trade with the Cathayan merchants at Zhongmeizhou [Panama]. The Andalusiyyun of Tarshish grow not only foodstuffs for themselves and to trade to the merchant ships on their way back to Europe from Zhongmeizhou,​ but also bhang and tubbaq to trade directly with the Cathayans. Many of the farmers in Tarshish are munasifim [sharecroppers] who work the mustakhuas, the private estates of the Emir.
-control pursuant to the agreement between al-Andalus and the Republic. The +
-inhabitants of Tarshish are, therefore, free to trade with whomever they +
-want. Given its location, it is perhaps inevitable that Tarshish develops a +
-very prolific trade with the Cathayan merchants at Zhongmeizhou [Panama]. +
-The Andalusiyyun of Tarshish grow not only foodstuffs for themselves and to +
-trade to the merchant ships on their way back to Europe from Zhongmeizhou,​ +
-but also bhang and tubbaq to trade directly with the Cathayans. Many of the +
-farmers in Tarshish are munasifim [sharecroppers] who work the mustakhuas, +
-the private estates of the Emir+
  
-And then there are the pearls. The pearl fisheries of Tarshish were the +And then there are the pearls. The pearl fisheries of Tarshish were the original source of its wealth and what brought a number of Andalusiyyun to the territory. They are a hot item in Europe and dar al-Islam and the trade has enriched the Emir - who is entitled to a significant percentage of the profits - greatly. The vigilant Emirs, routinely appoint sahib al-Mazalim, civil officials whose duty is to ferret out abuses of power and corruption, to keep an eye on the pearl trade.
-original source of its wealth and what brought a number of Andalusiyyun to +
-the territory. They are a hot item in Europe and dar al-Islam and the trade +
-has enriched the Emir - who is entitled to a significant percentage of the +
-profits - greatly. The vigilant Emirs, routinely appoint sahib al-Mazalim, +
-civil officials whose duty is to ferret out abuses of power and corruption, +
-to keep an eye on the pearl trade.+
  
-The Muslims of Tarshish are very cognizant of the fact that they are in a +The Muslims of Tarshish are very cognizant of the fact that they are in a singularly vulnerable position. As a Saracen territory, they are - to borrow a phrase - a '​low-hanging fruit' greatly at risk of attack by the Christians of the Ursulines. Therefore, they have taken precautions. A small garrison of Berber mercenaries guards the territory, from a scattering of log and earth fortifications. However, given the history of North Africans in al-Andalus, they are seen by the Andalusiyyun officials as more of a costly internal threat than as protection, and the Sahib al-Shurta'​s officers keep a close eye on them. The Hajib of Tarshish lives a life of anxiety, waiting for a fleet of sailing ships bearing the banner of the Cross to appear on the horizon, bearing crusaders bent on conquest and plunder.
-singularly vulnerable position. As a Saracen territory, they are - to +
-borrow a phrase - a '​low-hanging fruit' greatly at risk of attack by the +
-Christians of the Ursulines. Therefore, they have taken precautions. A +
-small garrison of Berber mercenaries guards the territory, from a scattering +
-of log and earth fortifications. However, given the history of North +
-Africans in al-Andalus, they are seen by the Andalusiyyun officials as more +
-of a costly internal threat than as protection, and the Sahib al-Shurta'​s +
-officers keep a close eye on them. The Hajib of Tarshish lives a life of +
-anxiety, waiting for a fleet of sailing ships bearing the banner of the +
-Cross to appear on the horizon, bearing crusaders bent on conquest and +
-plunder.+
  
-Therefore, when a troop of muddy frontiersmen appear at the Khitzanat al-Mal +Therefore, when a troop of muddy frontiersmen appear at the Khitzanat al-Mal [treasury] with big bags of gold dust, intent on paying the Emir his share and changing the rest to dinars, the realization that Tarshish has gold deposits worthy of its namesake causes a frission of both excitement and fear through the Hajib. Excitement at the new-found riches, and fear that it will bring on the long-anticipated Christian attack. But the Hajib has a plan.
-[treasury] with big bags of gold dust, intent on paying the Emir his share +
-and changing the rest to dinars, the realization that Tarshish has gold +
-deposits worthy of its namesake causes a frission of both excitement and +
-fear through the Hajib. Excitement at the new-found riches, and fear that +
-it will bring on the long-anticipated Christian attack. But the Hajib has a +
-plan.+
  
-[FN27.01] Relief maps, invented by the Chinese, circa 3rdC B.C. Gospatric'​s +[FN27.01] Relief maps, invented by the Chinese, circa 3rdC B.C. Gospatric'​s skill in depicting the contours of the earth is about the same as his (and other medieval mapmakers'​) skill in accurately depicting coastlines. In other words, it varies wildly depending upon the quality of information they
-skill in depicting the contours of the earth is about the same as his (and +
-other medieval mapmakers'​) skill in accurately depicting coastlines. In +
-other words, it varies wildly depending upon the quality of information they+
 have to work with. have to work with.
  
-[FN27.02] Roughly speaking, through the Canadian Arctic and, although not +[FN27.02] Roughly speaking, through the Canadian Arctic and, although not much is known about it at the time, around Alaska. There is a good deal of speculation that during the Medieval Warm Period there could have been a Northwest Passage linking Atlantic and Pacific that was navigable during the late summer months. I have not seen anything definitive either way. Some of the propeller-hat types even assert that the Vikings could have made it to the Pacific. It's a beauty way to go.
-much is known about it at the time, around Alaska. There is a good deal of +
-speculation that during the Medieval Warm Period there could have been a +
-Northwest Passage linking Atlantic and Pacific that was navigable during the +
-late summer months. I have not seen anything definitive either way. Some +
-of the propeller-hat types even assert that the Vikings could have made it +
-to the Pacific. It's a beauty way to go.+
  
-[FN27.03] Through a Latin and Chinese-speaking Florentine merchant who +[FN27.03] Through a Latin and Chinese-speaking Florentine merchant who accompanied the Admiral from Jen Men.
-accompanied the Admiral from Jen Men.+
  
 [FN27.031] Passenger pigeon, still alive and well, for the time being. [FN27.031] Passenger pigeon, still alive and well, for the time being.
Line 3526: Line 3252:
 [FN27.04] Excepting those portions covered by previous parts. [FN27.04] Excepting those portions covered by previous parts.
  
-[FN27.05] This allegation is technically true. The Knights have been +[FN27.05] This allegation is technically true. The Knights have been operating numerous pawn shops throughout Niwe Wessex. Their effective interest rates are much lower than other money-lenders,​ so they are actually providing a valuable public service, providing credit to those who otherwise could not afford it. Makes no nevermind - its still usury.
-operating numerous pawn shops throughout Niwe Wessex. Their effective +
-interest rates are much lower than other money-lenders,​ so they are actually +
-providing a valuable public service, providing credit to those who otherwise +
-could not afford it. Makes no nevermind - its still usury.+
  
-[FN27.06] The arguments of Ceolwulf'​s hired guns would later serve as the +[FN27.06] The arguments of Ceolwulf'​s hired guns would later serve as the foundation stones for some scholarship that will have a much greater impact in Western Christendom.
-foundation stones for some scholarship that will have a much greater impact +
-in Western Christendom.+
  
-[FN27.07] Recall that the Papacy maintained that it held fee over all of +[FN27.07] Recall that the Papacy maintained that it held fee over all of Ultima Thule and could grant fiefs to whatever it wanted.
-Ultima Thule and could grant fiefs to whatever it wanted.+
  
-[FN27.08] http://​www.goldmaps.com/​east/​north_carolina_gold.htm+[FN27.08] http://​www.goldmaps.com/​east/​north_carolina_gold.htm ​
  
-[FN27.09] Props to Orson Scott Card's Alvin Maker books for Camelot [aka +[FN27.09] Props to Orson Scott Card's Alvin Maker books for Camelot [aka Charleston].
-Charleston].+
  
-[FN27.10] The Indians devised a method for making the dye insoluble. OTL, +[FN27.10] The Indians devised a method for making the dye insoluble. OTL, Marco Polo purportedly brought the technique back from India.
-Marco Polo purportedly brought the technique back from India.+
  
-[FN27.11] The details of the government and colonization of Nova Catalonia +[FN27.11] The details of the government and colonization of Nova Catalonia are lifted directly from OTL's Aragonese colonization of Majorca. ​
-are lifted directly from OTL's Aragonese colonization of Majorca.+
  
-[FN27.12] The original Fjaralanders eventually gave up and accepted the +[FN27.12] The original Fjaralanders eventually gave up and accepted the name da Conti and the Venetian traders gave their land, but were gratified when the League took their original name.
-name da Conti and the Venetian traders gave their land, but were gratified +
-when the League took their original name.+
  
 [FN27.13] The original name of Anskar, the current capital of Vinland. [FN27.13] The original name of Anskar, the current capital of Vinland.
Line 3561: Line 3275:
 [FN27.132] "​chairman"​ No kidding. [FN27.132] "​chairman"​ No kidding.
  
-[FN27.14] Based upon some recent reading, I am, er, revising somewhat the +[FN27.14] Based upon some recent reading, I am, er, revising somewhat the progress of al-Andalus. Since the liberation of Islamic Spain from domination by the North African Almoravids, as of 1280 the Emir of 
-progress of al-Andalus. Since the liberation of Islamic Spain from +al-Andalus has yet to proclaim himself Caliph. The names are going to be changing somewhat, also. Since the Emir's territory encompasses more than Grenada, I am going with al-Andalus. Poking through the web site and changing terminology is on the to-do list.
-domination by the North African Almoravids, as of 1280 the Emir of +
-al-Andalus has yet to proclaim himself Caliph. The names are going to be +
-changing somewhat, also. Since the Emir's territory encompasses more than +
-Grenada, I am going with al-Andalus. Poking through the web site and +
-changing terminology is on the to-do list.+
  
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timelines/empty_america_-_archived_version.txt · Last modified: 2018/06/20 06:04 by petike