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Basileus' Interference Timeline is an extremely involved, far-reaching, complex timeline of human history from the times of Jesus onwards, to a newer, stimulating possibile scenario. Its development can be followed at the forum.
It has been created in the last three years by Stefano D'Adamo, an Italian fan of AH, as a mean of both studying REAL history “in depth”, exercising a bit of fantasy and employing some spare time in a creative but orderly way.
Features: Do you wanna see how Besilarius and Totila befriend? Or how the Muslims are stopped in North Africa and Maghreb remains Christian? Do you wonder why Charles the Great has been assassinated in 799, and why it was his father Pepin who founded the Holy Roman Catholic Empire of the West? And what about the Bulgarian Emperors of Byzantium and the Roman Western Empire reborn? And the Norse discovery of Hesperia (America)? This and many, many other PoDs and sub-PoDs in the Interference Timeline, with some map here and there, for your amusement and delight…
ca. 1st c. AD - The Ligurian language and traditions prove resistant to the process of Latinization, resulting in an area of stable bilingualism between the Po and the Ligurian Sea. The Pictish language is born out of contact between the Iberic language of northern Britannia and Celtic Briton.
The Chinese invent paper. Roman colonization of the Danube basin and the Rhine river valley. The dromedary is introduced to Egypt and the Sahara.
The Kingdom of Kushan is powerful and controls the area between Central Asia and India.
30-33 Jesus of Nazareth preaches in Palestine. The kingdom of Osrhoene (between Syria and Cappadocia, with its capital at Edessa) is the first state to adopt Christianity, under King Abgar V Ukkama (Abgar the Black), a correspondent with and admirer of Jesus.
33 Jesus of Nazareth, called the Christ, is crucified in Jerusalem as a blasphemer, rises from the dead after three days and ascends to heaven. His followers (the Apostles) spread Christianity.
34-44 The Romans incorporate the Jewish kingdoms of Bethany and Galilee after the death of their rulers from the dynasty of Herod.
37-47 The Parthians occupy Gordiene (central Kurdistan) and subjugate Armenia, but within ten years the Romans reestablish their influence, extending it as far as Caucasian Albania (Azerbaijan).
42 There is an abortive revolt against the Roman emperor Claudius in Dalmatia. The Roman empire absorbs Mauretania. The small kingdoms of Geumgwam, Tae and Karak arise, and unite in the Kaya/Gaya Confederation, a Japanese “enclave” at the tip of the Korean peninsula.
43 The Roman empire absorbs Lycia (Southeast Asia Minor) and conquers southern Britannia. Ma Yuan, the Chinese general of the Han, conquers Tonkin and Annam, bringing about an end to the Vietnamese revolt led by the Trung sisters.
44 Some natives of Hesperia (*OTL America), thrown off course in their canoes by Atlantic storms, land in Lusitania/Portugal and are enslaved by Romans. Upon the death of Herod Agrippa I, king of Galilee and Peraea (the eastern part of the Jordan river valley), the Romans annex the two kingdoms.
46 Thrace and Noricum are definitively incorporated into the Roman Empire.
47 The Romans exact tribute from the Frisians.
48 The vast empire of the Xiongnu/Huns is divided into northern (or western) and southern (or eastern) portions.
ca. 50 The kingdom of Colchis (NW Georgia) becomes a vassal of Pontus (Tauride; OTL Crimea). The Iazyges, forerunners of the Sarmatians, are expelled from eastern Moldavia (Bessarabia) by their close relatives, the Roxolani, and occupy Slovakia, exchanging their influence there for the kingdom of Dacia. In eastern Turkestan, the kingdom of Su Lih (the region of Kashgar) is established, to escape the Tocharians/Yüeh-Ch’ih and as a close ally of Han China.
51 The Romans capture the Briton chieftain Caratacus, leader of the anti-Roman resistance.
55 After the restoration of the Arsacid Tiridates I (a member of the ruling dynasty of Parthia), the war between Parthia and Rome for supremacy over Armenia breaks out. Iberia (central Georgia) also liberates itself from Roman supremacy under other Arsacids, Bartom II and Qartam, who establish a kingdom with two kings (as in ancient Sparta).
58 An unsuccessful rebellion against the Romans in Frisia; the alliance with Rome is confirmed under the new Ubbo dynasty.
58-60 The Roman general Corbulo conquers Armenia and secures its fealty by deposing King Tiridates.
ca. 60 The Iazyges establish themselves in the valley of Tisza river (Pannonia). The Kushan Empire conquers the kingdom of Suren (a vassal of the Parthians).
61 The Romans suppress the rebellion of Queen Boudicca (Boadicea) in Britannia.
62 The Parthians defeat the Romans under General Peto at Rhandeia (Armenia). The Romans seize overlordship over Colchis (NE Georgia) from the Pontus kingdom.
62-68 The Cimmerian Bosphorus kingdom (Bosporon/Kerč) is briefly annexed by Rome.
63 A peace without annexations is declared between the Romans and the Parthians, who renounce all claims to Armenia; Tiridates I returns to his throne as a Roman vassal.
64 The Romans explore the Nile as far as Bahr al-Ghazal (Sudan); an enormous fire devastates Rome; the Emperor Nero, a sadistic lunatic, blames the Christians and persecutes them.
65 Unsuccessful plot of Lucius Calpurnius Piso against Nero in Rome.
66 The rebellion of the Jews breaks out in Palestine.
67 Rome reconquers Galilee from the rebellious Jews.
68-69 Suicide of Nero, end of the Julio-Claudians, and year of the Four Emperors (Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian) in Rome; Vespasian triumphs in the second battle of Bedriacum (northern Italy) and founds the Flavian dynasty. The Romans reconquer Judea and Idumea and lay siege to Jerusalem, which resists them fanatically.
69-71 The Roman legions between Batavia (Holland) and Treviri revolt; the Roxolani invade Moesia but are deflected.
70 The Roman general Titus, son of the emperor Vespasian, seizes Jerusalem and razes it to the ground, destroying its temple and putting an end to the millennial line of the High Priests (the Jewish “Popes”).
ca. 70 The satrap Bhumaka of the Satakani kingdom (also known as the Satavahana or Andhra) of the Deccan establishes the supremacy of the Sakas (Scythians) as far as the western coast of India.
72 The Alans, an Iranian people of Central Asia and the eastern branch of the Sarmatians, invade the transcaucasus region, establishing themselves there. Rome definitively annexes the kingdom of Commagene (NE of Antioch). Rome defeats the Brigantes of northern Britannia and forces them into submission.
73 Mass suicide of the defenders of the fortress of Masada, the last stronghold of the Jewish revolt in Palestine.
73-74 Rome conquers the Agri Decumates between the Upper Rhine, the Main, and the Danube, and subjugates the Siluri of SE Cambria / Wales.
74-76 The Chinese general Ban Chao subjugates Turkestan for the Han, but it is subsequently reclaimed by Luoyang.
78-96 King Kanishka expands the Kushan empire to its greatest extent, from Central Asia to Northern India.
79 The violent eruption of Vesuvius destroys Pompeii.
80 The Colosseum is dedicated in Rome while a plague rages.
ca. 80 The Kushan empire conquers the kingdom of Margiana (Turkmenistan).
80-97 Ban Chao, having returned to eastern Turkestan, obtains an astounding victory against the Tocharians who have not yet submitted to Han rule, and advances through Central Asia as far as the Caspian sea.
83 Germany: the Romans rout the Chatti (Germany), who had migrated from Lower Saxony to Franconia.
84 The Roman general Agricola defeats the Britanni, occupies Cambria (Wales), and advances as far as Caledonia (Scotland), where he defeats the Picts under Calgacus at Mons Graupius, before retreating below the southern boundaries of Caledonia.
ca. 85 The kingdom of Gurat secedes from the kingdom of Saba, which is in decline.
85-89 The Romans fight against the Dacians, who have invaded Moesia, and deflect them.
89 Saturninus, Roman legate of Germania Superior, attempts an abortive revolt.
ca. 90 The ancient republic of Cherson (*OTL Sebastople) is annexed by the Cimmerian Bosphorus kingdom, a Roman vassal.
92-96 An inconclusive war is waged by the Roman emperor Domitian against the Quadi, the Marcomanni, and the Iazyges.
93 The Xianbi (ancestors of the Mongolians) defeat the northern Xiongnu (Huns), who are expelled from Mongolia into the region of Tarbagataj, between Siberia, Dzungaria, and Kazakhstan, and begin to migrate towards the west.
95 An envoy of the Han Chinese empire reaches Rome, where he speaks with Emperor Domitian prior to dying from an illness.
96 The assassination of Domitian puts an end to the Flavian dynasty in Rome.
97 The Chinese general Gan Ying briefly reaches the Persian Gulf.
98-117 The glorious reign of Trajan in the Roman Empire.
ca. 100 A brief, fruitless attempt by the Romans to conquer Hibernia (Ireland). The final decline of the great Olmec civilization in Mexico. The three Tamil states of Chera (Kerala), Chola (in the southeast) and Pandya (the deep south) occupy the southern Deccan. The legendary foundation of the Funan empire, with its center on the Mekong river basin, at the hands of the Indian brahmin priest Kambu; the kingdom experiences a strong Hinduization in its culture. Axum becomes the capital of a strong Ethiopian empire. Bokhara becomes the capital of an independent Sogdian kingdom. The local kingdom of Puya arises in SW Korea. In Yemen, the kingdom of Saba is decisively conquered by Himyar; nonetheless, a number of them escape the conquest to found the kingdom of Ma’rib.
101-107 After two bloody campaigns (101-102, 105-107), Rome conquers Dacia and introduces the Latin language.
106 The Romans conquer the kingdom of Arabia Nabatea (the Sinai and Jordan) seizing its fabled capital, Petra.
114-117 Trajan conquers Armenia and Mesopotamia, extending the Roman Empire to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian, but is repelled at Hatra (117); his successor Hadrian abandons the conquests as a result of the anti-Roman rebellions raging from Cyrenaica to Syria.
116 The Romans conquer Harran / Carrhae (northeastern Syria), annex the kingdom of Adiabene in northeastern Syria (which they name Assyria), and force Osrhoene to submit as a vassal.
ca. 120 The Goths migrate from Scandinavia to the mouth of the Vistula river, while the Rugi and the Lemovii establish themselves on the southeastern Baltic coast. The Romans build Hadrian's Wall between Roman Britannia and Caledonia. Tiastane/Chashtana, son of Bhumaka, founds a dynasty of eastern Kshatrapas (satraps) at Ujjain in Malwa, seceding from the empire of the Kushanas. Under King Agros, Colchis (northwestern Georgia) liberates itself from Roman rule and becomes the kingdom of Lazica/Egrisi.
129 In Iberia/Georgia, the custom of the two co-kings is brought to an end by the accession of King Rhadamist to the throne.
132-135 The great rebellion of the Jews under the religious leader Akiva and the “messiah” Simon bar Kokhba, which is repressed by the Romans with extreme brutality. The Jews are finally sent into diaspora.
139-143 The Romans quell the rebellion of the Brigantes in Britannia and build the Antonine Wall (abandoned shortly afterwards) in southern Caledonia.
146 The kingdom of Arakan (western Burma) converts to Buddhism.
150 The Romans defeat the Alans at Olbia (near today's Odessa) at the mouth of the Lower Bug river.
ca. 150 The kingdom of Teotihuacàn emerges as a strong power in central Mexico.
156 The Xianbi (forerunners of the Mongols) chase the Xiungnu/northern Huns from the Kazakh steppe; one part of these travels towards the west under Kama Tarkhan, and another part travels south, giving life to the kingdom of Yuehban between the Aral and the Balkhash lakes.
ca. 160 The Mayans found the kingdom of Xukpi/Copàn between western Honduras and Guatemala.
161-163 The (successful) Roman attempt to replace the Armenian Arsacid ruler with Sohamus of Emesa provokes a new conflict with Parthia.
161-180 Pestilence and invasions wrack the Roman Empire under Marcus Aurelius, the “Philosopher Emperor.”
162-166 Roman victories against the Parthians under Vologaeses (Walakhsh) III: the general Gaius Avidius Cassius conquers Ctesiphon, whereupon his army is decimated by a plague. The Roman legions bring the plague back to their homeland.
167-174 The Marcomannic War: a confederation of Germanic and Sarmatian peoples invades the Danube valley and reaches as far as Furlania/Friuli before they are turned back and defeated.
169 Roman merchants reach China bearing gifts for the emperor. German barbarians enter Italy and besiege Aquileia.
ca. 170 The Lombards abandon Mauringia (Lower Saxony) and travel towards the southeast.
170-180 Dardjegwe/Tanshihuai briefly unifies the Xianbi tribes.
174 The Romans invade “Slovakia”, defeating the Iazyges, whom they deport to Britannia by the thousands.
175 A rebellion by Gaius Avidius Cassius in Syria is promptly crushed by Rome.
178-180 Rome subdues the Marcomanni and the Sarmatians to their rule, from Bohemia to Pannonia and the Carpathians, but upon the death of Marcus Aurelius, his son Commodus renounces any expansion of the imperial borders, and in Armenia the Arsacids return to power under Vologaeses (Walakhsh) II the Great.
184 The great rebellion of the Yellow Turbans in China, after years of famine and other natural disasters.
185 Foundation of the kingdom of Nepal under Jayavarma Licchavi.
186 The Arsacids of Armenia confirm their hold on the throne of Iberia/Georgia with Rev I the Just after Hamzasp’s rebellion.
190-192 Dong Zhuo governs China through a Han puppet emperor, but is subsequently eliminated by Cao Cao.
191 The king of Armenia Vologaeses II rises to the throne of Parthia as King Vologaeses IV.
192 Emperor Commodus is slain in Rome by his Praetorian Guards. Chinese sources describe for the first time the Malay Cham kingdom in southern-central Vietnam.
193 Civil war in Rome after the assassination of the emperor Pertinax and the purchase of the imperial throne by the rich banker Didius Julianus; the legions react by nominating as emperor the Pune Septimus Severus, who is supported by the legions of the Danubian limes (which march on Rome and eliminate Didius Julianus); Pescennius Niger in Syria and Clodius Albinus in Britannia are also acclaimed as emperors by their men.
194 Septimius Severus recognizes Clodius Albinus as his heir, and then defeats Pescennius Niger in the battles of Cyzicus, Nicaea and Issus, killing him in the vicinity of Antioch.
197 Septimius Severus kills Clodius Albinus at the battle of Lyon.
199 Septimius Severus sacks Ctesiphon and defeats the Parthians, fostering their decline, then fails in the siege of Hatra and is forcd to retreat.
198-217 The isle of Lesbos is de facto independent from Rome under Apelles Menemachos, then it’s reabsorbed by the Empire. 3rd century Severe crisis in the Roman Empire, run by barbarians and wracked by civil wars (235-284, the Thirty Tyrants). Birth of the Frank and Alamannic tribal confederations, respectively forerunner of France and Germany. The Saxons sack Britannia’s coasts. The Dorset culture Inuits abandon Greenland. Decline and fall of the Nok civilization in Nigeria. A wave of Indonesian peoples colonizes Madagascar.
ca. 200 The Rugi move south from Pomerania; the Asdingian Vandals, pushed towards south-east, expels the Iazyges from Slovakia. The Gepids too move form the lower Vistula river in the footsteps of the Goths, settling down in Galicia. Yax Ch’aktel Xok founds the royal dynasty of the powerful Mayan city-state of Mutul/Tikal. In the lower Mississippi valley the native Hopewell culture replaces the previous Adena culture.
205-211 Septimus Severus routs the Caledonians and Picts in Britannia and withdraws from the Antonine Wall to Hadrian's Wall.
208 Cao Cao attempts to reunify China, but is defeated at the Battle of Chibi (the Red Wall) in Hubei.
212 The emperor Caracalla grants Roman citizenship to all free men of the Empire.
214 Caracalla stops the Alemanni in Germany and the first Goths on the lower Danube.
216 Rome annexes western Armenia after having defeated and taken prisoner the Arsacid king of Armenia, Chosroes I. The Chinese subjugate the southern Xiongnu/Huns, who divide themselves into five tribes.
217-218 Assassination of Caracalla in Syria at the hands of the Praetorian Guard prefect Macrinus, who for his part was eliminated by his son Macrinus II; Severan restoration under Heliogabalus
220 Fall of the Han dynasty in China, replaced by the Wei (Cao Pei, son of Cao Cao): here begins the Period of Three Kingdoms. Jafnah I ibn Amr establishes the kingdom of Ghassan at Damascus, a client of Rome between Jordan and Syria
221 Liu Bei founds the Shu-Han dynasty in Sichuan (SW China)
222 Sun Quan founds the Wu dynasty in Nanking
224 Ardashir I the Sassanian, son of Pabag, king of Persia, overthrows the Parthians, defeating and killing the last emperor of the Arsacid dynasty, Artabanus V, at Hormuz, and establishes the Sassanian Empire of Persia
ca. 225 The Goths begin to split into the Visigoths (to the west of the Dnieper) and the Ostrogoths (to the east)
227 The Sassanians conquer Samarkand from the Kushans, making it a vassal city.
230 The Sassanians begin a new war with Rome, plundering Syria, and establish hegemony over Caucasian Albania.
232 The emperor of Rome, Severus Alexander, stops the Sassanians in Syria, where they had seized Harran/Carrhae
233 In Bactria, Ardashir I the Sassanians destroys the Kushan Empire, of which only fragments remain in the East (Kabul and the Hindus Valley under the Kushanshahs).
234-235 The Alamanni make trouble with the Romans. The assassination of the emperor Severus Alexander causes the beginning of the so-called Age of Thirty Tyrants in the Roman Empire (235-284)
238 Civil War in the Roman Empire; after the murder of Emperor Maximinus Thrax, the young Gordian (III), scion a noble Senatorial family, ascends to the throne.
239 Destruction of the Roman border stronghold, Dura Europos (Mesopotamia), at the hands of the Sassanians.
242 The Romans, led by the Praetorian Guard prefect Timesitheus, decisively defeat the Sassanians at Resaina (Assyria).
244 Philip the Arab, who is perhaps a Christian, usurpes the Roman throne of Rome by assassinating Gordian (III), is beaten by the Sassanians near Ctesiphon and must accept a scarcely satisfactory peace, according to which Rome annexes Osrhoene.
The Chinese kingdom Wei seizes the capital of the Korean kingdom of Koguryo, reducing it to servitude.
247 The millennial celebrations of the foundation of Rome are celebrated in the Roman Empire
248 Taking advantage of the crises within the Chinese Empire, the Cham conquer northern Vietnam and some of the southern Chinese provinces.
249 The Roman general Decius rebels in Dacia, marches on Italy and defeats and kills Philip the Arab in Verona
249-251 Most serious anti-Christian persecution in the Roman Empire under Decius
ca. 250 The Goths establish themselves between Dacia and the Taurida (*OTL Crimea) absorbing the Germano-Sarmatian Bastarnae and thwarting the Sarmatians in Pannonia, while the Gepids establish themselves in Transylvania in a close relationship with the Goths.
End of the major Satakani/Andhra dynasty in the Deccan; foundation of the Traikutaka dynasty in the Maharashtra; the Ganga dynasty emerges in Mysore. The Persian priest Mani starts spreading the religious doctrine of Manichaeism.
Foundation of the Mayan kingdom of Calakmul (the Head of Snake) in the Yucatàn, historical rival of Mutul/Tikal.
The Kedarites, Arab marauders of the uninhabited Syro-Jordanian desert, are subjugated by the kingdom of Tayma.
Under the Mamikonian dynasty, the Armenian kingdom of Taron (region of Daron/Muş) arises, a “buffer vassal” between Rome and the Sassanians.
The kingdom of Himyar suppresses and conquers the kingdoms of Gurat and Ma'rib, completing the conquest of the former kingdom of Saba and the unification of Yemen.
251 The Roman emperor Decius dies at Abrittus on the lower Danube, in a defeat against the Goths that have invaded Dacia
252 Taking advantage of serious Roman tribulations, the Persian Sassanians conquer Gordiene (central Kurdistan), advancing to destroy the Roman town of Zeugma/Belkis on the Euphrates, and placing Artavasdes V on the Armenian throne
253 Valerian ascends to the throne of Rome and for the first time divides the empire into the East (under his own rule) and the West (under his son Gallienus).
256 The Ripuarian Franks (southern or eastern Franks, located in Franconia and distinguished from the Salians, who are located in southern Holland) invade the Rhine valley. Second war between Rome and the Sassanians for Armenia: the Persians win the battle at Barbalissa and plunder Antioch (Syria).
257-260 The Roman emperor Valerian fights the Persians in Syria but is taken prisoner by them in Edessa, ending his days as a slave.
260 After capturing Valerian, the Persians invade Syria, Cilicia and Cappadocia but are thwarted by the king of Palmyra (Syria), Odenathus, who gains virtual independence from Rome (though still paying lip service to the empire).
ca. 260 The eruption of the volcano Ilopango results in the decline of the Mayan city state of Kaminaljuyú
260-274 Secession of Gaul and Britannia from the Roman Empire
261 The Roman emperor Gallienus defeats the Alamanni at Milan. The Palmyrenes of Odenathus establish their own supremacy over the kingdom of Ghassan (Jordan and southern Syria) and reconquer Antioch from the Persian Sassanians.
261-293 Sassanian interval on the throne of Armenia under Hormizd and Narses.
262 Odenathus of Palmyra reconquers northern Mesopotamia for Rome.
264 The Wei conquer the Shu-Han kingdom of Sichuan.
264-269 Wave of invasions, plunder and maritime piracy at the hands of the Goths in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and in the Roman East
265-266 Sima Yan replaces the Cao (Wei) dynasty of Luoyang with his own dynasty, the Jin, and quells a revolt of the Xiongnu/Huns
267 The Heruli, another Germanic nation of Scandinavian origin, devastate Athens and Greece. The Roman emperor Gallienus recognizes the de facto independence and imperial title of Odenathus of Palmyra.
268 The Roman emperor Gallienus besieges the rebel Aureolus at Milan but is killed by his troops; Claudius II eliminates Aureolus and takes power.
269 The Roman emperor Claudius II annihilates the Goths at Naissus (Moesia), then puts down the Alamanni at the battle of Lake Garda (northern Italy). Zenobia of Palmyra, succeeding her father Odenathus, rebels against Rome and conquers Egypt and Cappadocia.
270 Germanic invasion of northern Italy
ca. 270 The Goths conquer the Tauris (*OTL Crimea) (or Taurian Chersonese) subjugating the Roxolani kingdom of Pontus. The Romans abandon Dacia to the Goths, and a good part of the Latin colonists are transplanted in Moesia (Bulgaria) around Vidin where they form the nucleus of the Vlachs of the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans); also, the Agri Decumates between Rhine and Main come to be abandoned to the Alamanni. The Arab kingdom of Hirah arises under Amr I ibn Uday of the clan of the Lakhmids, a servant of the Persian Sassanians, extending from the lower Euphrates to Qatar.
271 The Persian emperor Hormizd I dies in battle against the Sogdians of Bukhara. The new Roman emperor Aurelianus turns back the Germanic invasion at Milan.
272 Aurelianus smashes the empire of Palmyra, destroying the town and deporting queen Zenobia to Rome. The Alamanni and Iazyges penetrate as far as Umbria before being destroyed by the Romans. Hormizd, the king of Armenia, of the Sassanian royal family, ascends to the throne of Persia as Hormizd II.
274 Aurelian defeats the Gallic Empire, reunifying the Roman Empire
275-276 Devastating Franco-Alamannic invasion of Gaul after the assassination of Aurelianus. The Goth and Alan marauders are chased from Asia Minor.
277 The reaction of the Zoroastrian clergy in Persia leads to the crucifixion of Mani and the persecution of the Manichaeans. The Roman emperor Probus repels the barbarians back beyond the Rhine.
279 Armenia is divided in two kingdoms, western and eastern, both subjects to Persia: but the western one returns under rule of the Arsacids, while the eastern becomes an appanage (feudal territory) for heirs to the throne of the King of Kings of Ctesiphon.
280 The Jin conquer the Wu kingdom of Nanking, briefly reunifying China.
282-283 The victorious Roman invasion of Mesopotamia, accompanied by the conquest of Ctesiphon, ends with a withdrawal upon the sudden death of the emperor Carus; his sons Numerianus and Carinus divide the empire, the East going to the former, and the West going to the latter.
284 The Roman armies of the East elect Diocletian as emperor. The Khusrawids replace the local branch of the Arsacids on the throne of Iberia/Georgia.
285 Diocletian reunifies the Roman Empire, defeating and killing Carinus, son of Carus, at the battle of the Margus (Moravia), and puts an end to the chaos. The Xianbi invade Manchuria and overwhelm the Korean kingdom of Fuyu/Buyeo (region of Harbin), the forces of which come to be “inherited” by the kingdom of Koguryo, to which it is bound.
286 The Romans suppress the rebellion of the Bagaudi in Gaul. Diocletian entrusts the governing of the Roman West to his colleague Maximianus, with its capital at Milan, and maintains control of the East, establishing his own capital at Nicomedia (Bithynia, Asia Minor). Under the new dynasty of the Offo, the Frisians free themselves from Roman suzerainty, taking advantage of Carausius’ rebellion against Maximian.
286-296 Separatist empire in Britannia under Carausius (the former commander of the Roman North sea fleet) and his assassin and successor Allectus.
287 Diocletian retakes from the Persians Gordiene (central Kurdistan) and western Armenia, where he installs the Roman candidate Tiridates V of the Arsacids on the throne
290 Diocletian quashes a serious rebellion in Egypt, setting fire to Alexandria and putting the rebels to the sword. Liu Yuan-hai reunifies the southern Xiongnu/Huns.
293 Diocletian establishes the system of the tetrarchy (the division of the Roman Empire in four parts, managed by different men but ultimately under the sovereignty of one alone) adopting as his heir (Caesar) Galerius, while Maximianus adopts Constantius Chlorus. Reunification of Armenia under Roman suzerainty with Tiridates V as king.
296 The Sassanian emperor Narses expels Tiridates V from Armenia, inciting a new conflict with Rome. Constantius Chlorus and his praetorian prefect Asclepiodotus reconquer Britannia
297-298 The Romans defeat the Sassanians and the Alamanni. Galerius, Caesar of Diocletian in the Roman East, is first beaten by the Persians at Harran/Carrhae, then in the following year crushes them, invading Mesopotamia and forcing them to recognize Roman suzerainty over Armenia.
4th century Barbarian invasions by Xiongnu/Huns, proto-mongolic and Tungusic tribes foster a fragmentation of centralized power in China. The Ethiopian Axumite kingdom is Christianized. Christianization and lack of new conquests wrack the slaveholding economy of the Roman Empire
Ca. 300 The Polynesians colonize the Marquesas Islands. The Guptas wrest Punjab from the Kushanshas. Foundation of the Dravidian kingdom of Pallava at Kanchi (south-eastern india) under a Persian dynasty. Hinduism spreads amongst the Malay Chams of southern-central Vietnam. The Danish people is forming between Sjælland island and southern Sweden under the sway of the Skioldung dynastic clan. The Arab tribal princedom of Kindah is born west of Hadramaut.
301 Northern China is swept up by barbarian invasions; there begins the Sixteen Kingdoms era.
303 Armenia converts to Christianity under king Tiridates V by the work of St. Gregory the Illuminator.
303-306 Last heavy round of persecution against Christians in the Roman Empire under Diocletian and the Tetrarchs.
304 Liu Yuan-Hai, Lord of the southern Xiongnu/Huns, founds in the Shanxi region th Hunnic Han/Zhou imperial dynasty; eastern Turkestan rejects his authority and the local Indoeuropean Tocharian kingdoms (partly Zoroastrian, partly Buddhist) regain complete independence.
305 Diocletian abdicates voluntarily, forcing his colleague Maximian to follow his example; Constantius Chlorus rules the Roman West with Flavius Severus as his Caesar (vice-emperor), whereas Galerius rules the East with Maximinus Daia as Caesar. Khorezm (region between the Caspian Sea, The Aral lake and the Amu Darja) overthrows Persian suzerainty and becomes a free state under the Afrigids.
306 The Tetrarchy crumbles upon the death of Constantius Chlorus; his son Constantine is hailed as emperor in Britannia, while in Rome Maxentius, son of Maximian, becomes emperor.
307 War of succession in China inside the Jin dynasty. Constantine and Maxentius defeat and kill Flavius Severus, Constantius Chlorus’ legitimate Caesar and heir. Subsequently Maximian chooses to support his son-in-law Constantine over his own son Maxentius. Galerius’ invasion of Italy aborts quickly.
308 At the conference of Carnuntum Licinius, a clos frined of Galerius, is appointed Augustus (that is, full emperor) of Pannonia (modern Hungary west of the Danube, parts of Austria and Croatia) with a right to the lands currently under the sway of Maxentius (Italy, Spain, Africa).
310 Besieged in Massilia/Marseille by his son-in-law Constantine, Maximian kills himself. Maximinus Daia has himself proclaimed emperor in Syria; the Roman Empire is now carved up amongst no less than five pretenders (Constantine, Maxentius, Licinius, Galerius and Maximinus Daia).
ca. 310 The Axumite Ethiopians conquer the kingdom of Himyar (Yemen), which becomes a vassal to Axum.
311 The Chinese capital of Luoyang is taken and destroyed by Liu Yuan-Hai’s Xiongnu/Huns. In the Roman empire Galerius quits the persecution against Christians, then dies, and Licinius takes over his domains in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), while Maximinus Daia extends his power to all of Anatolia. Berber revolt led by Alexander in eastern Numidia; the imperial army razes to the ground the city of Cirta, subsequently refounded with the name of Costantina.
312 Constantine defeats Maxentius at Verona and Milvius Bridge/Saxa Rubra, entering Rome as the victor and the ruler of Roman West; just before the battle at Milvius bridge a cross is said to appear in the sky (“In hoc signo vinces”, “Through this sign you’ll win”) and Constantine considers conversion to Christianity.
312-316 Donatist schism in the African Church of Carthage. Its cause is the request by local Christians to elect their bishop instead of waiting for an appointment from Rome. Constantine sides with the Roman bishop, but the reasons behind the schism endure; Donatists will characterize themselves as an autonomous African force, known for their martyr-worship, their refusal to pardon “unworthy” priests (those who backed down under the persecutions renegading the faith) and to accept the Church-State alliance sealed under Constantine.
313 Edict of Milan. Constantine and Licinius, now allies, recognize Christianity and proclaim it a State tolerated religion. After that Licinius reverts to his domanins in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and decisively defeats Maximinus Daia at Campus Serenus near Adrianople, then pursues him through Asia Minor and besieges his enemy at Tarsus in Cilicia. On Maximinus’ death, Licinius obtains the entire Roman East.
313-668 Three Kingdoms (Koguryo, Paekche and Silla) era in Korea.
314 The reign of Caucasian Albania (*OTL Azerbaijan) converts to Christianity under king Urnayr – but the country, firmly in the Persian sphere of influence, will long reamin divided between Christians and Zoroastrians. Constantine appoints his brother-in-law Bassianus as Caesar in Italy and Pannonia (which was Licinius’ domain); Licinius, in turn, fosters a rebellion by Bassianus which is promptly crushed.
316 Constantine wrests from Licinius the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), except for Thrace, after the battle of Cibalae (Pannonia), then after a new inconclusive battle at Campus Ardiensis, the two rivals divide anew the Roman Empire between themselves, recognizing the “status quo”. Members of the Jin dynasty of China refound an eastern Jin empire based in Nanking after the barbarians overrun northern China.
317 Liu Yuan-Hai, the Hunnic emperor of northern China founder of the self-proclaimed Han/Zhou dynasty, dies in Chang’an/Xian.
318 Chandragupta I, son-in-law of the Licchavi ruler of Magadha (India), obtains Pataliputra/Patna as a dowry, thus founding the Gupta dynasty and empire.
319 Arius starts preaching in Alexandria the Arian version (heresy) of Christianity, which will gain wide acceptance amongst newly Christianized barbarians.
320 The island of Dioskoris/Socotra, previously under Himyar’s control, is annexed by the Hadramaut kingdom.
ca. 320 Under Kidara I the Red Huns or Chionites create a kingdom between Bactria (Afghanistan) and Central Asia after vanquishing the local Kushanshas, puppet rulers for the Persians Sassanids. In the lake Van region two Armenian principalities emerge: Rshtuniq under the Rshtuni dynasty and Vaspurakan under the Artzrunis. In the Roman Empire Licinius reverts to an anti-Christian policy whilst Constantine is more and more pro-Christian.
323 Foundation of a proto-Mongolic khanate in the Hangaj region of Mongolia.
324 Constantine reunifies the Roma Empire after the battles of Adrianople and Chrysopolis, in which he defeats, captures and kills Licinius; he then proceeds to transfer the Imperial capital at Byzantium.
325 The Council of Nicaea, strongly influenced by the emperor Constantine himself (not still a Christian, technically!) builds the foundations of Catholic christianity, condemns Arianism and imposes the celebration of the Easter on Sunday.
327 Helena, mother of the Roman emperor Constantine, begins the practice of pilmigrages to Jerusalem; she is rumoured to have found the True Cross.
330 Byzantium is officially rechristened as Constantinople and confirmed as the capital of the Roman Empire. Constantine enacts a law that binds peasants to the land they work, heralding their reduction to serfs. In Rome, Christmas is celebrated for the first time on the 25th of December (former feast of Mithra and Sol Invictus). Frumentius, a Syrian, becomes the first Christian bishop of Axum (Ethiopia).
ca. 330 The Goths divide themselves between Visigoths (Western Goths) abnd Ostrogoths (Eastern Goths). The Ostrogoths wrest Germonassa (opposite Bosporon/Kerč on the other side of the strait) from the kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosphorus. The Christian Arab tribesmen of the Bani Tanukh migrate from southern Arabia towards the boundaries of the Roman Empire, where they settle as allies of Constantinople.
332 Constantine repels a Gothic invasion of the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans).
337 Constantine accepts baptism before dying (“Let’s hope not to make a mistake…”); the Roman Empire is carved amongst his three sons Constantine II (West), Constantius (East) and Constans (Illyricum, Africa, Italy). The Georgians convert to Christianity. Shapur II the Great of Persia begins a new war against Rome. A vanguard of the Huns reach the Volga-Don region pushing ahed Sarmatians and Goths; the latter sack and destroy Olbia (near modern Odessa).
338 The Romans, under Gothic pressure, evacuate their modets forces in Taurida (*OTL Crimea).
339 Christians, Jews and Manichaeans suffer persecution at the hands of Sassanian Persia.
340 The Western Roman emperor Constantine II attacks his brother Constans, but he falls in a trap and is killed in Aquileia. The Red Huns/Chionites invade the Indus valley overwhelming the local Kushana states (Kushanshahs).
ca. 340 After a schism inside the African Donatists the paleo-communist movement of the Circoncellions is born; they soon prove to be harsh enemies of the rich and of the power-subservient Church. The Sino-barbaric kingdom of Qian Qin forms in northwestern China.
344 The Xiongnu/Huns unify northern China under the Han/Zhou Hunnic dynasty.
345 The Kadamba dynasty emerges on the western coast of India (in the region of Goa) with Mayurasarma/Mayuravarma.
346 The Korean kingdom of Puyo falls at the hands of his rival Paekche.
347 The eastern Jins of Nanking reconquer Sichuan. Manchuria hosts the foundation of the Xianbi kingdom of the earlier Yen. The Arian bishop Wulfila translates the Bible in the Gothic language.
349-361 Emperor Constantius patronizes Arianism in the Roman Empire.
350 The invading Red Huns/Chionites from Central Asia force Shapur II of Persia to come to terms with Rome. The Goth Magnus Magnentius usurps the Western throne in the Roman Empire, forcing the beleaguered Constans to suicide.
ca. 350 Pushya Varman founds the Varman dynasty in Kamrupa (Assam); Samudragupta extends the Gupta Empire towards the Deccan. Taking advantage of the political chaos in the Roman West, Ripuarian Franks and Alamanni invade Gaul again and again. The Sarmatians renew their invasions of Pannonia and Illyricum but they are defeated by the Roman emperor Constantius, who recruits them in great numbers in the imperial army. The Ethiopian Axumite empire vassalizes the Gojjam region in western Ethiopia and conquers the millenary kingdom of Meroe (northern Nubia/Sudan); the latter’s unseated dynasty takes refuge southwest in the Darfur region. The Samaritan High Priest Baba Rabba gains wide autonomy for Samaria in the Roman Empire. The Kushanshas of Afghanistan and the Sogdians of Bukhara, frightened by Hunnic invasions, recognize Persian suzerainty.
ca. 350-450 The Chinese slowly but surely retake from the Chams their southernmost lands plus Vietnam (Tonkin) and Annam.
351 The rebel Tibetan general Fu Jin conquers part of northern and northwestern China and sacks Chang’An/Xian (the ancient capital), then he’s defeated and killed by the Xiongnu/Hun general Wu Er-han, founder of the Xin dynasty in northern China. Constantius defeats Magnentius in the great and bloody battle of Mursa/Osijek (52,000 casualties).
352 Taking advantage again of Roman inner troubles, Ripuarian Franks and Alamanni leak through the Roman limes into the region between the Rhine and the Moselle river.
353 Magnentius commits suicide in Lyon and Constantius remains sole ruler of the Romna Empire.
354 First mention of “Bulgars” amongst the Hunnish peoples of Tanais/Don and Kuban regions.
355 The Roman emperor Constantius enacts harsh laws against sorcery and astrology.
357 The Caesar of Gaul Julian gains a crushing victory over the Alamanni at the battle of Argentorate (Strasbourg). Shapur II of Persia defeats and vassalizes the Red Huns/Chionites.
359 New Persian attack on the Roman Empire: the Roman border fortress at Amida (*OTL Diyarbakir) is starved into submission and razed.
360 Julian, once fully reestablished the Rhine “limes”, is hailed as emperor by his legions in Gaul. Balamber’s western Huns attack and defeat the Alans north of the Caucasus; part of the Alan stock flees to the Caucasian range, part in the Ukraine where they divide into groups moving westwards.
361 When Constantius dies before confronting him, Julian restores State paganism in the Roman Empire.
362 Julian interdicts Christians from teaching classical authors and philosophy.
363 Julian, last pagan emperor of Rome, dies fighting the Persians in Assyria after winning them again and again on the battlefield and being eventually forced to retreat due to Persian “scorched earth” strategy.
364 The new Roman emperor, Jovian, a Christian elected by the army, accepts a shameful peace favorable to the Persians, then dies by excessive banqueting. Then the two brothers Valentinian and Valens, chosen by the army, again divide the Roman Empire amongst themeselves: the former gets the West, the second the East.
365 The Persians of the Sassanian Shah-in-Shah Shapur II the Great invade and ravage Armenia in support to the local Zoroastrian faction.
365-366 Failed rebellion led by Procopius, a relative of Julian, in the Roman east.
366-370 The quarrel between Ursinus and Damasus for the Bishopric of Rome provokes a massacre in the Urbs Aeterna and divides the Church for some years.
367 Saxons, Picts and Scots (Irish) attack Britannia at the same time but are repelled.
368 The Western Roman emperor Valentinian I defeats the Alamanni along the Rhine.
370 “Witch hunt” in Antioch and Rome: hundreds of people (even senators) are tortured and killed on charges of alleged sorcery. Balamber’s Huns migrate to Ukraine, where they defeat and kill the aged Ostrogothic king Hermanaricus; Ostrogoths and Alans alike run away in awe and begin to fight each other for supremacy over Dacia. The Sino-barbaric Qian Qin kingdom conquers Manchuria form the Xianbi dynasty of the earlier Yens, imposing itself as the dominant power in the region.
371-376 New, futile war between Ro,me and Persia, with no victors.
372 The Huns subdue the Alans of the Tanais/Don region.
372-375 Revolt by Firmus, son a Berber landlord, in Numidia, repressed by the Roman general Theodosius.
374 Aurelius Ambrosius, a State officer, lay and not even baptized, is hailed as Bishop of Milan by the populace against his very will. In their desperate flee from the Huns, the Ostrogoths crush the Anti on the Dnieper.
375 Balamber’s Huns, jointly with the Alans, rout the Ostrogoths of king Vitimir/Vinitharius (fallen on the battlefield) in the battle of the Erac/Tiligul river (Ukraine), pushing them beyond the Dnieper; then they proceed to vassalize the Cimmerian Bosphorus kingdom. Ostrogoths and Alans, now both under Hunnic suzerainty, occupy Dacia, pushing in turn the Visigoths on the Danube “limes”.
376 Young Gratian, Valentinian’s heir in the Western Roman empire, relinquishes the tradional pagan title of “pontifex maximus”. The Huns occupy eastern Moldavia/Bessarabia; the Roman Empire admits the fleeing Visigoths in Moesia.
378 The angered and ill-treated Visigoths, together with Ostrogoth, Hun and Alan forces, defeat and killed the eastern Roman emperor Valens at Adrianople and fiercely sack the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). The Alamanni invade Alsace, Helvetia and the Alpine regions. The Persians of the aged Shapur II the Great make Armenia a vassal and confirm Sassanian supremacy over Iberia/Georgia. The kingdom of Teotihuacàn (Mexico) impose its suzerainty over the Maya city-State Mutul/Tikal. The Yemenite kingdom of Himyar frees itself from the Axumite yoke under Malik-Karib Yuhamin.
379 Niall Noìgillach of the Nine Hostages, of the O’Neill clan, becomes High King of Ireland at Tara.
380 The new eastern Roman emperor Theodosius (a Spaniard) “admits” (=recognizes) the Visigoths into the Roman Empire as “foederati” (=allies). The Arab kingdom of Hirah conquers the island kingdom of Tylos/Bahrain.
ca. 380 The Huns, now led by Alypbi, impose their yoke over northern Caucasus. The Saracene kingdom of the Salihids, ally of Rome, forms amongst the northern Arab tribes.
380-381 With the Edict of Thessalonica and the Council of Constantinople the eastern Roman emperor Theodosius enforces Catholic (Nicene) Christianity as the sole State religion, persecuting pagans and heretics.
380-395 The western branch of the Alans, subservient to the Huns, becomes the paramount power in Dacia.
382 The Celto-Roman Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig reestablishes the kingdom of Strathclyde between Roman Britannia and Caledonia and resettles Irish and Pictish clans in western Wales (Cambria), then is hailed as emperor by the legions in Britannia, Germany and Belgium. The Western Roman emperor Gratian has the altar of Victory removed from the Senate in Rome. The Gupta Empire vassalizes the kingdom of Malwa.
383 The eastern Jin of Nanking defeat the Xin in the battle of river Fei in the Anhui, but, wracked by inner struggles, can’t exploit their victory; the Xin empero Wu Er-han crushes his own nephews’ rebellion in the northern provinces. Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig usurps the Roman throne in Gaul and Britain; the Western emperor Gratian is slain in Lyon. The Visigothic king Athanaricus, fierce persecutor of Christians, abandons Dacia after vain attempts to resist Huns and Alans and dies (allegedly by poisoning) in Constantinople.
384 Armenia is divided in two kingdoms under close Roman and Persian proctetorate: West (Roman, with Gordiene too), and east (Persian). This settlement has been achieved thanks to diplomatic efforts of the Vandal Stilicho, loyal to Theodosius. Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig is acknowledged as emperor in Britannia, Gaul and Spain, the legitimate Valentinian II in Italy, Africa and Illyricum. Syricius succeeds to Damasus as Bishop of Rome, and for the first time he assumes the title of “Papa” (Pope). Buddhism is introduced in Korea and officially adopted by the Paekche kingdom.
386 Upon Wu Er-han’s death a civl war of succession explodes in the Xin empire; northern China is quickly conquered by the Toba, former mercenaries in the Xin army, who establish the northern Wei dynasty.
387 Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig invades and occupies Italy with his British legions.
388 Theodosius win the battle at Poetovio/Ptuj against Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig, then pursues, captures and eliminates the usurper at Aquileia. He then proceeds to reinstall Valentinian II in Milan and enacts repressive laws against Jews. The Celts of Britannia who supported the usurper settle on the continent in Armorica/Brittany (the so-called “first migration”), while Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig’s many sons found several reigns amongst the Britanni: Anthony Donatus Gregory/Anwn Dynod ap Macsen becomes the de facto ruler of southern Wales/Cambria.
390 Chandragupta II conquers Gujarat for the Gupta Empire. Massacre of Tessalonica (7,000 slain) perpetrated by Theodosius’ Gothic troops to avenge the assassination thir commander Buterichus lynched by the mob for arresting a very popular auriga (horse chariot driver); Theodosius is forced to make public penintence in Milan by Bishop Ambrosius. The kingdom of Western Armenia is directly annexed to the Roman Empire upon the death of king Arsaces IV.
ca. 390 Following the death of their supreme ruler Alypbi the western Huns swarm back to the Pontic steppes, where they divide into an eastern horde under Uldin and a western one under Mundzuk/Aybat. The Alchon Huns defeat the Red Huns/Chionites chasing them from Bactria towards Gandhara (between eatern Afghanistan and the Indus valley).
392 The Western Roman emperor Valentinian II dies in Vienne (Gaul), allegedly assassinated. The magister militum per Occidentem, the Frank Arbogast, has the pagan Eugenius chosen as emperor.
392-394 Last pagan reaction in the Roman West under Arbogast and Eugenius.
394 Theodosius reunifies the Roman Empire for the last time by defeating and killing Arbogast and Eugenius at the Frigidus/Vipacco river, near Aquileia, thanks to a frightening “bora” blizzard, then banishes the millenary Olympic Games as “sinful”. The Ruanruan, forerunners of the Avars, gain a limited supremacy over eastern Turkestan.
395 Theodosius dies in Milan, dividing anew the Roman Empire between his two sons: Honorius gets the West, Arcadius the East. The dividing line between the Adriatic Sea and Sirmium becomes the millenary boundary between the Romanized West and the Romaic (Byzantine) East. The Huns sack the Caucasus region up to Syria. The kingdom of Iberia/Georgia annexes Lazica (northwestern Georgia), menaced by Huns and Alans. The northern Weis, Toba barbarians, crush the Sino-barbaric kingdom of Qin Qian, who formerly held sway over Manchuria and northwestern China. The Gupta Empire directly annexes the kingdom of Malwa.
396-397 The Visigoths devastate Greece but are eventually expelled by the Roman-Vandal general Stilicho.
397 St. Ambrosius dies in Milan. In Roman Africa the Berber prince Gildon, brother of the former insurgent Firmus, asks to pass under the sovereignity of the Eastern Roman Empire and quits the grain transports to Rome; the revolt indicates the strength of African drive for autonomy following the Donatist schism.
398 Mascizel, Gildon’s brother and arch-enemy, reestablishes the Western Empire’s authority over Roman Africa. The eunuch Eutropius and the Goth Gaina keep the Huns at bay along the Danube.
399-401 The Visigoths newly invade Greece, but Stilicho once again beats them. The revolt led by the Goth Tribigildus in Galatia and Bithynia (Asia Minor) provokes an antibarbaric reaction at Constantinople, where Gaina’s Gothic mercenaries are massacred or expelled from the city. Gaina is later defeated and killed on the Danube by the Huns.
ca. 400 Teotihuacàn rules over the Mayans in the Chiapas region. The Gupta Empire unifies northern central India centrosettentrionale and terminates the last Saka kingdoms in western India. The Bantus, coming from the area between Congo and Camerun, invade eastern Africa from Kenya to Beira (*OTL southern Mozambico), briging there their iron-working technology. Apogee of the powerful Funan Empire, helding sway over Indochina from the Menam river in the west to the boundaries of Annam in the east. The Eastern Roman Empire retakes Amida (*OTL Diyarbakir) from Persian hands. The Soninke people found the Ghana Empire with capital in Kumbi, Mali (western Africa). A Swabian horde fleeing the internecine tribal struggles of Germany occupies Moravia; the Vandali, pushed by the Huns, abandon Slovakia migrating westwards. The Saracene Salihids crush the Christian Tanukh kingdom between Jordania and northern Arabia.
5th century In the central eastern Alps a Rhaeto-Romano-Germanic koiné takes shape, which in the centuries will form the Ladinian nation.
402 The Visigoths under Alaric invade northern Italy, taking advantage of an imperial campaign against the Vandals and the western Alans across the Alps, but are defeated by general Stilicho at Pollenza (Piedmont); Stilicho arranges an alliance with the western Alans and the Huns to contain the Goths. The Emperor of the West, Honorius, moves his capital from Milan to Ravenna.
403 A new important victory of Stilicho against the Visigoths at Verona.
404 The Roman Emperor of the West, Honorius, abolishes the gladiatorial games when a monk is killed while trying to stop the bloody “entertainment show”.
404-406 The Huns under Uldin, migrating once again on horseback through the Carpathians, impose their rule over an immense area between the middle Danube and the Black Sea.
405-406 The huge barbarian horde guided by the pagan Ostrogoth Radagaisus, composed of varied Germanic and Sarmatian groups in flight from the Huns, invades Noricum and northern Italy from Pannonia and Moravia, but ends up destroyed by the imperial forces of Stilicho and the Huns under Uldin at Fiesole near Florence.
406-407 Marcus’ and Gratianus’ revolts in Roman Britannia.
407 Large barbarian invasion of Roman Gaul: Swabians, Vandals, Burgundians and a portion of the western Alans (many are stillin Dacia) cross the frozen Rhine. Constantine, ruler of Armorica (Brittany), usurps power over Britannia; the Roman troops abandon the island and the “limes” on the Rhine. The White Huns, or Hephthalites, acquire a huge part of Central Asia and begin to terrorize Persia and India with their raids.
408 Britannia thwarts the Saxon raids. Upon the death of his brother Arcadius at Constantinopole, the Roman Emperor of the West Honorius assassinates Stilicho; revolt and massacre of the barbarian mercenaries at Papia/Ticinum. Thousands of Goths desert the imperial army defecting to Alaric, who invades Italy once again and besieges Rome, exacting a rich ransom.
409 Vandals, western Alans and Svevi establish themselves in Spain and Lusitania/Portugal; Spain, after acknowledging Constantine as emperor, rebels against him too under Gerontius and Maximus. Alaric continues his siege of Rome, because Honorius in Ravenna refuses to grant lands in Noricum, and subsequently (with the agreement of the Roman Senate) names a puppet anti-emperor, Attalus.
410 Alaric attempts a siege of Ravenna, then as a gesture of good will repudiates Attalus, but is attacked by treason by Honorius’ troopes and unleashes his Visigoths in the Sack of Rome, an event which shakes the entire Roman world; he subsequently marches towards the south, taking hostage Galla Placidia, Honorius’ sister, and dies in Calabria. Official independence of the Britannian kingdom of Dumnonia, forerunner of the Celtic Cornwall; official abandonment of Britannia by the Romans, and formation of the “Celtic” and “Roman” factions on the island. Coel Hen, ruler of northern Britannia, is the High King of Britain. Eugenius, a son of Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig, establishes the kingdom of Glywyssing in southern Wales. The Ruanruan establish themselves as a hegemonical power among the Xianbi (proto-Mongolians).
ca. 410 The White Huns/Hephthalites destroy the residual power of the Kushanshah in Afghanistan, making Chorasmia and the western Sogdians of Bukhara vassals and conquering Alexandria of Aracosia/Qandahar and Kabul, and begin devastating raids in northern India. After the Romans' abandonment of Britannia, the tribe of the Votadini, divided in a northern branch and a southern one, becomes enforces its ascendancy between Yorkshire and the Firth of Forth.
411 The usurper Constantine is captured in battle at Arles by the Roman general Flavius Constantius, and put to death by the Emperor of the West, Honorius; also the rebellion of Gerontius and Maximus in Spain quickly collapses. Ataulf, brother-in-law and successor of Alaric, crosses Italy from the south to the north; passing passing through Liguria, they pillage Lunae/Luni and Albingaunum/Albenga. After almost a century the Donatist schism of the Christian churches of Roman Africa is settled at Carthage, partly through the eloquence of St.Augustine of Hippo in denouncing the “heresy” and promoting its extirpation (paradoxically St. Augustine will become more and more a symbol of North Africanism in the following centuries). The Burgundians found a kingdom between the Rhine and the Rhone, straddling Gaul and Helvetia, with its capital at Geneva.
411-415 In Gaul, after the collapse of Constantine’s usurpation, other pretenders spring up (the last is the Visigoth-backed Priscus Attalus, the former puppet emperor they backed in 409); all are liquidated either by Flavius Constantiusor by marauding barbarians.
412 The Visigoths enter Gaul from Italy, settling west of the lower Rhone. In Britannia, Pelagius spreads the Pelagian Heresy (no original sin, complete free will).
414 Galla Placidia marries Ataulfus, becoming the (not so enthusiast) Queen of the Visigoths. The Roman general Flavius Constantius expels the Visigoths from Narbona, forcing them to move themselves to Catalonia (which takes its name from them) and captures their puppet emperor Attalus.
415 Assassination of Ataulfus and of his murderer Sigeric; Wallia is placed on the Visigothic throne. The emperors of Rome and Byzantium, Honorius and Theodosius II, abolish the office of Naśi (prince) of the Sanhedrin, until then hereditary within the Israelite clan Hillel, as the last claim of authority over the Jews, who are by now dispersed to the four winds.
416 Galla Placidia is ransomed by Flavius Constantius in exchange for about 5000 tons of wheat.
418 The Roman Emperor of the West, Honorius, grants Aquitaine to the Visigoths.
419 The Vandals occupy Hispania Betica (from this point the region will be known as Vandalusia). The Visigoths, now under Theodoric I, choose Toulouse as their capital; their domains extend across the Pyrenees from southern Gaul to northern and eastern Spain.
420 The Liu-Song succeed the eastern Jin at Nanking.
ca. 420 Rugila’s western Huns of Rugila migrate in turn in Dacia and Pannonia, establishing themselves between the Carpathians and the Danube; de facto reunification of western and eastern Huns. Mongolian tribes (Xianbi) migrate to Tibet, where for two centuries representatives maintain power under the title of Tsenpo. The Rugians occupy Bohemia and establish their rule as far as the Alps. The germanic tribe of the Sicambri, located in the Ruhr valley, intermingle with the Salian Franks.
421 The Visigoths and the Roman army fail an initial attempt to dislodge the Vandals from the Betica/Andalusia. Flavius Constantius is named coemperor of the West by Honorius, but dies almost immediately. The Irish clan Dal Deisi, settled in Pembrokeshire from the times of Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig, establishes there the kingdom of Demetia.
421-422 Short war between Persia and Rome predicated upon the persecution of the Christians in Persia; the Roman Empire of the East secures the right of asylum for the Eastern Christians
423-425 Usurpation of John in Italy upon the death of Honorius, put down by the forces of the Eastern emperor Theodosius II; Valentinian III, young son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Costantius, ascends the Roman Western throne in Ravenna.
424-425 The Ruanruan invade northern China but are thwarted in the Gobi desert.
425 The Chalukyas emerge as the dominant dynasty in the Karnataka (SE India). Introduction of Buddhism to western Indonesia.
426 Yax K'uk' Mo founds the royal dynasty of the Mayan town of Xukpi/Copàn. The king of the Alans of Spain, Attaces, is defeated and killed by the Visigoths; his people intermingles with the Vandals.
428 Pressed by the Visigoths, the Vandals migrate to northern Africa at the invitation of General Bonifacius, who is rebelling against the Western Roman Empire. The Salian Franks invade northern Gaul from Belgium, but are stopped by the Roman general Aetius, fresh from his victories against the Visigoths at Arles. Aetius then “federates” the Franks within the empire; their new king is Merovech, founder of the Merovingian dynasty. Nestorius, bishop of Costantinopole, spreads the Nestorian heresy, that has much success in Syria, where it is officially adopted by the local Church, and in Persia as well. The Persian emperor Bahram V severely defeats the White Huns and, at the request of the local Nakharars (lords), annexes eastern Armenia and the Gordiene (central Kurdistan) putting an end to the age-old Arsacid dynasty. The Mayan city-state of Mutul/Tikal frees itself from its servitude to Teotihuacàn.
429-431 The Vandals defeat their former ally Bonifacius (now pleading for forgiveness and help from Ravenna) and besiege him for one year at Hippo/Bona (during which siege St. Augustine dies). In the end, the Vandals raise the siege and Bonifacius flees to Ravenna, obtaining the forgiveness of empress mother Galla Placidia.
ca. 430 The Huns impose their supremacy upon the Germanic tribes from the Taurida (*OTL Crimea) as far as the Rhine. The Vandal invasion of North Africa opens the road for a large part of the Berbers to return to self-government in the Atlas Mountains; in Mauretania a weak Roman-Berber kingdom is formed with its capital at Volubilis/Ulili, while another state is formed around the town of Constantina.
430-432 Civil war between the generals in the Eastern Roman Empire: the Byzantine “magister militum” of Asia, Nicholas, rises up against his colleague and superior, the Goth Ataulf, defeating him on the Halys (Anatolia) and in the subsequent battles of the Dunes, of Syria and of the Long Orchard.
431 Nestorian schism after the Council of Ephesus, which condemns the doctrines of Nestorius. Nestorianism becomes spread throughout the East, from Syria along the Silk Road as far as China. Founding of the classical Mayan kingdom of B'aakal, with its capital at Palenque (Chiapas, *OTL Mexico), perhaps the work of a dynasty of Olmec origin.
432 Galla Placidia pits Bonifacio against Aetius, who, defeated at first, returns to Pannonia gaining help from king Rugila’s Huns and afterwards eliminates his rival. The Pandyas of southern Deccan conquer the kingdom of Sri Lanka/Ceylon.
434 Attila (west of the Don) and his brother Bleda (east of the same river) become kings of the Huns. Short conflict between the Huns and the Eastern Roman Empire of the East, which is forced to increase the tributes paid to the barbarians.
435 The Western Roman Empire formally recognizes the Vandals' possession of a large portion of former Roman Africa.
436-437 The Roman general Aetius defeats the Visigoths, the Burgundians (who are beaten by the Huns, Aetius' allies, and forced to migrate to the region which becomes known as Savoy, from the Burgundian tribe of the Sapaudi) and the ever-rebellious Bagaudae peasants in Gaul.
438 The Persians establish the stronghold of Derbent (between Daghestan and Azerbaijan) and build the blockade of the Caspian Gates between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus to contain the Hunnic raids.
439 Carthage falls to the Genseric’s Arian Vandals, who impose a harsh racist rule and immediately begin to fiercely persecute the Nicene Catholics. Ashina founds the reigning dynasty of the Tu-jüe (Turks) in Mongolia, coming into conflict with the Ruanruan and wrenching their supremacy over eastern Turkestan from them.
ca. 440 St. German, a former soldier dispatched by Aetius, defends the British from the Picts and Scots. Angles, Saxons and Jutes begin to settle heavily in Britannia and to plunder it. Vortigern seizes control over the kingdoms of Britain. Irish pirates conquer part of Wales.
441 Attila razes Singidunum (the future Belgrade) to the ground.
441-447 Attila devastates the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) with his Huns and massacres their population.
442 The Vandals conquer Sicily and Sardinia. Destruction of Naissos and massacre of its inhabitants at the hands of Attila. Eastern Armenia reacquires a weak autonomy from Persia under Vasak Siuna.
444 The Alexandrine abbot Eutiches spreads the Monophysite heresy in Constantinople.
445 After murdering his brother Bleda, Attila becomes sole Khan of the Huns: his empire extends from the Rhine to the Caucasus.
446 Attila defeats the Eatern Roman army at Marcianopolis and devastates Thrace. Vakhtang I Gorgasali (the Wolf's Head) founds in Iberia/Georgia the local dynasty of the Bagratids, succeeding the Khusrawids.
447 St. German expels the Irish from Wales.
449 The Second Council of Ephesus imposes Monophysitism in the Eastern Roman empire. Honoria, daughter of Galla Placidia, exiled to Constantinople for having conspired against her brother Valentinian III, in a secret letter asks Attila to marry her.
450 Hengest and Horsa establish the first germanic kingdom of Britain in the Cantium (Kent). Upon the death of Theodosius II at Constantinople, his sister Pulcheria, instead of offering the crown to Valentinian III to reunify the empire, marries the Thracian general Marcian who ascends to the throne. Foundation of the kingdom of Kara-Khodjo/Kao Ch'ang at Turfan (Eastern Turkestan), which replaces the ancient kingdom of Chü-Sh'ih.
ca. 450 St. Patrick, kidnapped by the Irish in 434 but subsequently freed, christianizes them and makes Ireland a center of diffusion for monasticism and the Christian religion. General fragmentation of the Celtic kingdoms of Britannia. In the lower Volga area, the Sabir Huns subjugate the Onogurs (the Ten Arrows, from ten tribe components). Amida/Diyarbakir (Kurdistan) falls under Persian rule again. The Arian Vandals, cruelly ruling former Roman Africa, gain Tripolitania (Libya) and exterminate the Circumcelliones.
450-457 The Jutes, coming from Jutland, complete their conquest of Cantium (Kent).
451 Monophysite schism after the council of Chalcedon, which restores orthodox (Nicene) Catholicism as state religion in Constantinople. Monophysitism is adopted from Armenia to Egypt and Axumite Ethiopia (which however continues to have a strong Jewish bent). The Persians invade eastern Armenia and try to force conversion Mazdeism on its people, but, although victorious against Vasak Siuna in the battle of Avarair, do not succeed in eradicating Christianity from Armenia. Demanding the hand of Honoria (and the lands of the Roman Western empire) Attila unleashes his hordes in the terrible Hunno-Germanic invasion of Gaul, but is stopped at the giant battle of the Catalaunian Fields by Aetius with an army of Romans, Burgundians, Salian Franks, Visigoths and Britons; Theodoric I, son of Alaric I and King of the Visigoths, dies in the battle.
452 Attila invades Italy from Carniola/Slovenia razing to ground Celeia/Celje, Emona/Lubiana, Aquileia and Altinum, and further sacks and sets fire to Vicenza, Brescia, Bergamo, Milan and Papia/Ticinum. He is stopped willy-nilly on the Mincio river by Pope Leo the Great and returns in Pannonia, also because his army is undermined by an epidemic. The populations of the Veneto flee to the coastal lagoons, establishing the foundations for the future power of Venice. Armenia adheres to Monophysitism, repudiating the Council of Chalcedon, and establishes its own Patriarchate at Dvin.
453 Unexpected sudden death of Attila in Pannonia. The Caucasian kingdom of Sarir (Daghestan) falls under the supremacy of the Alans of Caucasus; Lazica (NE Georgia) is liberated from Iberian/Georgian domination.
454 Assassination of Aetius by Valentinian III the Western Roman emperor. Arderic’s Gepids rebel against the Huns, weakened by succession struggles, eliminate Ellac, son of Attila, and create a strong kingdom between the Tisza river and Transylvania. The Huns withdraw to Moldavia under Ernac, another son of Attila.
455 Assassination of Valentinian III near Rome at the hands of soldiers infuriated by the murder of Aetius; this marks the end of the Theodosian dynasty. Genseric’s Vandals plunder Rome (Pope Leo the Great obtains a pledge to respect the sacred places and not take part in any massacres and fires from Genseric; the new emperor Maximus Petronius is lynched by the crowd) and conquer Corsica. Ambrosius Aurelianus eliminates the much-hated Vortigern and succeeds him as ruler in Britannia. In India, Emperor Skandagupta stops the invasion of the White Huns (Hephthalids) ); the Kadamba kingdom in western India is carved between the two family branches of Triparvata and Banavasi, beginning a slow decline. Ernac leads his Huns to settle between the Dniepr and Taurida (*OTL Crimea).
456-459 A first wave of Irish and Brythonic Celts comes ashore in Spain’s nothwestern corner, Galicia, where they establish a principality after fierce struggles with the local Swabians.
456-472 General Ricimerus, grandson of the former Visigothic king Wallia, takes power, eliminating Avitus, the Western Roman emperor of the West, and rules Italy through puppet emperors.
457 Leo I is the first Roman Emperor of the East to receive his crown from the hands of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
459 The White Huns help Firuz ascend to the throne of the Sassanian Empire, defeating the usurper Hormizd. Sri Lanka/Ceylon is liberated from Pandya's domination under Dhatusena, founder of the Singalese Moriya dynasty.
460 The Ruanruan/Avars defeat the Tu-jüe (Turks) between Mongolia and Manchuria and reduce them to vassal state.
ca. 460 The prince of Kindah, Hujr Akil al-Murar, obtains from his stepbrother Hasan ibn Amr ibn Tubba' of Himyar the title of king and the dominion over the deserts of central Arabia, where the tribe had migrated from the Hadramaut; in the town of Mecca the Quraysh tribe gains ascendancy.
460-471 The Alan Flavius Ardabur Aspar becomes “magister militum” (commander in chief) of the Roman army of the East after having helped emperor Leo I succeed to the throne, and is then assassinated by the antibarbarian faction at court.
461 The imperial forces of the West are defeated by the Vandals in Africa.
463-487 Direct Persian occupation of Caucasian Albania/Azerbaijan.
464 Syagrius establishes a strong Roman kingdom in northern Gaul between the Maas, the Scheldt and the Sein rivers, while the rest of Gaul lies in the hands of the barbarians.
ca. 465 The Goths of Taurida (*OTL Crimea) found the kingdom of Taurogothia fighting against the Huns, and take control of the Cimmerian Bosphorus (strait of Kerč).
467 Disastrous failure on the part of the Byzantines, led by the incompetent Basiliscus, in their attempt to wrest Carthage from the Vandals.
469 The Persian emperor Firuz is captured in battle by the White Huns who obtain a lavish ransom and take his heir Kavadh as hostage. The Huns of Pannonia attack the Eastern Roman Empire, but Khan Dengizich, one of the sons of Attila, dies in battle in Thrace against Aspar’s Byzantines, Alans and Ants. The Huns then withdraw east in the Ukraine and the lower Volga, where they will form the Bulgarian nation; a minority settles in Transylvania, from which originates the community of the Székely, while the remainder is divided in two confederations to the east and the west of the Don.
ca. 470 The Lombards settle in Bohemia. Foundation of the (Sabir) Hunnic Khanate of Caucasia in the northern Daghestan.
471 The Western Roman emperor, Anthemius, against the will of Ricimerus attacks the King Euric’s Visigoths in Gaul, but is defeated.
472 Siege and new sack of Rome by troops faithful to Ricimerus, who eliminates Anthemius but dies shortly afterwards.
473 Theodoric the Great’s Ostrogoths settle in Moesia as allies of the Eastern Roman empire.
474-475 The Isaurian Zeno Tarasicodissa ascends to the throne of Constantinople, but is shortly chased from it by Basiliscus, in turn crushed and eliminated by Zeno after a few months.
474-476 Ustus raises the flag of rebellion in Palestine: the revolt keeps brewing amongst Jews and Samaritans as well in the following years.
475 The Pannonian Roman Orestes, formerly in the service of Attila, overthrows the Western Roman Emperor, Julius Nepos, enthroning his own son Romulus Augustulus in his place.
476 The Western Roman Empire falls to the hand of the Herul Odovacar, who defeats and kills Orestes at Papia/Ticinum and deposes his son Romulus, then formally remits the authority of the Roman West to Constantinople, which names him a “patrician;” but Italy is de facto under the heel of the barbarian confederation headed by Odovacar. Death of Skandagupta and beginning of the decline of the Gupta Empire in India.
476-480 The former Emperor of the West Julius Nepos “reigns” in Dalmatia under Byzantine protection, then the region passes under the control of Odovacar.
477 Foundation of the kingdom of Sussex by the Saxons.
479 The southern Qi replace the Liu-Song on the throne of Nanking. Marcianus, son-in-law of former emperor Leo I, rebels in Costantinople but is defeated and slain.
ca. 480 The Angles, coming from Schleswig-Holstein and Frisia, settle in Britannia near Lindum Colonia (Lincoln), there defeating the Roman-British kingdom of Linnuin and establishing the kingdom of Lindsey; they also occupy Norfolk and Suffolk (East Anglia). King Arthur (son of Uther Pendragon, “Son of the Dragon”, and Aurelius Ambrosius’ nephew) begins to unify the southern Britons.
481-483 Christian anti-Persian rebellion in Armenia and Iberia/Georgia guided by Sahak II Bagratuni (who later comes to be defeated), and by Vahan Mamikonian, the prince of Taron.
481-488 Civil war between the Isaurian strongmen in the Byzantine Empire, won by the emperor Zeno against his rivals Illus and (later, from 484) Leontius, whose strongholds are Asia Minor and Isauria (southern Anatolia).
482 The three brothers Kiy, Šček, and Khoriv, of the Slavic tribe of the Polainai, found Kiev on the banks of the Dnieper.
484 The White Huns defeat and kill the Persian emperor Firuz. His brother Balash, succeeding him, renounces the conversion of Armenia to Mazdaism. Bar-Sauma, with the approval of Balash, establishes Nestorianism as the sole belief of the Christian Church of Persia. Zeno, the Byzantine emperor, crushes the Samaritan rebellion in Palestine.
484-519 Schism of Patriarch Acacius between Rome and Constantinople.
485 Vahan Mamikonian becomes Marzpan (governor) of Armenia for the Sassanians, guaranteeing his country a degree of autonomy.
ca. 485 The Dal Riada Scots, coming in Ireland where they were pushed from power by the High Kings of the O'Neill clan, occupy Argyll (west Scotland). Mazdak preaches a equalitarian and socialist variant of Mazdeism in Persia.
486 Chlovis’ Salian Franks defeat the Gallo-Roman kingdom of Syagrius and take Lutetia (Paris). The Byzantines expel the Ostrogoths from Moesia with help from the Hunno-Bulgarians.
487 Odovacar defeats the Rugians (settled in Noricum/Austria) . The Visigoths trade the fugitive Syagrius to Clovis I of the Franks, who has him stabbed to death in jail. Foundation of the first Uighur Khanate in Mongolia under Ay Uzhru. Birth of the kingdom of Chenla at Champasak in southern Laos, established by the Khmer who immigrated from the north-west.
488 Theodoric the Great’s Ostrogoths defeat the Gepids at Sirmium (Illiria) and invade Italy under a Byzantine mandate, with the support of the Lombards (rulers of Bohemia) and of the Rugians of Noricum. The Gepids remain masters of Dacia.
488-496 Kavadh of Persia supports the Mazdakite movement against the clergy and nobility.
489 Theodoric triumphs on the Isonzo and at Verona, then, betrayed by the turncoat Tufa, withdraws in Milan.
490 Theodoric transfers himself to Papia/Ticinum, then decisively defeats Odovacar on the Adda river (Lombardy).
ca. 490 The “Nine Saints”, a group of Egyptian Monophysite theologians (Copts) exiled by the Byzantine authority, settle at Axum (Ethiopia) establishing the roots of the religious communion between the Christians of Ethiopia and Egypt and the Jacobites of Syria. The Syrian Arab kingdom of Ghassan annexes the Salihid state between Jordan and northern Arabia.
490-493 The Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great besiege Ravenna and complete their conquest of Italy.
491 Chlovis I defeats the Bretons at Blois and repels them in Armorica/Brittany. Odovacar summons help from the Burgundians, who plunder Milan; Theodoric in turn calls for help Alaric II’s Visigoths.
491-497 Elimination of Isaurian power and rebellion by the Byzantine army after Anastasius I's ascent to the throne.
492 The Ostrogoths wrest Sicily and Corsica from the Vandals. The Byzantine general Julian is defeated and killed in Thrace by Kutrigur Khan’s western Hunno-Bulgarians.
493 Theodoric treacherously murders Odovacar and its son and massacres their troops during the negotiations for the surrender of Ravenna.
496 The Salian Franks under King Chlovis rout the Alamanni at Tolbiac and Strasbourg, the Alamanni having already been deprived of some of their lands on the Neckar and on the Main by the Ripuarian Franks; Chlovis is converted to Catholicism. The British of king Arthur severely defeat the invading Saxons of Sussex at Mount Badon, stopping their expansion for at least half a century.
496-498 Usurpation of the Sassanian throne of Persia by Zamasp, enemy of the Mazdakites and brother of Kavadh, who comes to be reinstalled on the throne of Ctesiphon by the White Huns (among whom he had been raised). Accompanying Kavadh in Central Asia, Nestorian priests begin to spread their variant of Christianity.
499 The Chinese buddhist monk Hoe-Shin returns to his homeland after an incredibly long journey along the coasts of the Pacific as far as Mexico, from which he has returned, and tells of the far-off country, which he calls Fu-Sang. His stories, however, are not taken seriously and are treated as the stuff of legend among the learned.
VI sec. General crisis of urban civilization in Europe and the crash of the Classical World. Judaism is diffused widely in Yemen. Valorous resistance of the Celts of Britannia to the Anglo-Saxon invaders; the Celtic culture is preserved in all of the north and the west of the British islands, while expanding in Brittany and in Galicia with new colonizations. Expansion of the Frankish dominion in Germany, and dashing advance of the Slavs in central and eastern Europe.
Ca. 500 The Polynesians settle Rapa Nui. Mutul/Tikal emerges as the paramount city-state among the Mayans, struggling especially against Calakmul and its ally Caracol/Oxuitza. The White Huns enforce their supremacy up to the borders of eastern Turkestan and invade northwestern India nordoccidentale, absorbing the Chionite Hun domains, wreaking great havoc and provoking mass migrations and displacements. The first Chalukya dynasty takes power in Maharashtra. Foundation og the Indo-Malay kingdom of Srivijaya on Sumatra. The Kirghiz people coalesces in southern Siberia on the upper Yenisey (Tannu Tuva). The Pontic Ssteppes Hunno-Bulgarians split into the Kutriguri (west of the Don) and Utrigur (east) tribal compacts, from the names of their respective Khans Kutrigur and Uturgur. The Zenete Berbers, partly still heathen, partly Christian or converted to Judaism, coming from the heart of the desert taking its name from them (*OTL Sahara), enforce their rule over northwest African Berbers, founding a number of tribal states between Numidia and Mauretania, notably the kingdom of the Djeddars at Tahert (Numidia). In the Fezzan (inner Libia) the kingdom of Phazana is founded under the Berauna berber dynasty as a successor to Garamantian hegemony. From the shambles of ancient Meroe Nubia sees the rise of the kingdoms of Nobadia/Faras in the north and Dongola more southwards. The Slavs settle in Slovakia. The Welsh kingdom of Demetia (Pembrokeshire) is rechristened as Dyfed. The millennial kingdom of ‘Ad in western Oman, source of the best incense (olibanum) for the civilizations of classical antiquity, finally crumbles and disappears.