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timelines:empire_of_north_america

Empire of North America (Look to the West)

In Look to the West, the Empire of North America (ENA) was formed out of the twelve American colonies by Prince Frederick in 1748, as part of his bid to return from exile as King of Great Britain. Since Frederick won the throne back, all Kings of Great Britain have also been Emperors of North America.

Imperial forces first fought officially in the War of the British Succession and then the Third War of Supremacy, both of which contributed to establishing an American national identity. Throughout the 1760s and 1770s, American intellectuals protested against the lack of representation for Americans compared to Britons, with the result that in 1788 the ENA was granted its own 'Continental Parliament' and Constitution. The existing colonial system was dissolved and the Empire divided into five Confederations - New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Carolina. New England and Carolina benefited the most from territories won from the French and Spanish in the Wars of Supremacy and their respective cultures fighting for the ENA's overall way of life. Fearful of one confederation or the other gaining too much land and power, some potential annexations have been thwarted - Carolina has taken the valuable islands of Cuba and Hispanola, but the northern confederations kept the British West Indies's petitions to join the Empire until Great Britain's invasion by France in the Jacobin Wars, while New England was forced to give up its westward claims in 1794 in order to settle the St. Lawrence River valley after the expulsion of the Francophone Canadians.

Settlement and 'racial purging' (ethnic cleansing) policies are rather more ruthless than OTL. The Second Great Upheaval in Canada, executed with the 1794 'Act of Settlement', exiled Canadians (OTL Francophone Quebecois) out of their homeland ala the Acadians in the (First) Great Upheaval in 1755. This was followed by the 'Cuba Question' of 1803 that saw the Spanish-speaking residents exiled in the same vein. The last incident of this policy had been the successful quelling of the 'Haitian African Republic' that took over the entire island of Hispanola and the island's subsequent annexation to Carolina that saw all the rebel slaves and French/Spanish white settlers of both sides of the islands forced off as well. This has meant those areas are now Anglo-Americanized in language and culture, but with Canada to the north and the Caribbean to the south to migrate to, westward expansion had begun to slow relative to OTL, giving the various Native American tribes some breathing room to consolidate themselves and negotiate more equitable treaties with the American government than occurred in reality.

The Empire declared war on Revolutionary France in 1795 after the Revolutionaries murdered their ambassador, Thomas Jefferson. Peace with the French was quickly declared in August 1800 following Britain's negotiations with France in the Treay of Caen in March, although the brief lull when America was still at war meant a French privateer captured MCP Elbridge Gerry's son and coined the term 'Gerrymandering' (taking one last potshot at an enemy before a definitive peace is established). The Americans quickly declared war again on France after the invasion of England in March 1807, but also took on the UPSA in the Third Platinean War in the wake of the Cherry Massacre. American troops proved to be useful and instrumental in both conflicts, the regiments in Europe (under John Alexander) helping keep peace in Ireland and then bridge the rifts between English and Irish regiments in the New Royal Army that destroyed the English Germanic Republic and invaded France for the final campaign of the Jacobin Wars. Meanwhile, Americans in the UPSA helped blockade the Meridians and conquer Buenos Aires, leading to the death of President-General Castelli.

After protesting at British policies of transporting convicts to the colonies, the ENA Continental Parliament oversaw the establishment of the Susan-Mary penal colony in the area of OTL Michigan. Accepting various convicted Englishmen from its foundation in August 1794 as well as absorbing the local French-Canadian town of Sault Ste. Marie, it received a large boost in its prisoner population from the exile of the Hellfire Club collaborators that worked with Hoche, most famously the Club's leader Joseph Dashwood. The miserable conditions of the convicts caused them to eventually conspire with the Canadian locals against the Americans, who took control of the colony in 1818 following Britain's collapse in the Jacobin Wars. A mass breakout led by Dashwood in 1815 to Dakota-controlled lands allowed the Sioux the Anglo-Canadian's technical knowledge to give the Dakotas a defensive advantage in the Lakota War of 1816-1819 and a brief respite from American expansion, which in turn triggered Canajun rebellions in New England and Hispanic revolts in Cuba and Hispaniola - the latter put down by the Carolinian John Alexander, who becomes Carolina's idol for it. The exaggerated terror of the Lakota War - that Amerindians could actually resist American settlers pushing west - also helped the formation of the Neutral Party, which especially catered to the voters of the frontier.

For much of the Watchful Peace and Democratic Experiment, the ENA was the strongest power in the Americas, and the UPSA had made peaceful overtures to it in an attempt to contain their rival, the Empire of New Spain. Indeed, America continued its gradual independence from Britain - the Bank of North America invested heavily in Marleburgensian Britain, and the American Squadron of the Royal Navy (already staffed almost entirely by Americans) was transferred to Fredericksburg's control in 1819 and nicknamed the 'Imperial Navy'. However, Carolina's relations with the northern confederations were strained by its slavery-based economy and territorial ambitions (negotiating a border treaty with Louisiana without Imperial interference), and none of the settlers in the western shires and West Indies were pleased with the differences in priorities between them and the dominant eastern seaboard leaders. More ominous than the east-west divide was the north-south one: Carolina's large absorption of Hispanics that were already slave-and-plantation friendly gradually wedded them to the idea of Catholic Emancipation, which John Alexander successfully motioned for in May 1823 and (alongside the earlier Canajun rebellion) caused New England's nativist Trust Party to come to existence and spread throughout New England and Yankee-settled parts of New York. The north itself became enamored of abolitionism, a trend that started in the Pennsylvania-based American Radical Party and spread both north into New York and New England and south into Virginia (which already suffered from a confederal divide from a lack of slaves and plantation wealth outside its Chesapeake-bordering shires).

The Empire was wracked hard by the Popular Wars - Frederick II having escaped to the ENA to get away from Joshua Churchill, he deigned to the 'Proclamation of Independence' in February 1828 in order to get American help to get rid of Blandford, which declared America no longer under British suzerainty and officialized all American institutions save the monarchy as completely separate from their British equivalents. Lord President Benjamin Harrison VII's death soon after allowed his rival Andrew Eveleigh to come to power, who then kept to the pledge of safety for British forces defecting to America and nothing else. In revenge, Frederick began to maneuver abolitionist forces in Virginia into power. 1829 was a decisive year - Frederick induced Virginia into becoming the first confederation to elect its Governor by popular vote in February, with the winning candidate a Whig named William Henry a secret abolitionist. As Britain's suffering continued under 'Bloody Blandford', Eveleigh annexed British Antipodea, the Falkland Islands, the Hudson Bay's Territory and the British West Indies to the Empire and attached the last to Carolina to increase slaver territory, as well as the start of the Superior War of 1829-1833 - the Susan-Mary colony revolting and joining the Thirteen Fires Confederacy that Dashwood's band had escaped to and all the land above Lake Superior's northern shore (including the city of Susan-Mary/Sault Ste. Marie) proclaimed the Superior Republic. A call for more troops to occupy the annexations and assist the primarily New Yorker-New England force fight the Superians results in a tax on slaveholders in Virginia, who complain despite being able to easily field the funds. This in turn ticks off Clement Clay's 'Footnote of History' speech of January 1831 that kicks off a narrowly-passed Manumission Act in that confederation and causes the Virginia Crisis to erupt in February. Eveleigh's fanatical views on slavery and rage over the Act's passing actually pushed many Virginians to the anti-slavery camp, but pro-slavery mobs force the House of Burgesses and Imperial Parliament to retreat to Delaware while Maryland declares itself independent of Virginia. In spring, order is quickly restored: an Imperial force of Pennsylvanians occupied Maryland in May, while in August Governor Henry raised troops from western Virginia (primarily Vandalians) to restore the House of Burgesses. Adding to the chaos, September saw a band of black outlaws led by Caesar Bell attack Virginian slaveholders. Come 1832, Eveleigh, crazed by the unpopularity and defeat of the pro-slavery Virginians and Marylanders the previous year, urged Williamsburg and Richmond-shires to join Carolina but instead offended even more Virginians into defecting from pro-slaver views and instigated his removal from the Lord Presidency via the Continental Parliament's first 'death-vote'. Things then began to look up: in March the Superior Republic was destroyed at Fort Kaminiquistia and Susan-Mary absorbed back into the Empire as Dashwood surrendered himself in return for mercy for his retreating forces, and the combined Loyalist Virginian-Pennsylvanian force restored Frederick II to Fredericksburg in June. The Crisis was proclaimed over in October as many freed blacks were deported to Freedonia and a large number of diehard Virginian slavers migrated to Carolina. Dashwood was executed in February 1833, and Eveleigh committed suicide the following month as a Radical government took power.

America would begin serious soul-searching when a debate over updating its national banner - the 'Flag War', over whether the Union Jack canton ought be removed and replaced with something else - led to more serious discussions over the peopling of its western lands and better representation for them, even to the possibility of Drakesland being admitted as a confederation or western provinces around the Great Lakes, Great Plains, and Appalachian Mountains grouping together as future subdivisions. The Parliamentary Reapportionment Act of February 1836 took steps to universal suffrage as it added to and shuffled the total amount of MCPs around, but a serious snag comes over Carolina - which instituted universal white suffrage but felt increasingly isolated and unique ever since fellow southern confederation Virginia passed manumission. Two important immigrants came to the country at this time: the Prussian King Frederick Henry Owens-Allen would move to the country, travel the west, and eventually win election as Governor, while Mo Quedling was elected as a Pittsylvanian MCP and spoke passionately on pacifism and condemned those who did not agree with him. Frederick II returns in 1847 and polarizes the Empire with talk of a new Constitutional Convention like that recently held in the reformed Kingdom of the Britons.

Unfortunately, in June 1848, the Great American War began. The issue of slavery had become paramount in internal issues and Carolina declared secession on June 25th, 1848 when it becomes apparent the rest of America could force abolitionism by weight of sheer popular vote at the proposed Convention. Worse yet, troops moving to occupy Carolina are hampered by Governor Owens-Allen's declaration of Virginian neutrality on July 16th in order to protect locals from invasions like that of the Virginia Crisis, forcing them to move by sea or specialized routes. Despite this, things seem to go well at first from then to August 1849. Franklin province and those immediately to its west settled by people from the Appalachians are apathetic to the confederal leaders in Charleston and cleave immediately to the Empire, Charleston is captured as American forces under General Trevor Jones secure the Carolinas and then push south into Georgia, and Admiral James Warner takes eastern Cuba and Hispaniola. Unfortunately, an American warship attacking a Carolinian mission to Buenos Aires in June 1849 damages the city and leads to a declaration of war by Meridia, and the American First Siege of Ultima in Georgia of March-May 1850 is broken. Things gradually come undone the rest of 1850: a conscription act in the fall leads to revolts, Meridian forces secure Jamaica and West Cuba for Carolina and the Falkland and South Georgia Islands for themselves, and a combined Meridian-Carolinian force pushes Jones's army northward and liberates the Carolinas. Virginia finally joins the full war effort as this 'Northern March' by February 1851 sees the Jones army pressed to its border: the governors' election sees Henry returned to power and Owens-Allen fleeing south with his German bodyguard to help Carolina. The Meridians stall at Virginia and the Carolinians are crushed recklessly trying to assault Fredericksburg in July, and American forces push back. They recapture North Carolina, half of South Carolina, and northernmost Georgia by November 1852 and besiege Ultima a second time but retreat the next month (the 'Black Christmas'), causing a peace government to be elected in the Imperial election of January 1853. Next month sees a ceasefire and the end to the Carolinian War of Independence: a plebiscite held in July has North Carolina westward as well as the occupied half of South Carolina, the northernmost slices of Georgia and the Cherokee lands, and East Cuba, Hispaniola, Leeward Islands, and Windward Islands stay American while the remains of South Carolina, Georgia, the Cherokee Empire, the Floridas, and West Cuba and Jamaica unite as the Kingdom of Carolina. Meanwhile the 'Manhattan Massacre' that damaged the armorclad Lord Hamilton and New York City by Howden nationalists in June 1852 saw the Howden Confederacy annexed to New York and the majority of its population expelled to the Red River Valley to make room for New Yorker colonists, and Imperial troops intervening in the Californian and Louisianan Wars of Independence take New Mexico from New Spain and northwestern Louisiana from France, thus ironically giving the ENA new territory equivalent in size to lost Carolina.

A National Coma and sense of malaise would be in effect from 1853-1857 as the ENA tried to pretend it was business as usual, but the Newton Uprising of 1856 would see the occupied Georgian and South Carolinian land lost to Carolina, albeit attempts to incur rebellion in eastern Virginia and North Carolina were far more lukewarm due to a now-mainstream lack of reliance on plantation economics and hatred of Carolinians proper. With the vast majority of people of Carolinian descent and pro-slavery views gone, the ENA finally held a Constitutional Convention in 1857 and reformed itself: the new Confederations of Drakesland (the Pacific Northwest), Michigan (the western Great Lakes), Ohio (Ohio River Valley and southern Appalachians), and Westernesse (Ozarks and southern Great Plains), and Cyngia (western Antipodea) were created, many new provinces created within them to properly represent their burgeoning growth, and the reduced eastern confederations had new subdivisions drawn up to ease existing overpopulated shires. Slavery was completely abolished and universal suffrage instigated in its stead and a new canton replaced the Union Jack in the flag with nine stars to represent the nine confederations, the 'Starry George'. The Empire held Worldfest 1862 to proclaim to the planet its renewed self of hope and opportunity for all men and attract immigration to its western lands, and was considered a smashing success.


Politics

The Continental Parliament is patterned after Westminster, but is somewhat 'cleaner' owing to being constructed from the ground up. There are no rotten boroughs, for example, as borough status had only just been granted to the biggest cities in 1788. Each province of a confederacy sent one MP and each borough additionally sends one MP. The American House of Lords is traditionally rather small, although a disproportionate number of Americans were given newly created peerages in the years leading up to 1788 so that the House might have a quorum. The King's representative is the Lord Deputy for the Colonies (later changed to 'for North America'), who signs bills into power in the King's name. The American equivalent of the Prime Minister is the Lord President of the Imperial Privy Council. 1836 would see suffrage extended and additions to the total amount of MCPs.

Some of the major past issues that affected the Empire had been declaring the realm off-limits to convict settlers in 1789, how strong the Imperial (central) government should be compared to Confederal (local) government (from 1803 with Carolina's annexation of Hispaniola to 1857 with the successful Supremacist call for a Constitutional Convention), land annexations (both to the Empire in general and dividing that land between the confederations), the Proclamation of Independence from the mother country in 1828, and eliminating slavery in Virginia, begetting the Virginia Crisis. The Empire also had a first in independently negotiating with the Viceroyalty of New Spain over the Noochaland Crisis, in which the mother country of neither took a hand in. In turn, Carolina negotiated to settle a border dispute with the Grand Duchy of Louisiana, causing some to argue it overstepped its constitutional bounds. There also was heavy dispute over the increasingly disgruntled western provinces wanting better representation and slavery in Carolina during the Watchful Peace and Democratic Experiment, but the Great American War would see Carolina split off and a new Constitutional Convention in 1857 create new confederations and inaugurate universal suffrage.

The various Native American realms also maintain relations with the ENA and through them, Britain. The most powerful in this regard are the Cherokee Empire (which has absorbed the Creek and Chickasaw and made the Floridian Seminoles an intergral, if physically cut-off, part of their nation), and the Howden (Iroquois) Confederacy, which has successfully settled the northern part of the OTL Ontario Peninsula and middle Michigan as well as the traditional western New Yorker homeland. The OTL Ohio Confederacy, Lenni Lenape, Wyandot (Hurons), Creek, and Chickasaw tribes have all been defeated between the 1760s to 1790s by the Empire in conjunction with the Howden and Cherokee and their lands divided between all three nations. Peace reigned between the ENA, Howden, and Cherokees until the Manhattan Massacre of 1852, after which the Howden Confederacy's lands were absorbed into New York as the provinces of Huron, Chersonesus, and Ontario and the Cherokee Empire joined the Kingdom of Carolina. Afterwards, a massive exodus of Howdens along with many of the remaining Native American tribes within the Empire's westernmost provinces and newly-formed imperial territories moved north to the massive 'Indian Confederation' centered around the Red River Valley, where with the remains of the Thirteen Fires Confederacy and exiled whites (themselves a mixture of exiled Englishmen and local French-Canadians) of the Susan-Mary penal colony have begun to coalesce into a second iteration of the 'Superior Republic'.

Due to the Westminster System being applied to the geographically vast land of North America, the nation has become synonymous with coalition-building, with multiple parties common in its political system and large tent parties tending to break up.

From the 1860s onwards (though the term is often mistakenly used for earlier Lords President), the residence of the (Lord) President is 14 Culpeper Road in Fredericksburg.


List of Emperors of North America

1751-1760: Frederick I (also King Frederick I of Great Britain, etc)

1760-1799: George I (also George III of Great Britain, etc)

1799-1800: Interregnum

1800-1807: Henry I (also Henry IX of Great Britain, etc)

1807-1875: Frederick II (also Frederick II of Great Britain, etc)

1875-1886: Henry II (also Henry X of Great Britain, etc)

1886-????: George II (also George IV of Great Britain, etc)


List of Lords President

1788-1795: George Augustine Washington, 1st Viscount Washington (crossbencher)

1795-1799: Alexander Hamilton, 1st Baron Hamilton (Patriot) (1st term)

1799-1805: James Monroe (Constitutionalist)

1805-1811: Alexander Hamilton, 1st Baron Hamilton (Patriot) (2nd term)

1811-1814: Augustus Seymour (Patriot)

1814-1819: Matthew Quincy (Constitutionalist)

1819-1822: Artemas Ward Jr. (Patriot)

1822-1825: Josiah Crane (Patriot, leading Patriot-Whig coalition; Patriot minority government after 1824)

1825-1828: Benjamin Harrison VII† (Whig, leading Whig-Carterite Patriot coalition; died in office)

1828-1828: Solomon Carter (Carterite Patriot, leading Whig-Carterite Patriot coalition; acting Lord President for a brief period, while the Whigs elected a new leader)

1828-1832: Andrew Eveleigh (Whig, leading Whig-Carterite Patriot coalition; deposed by confidence vote)

1832-1832: Albert Sinclair (Whig, leading Whig-Carterite Patriot coalition)

1832-1839: Eric Mullenbergh† (Radical, leading Radical-Neutral coalition)

1839-1839: Derek Boyd (Neutral, leading Radical-Neutral coalition; acting Lord President for a brief period, while the Radicals elected a new leader)

1839-1840: John Vanburen (Radical, leading Radical-Neutral coalition, then Liberal minority after party merger and split) (1st term)

1840-1844: Nathaniel Crowninshield (reunited Patriot)

1844-1848: John Vanburen (Liberal, leading Liberal-Patriot “American Coalition”) (2nd term)

1848-1851: Peter Martin† (Supremacist, leading Supremacist-Liberal “Reform Coalition” and then “War Coalition”)

1851-1853: John Vanburen (Liberal, leading Supremacist-Liberal “War Coalition”) (3rd term)

1853-1857: Francis Bassett (Patriot, leading Patriot-Independents “Peace Coalition” or “Anti-Reform Coalition”)

1857-1862: Lewis Studebaker (Supremacist minority 1857-8, Supremacist-Liberal National Government 1858-62)

1862-1867: Thomas Whipple (Liberal minority)

1867-1872: Joseph Fletcher (Supremacist)

1872-1875: Albert Braithwaite† (Liberal)

1875-1885: Michael Chamberlain (Liberal)

1885-1887: Henry Foxbury (Supremacist)

1887-1892: Dennis Cooper (Liberal)

1892-????: Stuart Jamison (Supremacist)


List of Lords Deputy

1728-1751: Prince Frederick, Duke of Cornwall (the future Emperor Frederick I)

1751-1764: Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron

1764-1790: William North, 2nd Earl of Guilford

1790-1804: Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton

1804-1817: Michael Burgoyne, 1st Earl of Exmouth

1817-1847: James Arthur Plunkett, 8th Earl of Fingall

1847-1852: Office vacant, role personally taken by the Emperor

1852-????: Sir Edward Thatcher


Confederations

New England - Boston

Provinces - Capital

Algonkia - Miramichi [Ottawa]

Connecticut - Hartford

Cloudsborough (territory) - Newgate [Corner Brook, NL]

Greenland (territory) - God's Hope [Godthab]

Mount Royal - Mount Royal [Montreal]

New Britain (territory) - Liberty [Hopedale, NL]

New Connecticut - Ticonderoga [Great Falls, NY]

Newfoundland - St. John's

New Hampshire - Concord

New Scotland - St. John

North Massachusetts - Falmouth [Portland, ME]

Rhode Island - Providence

South Massachusetts - Boston

Wolfe - Wolfeston [Quebec City]

New York - New York

Provinces - Capital

Albany - Albany

Amsterdam - New York

Chersonesus - Saginaw

East Jersey - Bergen [Jersey City, NJ]

Huron - Seneca [Rochester, NY]

Long Island - Brooklyn

Niagara - New London [London, ON]

Ontario - Cornubia [Mississauga, ON]

Portland - Lerhoult [Detroit]

Pennsylvania - Philadelphia

Provinces - Capital

Alleghenia - Lackawanna [Scranton, PA]

Delaware - New Castle

Erie - Highbank [Columbus]

Pittsylvania - Pittsburgh

West Jersey - Burlington

Susquehanna - Philadelphia

Virginia - Williamsburg

Provinces - Capital

Africa Nova Nee Raleigh - Raleigh

Bahamas (territory) - Nassau

Bermuda (territory) - St. George's

Charlotte - Charlotte

Chesapeake - Richmond

East Cuba - St. James [Santiago de Cuba]

Hispaniola - Princeport [Port-au-Prince]

Leeward Islands (territory) - St. John's, Antigua

Maryland - Annapolis

Piedmont - Saltlington [Lynchburg, VA]

Vandalia - Draperville [Roanoke, VA]

Williamsburg - Williamsburg

Windward Islands (territory) - Bridgetown, Barbados

Ohio - Everly Station [Bowling Green, KY]

Provinces - Capital

Franklin - Whitefort [Knoxville]

Tennessee - Nashborough [Nashville]

Transylvania - Losantiburg [Cincinnati]

Washington - Devlin [Cairo, IL]

Michigan - Chichago [Chicago]

Provinces - Capital

Britannia - Flinthill [Iowa City, IA]

Chichago - Chichago [Chicago]

Cismississippia - Milwark [Milwaukee]

Dakota - Plumbum [Winona, MN]

Mesopotamia (territory) - Fort Jennings [St. Cloud, MN]

Susan-Mary - Susan-Mary [Sault Ste. Marie, ON]

Westernesse - St. Lewis [St. Louis]

Provinces - Capital

Arkensor - Kappa [Jonesboro, AK]

Gualpa - Fort Pinckney [Oklahoma City]

Hamilton (territory) - Santa Fe

Missouri - St. Lewis [St. Louis]

Osajee (territory) - Fort Hampton [Lubbock, TX]

Ruddiland - Petty Ross [Little Rock]

Trinity (territory) - Fort Crowinshield [Fort Worth]

Ugapa (territory) - Fontaine [Denver]

Verdigris - Wichitay [Wichita]

Drakesland - Washington [Seattle]

Provinces - Capital

Drake - Washington [Seattle]

Maltinomack - Plymouth [Corvallis, OR]

Montana (territory) - Pordanfare [Lewiston, ID]

Noochaland - Fort North [Victoria]

Skellish - Fort Allerdyce [Vancouver, WA]

Tiesville (territory) - Fort Tiesville [Boise, ID]

Imperial Territorial Authority

Imperial Territories - Capital

Hudson's Bay - York Factory

Menominee - Fort Monroe [Fort Pierre, SD]

Othark - Flatwater Station [Omaha]

Timpanogos - Rafael [Bonanza, UT]

Wisconsin - Fort Dayton [Casper, CO]


Flag

The Imperial flag is called the Jack and George, based loosely on the arms of Virginia (the colony to which Prince Frederick was exiled). The first version (1748) showed Prince Frederick's arms as Duke of Cornwall, while the second version (1788) removed these and instead had five stars for the five confederations. Each confederation also has its own flag. In 1857 the new 'Starry George' was introduced, with the Union Jack replaced by nine stars, each representing a confederation.

(Illustration by SimonBP)

(Illustration by Thande)


timelines/empire_of_north_america.txt · Last modified: 2016/09/11 14:34 by thande