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Africa and the Middle East (Progress, Decline and Hope)

July 16th, 2011: Following a NATO bombing raid the previous night, Libyan rebels from Misrata attack Zliten in hopes of liberating it from forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi.

July 20th, 2011: Libyan rebels in the east launch an offensive from Ajdabiya. Thanks to months of NATO bombing and mass defections from Gaddafi forces, the rebels easily take Brega within three days. They then easily take Ras Lanuf and Bin Jawad in the next few days, and the Gaddafi loyalists in Sirte prepare themselves.

July 29th, 2011: After a month of advancing north of the Nafusa Mountains, the Libyan rebels have captured the cities of Gharyan and Al Aziziya. The rebels then launch an attack on Az Zawiyah to liberate the city from the Gaddafi regime once more.

July 31st, 2011: The Libyan rebels from Misrata succeed in taking Zliten from Gaddafi forces. following their success, they advance to Al Khums. Simultaneously, the rebels from the east launch an attack on Sirte.

August 3rd, 2011: To the Libyan rebels' surprise, resistance in Al Khums is minimal and they easily take it after four days of fighting. They later learn that Gaddafi forces have retreated back to Tripoli to defend it from the imminent rebel invasion.

August 5th, 2011: Thanks to the help of rebel sleeper cells, Az Zawiyah is taken. The Libyan rebels then advance on Tripoli from the east, west, and south. In a fiery speech, Gaddafi refuses to surrender to the Libyan rebels and urges his remaining followers to fight to the end.

August 16th, 2011: Sirte, one of three major Gaddafi strongholds, falls to the eastern Libyan rebels. The eastern rebels then advance south in an effort to eliminate any Gaddafi forces remaining and further west to liberate Bani Walid.

September 2nd, 2011: While trying to escape to Belarus, Muammar Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam, and his head of intelligence Abdullah Senussi among others are captured and arrested by Libyan rebels.

September 4th, 2011: Two days after Gaddafi's arrest, Libyan forces loyal to him surrender to the Libyan rebels in Tripoli. Mass celebrations follow in rebel cities, and the National Transitional Council moves to Tripoli the following morning.

December 5th, 2011: The last pocket of resistance from forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi is crushed near the Libya-Chad border.

January 5th, 2012: The trial of Muammar Gaddafi before the International Criminal Court begins in Benghazi. Gaddafi is charged with crimes against humanity, including murder, rape, and torturing political activists as well as war crimes. Gaddafi, defiant as ever, pleas not guilty to all charges.

January 7th, 2012: The ICC finds Muammar Gaddafi guilty of crimes against humanity and war crimes and sentences him to life imprisonment in Abu Salim prison. Celebrations are held in Tripoli, Benghazi, and Misrata, among other Libyan cities.

February 29th, 2012: Former South African President Nelson Mandela dies of undisclosed causes at the age of 93. His death is intensely mourned throughout the world, and over 50 heads of state come to attend his funeral in Cape Town.

July 22nd, 2012: A vast aquifer is discovered under northern Namibia, quickly named Ohangwena II. The aquifer is estimated to be able to supply water to northern Namibia for up to 400 years if tapped sustainably.

June 11th, 2013: The East African Federation referendum fails, as Tanzania votes “Nay,” causing the smaller nations to fear any resulting federation would be dominated from Nairobi. A new referendum is set for August 20th, 2020.

June 14th, 2013: President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad claims an election victory in national presidential elections in Tehran, Iran.

June 16th, 2013: Riots erupt in major cities across Iran, as the Guardian Council certifies the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, despite calls for resistance by opposition leader Mehdi Karroubi.

June 18th, 2013: Iranian exiles Marjane Satrapi and Mohsen Makhmalbaf call upon the United States to recognize opposition leader Mehdi Karroubi, during a speech in Washington D.C.

September 8th-10th, 2013: In Equatorial Guinea, the opposition party Convergence for Social Democracy (CPDS) holds its Fourth Party Congress in the city of Bata. The CPDS is the only legal opposition party allowed in Equatorial Guinea by President Obiang - nevertheless, its members are frequently arrested or beaten by state security forces. At the Party Congress, elderly leaders Celestino Bonifacio Bacalé and Plácido Micó Abogo are replaced by the more radical young Rolan de la Cruz. Cruz introduces reforms which change the party's goals from electoral opposition to what he calls “complete spectrum opposition”, running from non-violent protest to riots. He also changes the party's name from the Convergence for Social Democracy to the Revolutionary Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea (Partido de la Revolución Socialista de Guinea Ecuatorial or PARSOGE).

October 16th, 2013: Loyalists engineer escape from Abu Salim prison of former dictator Muammar Ghaddafi who flees to Sirte.

October 25th, 2013: Libyan government security forces gun down former dictator Muammar Ghaddafi in a culvert in Sirte. The world is horrified by pictures of his bloody body laid out in a walk-in freezer for a week before burial.

December 12th-14th, 2013: In Equatorial Guinea, significant unrest rocks the country after a oil-drillers strike is crushed by police. The country's main opposition group, the Revolutionary Socialist Party (PARSOGE) began protests in Bata and Malabo which at their height had 100,000 people (1/6 of the total population). Protestors demand that the country's significant oil wealth is shared equally. A study in 2013 found that although the average per-capita income was highest in Africa, more than 75% of the population lived on less than two dollars a day. Dictatorial President Teodoro Obiang is able to crush the protests after calling in the Army to intervene. Human Rights Watch estimates that upwards of 112 protestors were killed.

December 25th, 2013: Following recent unrest by socialist opposition party PARSOGE, dictatorial President Obiang of Equatorial Guinea outlaws all socialist parties. He legalizes the existence of the National Democratic Union of Equatorial Guinea, making them the “official opposition.” The leader of PARSOGE, 32-year-old Rolan de la Cruz, goes into hiding in the wild east of the country.

April 6th, 2014: Afghan President Hamid Karzai suffers a heart attack in Kabul, yet political insiders report that Karzai has suffered a drug overdose from heroin usage. Civil unrest takes place when Al-Jazeerah reports the heroin overdose.

August 5th, 2014: A Palestinian extremist opens fire on Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Fortunately, no one is even injured, however the would-be assassin flees the scene before anyone can capture him.

August 27th, 2014: General elections are held in Namibia. Elijah Ngurare of the SWAPO Party of Namibia is elected to the post of President, and will serve until 2019. Ngurare was previously the leader of SWAPO's youth wing, and replaces outgoing President Hifikepunye Pohamba, also of SWAPO.

September 19th, 2014: King Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia (b. 1924) dies from complications of a cerebral hemorrhage. He is succeeded by his half-brother Nayef (b. 1933).

October 6th, 2014: Ayatollah Khamenei suffers a fatal heart attack while leading a mass prayer service at a Tehran mosque.

November 19th, 2014: During an Iranian democratic protest demonstration in the capital city of Tehran, Iranian defenders open fire on the mostly peaceful protesters, who begin to flee. The resulting catastrophe is now referred to as the “November genocide”. Despite being named for the month, confrontations between Iranian forces and demonstrators would continue into 2015.

March 19th, 2015: Second Battle of Basra; Islamic fundamentalists led by Muqtada Al-Sadr launch a nationwide conflict of sectarian violence from Basra, Iraq.

March 25th, 2015: In Iraq the Second Mahdi Army Revolt is crushed, much the same as the first. While many of the 20,000 MNF-I troops left in country acted in non-combat roles, facilitating much of the intelligence gathering, and logistical planning of higher level formations of the Iraqi Army and Iraqi National Police, host nation forces proved themselves surprisingly competent. When it came to operations at the brigade level and below the ability of Iraqi units to effectively engage enemy forces, and also to operate independent of MNF-I assistance, surprised a number of defense analysts, especially regional analysts in the Middle East. The end of the Second Mahdi Army Revolt is often cited as the true end of the Iraq War, being both the last time that MNF-I forces were involved in hostilities in Iraq, and the last time that sectarian violence or religious extremism constituted a substantial threat to the rule of law, or the democratic process, in Iraq.

November 3rd, 2015: The Economist reports that agriculture in northern Namibia has become much more profitable since the discovery of the Ohangwena II reservoir in 2012. Farmers have begun growing more water-intensive crops such as maize, sorghum, tobacco. They also grow wheat more intensively, causing a drop in food prices in Namibia. The cost-of-living has dropped more than 12%, as less food must be imported.

January 21st, 2016: The Nigerien presidential election is held. There are few irregularities reported, and the vote is generally considered by international observers to be free and fair. Former President Mahamane Ousmane, who was ousted by a coup in 1996, is elected to a five-year term over Seyni Oumarou of the National Movement for the Development of Society Party, which was in power from 1996-2010. Niger is still plagued by unrest in the north, high unemployment, and extremely low human development. The election marks Niger's first peaceful democratic transfer of power.

April 26th, 2016: Elections are held in Equatorial Guinea. Results show that President Teodoro Obiang, who has ruled the country since a military coup in 1979, has won another 7 year term with 98.38% of the vote. The elections are widely held in the West to be highly rigged. The legal opposition party, the National Democratic Union of Equatorial Guinea, had its candidate barred from the ballot in all but one province. Meanwhile, the illegal opposition party Revolutionary Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea (PARSOGE), was constitutionally prevented from putting forward a candidate. The leader of PARSOGE calls for protests beginning on May 1st (May Day) against President Obiang's rule.

May 1st-3rd, 2016: Large protests break out across Equatorial Guinea against President Teodoro Obiang's 37-year rule. Organized by PARSOGE, the protestors call for equal distribution of oil revenues and democratic elections. They are quite violent, torching government offices in seven cities nationwide and on one occasion beating back police sent to attack them with Molotov cocktails.

May 4th, 2016: President Obiang of Equatorial Guinea bars foreign news organizations from his country as massive protests continue for the fourth day. Unclear reports emanating from Cameroon indicate that police have lost control of Kié-Ntem Province, although Army units from Wele-Nzas Province to the south are reportedly moving into the province.

May 5th, 2016: Two truck bombs explode in Equatorial Guinea's capitol, Malabo, outside the Presidential Palace and the Chamber of People's Representatives. They kill 22 people, including President Obiang's brother, the Minister of Defense, and seven legislator's from President Obiang's Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea.

May 7th, 2016: Amidst massive protests in Equatorial Guinea, the leader of the Revolutionary Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea (PARSOGE), which has been coordinating the protests, gives a radio-broadcast speech. Rolan de la Cruz announces that PARSOGE is committed to the violent and revolutionary overthrow of President Obiang's government. Cruz urges Equatoguineans to take to the streets armed with guns, clubs, and rocks to oppose the “tyrannical power of the Army and the dictator, Obiang.”

May 9th, 2016: The Army of Equatorial Guinea begins a crackdown on street protests, which is initially remarkably successful. However, as protestors leave the street, they turn instead to violent attacks on Army positions. Western commentators note that they are well supplied with arms and ammunition, although their source is unknown. It is thought that more than 25 soldiers and over 70 militants die in clashes throughout the country.

May 12th, 2016: Amidst widespread army defections, President Obiang's government has lost complete control over the mainland portion of the country. However, the capitol, Malabo, which is on Bioko Island 100 kilometers to the northwest, has been under intense lockdown for several days, and all attempts at protest have been crushed.

May 15th, 2016: In Equatorial Guinea, protests reappear in the capitol, Malabo. Army units defect to the opposition party PARSOGE, and march on the Presidential Palace. President Obiang attempts to flee, but his helicopter suffers mechanical difficulties and he is arrested.

May 18th, 2016: Rolan de la Cruz arrives in Equatorial Guinea's capitol, Malabo, and is declared General Secretary. He begins reorganizing the country into the People's Republic of Guinea, the world's first new officially socialist state since the creation of North Vietnam.

May 25th-26th, 2016: An attempted counterrevolution by members of the Nguma family and their allies in Equatorial Guinea (now the People's Republic of Guinea) is defeated. Rebellious army units briefly took control of part of Malabo, the capitol, but were brought down within 12 hours.

June 10th, 2016: Former President Obiang and 18 members of his inner circle are executed following show trials by the People's Republic of Guinea. Human Rights Watch opposed the executions, saying that Obiang did not receive a fair trial.

June 29th, 2016: Oil workers begin to strike and protest in Bata, the largest city of the People's Republic of Guinea. International oil companies left during the country during its revolution in May, and Premier Cruz has not yet been able to entice them to return. Oil production has dropped to 12% of its 2015 level.

July 8th, 2016: The People's Republic of Guinea welcomes former Nigerian president Goodluck Jonathan and Cameroonian President Paul Biya. The two are the first international heads of state to visit Guinea since its socialist revolution in May. Former President Jonathan promises that Nigerian oil companies will soon begin work in the country and signs contracts with Premier Cruz.

July 20th, 2016: In a major address, Premier Cruz announces that all oil revenues will be split equally between every citizen of the People's Republic of Guinea. Mining and fishing incomes will be treated the same way, while education will be compulsory and free. Cruz encourages Guineans to move onto new collective farms being set up and to give up what he calls “the vestiges of tyranny.”

January 26th, 2017: United States Secretary of State Jon Huntsman announces that the US will provide a loan of $100 million to build 1,000 electrified schools with indoor plumbing throughout the People's Republic of Guinea. While some conservatives criticize President Gillibrand's administration for tacitly recognizing the revolutionary socialist state, officials in the State Department respond that building schools can hardly hurt American interests.

February 10th, 2017: Elections are held in the People's Republic of Guinea to the Congress of the People. PARSOGE wins 82 seats out of 120, a surprisingly weak showing which showed Guineans' willingness to look for any option to reduce poverty and high unemployment.

February 18th, 2017: In the People's Republic of Guinea, the newly elected Congress of the People passes a law, the Protecting the Revolution Directive, which severely curtails the freedom of press and speech. Specifically, it bans any former member of the Obiang administration from holding elected office, working for a newspaper, radio or TV station, writing op-eds, or leading political parties. Additionally, protests deemed contrary “to the values and spirit of the Guinean people and the ideals of socialism” will not be tolerated, and “pro-tyrant” speech and writings are banned. The US State Department deplores the law for its broad language, lack of specificity, and generality, noting that up to 10% of Guineans had at one point held jobs in the former Obiang administration.

February 28th, 2017: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a military coup removes President Joseph Kabila from power. However, he manages to escape Kinshasha, the capitol, and flees to the southeastern city of Lubumbashi, where he announces that he will not “surrender the country to the traitors”. In the Battle of Mbuji-mayi (February 30th-March 12th), defecting army units battle with loyalist troops in brutal urban warfare, until the nation's third largest city falls to the coup conspirators on March 12th. This marks the beginning of the Third Congo War (also known as the Second Congolese Civil War).

May 18th, 2017: African Union forces withdraw from Somalia, declaring that the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) is now capable of supporting itself with international monetary aid. The TFG is firmly in control of Mogadishu, Juba, Gey, and Puntland (an autonomous region in the northeast, but has not been able to get firm control over the coast or the Ethiopian border. Al-Shabab, after being pushed out of Mogadishu in 2012, regrouped and now rules over approximately sixty thousand square miles from their provisional capitol of Galkayo. Financially supported by piracy, Al-Shabab declared their independence from Al-Qaeda in 2015.

August 10th, 2017: China sets up a $890 million fund to support the People's Republic of Guinea. China's foreign secretary says that in recognition of the creation of the socialist state, China will give a new airport to the country as a gift. China also plans to build roads and buy ships to set up a reliable ferry service between Bioko Island and the mainland.

March 13th, 2018: King Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia (b. 1933) dies. Suffering from osteoporosis and diabetes, the king falls at one of his residences in Riyadh and suffers a severely fractured femur. He dies in surgery. He is succeed by his brother Prince Salman bin Abdul-Aziz (b. 1936).

May 2nd, 2018: President Abdulaziz Bouteflika, dictator of Algeria, dies of old age. He is succeeded by Prime Minister Ahmed Hanoune, son of former opposition leader Louisa Hanoune. Hanoune is considered to be something of a reformist. However, this analysis quickly proves false. Concerned by the growing political power of the army, he arrests several generals “on suspicion of a coup attempt”, and shuts down a dozen small political parties. Only 43 years old, he is expected to remain in power for many years.

July 13th, 2018: Investigative journalism by the New York Times reveals what the reporter calls a “devil's bargain” struck between Premier Cruz of the People's Republic of Guinea and Nigerian/Cameroonian officials. The two countries had supplied Cruz' party, PARSOGE, with guns and ammunition, in return for oil contracts in the newly reconstituted country. The deal was struck in 2014, and was successfully completed in July 2016, when oil contracts for Guinea's oil were given to Nigerian and Cameroonian firms.

September 12-29th, 2018: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, forces loyal to the military junta which controls much of the western part of the country seize the city of Kisangani from the FDLR after a three-week siege. The ongoing three-way Third Congo War is estimated to have killed over 200,000 people thus far, and displaced millions more.

December 3rd, 2018: A bombing in the Rwandan city of Butare kills autocratic President Paul Kagame and several of his aides. He is succeeded by party leader Rose Mukantabana of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), who vows vengeance upon the assassins.

December 5th, 2018: DRC-based Hutu Power group FDLR claims responsibility for the assassination of Rwandan President Paul Kagame. In a statement, the militant group justifies his killing by saying that the had favored Tutsis in Rwanda, citing his appointment of a Tutsi as Prime Minister the previous year. President Rose Mukatabana of Rwanda, in response, announces a military intervention into the Congo to “find and destroy those groups opposed to liberty and democracy in Rwanda and across Africa.” The military deployment begins with a cross-border invasion into FDLR territory on December 9th. Both of the other parties in the Congolese Civil War, the military junta and ousted President Joseph Kabila, formally protest the violation of Congolese sovereignty, although there are rumors that Kabila worked with the Rwandans, as he attacked the FDLR in apparent coordination with the foreign intervention.

March 8th, 2019: The General Assembly of the United Nations votes to allow the People's Republic of Guinea to become a member, following pressure from China and Nigeria. On the same day, the African Union removes the suspension of Equatorial Guinea and welcomes the People's Republic of Guinea as a member.

March 27th, 2019: Rwandan troops pull out of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, ending their intervention in the Second Congolese Civil War. President Rose Mukantabana announces that “the FDLR has been destroyed and its leaders have been killed. This terrorist organization no longer poses a threat to Rwanda or to the people of the DRC.” Troops loyal to ousted President Joseph Kabila take control of the eastern provinces from Rwandan troops.

August 27th, 2019: General elections are held in Namibia. Elijhah Ngurare of the SWAPO Party of Namibia is reelected to the post of President, and will serve until 2024. President Ngurare has made fighting the chronic unemployment in the country a top priority of his first and second terms.

December 12th, 2019: The nations of Jordan and Morocco become members of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Both countries had requested membership in May 2011, as they were the only Arab monarchies outside the council.

February 18th, 2020: Elections are held in the People's Republic of Guinea for seats in the Congress of the People. International monitors report voter intimidation at some polling places throughout the country. Specifically, monitors write that members of the People's Revolutionary Socialist Party, the ruling party, set up barriers outside some polling locations and asked people who they were voting for before letting them enter. Outright ballot stuffing and fraud are not reported, but the UN monitors say that this marks a dangerous trend.

February 21st, 2020: Election results from the People's Republic of Guinea show that PARSOGE, the ruling party, has won all but six seats in the Congress of the People. Minor protests begin, claiming that the Revolution of 2016 was being betrayed. In Bata, the largest city, more than 10,000 people hit the streets, but are attacked with water cannons.

February 22nd, 2020: Premier Cruz of the People's Republic of Guinea makes a nationally televised speech, apologizing for the recent elections. He acknowledges that some principles of the socialist revolution that brought him to power had been put to the wayside, and promises accountability in the future. The chief of Bata is sacked for allowing protestors to be attacked, along with dozens of other officials in PARSOGE. Premier Cruz offers to resign and calls for new elections in April. However, supporters flood Marx Square in Malabo, and show their support for Premier Cruz.

April 1st, 2020: A second round of elections is held in the People's Republic of Guinea. PARSOGE, the revolutionary party, loses seats to a pro-Western party, a pro-Chinese party, and a traditionalist African party. A pro-business party called the People's Alliance of Democracy, led by mining businessman Thierry Fidjeu also gains seats. Nevertheless, PARSOGE retains a majority in the 120-seat body and promises to lead a new wave of democratization and reform.

April 4th, 2020: The newly reelected Congress of the People in the People's Republic of Guinea repeals the Protecting the Revolution Directive of 2016, which removes most limits on freedom of speech and press in the PRG. Repealing the directive had been a major goal of opposition parties in the 2020 elections.

December 9th, 2020: Anima Mills, leader of the National Democratic Congress Party, wins the Ghanian presidential election with 54.2% of the vote, thus avoiding a runoff. She is the second female African head of state/government, after the venerable Ellen-Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia, who had retired 6 years previously. She promises to usher in a new era of development, focusing especially on education.

January 23rd, 2021: Ethiopia, frustrated by the civil war that has plagued their neighbor Somalia for 30 years (leaving them with an unstable eastern border), decides to recognize Somaliland, the autonomous region and aspiring sovereign state in the northwest region of the country. At a ceremony in Addis Ababa, the Somaliland-Ethiopia embassy is formally opened, making Ethiopia the first country to recognize the existence of the Republic of Somaliland. Somalia, in retaliation, suspends formal diplomatic relations with Ethiopia.

January-March 2021: Over the next two months, Ethiopia works to persuade other nations to recognize Somaliland as independent. Their motivations behind this are twofold: first, they wish to establish good diplomatic relations with Somaliland. Second, by having more nations establish formal diplomatic relations with it, Somaliland's economy opens up to more markets, thus giving Ethiopia (a trading partner) economic benefits. The Central African Republic becomes the second nation to recognize Somaliland on January 27, and it is quickly followed by the Republic of the Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, and Madagascar. On February 8, after vigorous debate, the Arab League announces it supports the independence of Somaliland, giving it recognition from all Arab States except for Somalia and Morocco. East Africa recognizes Somaliland on February 10, leading many other African nations to follow suit. The United Kingdom becomes the first European country to recognize it on February 15, leading most other sovereign states to do the same.

January 30th, 2021: In Niger, presidential elections are held. Ali Lamine Zeine, a close associate of former autocratic President Mamadou Tandja (who ruled from 1996-2010) declares victory. His victory is challenged by Ilguilas Weila, an anti-slavery activist and opposition candidate. Weila says that the election was stolen from him by Zeine.

February 8th, 2021: A military coup occurs in Niger, led by Ali Lamine Zeine, who is declared to be President. Opposition candidate Ilguilas Weila is jailed, and charged with treason. However, the coup is opposed by Lieutenant General Salou Djibo, who led a 2010 coup which restored democracy to Niger.

February 9th-May 20th, 2021: The first stage of the Nigerien Civil War occurs. President Ali Lamine Zeine, who claims to have won the disputed 2021 election, had subsequently launched a military coup and jailed the opposition candidate, Ilguilas Weila. However, Weila was supported in the military by reformist general Salou Djibo, who took control of several towns and launched an attack on Niamey.

April 17, 2021: Publication by Yale University Press of Throne of Bones and Blood: The Fall of Assad and the Rebirth of Syria by Dr. Gregory Thomas Gottschalk.

May 21st, 2021: In Niger, former opposition presidential candidate Ilguilas Weila is executed for treason by President Ali Zeine's government. Weila had been supported in his claim to the Presidency by General Salou Djibo. However, with Weila's execution, Djibo announces that he himself will seek to temporarily take the Presidency, in order to “restore democracy once again” to Niger.

July 4th, 2021: In Niger, the Battle of Niamey occurs. General Salou Djibo's forces enter and take control of the capitol, seizing power from President Ali Lamine Zeine. Zeine had become President following a disputed election in January, and subsequently jailed and executed the opposition candidate, Ilguilas Weila. Weila's cause, and the democratic movement in general, however, had been taken up by Djibo.

July 10th, 2021: Former president Ali Zeine of Niger is exiled to Sudan, while General Salou Djibo becomes President and leader of Niger for the first time since his 2010 coup, which temporarily restored democracy to Niger.

January 3rd, 2022: South Africa is elected to the United Nations Security Council, a diplomatic victory. South Africa is known as the “powerhouse of Africa”, leading the continent in development, democracy, and economic power.

January 20th, 2022: General Salou Djibo wins the presidential election in Niger over Karidjo Mahamadou, in a contest closely watched by international observers. The election is judged to be free and relatively fair. An Economist article calls General Djibo “Niger's last best hope”, noting that since 2010, he has twice restored democracy to the extremely troubled country of Niger.

March 2nd, 2022: In Somalia, the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) launches a major offensive against Al-Shabab and their capital of Galkayo, sending 60,000 troops north in the hopes of finally reuniting most of Somalia. The attack, termed Operation Huilkan Allah (Heavenly Fire), begins with the Battle of Dhusamareb, a minor TFG victory.

July 8th, 2022: In Somalia, a government offensive against Al-Shabab (Operation Huilkan Allah) is completely stopped outside the town of Cadaado. In the Battle of Cadaado, 8000 government troops betray their comrades and the Transitional Federal Government suffers close to 12,000 casualties (including over 2000 fatalities). Al-Shabab recaptures the town easily, and begins a counter-offensive.

July 15-28th, 2022: Al-Shabab captures Dhusa Mareb, in Somalia, beginning a rollback of government control that lasts for 13 days. Islamist forces advance over 200 miles, coming within 65 miles of Mogadishu.

August 1st, 2022: An Islamist uprising orchestrated by Al-Shabab begins in Mogadishu, while Shabab forces press forward near the Somali town of Jowhar.

August 3rd, 2022: Government troops finally manage to crush the Islamist uprising in Mogadishu, and continue holding out in the Battle of Jowhar. Al-Shabab announces a ceasefire, saying that their advances “must be secured and defended in God's name.” The Islamist militant group has captured much of central Somalia since the Spring, and has also sent feelers into Puntland. In the wake of their defeat, public confidence in the Transitional Federal Government has collapsed throughout much of the country.

December 22nd, 2022: In an effect to lower the chronically high unemployment rate, the Parliament of Namibia, at the urging of President Ngurare, passes the National Works and Employment Act, which authorizes the government to hire large numbers of workers to work on public projects.

December 28th, 2022: President Ngurare of Namibia announces the first three large projects under the National Works and Employment Act. The first will be a high-speed rail link to Cape Town, South Africa from Windhoek. Running over 1,600 km, the line will employ over 12,000 Namibians in construction, management, and design jobs. Similarly, a high-speed rail link will be built through the Namib Desert to Gaborone, Botswana. This shorter line will employ 7,000 Namibians for six years to construct, with the help of German and French engineers. Finally, President Ngurare announces the creation of the Namibian Renewable Solar Power Company (NSH, in Afrikaans), which will be partially state-owned and partially private. NSH intends to build three massive solar stations in the Namib Desert and sell the power to South Africa, as well as, of course, supplying Namibia. The three stations, employing 9,000 Namibians, will be finished in 2026 and are expected to provide up to 60% of Namibia's electricity and 8% of South Africa's.

January 24th, 2023: Since the near-collapse of the Transitional Federal Government in Somalia, the country has been reeling. Autonomous region Puntland declares its independence from the Somali Transitional Federal Government, in the hopes that Ethiopia and the rest of the world will support it, as they did Somaliland. However, Ethiopia's foreign minister declares that unlike Somaliland, which was previously British Somalia, Puntland has no historical basis for independence. Nevertheless, Puntland begins organizing a government based on the traditional Somali xeer system.

May 28th, 2023: Yemen joins the Gulf Cooperation Council, a regional association of Arab states.

July 2nd, 2023: Twenty-year-old Crown Prince Moulay Hassan of Morocco dies in a motorcycle accident. His sister, Lalla Khadija, is now in line to the throne.

September 12-15th, 2023: Nigerian President Ibrahim Shekarau visits South Africa. The two countries sign the Joint Development and Free Trade Pact, marking the beginning of what is known as the “Alliance for Democracy”. Nigeria has overcome it's sectarian troubles of past years after a deal signed in 2015 between northern and southern politicians granted great autonomy to the newly re-organized 21 states. The states, larger in size than before and more equal in population, are each headed by a powerful governor, while the authority of the federal government is reduced to mostly military and foreign issues, as well as national parks, etc. With several peaceful transfers of power consecutively, Nigeria is now marked as a “stable democracy”, and Freedom House ranks Nigeria as “Free” in 2019, an update from “Partly Free”.

April 24th, 2024: Nomaindia Mfeketo of the African National Congress is elected President of South Africa after parliamentary elections give the ANC a strong majority. This marks the first time that there have been two female heads of government in Africa: Mfeketo joins Anima Mills of Ghana. Having campaigned on a pledge to strengthen the slowing economy and increase tourism, she announces the “New Africa” campaign in her inaugural address, saying that “Africa, the birthplace of humanity, is today a new continent. We can stride boldly forth as the leaders of Africa and create a bright future for us all.”

April 27th, 2024: The World Bank grants a $2.1 billion loan to twelve African countries to subsidize their purchase of Erinle, the new anti-AIDS drug. These countries are buying huge stockpiles of the drug in an effort to make them affordable to most Africans, who often cannot afford the $1280 yearly price tag.

August 27th, 2024: General elections are held in Namibia. Incumbent President Ngurare of the SWAPO Party of Namibia is overwhelmingly elected to the post of President, and will continue to serve until 2029.

February 20th, 2025: The first of three solar power stations in the Namibian Desert is completed by the Namibian Renewable Solar Power Company (NSH), a public-private entity created in 2022. Located near the small town of Kalkrand, the power station consists of over 13,000 solar panels with a total installed capacity of over 700 MW.

June 5th, 2025: The East African Federation announces that it will join the Joint Development and Free Trade Pact, thus cementing the three members of Africa's “Alliance for Democracy”. Together, the three members (Nigeria, South Africa, and the EAF) make up approximately 30% of Africa's population and economy. All three are stable democracies. Their intergovernmental organization, the African Democracy League, is increasingly replacing the African Union as a forum to solve Africa's problems. In addition to the three main members, the group also includes Morocco, Ghana, Madagascar, Somaliland, and Namibia, as well as several other African nations.

June 25th, 2025: The results of the first census taken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in over fifteen years show that over 15% of the population is Muslim. This rapid rise is attributed to the fact that the Second Congolese Civil War caused a massive drop in the number of Christian missionaries, especially from Western countries. However, Muslim proselytizers continued to work during the war, and gained popularity through organizations such as the Red Crescent.

July 12th, 2025: The East African Federation Parliament passes a groundbreaking infrastructure bill which is designed to bring East Africa's transport network “up to date.” Costing ∂620 billion East African shillings ($125 billion) over 10 years, the Infrastructure Investment and Improvement Act (III-A or 3-A Act) devotes $15 billion to high-speed rail, $20 billion to port construction and improvement, $5 billion to airport construction and improvement, $25 billion to highway construction, $40 billion to conventional rail, and $20 billion to urban mass-transit systems.

January 13th, 2027: The last of three solar power stations in the Namib Desert is completed. The third, an expansion and refitting of the previously existing Gobabeb plant (completed 2004), provides over 300 MW of power, and they collectively supply 2100 MW of power, of which 1200 MW will go to South Africa, which helped finance the project.

May 12th, 2027: The Namibian section of the Windhoek-Cape Town high-speed rail line is completed, meeting the border near the South African town of Uppington. The South African portion is nearly 90% complete, and the final track will allow trains to travel at speeds of up to 200 km/hr.

September 29th, 2027: The King of Morocco, Mohammed VI, announces in a speech to Parliament that he will step down at the end of the year. He will be succeeded by his daughter, Princess Lalla Khadija. As the last act of his reign, he will sign over his vast executive powers to the Prime Minister and the Parliament of Morocco and create “a true parliamentary democracy for the people of Morocco”. The Crown Princess is very popular among the Moroccan people, noted for her beauty and intelligence. The King's speech is greeted with widespread acclaim from both the people of Morocco and the world community. Despite their surrender of political power, the royal family will continue to exert considerable economic power in the years to come.

June 2nd, 2026: Ethiopian dictator Meles Zenawi is assassinated by one of his generals in a coup attempt, plunging the country into chaos. Several rival generals seize control of the provinces, while the capitol is held by the coup leader, Aman Gabre, who claims to be following the will of the people. However, when he begins to purge the the capitol of the press corps, killing over 200 journalists, whatever support he May have had among the people evaporates. This marks the beginning of the Second Ethiopian Civil War.

June 5th, 2026: An emergency meeting of the Alliance for Democracy, held in Lagos, fails to reach consensus on the situation in Ethiopia. The East African Federation wants to take direct military action, as it is worried that the fighting may spill over onto its territory. However, Nigeria opposes intervention, saying that the situation is too chaotic to understand whom the League should support, while South Africa takes the position that Ethiopia's troubles are Ethiopia's problem.

November 15th, 2026: Two coordinated car bombs kill 89 people in Oran, Algeria. The revolutionary Islamist group Al-Jat Harir claims responsibility.

January 1st, 2028: As part of a negotiated settlement spearheaded by the Alliance for Democracy, the Morocco-Western Sahara dispute is finally put to rest. Western Sahara agrees to relinquish its claims to independence and become an autonomous province of Morocco. The Alliance for Democracy is applauded for its diplomatic efforts, especially those efforts of the President of South Africa, who is personally credited for leading the negotiations and bolstering the Alliance's standing on both the African and global geopolitical stages.

May 1st, 2028: Premier Cruz of the People's Republic of Guinea (PRG) is replaced by Thierry Fidjeu after elections to the Congress of the People. The PRG has been able to hold fairly free elections since the 2016 Revolution, which ousted former President Obiang. Premier Fidjeu announces his intent to take the PRG in a new pro-business direction, including the privatization of the mining industry. However, he pledges not to stop the equal distribution of the country's oil profits - currently, each citizen of Equatorial Guinea receives $180 a month from the nation's oil industry. These handouts are, of course, wildly popular.

May 30th, 2028: The nine nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council announce a plan to move towards a common currency, the riyal, by 2035. They are already quite heavily economically integrated. The growth in oil consumption is beginning to slow as Western nations make the shift to electric and hydrogen fuel sources. Additionally, a new generation of globally connected youth is coming of age, and some countries in the GCC have experienced some turmoil.

May 1st, 2029: The Second Ethiopian Civil War ends, with General Tesfaye Kidan seizing Addis Ababa and killing General Gabre, bringing a conclusion to the city's two-month siege. General Kidan spends his first several weeks in power eliminating allies of his former foe. He had been supported financially by the East African Federation after he struck a deal with them in the fall of 2026. As he controlled southern Ethiopia, he promised to protect their border in return for their support.

May 8th, 2029: Longtime Chadian President Idriss Déby dies at the age of 78 or 79. He has held power since 1990, making him one of the longest-lasting dictators in the world at present, although his forces have rarely, if ever, controlled the whole country. His army fought off major assaults on the capitol, N'Djamena, in 2006, 2008, 2015, and 2025. During his tenure, Chad has been described as a “failed state”, which currently has a life expectancy of just over 50. With Déby's death, it is unclear whether his party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement, can hold power in N'Djamena, the capital of Chad. His Vice President, Gontchome Shawa, assumes po

May 21st, 2029: General Kidan of Ethiopia suffers a stroke. The minor stroke, which he quickly recovers from, is believed to have damaged his paramyglia; in any case, he quickly goes, as one Western observer puts it, “batshit insane.” His first act is to declare Christianity the state religion of Ethiopia, which angers Ethiopia's large Muslim population. However, two days later, he changes his mind, declaring that Ethiopia shall be an Islamic state following sharia law. In response to large protests against this capriciousness, he goes on state television to announce “that as I can't please any of you, I may as well start trying.” Calling himself the Son of God, the crazed leader rambles for over three hours describing a new religion, based off of Roman paganism and Judaism that he apparently created on the spot. The speech is not well received.

May 23rd, 2029: General Tesfaye Kidan of Ethiopia declares war on Israel, saying that “There can only be one Jewish homeland, and it is in my country.” Two hours before Ethiopian Air Force planes are due to take off to attack Israel (ignoring the protests of Sudan, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, whose airspace they must overfly), General Kidan is killed by his aides, led by 29-year-old Lieutenant Birhanu Bayeh.

May 24th, 2029: Lieutenant Bayeh announces to the world that Ethiopia will become a democracy, and schedules elections for September 1st. He also announces the formation of a party (Ethiopian Democracy and Peace Party), and his candidacy for President.

June 12th, 2029: A coup occurs in Chad, soon after the death of long-time President Idriss Déby. His former Vice-President, President Gontchome Shawa, is ousted and flees to Nigeria. Meanwhile, General Japhet Malloum takes power, and appoints himself leader of the Patriotic Salvation Front. Meanwhile, several rebel armies, led by Sudanese group PAS (Sudanese Patriotic Army) say they are gearing up for an assault on the capitol.

July 10th-15th, 2029: Fifth Battle of N'Djamena: A coalition of rebel groups in Chad, composed of the Sudanese Patriotic Army (PAS), the Rally of Democratic Forces (RFD), Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD) and New Vulcan Army (VNA), launch a major attack on the capitol, N'Djamena. In six days of heavy fighting, the coalition, known as the Chadian Democratic Front (FDP) manage to seize the city and expel the junta government led by General Japhet Malloum. Malloum flees to the hinterlands and starts a rebellion, backed by his Patriotic Salvation Movement (FPS).

August 27th, 2029: General elections are held in Namibia. In an upset, Percy Montgomery of the Rally for Democracy and Progress is elected to the post of President, and will serve until 2034. Former President Ngurare, who remains immensely popular, chose not to stand for a third term, and his chosen successor from SWAPO, Heiko Nyamo, had unrevealed marital issues. Montgomery is the first White African leader of Namibia in the nation's history, and the first non-SWAPO president since independence. Montgomery, a former rugby player who got into politics in the 2010s, promises to be a President for all Namibians, and focuses on ending the AIDS epidemic once and for all.

September 1st, 2029: Former Lieutenant Birhanu Bayeh of Ethiopia is elected President with 71.2% of the vote over several rivals in a vote which international observers deem “free and fair.” President Bayeh, only 30 years old, declares that his first act as President will be to supervise a Constitutional Convention to draft a new Constitution for Ethiopia.

December 12th, 2029: Limited elections are held in Chad, organized by the Chadian Democratic Front, a union of six rebel groups which has taken power in N'Djamena. The leader of the Sudanese Patriotic Army, one of the component groups, is elected President. 42-year-old Abdul Wahid al Nur takes office on December 20th. The elections are characterized as “highly troubled, but encouraging” by Human Rights Watch, and despite major irregularities, are praised by the United States, Europe, India, and Egypt.

December 31st, 2029: The United Nations High December 12th, 2029: Limited elections are held in Chad, organized by the Chadian Democratic Front, a union of six rebel groups which has taken power in N'Djamena. The leader of the Sudanese Patriotic Army, one of the component groups, is elected President. 42-year-old Abdul Wahid al Nur takes office on December 20th. The elections are characterized as “highly troubled, but encouraging” by Human Rights Watch, and despite major irregularities, are praised by the United States, Europe, India, and Egypt.

Commission for Refugees and Internal Conflicts releases a report on the state of former Somalia. The report characterizes Somalia as “stable but divided and horrifically mismanaged.” The report praises Somaliland for maintaining relative stability (albeit with heavy Ethiopian support). Meanwhile, the state of Somalia is divided into three parts - Puntland in the north, Al-Shabab in the center, and the federal government in the south. Puntland and the Shabab-controlled territories are havens for piracy and terrorism, while the government territories, and Mogadishu in particular, are terribly poor and underdeveloped. The three parts have an uneasy truce which has been maintained (with the exception of occasional clashes and shelling) since 2024.

February 15th, 2030: The main rebel group in Chad, former junta leader General Japhet Malloum, seizes the town of Sarh, in the south of the country. Malloum's Patriotic Salvation Movement has been in rebellion since they were ousted in 2029 by the Chadian Democratic Front.

February 20th-23rd, 2030: Second Battle of Sarh: Chadian forces under the banner of the Chadian Democratic Front engage and decisively defeat rebel MPS forces in the town of Sarh. The leader of the MPS (Patriotic Salvation Movement), General Japhet Malloum, is killed, and the group is disbanded.

July 8th, 2030: The high-speed rail link between Walvis Bay, Namibia, and Gaborone, Botswana is completed. The track, running more than 1,300 km, will allow trains to move between the two cities at more than 220 km/hr.

January 11th, 2031: King Salman bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia (b. 1936) dies of heart failure. He is succeed by his half-brother Prince Muqrin bin Abdul-Aziz (b. 1945), the last surviving son of King Abdul-Aziz bin Saud, the founder of Saudi Arabia.

January 22nd, 2031: Arabic billionaire Hasan Gafar Abdulrashid founds the Arabic Space Front (ASF), and begins working with the European Space Agency, and other private space groups, to forward the ASF's technology.

April 1st, 2031: A number of Muslim-majority countries announce the creation of Alamem Aleselameyh Men Alheryh (Islamic Nations of Freedom), also known as A'ama. Turkish President Cevdet Yılmaz announces that A'ama is intended to bring together a select group of Muslim democracies in order to spread liberal ideals and cultural interchange, as well as to promote free trade. However, many commentators view A'ama as the creation of a Turko-Egyptian sphere of influence. The two Muslim giants have for years exerted substantial diplomatic influence over many smaller Arab and Turkic nations. The founding members of Alamem Aleselameyh Men Alheryh are Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Azerbaijan, Libya, Jordan, Albania, and Lebanon.

April 8th-10th, 2031: Legislative elections are held in Chad, returning as sizable majority for the Chadian Democratic Front. They are held as an important step forward for stability in Chad, which has suffered from conflict for many years. Despite some irregularities, the vote is cleaner than the last presidential elections, held in 2030.

April 30th, 2031: A set of car bombs go off in Mogadishu outside of Villa Somalia (the presidential palace) and the Parliament building. These targeted bombings kill the President and Chief of the Deputy Council, along with many parliamentarians. Meanwhile, gunmen launch attacks on the homes of prominent community leaders and businessmen, including the chief of police. Three of these attacks succeed - four fail. Blame for the terrorist attacks is quickly pointed at Al-Shabab, which accepts responsibility.

May 2031: In Somalia, Al-Shabab launches the May Offensive, which seeks to conquer Mogadishu and the federal government. Their forces advance quickly down the coast, and reach Cadale by the 20th. Meanwhile, the UN Security Council has failed to pass a resolution on the issue due to China's veto - China supports Puntland and hopes that they can defeat an overstretched Al-Shabab.

May 20th, 2031: Representatives of fourteen nations (America, Europe, China, India, Somaliland, Ethiopia, the East African Federation, Turkey, Brasil, Indonesia, South Africa, Nigeria, Japan, and Russia) agree to meet on May 25th in Rome in order to address the growing Somali crisis. The group terms themselves “Friends of Somalia.”

May 25-26th, 2031: The “Friends of Somalia” meet in Rome to try and forge a unified strategy to deal with the Somali crisis. However, after two days of fruitless talks, the meeting is disbanded. The United States and Europe wished to fiscally and diplomatically continue to support the federal government, China wanted international recognition transferred to Puntland, India wanted more aggressive action taken to stop Al-Shabab, and Somaliland requested an international naval force to protect its shores from pirate raids. No parties were able to come to any agreement, except to meet again in 25 days, on June 20th, in Cairo.

May 26th, 2031: In a major address, Indian PM Surjaa Chakravorty announces that the situation in Somalia is a direct threat to India's interests, and and that unless the international community intervenes, India May be forced to take “unilateral action.” The East African Federation has been pressuring their close ally India to defend them against Al-Shabab, which has a strong base of support in the EAF's Northern Province.

May 30th, 2031: Al-Shabab troops reach the outskirts of Mogadishu and begin a siege. On the same day, three bombs go off in Northern Kenya, killing 38, in what Al-Shabab says is retaliation for EAF support of the federal government.

June 16th, 2031: Indian Prime Minister Surjaa Chakravorty orders two of India's aircraft carriers into position one hundred miles off the coast of Somalia. The two ships, INS Vikrant and INS Jayant Rama, will arrive on the 20th. China warns that Indian intervention in Somalia will be greeted with trade sanctions. Even the United States, usually India's staunch ally, is worried by the aggressiveness Chakravorty is displaying.

June 18th, 2031: The city of Mogadishu, under siege by Al-Shabab forces, has become seriously overcrowded. In the face of the Islamist offensive, more than a million people fled into the city, and there are dire food and clean water shortages. Electricity has been cut off, and the government has forced the police to the battle lines, leading to a breakdown in law and order.

June 20-22nd, 2031: The “Friends of Syria” group (America, Europe, China, India, Somaliland, Ethiopia, the East African Federation, and Russia) meet for the second time in Cairo. Here, some of the most frantic diplomacy since the Second Korean War takes place. India wants a limited intervention, and quickly wins the support of the EAF, and Somaliland, which agree to allow Indian planes and troops to be based out of their country. Ethiopia follows the Chinese line, and asks all sovereign nations to transfer their recognition of Somalia from the government in Mogadishu to the one in Puntland. After two days of fruitlessly trying to convince Indian PM Chakravorty not to take unilateral action, US President Rubio is forced to announce acceptance of India's plan, which calls for airstrikes on Shabab forces, and limited Marine and special ops raids throughout Somalia. Neither the United States nor Europe are willing to commit any support (military or financial) besides diplomatic, however.

June 23rd, 2031: Indian air forces from the carrier INS Jayant Rama engage Al-Shabab's air fighter force, which consists of six ancient Panavia Tornado ADVs (later traced back to Saudi Arabia). All six are shot down with no casualties, and Al-Shabab's two bombers are subsequently destroyed on the ground. Indian airstrikes begin along the battle lines outside of Mogadishu, while several Indian cruisers and troop ships arrive in Mogadishu harbor and unload 32 tonnes of food and water aid, along with 4000 paramilitary troops to keep the peace and ensure an orderly distribution. Meanwhile, in the north, Puntland's invasion of Al-Shabab's territory has advanced to within 150 miles of the Islamists' provisional capitol, Galkayo.

June 25th, 2031: In the face of withering Indian airstrikes and commando raids targeting Islamist generals, Al-Shabab orders a unilateral withdrawal from southern Somalia in order to deal with the threat from Puntland - the siege of Mogadishu is broken. Somali President Ahmed Jumale announces pardons for Shabab fighters who surrender and turn in their weapons rather than withdraw - 3000 do so in the first few days.

June 17th, 2031: The Chinese-backed Somali state of Puntland launches an offensive in the north of Somalia against Al-Shabab, which they believe is overstretched by their war against the federal government. International commentators speculate that the attack was ordered by the Chinese government in response to India's carrier movements off the Horn.

June 27th, 2031: In the Somali War, the MARCOS Special Amphibious Command of the Indian Navy launches an amphibious takeover of the town of Hobyo, in central Somalia. The town, less than 200 miles from Galkayo, is intended to provide a base for an Indian effort to cut off retreating Shabaab troops, getting between Mogadishu and Galkayo.

June 29th, 2031: The largest Indian force of the Somali War, the elite Sikh Light Infantry, land and begin unloading at Galkayo. They are supplied by airdrops and given air protection by Indian Air Force planes based out of the EAF. Numbering 13,000 troops, they quickly begin to move inland towards Balli Gubat.

June 30th, 2031: China imposes trade restrictions on Indian auto imports in retaliation for India's intervention in Somalia. On the same day, Puntland forces suffer a defeat at the hands of Al-Shabab, and are forced to retreat back behind their borders. Al-Shabab's forces in the north have been reinforced by troops returning from their campaign against the government. India chooses not to respond to the trade sanctions.

July 1st, 2031: A major car bomb attack in Nairobi's Market Square kills 85 people, including 12 Indians from a military delegation. Al-Shabaab claims responsibility and threatens more retaliatory strikes against any country that hosts Indian military forces. There are currently 82 Indian Air Force planes flying missions out of the EAF.

July 5th, 2031: Indian troops from the Sikh Light Infantry capture the towns of Dhusamareb, Ceelbuur, and Adado in the Mudug region of central Somalia. The capture of the three towns cuts off retreating and remaining Al-Shabab forces in the south of their country from their provisional capitol at Galkayo.

July 7th, 2031: Ethiopian Border Patrol forces in the Ogaden region engage and repel Shabaab fighters attempting to cross the border. Captured fighters reveal that they were attempting to circumvent the Indian blockade by traversing eastern Ethiopia. Five Ethiopian soldiers and an estimated 20-30 Shabaab fighters die in the two-hour battle.

July 10th, 2031: Somali Crisis: In exchange for immunity from prosecution, the last major Shabaab general in the south of Somalia surrenders his 12,000 troops to government and Indian forces. This ends major conflict in the south of the country, where retreating Shabaab forces had been surrounded by an Indian offensive in the center of the country.

July 12th, 2025: The East African Federation Parliament passes a groundbreaking infrastructure bill which is designed to bring East Africa's transport network “up to date.” Costing ∂620 billion East African shillings ($125 billion) over 10 years, the Infrastructure Investment and Improvement Act (III-A or 3-A Act) devotes $15 billion to high-speed rail, $20 billion to port construction and improvement, $5 billion to airport construction and improvement, $25 billion to highway construction, $40 billion to conventional rail, and $20 billion to urban mass-transit systems.

July 13th, 2031: India finishes moving 14,000 troops and equipment into place around Galkayo, preparing for an offensive to begin on July 20th. Prime Minister Chakravorty gives Al-Shabaab leaders until then to surrender peacefully, and guarantees all privates and low-level officers pardons.

The UN General Assembly votes to consider the Chadian Democratic Front as the legitimate government of Chad and successor state to the Patriotic Salvation Movement government.

July 19th, 2031: In the Somali War, an Indian air force jet is shot down by a Shabaab missile, marking the first air combat loss for the Indian Air Force since 1971. So far, 86 Indian troops have died in combat.

July 20th, 2031: In the face of silence from Al-Shabaab leadership, Indian troops begin a large offensive against Islamist positions around Galkayo, their capitol. So far, Indian troops have remained on the front lines, leaving Somali government forces to pacify and occupy towns in their wake. India is hoping to reduce resentment of an “occupying” force - the only Indian troops in an occupation role are the 4000 paramilitaries helping keep law and order in Mogadishu.

July 22nd, 2031: A group of sabotouers manages to poison Mogadishu's central water supply with 80 pounds of cyanide at three distribution plants in the city. Over 180 people (including 32 Indian troops) die before the source of the poisoning is realized. The Indian Air Force begins a massive airlift to bring clean water into the city while the cyanide-tainted fluid is flushed out.

July 25th, 2031: Indian Air Force planes, in a show of logistic incompetence (albeit in the face of a massive challenge), have so far failed to supply nearly enough water to Mogadishu and the approx. 4000 Indian troops stationed there. Embarrassingly for the Indian Army, three soldiers die of thirst, along with over 400 civilians (mostly elderly).

July 28th, 2031: Clean water service is restored throughout most of Mogadishu, although a small airlift continues to guarantee water supplies.

July 29th, 2031: The Al-Shabaab capitol of Galkayo falls to Indian Army forces. In recent days, desertion among Shabaab fighters had been high, and there was only minor resistance. The elderly leader of the Islamist group, Sahal Isku Dhuuq, is killed in battle, while three top aides are captured and two more are believed to have escaped.

August 1st, 2031: In Somalia, Indian forces move into position across from Puntland-controlled territory. Puntland had launched an invasion of Shabaab territory more than a month earlier, and now claimed that it was the legitimate government of all Somalia. A Chinese-backed state, Puntland announces that it will forcibly oppose any attempts by Indian troops to advance further.

August 3rd-5th, 2031: In the face of a stand-off between Indian Army forces in Somalia and the Chinese-trained troops of Puntland, frantic diplomacy occurs at a third “Friends of Syria” meeting, which takes place in Istanbul. Both Prime Minister Surjaa Chakravorty and Premier Liu Yazhou attend, as does President Marco Rubio. President Rubio and Turkish President Sahane Sultan Muftuoglu manage to broker a deal between the two nations, along with representatives of Somaliland, the Somali government, and Puntland. Under the terms of the deal, Puntland will become an autonomous region in Somalia, in exchange for the withdrawal of all Indian troops from Somalia by 2032.

August 6th, 2031: A further set of agreements by the “Friends of Somalia” (America, Europe, China, India, Somaliland, Ethiopia, the East African Federation, Turkey, Brasil, Indonesia, South Africa, Nigeria, Japan, and Russia) is signed in Istanbul. These will later be termed the 'Istanbul Accords'.They establish, with the consent of the UN Security Council, an international naval and drone force to prevent piracy off of Somalia (excluding Indian and Chinese forces), a joint development and free trade area between Somalia, Somaliland, and Ethiopia, and an international aid and training fund to aid Somalia in preventing an Islamist insurgency.

August 30th, 2031: In four ceremonies across the East African Federation, the Nairobi Metro, Dar es Salaam Underground, Kigali Subway and Kampala Tube are inaugurated. The four mass-transit systems were built over five years, following a $20 billion investiture from the Infrastructure Investment and Improvement Act of 2031. Between them, they have 54 stops and 112 trains, with 20 more stations planned for the next ten years.

September 21st, 2031: Two truck bombs explode in the Somali city of Galkayo, killing 52 people. A remnant of Al-Shabab claims responsibility, led by former political chief Sheikh Hassan Hersi.

October 8th, 2031: The Nobel Committee announces that Presidents Marco Rubio and Sahane Muftuoglu of the USA and Turkey will receive the Nobel Peace Prize for their “considerable efforts to alleviate the Somali Crisis and avoid potential conflict.” Rubio is the third American president to accept the Peace Prize, while Muftuoglu becomes to the first female head of state to be so honored.

October 1st, 2031: In a ceremony in Rabat, Queen Lalla of Morocco marries James Viscount Severn of Great Britain. They had met four years previously at the coronation of Prince Andrea of Monaco. Viscount Severn converts to Islam and moves to Morocco with his wife.

November 11th, 2031: Gunmen from Al-Shabaab attack the parliament of Somalia in Mogadishu. One parliamentarian is killed, along with two Indian troops, but all twelve attackers are dispatched.

November 30th, 2031: Former President of South Africa Nomaindia Mfeketo is elected to the position of United Nations Secretary-General. She will become the first African woman to hold the post, and the third African.

December 3rd, 2031: East African Federation and Ethiopian drones attack a camp in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia. Newly minted Al-Shabaab leader Sheikh Hassan Hersi is killed, along with his deputies. Analysts believe the strike will deal a body blow to the struggling terrorist organization.

January 1st, 2032: The Central African Republic changes its official name to the Republic of Ubangi-Shari, widely known simply as Ubangi. The demonym is Ubangan. Ubangi and Shari are the names of the two largest rivers in the CAR, and when it was a French colony, it was known as Oubangi-Chari. Additionally, the largest language group in the former CAR is the Ubangi family.

January 2nd, 2032: The final regiment of Indian paramilitaries leave Mogadishu, completing the Indian withdrawal. Mogadishu police forces are considered “mostly ready” to return to work by American intelligence analysts, but India wants to avoid becoming the target of an insurgency.

January 19th, 2032: The claimed government of Puntland dissolves, and the Prime Minister becomes Vice-President of Somalia. The 8,000 troops of the Puntland National Army are dispersed throughout the Somali Armed Forces.

February 18th, 2032: Elderly Burkinabé dictator Blaise Compaoré dies at the age of 82. Compaoré has been in power since he overthrew his onetime friend Thomas Sankara in 1987, and his Congress for Democracy and Progress Party has been winning rigged elections in Burkina Faso since 1991. His Minister for Security, Jerome Bogouma, steps into the role of President.

March 2nd, 2032: After months of rumbling, the 4,750 meter Kluchevskoy Volcano located in Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula explodes in an eruption so powerful it destroys the mountain itself. With results similar to the eruption of Laki in Iceland in 1783, an estimated 120,000,000 long tons of sulphur are emitted. While only 2717 people die in the initial blast, there is much loss of wildlife on the heretofore pristine Kamchatka peninsula. The poisonous cloud dissipates over the Pacific Ocean before reaching North America although record thick fogs are reported at sea.

The winter of 2032-2033 is one of the most severe on record. While the world enjoyed spectacular sunsets, snowfall over North America was deeper than it had been in decades. Harbors froze from Maine to Charleston, South Carolina, as did the Mississippi River as far south as New Orleans. As a result of weakened monsoon cycles in Asia and Africa, there was much suffering in famine stricken areas on both continents. The lowering of mean temperatures around the world stopped the progress of global warming for several decades and weather patterns returned to mid- 20th Century norms as glaciers again advanced, ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland firmed up, and polar bear populations began to increase. The effects would wear off by 2060 when scientists again began to note record high temperatures and the loss of ice in Antarctica and Greenland.

March 6th, 2032: China announces that it will invest $900 million in Chad over the next few years, building the country a new road connection from N'Djamena to Sarh, Moundou, and Abeche. China will also build an oil pipeline from N'Djamena to Maidguri in Nigeria, sparking criticism that China is only interested in the country's oil and natural gas reserves.

April 10th, 2032: Jordan and Morocco resign their membership in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), stating that the GCC has become dangerously undemocratic and radical. They urge the remaining seven members of the council (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Yemen, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, and the UAE) to implement democratic reforms).

May 19th, 2032: In response to internal and external pressure, the Sultan of Oman, Taimur bin Feisal, sets in motion a ten-year process for transition to constitutional monarchy.

November 30th, 2032: The 10 member states of A'ama, the Islamic democratic league, announce that they have signed a free-trade deal aimed to triple internal trade within five years.

May 3rd, 2033: AIDS prevalence in Namibia has been reduced to under 4% of the adult population, following the rise of Erinle, the vaccination project, and better education measures.

July 1st, 2033: Somaliland joins the Islamic Nations of Freedom (A'ama). Somaliland is the poorest and smallest state in the group, and brings total membership to eleven countries.

July 18th-27th, 2034: A messy coup occurs in Burkina Faso, led by Army Chief Moussa Poitroipa. Poitropa succeeds in overthrowing President Jerome Bogouma, who ruled the country for only two years following the death of long-time dictator Blaise Compaoré in 2032. The coup is rough and unorganized, with fighting in the capitol, Ouagadougou, continuing for five days. Bogouma is able to flee to the town of Nouna, where he is caught and killed in urban fighting on the 27th.

August 27th, 2034: General elections are held in Namibia. President Percy Montgomery of the RFD Party is defeated in his bid for a second term by Moses Esau of SWAPO. SWAPO will return to power in Parliament as well, after five years as the Official Opposition. President Esau will serve until 2039.

December 10th, 2034: UN Secretary-General Nomaindia Mfeketo, along with the leaders of Nigeria and the EAF, win the Nobel Peace Prize for “their efforts to advance democracy and cooperation on the African continent”.

May 9th, 2035: Halfway through his third term in office, President Salou Djibo of Niger dies at age 70. Djibo, an extremely popular leader in Niger, managed to maintain the country as a multi-party democracy through many turbulent years. Initially brought to power by a 2010 coup, Djibo then led the country into a brief period of democracy, which was challenged in 2021 by President Ali Zeine. Defeating that attempt in the Nigerien Civil War, Djibo then led his country in peace for 13 years. However, his death opens up a power vacuum in Niger, which is still very impoverished.

May 29th, 2035: The Ouéme Dam is completed in Benin. The dam, begun in 2039 with significant Indian financing, is expected to provide upwards of 90% of Benin's energy needs. Surplus energy will be sold to Nigeria and Togo. It is the largest and most efficient hydroelectric dam in West Africa, surpassing Ghana's Akosombo Dam.

March 8th, 2036: East Africa finishes its high-speed rail link from Kampala to Kigali, marking the completion of its 1300 km high speed rail program. The trains, built in India, run at up to 280 km/hr. The EAF has also expanded and modernized its existing 7000 km of track to ensure gauge standardization across the country. The programs were funded by the 2031 Infrastructure Investment and Improvement Act, which made an outlay of $55 billion to improve East African Rail. The EAF now has the “most advanced rail network in Africa” according to American expert Geoffrey Dijslovec, surpassing even South Africa and Egypt.

August 8th, 2036: Kyrgyzstan announces that it will apply to join Alamem Aleselameyh Men Alheryh (Islamic Nations of Freedom) in 2037. Kyrgyzstan has held regular democratic elections since 2018, and is considered a relatively liberal state in Central Asia.

December 2nd, 2036: UN Secretary-General Nomaindia Mfeketo is elected to a second term in her post. Some commentators note that no UN Secretary-General has not won re-election in nearly forty years.

May 12th, 2035: In Niger, the Vice-President, Rhissa Boula, accedes to the Presidency, becoming the first female leader of Niger. Popular president Saul Djibo died on May 9th after two and a half terms in office.

December 12th, 2037: In Niger's vast desert northeast, the Communist Party of Niger (PCN) begins a rebellion against the government. The PCN claim to be fighting for economic rights for all Nigeriens. President Boula of Niger says that her administration is the best economic hope for Nigeriens.

January 1st, 2038: Kyrgyzstan joins A'ama as the group's eleventh member. The country are considered a close Turkish ally and had been considering membership since 2030 before applying in 2037.

August 20th, 2038: Oman holds free elections for the first time in its history, for the 125 seats in the Legislative Assembly. The liberalizing Sultan Taimur bin Feisal, had granted his lawmaking powers to the Assembly in May.

May 8th, 2039: In Niger, the rebellious Communist Party (PCN) seizes control of the desert town of Agadez, home to nearly 100,000 people. The PCN have been in rebellion since 2037, drawing support from Niger's vastly impoverished population.

May 21st, 2039: A coup occurs in Niger. Democratically elected President Rhissa Boula is overthrown by the military and placed under house arrest, while General Ibrahim Salifou takes control of Niamey and most of the rest of the country. Salifou charges that Boula has not been doing enough to defend the country against communist rebels in the north, and argues that a military administration will be better suited to defend Niger.

July 12th-15th, 2039: The Nigerien Army retakes control of the town of Agadez from Communist Party of Niger rebels (PCN). The PCN captured Agadez in May. Later in May, the Nigerien Army led by General Salifou took over Niger in a coup in order to go on the offensive against the PCN.

September 29th, 2039: Human Rights Watch releases a study on conditions in Burkina Faso, which has been under a military junta headed by General Moussa Poitroipa since 2034. The report calls the state of human rights in Burkina Faso “deplorable”, noting that the country has no free press or independent judiciary. Military tribunals are frequently used in lieu of civilian trials, and many democracy activists and journalists receive no trials at all. However, Burkina Faso still continues to receive support from Russia and India for its strong stance against Islamic extremism and favorable trade deals with those countries.

January 12th, 2041: Beginning of the Kazakh crisis. Kazakhstan applies to join A'ama (the Islamic Nations of Freedom). This alarms both Russia and Kazakhstan's Orthodox Christian minority, counted at over 20% in the last census. Kazakhstan has been liberalizing since the death of dictator Timur Kulibayev in 2027.

January 18th-20th, 2041: Kazakh crisis continues: riots in Almaty by Orthodox Christians. They are worried that Kazakshtan's possible accession to the Islamic Nations of Freedom (A'ama) will be the first step in a restriction of their religious liberties. Meanwhile, the Union State puts considerable pressure on Turkey and Egypt to persuade A'ama to reject the Kazakh application on two grounds - not a fully Islamic nation, and not a liberal nation.

January 27th, 2041: Kazakhstan announces that it will reconsider its application to A'ama in the form of a referendum. In the referendum, to be held on March 1st, every one of Kazakhstan's 14 provinces must return a majority in favor of the application. This is regarded as a compromise solution because two of the provinces have Christian-majority populations, and Christians have been very skeptical of the proposed accession.

February 20th, 2041: Kazakh crisis: The Union State's Caspian Sea Fleet requests permission to dock in Aktau, Kazakhstan. Permission is granted following Union State pressure on the country's government. The move is seen as a not-so-subtle form of intimidation before Kazakhstan's March 1st referendum on whether to join A'ama.

March 1st, 2041: Kazakh crisis: Kazakhstan holds its nationwide referendum on whether or not to join A'ama. Every one of the 14 provinces must vote in support of joining A'ama in order for Kazakhstan's application to go forward. Results show that the referendum passes - in North Kazakhstan Province, the closest, 52.8% of voters supported joining A'ama. Analysts believe that Russia's naval intimidation repulsed many Christian voters, who prefer A'ama's open system to Union State domination.

April 10th, 2041: Kazakhstan joins A'ama as the organization's 12th member, a geostrategic defeat for the Union State.

April 12th, 2041: At a West African regional conference, the leaders of thirteen West African nations announce their intention to construct a massive transport line running from Dakar in Senegal to Douala in Cameroon, a distance of approximately 4,800 km. The “transport corridor”, as they call it, would consist of parallel high-speed rail, highway, and power-transmission lines, with branches to major cities en route like Konakry, Monrovia, Kumasi, and Ibadan. The project will be mostly financed by the thirteen West African countries (Senegal, the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon), although the Joint Development and Free Trade Pact (“Alliance for Democracy) will provide 15% of the funds necessary and Europe and the US will jointly contribute 10%. The countries involved set up a committee, the West African Infrastructure Network Committee (WAINC) to oversee the project.

May 20th, 2042: As the final step in a ten-year transition to constitutional monarchy, the Sultan of Oman, Taimur bin Feisal, signs over his executive powers to the Prime Minister, Fahd bin Mahmoud al Said.

In his first major act, Prime Minister al Said declares that Oman will withdraw from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), citing “a disturbing lack of conscience for the rights of millions”. He also introduces legislation to Assembly to grant full citizenship to all residents living within the country's borders by 2044, stating “it's time to correct the mistakes of the past and consider everyone living in Oman as Omanis, regardless of their backgrounds.”

January 15th, 2043: A train is derailed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing 149 passengers. An hour after emergency services and curious passerby arrive, armed gunmen attack from all sides, killing a further 42 people. Known as the Alunguli Massacre, the perpetrators are unknown for several days, until a group called the Soldiers of Christian Zaire takes responsibility. In a statement, the groups' leader, André Lubaya, explains his actions: “Over the past several generations, Muslim proselytizers have entered our land and corrupted our people. Now it is said that almost half of our people are infidels of the murderous faith. This must be rectified. The Soldiers of Christian Zaire will not stop until Zaire is cleansed of this filth.” This is generally marked as the start of the Fourth Congo War (also known as the Third Congolese Civil War).

December 31st, 2043: King Muqrin bin Abdul-Aziz (b. 1945) dies of bone cancer. The last surviving son of Saudia Arabia founder King Abdul-Aziz bin Saud, the aged king is succeeded by Prince Faisal bin Salman bin Abdulaziz (b. 1970) as King Faisal II.

January 1st, 2044: Oman grants citizenship to all persons living within its borders, thus giving rights to its 4 million South Asian residents, who are now the majority.

April 2nd, 2044: In Burkina Faso, a seven year old boy and two of his friends are publicly executed by a corrupt police chief for stealing seven apples. While the police chief is quickly arrested by the ruling military junta, the executions spark protests in Ouagadougou and several other cities around the country.

April 4-7th, 2044: General Moussa Poitroipa, leader of Burkina Faso's junta, calls in the Army to crack down on protestors. Over 89 protestors are killed and 115 wounded in the four-day crackdown, which succeeds in stifling protests.

April 9th, 2044: India announces that it will suspend its financial aid to Burkina Faso in the wake of a violent crackdown on protests there.

April 20th, 2044: In Burkina Faso, the Sankarist Pan-African Convention (CPS) party begins an armed struggle against the country's ruling military junta. Led by charismatic young Gnisso Konate, the party pledges to restore the “values of the great Thomas Sankara” to Burkina Faso, and pledges support for democracy and human rights.

April 28th, 2044: Indian and American intelligent agencies jointly make a covert offer to support the Sankarist Pan-African Convention in their violent struggle against the military junta in Burkina Faso. However, party leader Gnisso Konate turns them down, saying that Sankarist principles mean that Africans must work without outside interference to solve their own issues.

July 8th, 2044: In a referendum, the people of Lesotho vote to join the Republic of South Africa as a province. 62.8% of the populace, as well as the monarch and Prime Minister, support the annexation. Lesotho has been economically merged into South Africa since the 2020s, but the raging AIDS epidemic destroyed any South African interest in allowing Lesotho to join them. However, since the Project effectively ended AIDS in Lesotho, the idea has become more popular both within Lesotho and within South Africa.

July 17th, 2044: The Soldiers of Christian Zaire kidnap Interior Minister Esdras Bahekwa of the Democratic Republic of the Zaire. The 73 year old Bahekwa had been the first Muslim Prime Minister of the DRC, and had “retired” to the Department of the Interior. After being tortured for several days, Bahekwa is personally executed by André Lubaya, the leader of the SCZ. Video of the entire process is released on the SCZ's website, leading to worldwide outrage. Thus far, the Third Congolese Civil War has claimed over 5000 lives.

September 1st, 2044: In an elaborate ceremony, the Kingdom of Lesotho ceases to exist and becomes the Sotho Province of South Africa. The monarchy will be a specially protected subnational institution, while the new province will have some special autonomous powers for 10 years, after which it will become identical to other South African provinces. The annexation was approved by the people of Lesotho in July and by the parliament of South Africa in August.

August 10th, 2045: An American State Department report finds that the economic situation in Burkina Faso has become desperate ever since the cutoff of Indian and Russian aid. Famine has reappeared in some parts of the country, and the military junta redirects what food is grown to the Army bases first before allowing any to reach the civilian population.

March 31st, 2046: Chad adopts a new constitution in a referendum, with 67.8% support. The new constitution replaces that of 1996, which had held sway for exactly 50 years. It establishes an independent (albeit weak) judiciary, which had been lacking, and controversially pardons all war crimes which may or may not have occurred in years previous. Most importantly, it moves Chad from a unitary French-model state to a federal structure in order to share power between the Muslim north and Christian south.

July 5th, 2046: Oman joins A'ama, the Islamic Nations of Freedom, as the organization's twelfth member. The event sends shockwaves throughout the Middle East, as the GCC becomes very worried about the ramifications of successful democratic states right along their borders.

May 8th, 2046: A bombing in the capitol of Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, targets the head of the military junta there, General Moussa Poitroipa. Poitroipa escapes unharmed, although several of his aides and staff lieutenants are killed. The Sankarist Pan-African Convention (CPS) claims responsibility for the bombing. Party leader Gnisso Konate says that CPS will never give up their violent struggle until “there is democracy and freedom for all Burkinabé.”

August 3rd, 2046: The United Nations releases a report on the Third Congolese Civil War. The report concludes that the rebellion lead by the Soldiers of Christian Zaire has dangerous potency, as they draw considerable support from poor Christians in the country's west. The war has thus far killed more than 20,000 people.

January 20-27th, 2047: The Soldiers of Christian Zaire seize control of the eastern city of Kisangani in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Once in control, they hunt down the city's two thousand Muslims and massacre them. Three days later, government forces counterattack; however, the Army troops face heavy resistance, and abandon their attack after two days. Instead of attacking again by ground, the government forces call in strike aircraft, which bomb Kisangani to dust over the next two days, killing an estimated 4000 civilians. With over 7,000 casualties, the Battle of Kisangani accounts for almost a sixth of the Congolese Civil War's deaths.

May 2nd, 2047: Coordinated bombings in Kano (Nigeria), Cairo (Egypt), and Nador (Morocco) kill 41 people and injure 159 more, with the most deaths coming at Gidan Makama Mosque in Kano. The perpetrators are found to be the Soldiers of Christian Zaire, who had not before demonstrated an ability to strike outside of the DRC. André Lubaya, the leader of the SCZ, denounces Nigeria, Egypt and Morocco for “supporting the Muslim oppressors of those of Christ”, and says that his forces will strike again as long as Muslim nations continue to financially aid the government in the fight against the SCZ. In response, the three nations agree to double their aid to the Congolese government.

June 15th, 2047: The United Nations releases a report on the state of the Fourth Congo War, calling the situation “catastrophic”. The SCZ is reported to have control of most of the vast east of the country. Over 4000 Muslims have been killed “genocidally” (most Muslims in the DRC live in the west), while over 30,000 civillians total have been killed in the four-year war. The report states that “government forces dare not enter the majority of their country”, and that government counter-offensives are “timid, undermanned, under planned, and ineffectual”. However, it cites aid and training from the international community as leading to a few successes in the conflict, and calls on UN members to send military trainers to the Congo.

January 20-30th, 2048: In Burkina Faso, the democratic revolutionary part Sankarist Pan-African Convention (CPS) launches surprise attacks on three towns in the country's north; Ouahigouya, Toeni, and Tougan. They manage to rout the Army units based there and seize temporary control of the towns. Military forces directed by junta leader General Moussa Poitroipa counterattack on the 26th and manage to retake Tougan, but are repelled in Toeni and Ouahigouya.

June 12th, 2048: The members of the Indian Ocean International Community (India, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Thailand) introduce a shared currency, the Indian Ocean rupee. Based off of the Indian rupee, the new currency has a purchasing power of 20 rs/dollar. In addition, Oman and Pakistan announce they will tag their currencies (called the rial and rupee, respectively) to the Indian Ocean rupee.

October 2nd, 2048: At the end of the rainy season, the Congolese government launches a counter-offensive against SCZ rebels. The offensive, named Operation Heavenly Fire, seeks to recapture the southeast of the nation, starting with the city of Kananga and hopefully culminating in the rebel capitol, Kolwezi. In the first few weeks of the offensive, over threescore government troops are killed, but they capture Kananga and begin besieging the city of Kazumba.

February 8th, 2049: Mass uprisings and violent protests occur across much of Burkina Faso, organized by the democratic revolutionary movement Sankarist Pan-African Convention (CPS). The charismatic party leader of CPS, Gnisso Konate, calls on the country's ruling junta to flee the country “or suffer the fate of imperialists and tyrants everywhere.” Over a dozen towns fall into CPS control within a week, although Army crackdowns in some towns leave over 200 dead and 400 wounded.

February 11th, 2049: In a major battle outside the town of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, CPS forces led by Gnisso Konate defeat Army units, thus seizing full control of the southwest of the country. CPS (the Sankarist Pan-African Convention) is fighting the country's junta to restore the principles of Thomas Sankara to Burkina Faso. They claim to stand for democracy, women's rights, anti-imperialism, socialism, and universal healthcare.

February 14th, 2049: The Congolese government ends its offensive, Operation Heavenly Fire, against the Soldiers of Christian Zaire. The counter-offensive failed to capture much territory, with government troops only managing to advance to the cities of Kabinda and Mwene-Ditu at the cost of over 500 casualties. The SCZ announce that they lost over 300 “brave souls” in the campaign.

February 26th, 2049: In Burkina Faso, CPS forces begin advancing on the capitol, Ouagadougou. They have seized control of most of the rest of the country in a series of uprisings and attacks beginning on February 8th. Party leader Gnisso Konate personally leads the main column of CPS troops, which is only 20 miles from Ouagadougou in the town of Bazsiri.

February 29th, 2049: Battle of Ouagadougou: CPS forces attack junta positions in the Burkinabé Civil War from three directions around Ouagadougou, the capital. They advance deep into the heart of the city, hunting for military dictator General Moussa Poitroipa, who has ruled the impoverished country since 2034.

March 1st, 2049: On the same day, the two most powerful leaders in Burkina Faso are killed. Junta leader General Moussa Pointroipa's plane is shot down as he attempts to flee the capitol. Meanwhile, less than two hours later, democratic revolutionary CPS leader Gnisso Konate is shot and killed by an Army sniper while securing the Ministry of Defense.

March 2nd, 2049: Gnisso Konate's second-in-command, Moussa Diakité, takes over the leadership of the Sankarist Pan-African Convention, which has taken control of Burkina Faso. Diakité promises a new dawn for Burkina Faso and Africa in general.

August 12th-13th, 2049: Minor clashes occur in Chad between unarmed supporters of the Sudanese Patriotic Army and the New Vulcan Army, both of which are part of the ruling Chadian Democratic Front (CDF). CDF leaders unanimously deny any tension between them and condemn the protestors for allowing things to get out of hand.

February 12-18th, 2050: In the Second Congolese Civil War, the rebel Soldiers of Christian Zaire recapture the cities of Kabinda and Mwene-Ditu from the government. The six-day battle kills over 300 civillians.

March 5th-7th, 2050: Battle of Kananga-Kazumba: rebels of the Soldiers of Christian Zaire capture the two cities in days of fierce fighting. After taking control of the cities, the rebels, in a specially built camp in the nearby city of Mwene-Ditu, massacre 90,000 Muslim civillians. The UN Secretary-General, Liah Watts-Weaver, calls for a indictment of André Lubaya (leader of the SCZ) on charges of genocide and crimes against humanity.

March 25th, 2050: A special report by The New York Times examines the booming economies of Southern Africa. “Since the end of the AIDS epidemic,” the article reads, “the seven big economies of Southern Africa have taken off. South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe have lifted over 100 million people out of poverty in the last 15 years.” The average HDI for the region has risen to .635, and every country in the region has democratized. Compared to troubled regions in Central and Sahelian Africa, Southern Africa has become a success story.

April 2nd, 2050: André Lubaya, the genocidal leader of the Soldiers of Christian Zaire, announce that the Soldiers will be launching an offensive aimed at capturing the northern cities of Ikela and Boende. At the same time, he releases his book, Défense De Dieu, which calls for the “eradication” of all followers of Islam, Bahaism, and Paganism, especially in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

April 10th, 2050: In Burkina Faso, the new leader Moussa Oedraogo gives a major address laying out his plans for the country. He announces sweeping economic reforms, guaranteeing a job for every Burkinabé, and huge, community-based investments in infrastructure. Saying that “Africans must do their part to build up Africa”, Oedraogo asks for capital and investment from Nigerian and Ghanaian firms, but rejects offers of aid from Europe, the United States, and India. He also says that elections will be scheduled for October 15th, 2050. Oedraogo, who assumed control of Burkina Faso in the chaos following his charismatic friend Gnisso Konate's death in March, describes his party's philosophy as Sankarist. Oedraogo is considered somewhat more radical than Konate, but is still widely popular for his role in Burkina Faso's struggle for freedom. Western governments also support Oedraogo for his “liberal” positions on women, saying that “half the country must not be kept in subservience, or else Burkina Faso will be only half the country it can be.”

June 10th-12th, 2050: Free elections are held in Angola for the first time in over 70 years. The military dictator, Licínio Tavares, who succeeded Jose Eduardo de Santos in 2023, had slowly been introducing reforms since 2039 under pressure from the Alliance for Democracy. The opposition Republican Party of Angola routs the ruling MPLA at the polls, and Ana Dias Lourenço is inaugurated as President. She is the first woman to lead Angola in its history.

August 30th, 2050: Unemployment in Burkina Faso drops below an estimated 15% for the first time in over a decade. Revolutionary leader Moussa Oedraogo is wildly popular within Burkina Faso for his Sankaraist economic and social reforms. He has put more than 50,000 Burkinabé to work planting trees in the Sahel and many more digging wells, laying irrigation lines, and more.

September 3rd, 2050: A Chinese government delegation visits Ouagadougou, the capitol of Burkina Faso. In their meeting with the country's leader, Moussa Oedraogo, they offend him by suggesting that China will only give economic aid to Burkina Faso if the country uses its UN vote at China's suggestion. Oedraogo expels the trade delegation from the country.

October 9th, 2050: Six days before planned elections in Burkina Faso, there is an attempted coup in the country. A high-ranking member of the revolutionary party Sankarist Pan-African Convention, Thomas Dakió, leads troops loyal to him in an attempt to overthrow Moussa Oedraogo. The attempt fails after a huge crowd of Burkinabé gather outside the Presidential Palace and form a human chain to defend Oedraogo. Nevertheless, Oedraogo is shot by one of his bodyguards, who was bribed by Dakió. Oedrago is not seriously wounded, and is expected to survive.

October 10th, 2050: In Burkina Faso, attempted coup leader Thomas Dakió is killed while trying to flee the capitol, Ouagadougou, and his troops are arrested or surrender. On Dakió's person are found a Chinese-made cellphone, several hundred thousand Chinese renmimbi, and two internal Chinese memos describing their African policy.

October 12th, 2050: Burkinabé leader Moussa Oedraogo announces the suspension of elections scheduled for October 15th, following what he believes was a Chinese-backed coup attempt. He says that the elections cannot be held until he is certain that they will be free from “foreign interference,” and that he will serve as President in the meantime. Oedraogo denounces “racist foreign imperialists,” and gives all non-African embassies and aid workers two weeks to leave the country or be forcibly expelled. Oedraogo has grown paranoid and terrified since being shot in the shoulder during the coup attempt led by one of his confidantes. China officially denies all claims that they were involved in Thomas Dakió's failed coup.

October 24th, 2050: The United States evacuates its embassy in Burkina Faso, following President Oedraogo's declaration that all non-African foreigners must leave the country by October 26th. American President Kirkpatrick has been unable to convince Oedraogo to reverse his decision.

October 26th, 2050: Over 2000 Western and Indian aid workers are violently expelled from Burkina Faso. Seven Americans and two Indians die after they did not leave quickly enough for the soldiers loading them into trucks to take them to Nigeria. Five Europeans are also arrested on suspicion of being “imperialist spies.”

October 29th, 2050: The United Nations Security Council passes a joint resolution condemning Burkina Faso for expelling non-Africans from the country and for the unnecessary deaths of several civilians. President Oedraogo denounces the resolution and uses it as evidence that the world's “racist powers” are working together to “keep Africa down”, as he announces to his nation in a speech. Oedraogo still enjoys broad support in Burkina Faso, as his economic policies have brought the country out of extreme poverty and put many to work. Additionally, many Burkinabé viewed the old junta as controlled by Russian, American and Chinese corporate backers.

February 28th, 2051: President Oedraogo announces that Burkina Faso will build up its military in order to be able to defend itself against “external imperialist aggressors.” He also orders a rewrite of the constitution, to focus not on Sankaraism (“a great philosophy of the past,” Oedraogo says) but on his newly developed Africanism (“our great united vision of the future”). Africanism says that the reason Africa has remained comparatively poor is because non-Africans (whites, Chinese, Indians, and Arabs) have worked together to keep Africa down and keep Africans from reaching “their true potential.” In response, Nigeria ceases investment in Burkina Faso, which has increasingly become an international pariah.

April 5th, 2051: Militiamen loyal to the Soldiers of Christian Zaire cross into the East African Federation and attack a mosque, killing 18 civillians. In response, the EAF announces that it will begin a aerial bombing campaign against the Congolese rebels. Nigeria,, Morocco, South Africa, Tanzania, and Namibia agree to contribute planes. India and the United States promise financial aid, with President Kirkpatrick calling the bombing campaign “the worlds chance to stop another Hitler before he takes power.”

April 7th, 2051: the UN Security Council approves the creation of a no-fly zone over the eastern DRC. On April 9th, the bombing campaign begins.

September 9th, 2051: The All-African Africanist Party - Niger (PATA-N, in French) is founded in Niger by a combination of Nigeriens and Burkinabé veterans. The party, based on the Africanist ideals of Burkina Faso's President, Moussa Oedraogo, seeks to overthrow General Salifou of Niger, who has ruled the country since 2039.

September 21st, 2051: In the Second Congolese Civil War, the African intervention has fared poorly. The SCZ have become adept at hiding in dense foliage where planes cannot hope to find them, despite new heat-seeking technologies. In August, the rebels captured Ikela, and transported the city's 102,000 Muslims to what the UN calls “death camps” in Kisangani. The aerial bombing campaign has had somewhat more success at bombing these “death camps”, but even these are beginning to be built so as to blend in with the dense rainforest. The Soldiers of Christian Zaire control some 70% of the countries land area, and 40% of its population. It is estimated that they have genocidally killed over 1,200,000 Muslims thus far in the 8-year-old civil war.

November 29th, 2051: United Nations Secretary-General Zillur Rahman wins reelection to another five year term. Rahman is credited with organizing international intervention in the Third Congolese Civil War, and with preventing conflict between China, India, and the United States in the diplomatic crisis of 2049-50.

January 12th, 2052: A series of bombings in Niamey's embassy district claims the lives of 28 Nigeriens and 18 foreigners. Responsibility is claimed by PATA-N, a revolutionary Africanist party supported by Burkina Faso. General Salifou of Niger threatens Burkina Faso with war if they continue to support PATA-N.

April 12th, 2052: Eleven years after it was first announced, the final leg of the West African transport corridor is completed. Running 4,792 km from Dakar, Senegal to Douala, Cameroon, the corridor consists of a 8-lane highway, two parallel HSR lines, and several power transmission lines. Its spurs add another 1028 km, connecting all of West Africa's major cities. Overseen by the WAINC committee, the project is expected to boost trade in West Africa to new heights.

January 12th, 2053: In Niger, the Africanist rebels (PATA-N) seize control of Tahoua, using weapons obtained from Burkina Faso. In response, General Salifou of Niger declares war against Burkina Faso.

January 12th-March 23rd, 2053: The First Africanist War occurs between Burkina Faso and Niger in West Africa. Burkina Faso, run by Moussa Oedraogo, has been supporting Africanist rebels in Niger, known as PATA-N. Niger's army is no match for the enthusiastic Burkinabé troops, who have been strengthened by Oedraogo's reforms in Burkina Faso. Combined with the domestic pressure PATA-N places on them, Niger's army quickly crumbles. In late March, Niamey, the capital of Niger, falls to Burkina Faso's army, which hands over control to PATA-N.

July 1st, 2053: A long series of investigative articles in The New York Times explores Niger's rapid transition to an Africanist state. Following Burkina Faso's intervention, Niger has expelled foreign workers and diplomats, strengthened the new Army, put huge numbers of people back to work, and increased women's rights considerably. The two countries are still regarded very warily by their neighbors.

August 12th-13th, 2049: Minor clashes occur in Chad between unarmed supporters of the Sudanese Patriotic Army and the New Vulcan Army, both of which are part of the ruling Chadian Democratic Front (CDF). CDF leaders unanimously deny any tension between them and condemn the protestors for allowing things to get out of hand.

May 8th, 2054: Longtime Ubangan leader Mireille Bazizé dies at the age of 72 from a heart attack. Bazizé, known in the West as one of few female dictators, was the granddaughter of former president Francois Bazizé. Madam Bazizé, as she was known in Ubangi-Shari, had led the country since 2026 and won troubled elections in 2027, 2035, 2041, 2047. The 2054 elections, in which she was a candidate, are postponed by her Vice-President, Berangér Bongongo, a Muslim.

July 2nd, 2054: In the Congolese Civil War, the main SCZ army, consisting 40,000 men, is tricked by American intelligence services, and marches openly from the city of Ikela to Boende. While on the open road, the entire 12-mile convoy is set upon by European and African planes, destroying, in the words of the coalition report, “112 tanks, over 1000 technicals, and an estimated 25,000 enemy irregulars.” This military victory, while decried as a war crime in some circles, sets the rebel cause back significantly.

July 18th, 2055: A series of truck bombs in Abeche, Chad, kill 192 people and force the demolition of a seriously damaged mosque. The Soldiers of Christian Zaire claim responsibility, saying the bombing is payback for Chadian support of the African aerial intervention in the Congolese Civil War.

July 27th, 2055: Political infighting begins to spread in Chad, following an intense debate over Chad's small involvement in the Congo. The ruling Chadian Democratic Front is an alliance of six former rebel groups, including the Sudanese Patriotic Army (PAS), the Rally of Democratic Forces (RFD), Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD) and the New Vulcan Army (VNA). Each group wants to take a different approach - the mostly-Muslim PAS and UFDD wish to step up their involvement in the Congo in order to defeat the Soldiers of Christian Zaire once and for all, while the RFD wants to stay the course and the VNA wishes to pull out entirely. Accusations begin to fly of being “pro-Muslim” and “anti-Muslim”, and the atmosphere is tense.

August 3rd, 2055: A suicide bomber attacks a market inside a mosque in N'Djamena, Chad. 32 people are killed, but the identity of the bomber is unknown.

August 5th, 2055: The Parliament of Chad passes a law calling for increased Chadian involvement in the Congo and authorizes the entire Chadian Air Force to intervene in the conflict. The bill is vehemently opposed by the RFD, the VNA, and their political allies, all of whom are part of the united Chadian Democratic Front, which is now seriously riven along religious lines.

August 7th, 2055: The Chadian government collapses amid coalition tensions, and there is a definite religious overtone to the conflict. Fighting grips N'Djamena, the capitol, which is eventually seized by Christian RFD forces. The Sudanese Patriotic Army and their allies withdraw to Achebe, claiming to be the true government of Chad.

August 9th-11th, 2055: Rallies are held across Chad against the infighting which is gripping the country - Chadians have grown accustomed to some stability over the last 25 years, and do not want to see their country riven by religious and ethnic conflict.

August 18th, 2055: Africanist President Djibo Bakary of Niger announces that his country will intervene in Chad's political crisis in order to install an Africanist government. Bakary claims that “the people of Chad have called us, and they are the ones we respond to. They say that they do not want their country torn by clashes - and we Africanists believe that all Africans, regardless of creed, should be united in the fight against oppression and imperialist cruelty.”

August 20th, 2055: Nigerien forces invade Chad, supported by over 2000 troops from fellow Africanist nation Burkina Faso. This is conventionally dated as the beginning of the Second Africanist War.

September 6th, 2055: Nigerien and Burkinabé forces capture N'Djamena, the capitol of Chad, expelling the Christian militia RFD from the city. The Africanist intervention, legitimized by the creation of a Chadian branch of the All-African Africanist Party (PATA-C) has been met with relief from most Chadian citizens, who do not wish to see a religious war in their country.

September 8th, 2055: A Nigerien Army division crosses the Chadian-Cameroonian border into Cameroon. When confronted by Cameroonian border guards, the Nigeriens open fire and eliminate opposition.

September 12th, 2055: Cameroon moves a large part of its army to the border with Chad, and demands an official apology and immediate withdrawal from Niger and Nigerien troops for the deaths of 28 Cameroonian soldiers and “a huge violation of our national sovereignty.”

September 20th, 2055: Following Niger's refusal to apologize, Cameroonian troops launch a limited invasion of Chad, pushing back Nigerien and Burkinabé troops and providing support to the reconstituted Chadian Democratic Front, which has reunited to oppose Nigerien intervention.

September 24th, 2055: Nigeria brokers a peace deal between Cameroon and Niger. Niger agrees to withdraw from Cameroon and officially apologize for the border incursion, while Cameroon pulls its troops back behind its borders, having suffered over 50 casualties in its brief intervention.

November 5th, 2055: PATA-C and Nigerien Army troops defeat the Chadian Democratic Front in Achebe, Chad, ending the Second Africanist War. Chad will become an officially Africanist state, and will adopt a constitution to that effect on December 20th.

January 29th, 2057: A coup occurs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ba'hai generals, lead by Baha Esdne, overthrow the government in Kinshasa and declare their intention to “purge the DRC of the Christians who began this war; they must be eliminated to secure our future.” The prior government, lead by Gaswigo Goma, flees to the city of Boma, and takes control of Congo's access to the Atlantic.

February 1-10th, 2057: Due to the confusion and infighting caused by the coup in the DRC, government forces are falling back rapidly or being routed by SCZ rebels. The cities of Bandundu and Kikwit fall, and in each town, the Muslim and Ba'hai populations are exterminated. A further 32 million civilians are at risk in the small western portion of the country, and due to massive refugee overcrowding, starvation has set in in Kinshasa. It is estimated that 100,000 have died in the last month in the Third Congolese Civil War.

February 11th, 2057: A joint-speech by four world leaders (President Sinclair of the United States, Prime Minister Supré of Europe, Prime Minister Rajesh of India, and President Kiongozi of the EAF) announces that they have committed over 300,000 soldiers to an invasion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Their goals are to eliminate all genocidal and rebel forces, establish a new government, hold elections within eight years (as PM Rajesh says, “We're in for the long haul, and our commitment will not waver”), and to establish a precedent of humanitarian intervention. Or, as President Sinclair famously puts it, “We'd like it if they'd bloody well stop killing each other, and we're going to put a stop to it!”. Troops from South Africa, Nigeria, Brazil, and Egypt, and twenty-two other allies will also be joining the invasion force. André Lumbaya, leader of the SCZ, says that he will resist the “infidel invasion with all available force, and God shall rain strikes upon the sinners as he did at Sodom and Gomorrah!”.

February 14th, 2057: On Valentine's Day, the coalition invasion of the DRC commences on three fronts. American, Brazilian, and EAF troops launch an amphibious takeover of the first 100 miles of the Congo River, advancing up to Luozo and seizing Matadi, a city of 2 million people. This is accomplished with the aid of the anti-coup Boma government, although the coalition has made clear this government will be dissolved and a new one formed. Meanwhile, South African, Nigerian, and other assorted forces, having assembled in the Central African Republic over the last month, invade in the north, capturing Gbadolite, Binga, and Bondo. Finally, EAF and Indian troops invade in two regions in the south, defeating massed SCZ forces at Goma and capturing Lubumbashi.

February 20th, 2057: Kinshasa is captured by American forces, and the Ba'hai military government falls. Most of their troops surrender to European and American forces, although several groups continue slaughtering Christians until they are hunted down and killed. It is estimated that the junta, despite being in power for only 22 days in a small part of the country, were nevertheless able to kill over 100,000 Christians in mass murders. Baha Esdne, the leader of the junta, attempts to flee to the Congo, but is captured.

February 25-30th, 2057: Coalition forces surround Kolwezi, the capitol of the genocidal Soldiers of Christian Zaire. André Lumbaya, their leader, announces that he will slaughter every woman and child in the city if coalition forces do not halt their advance. For five days, fighting practically freezes as the coalition leaders consider how to best deal with Lumbaya. Then, on the 28th, the largest paratroop operation since Operation Market Garden commences. Over 25,000 troops are dropped in selected locations throughout the city. With a “live-stick landing” rate of 98.8%, the operation is spectacularly successful, except that André Lumbaya escapes. His whereabouts remain unknown.

March 20th, 2057: Coalition forces announce that the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been pacified. They have formed a unified command, PEACECOM, which will run the occupying forces. Troops will be from twenty-two countries: the United States (90,000), Canada (8000), Great Britain (12,000), Europe (46,000), Poland (9,000), Turkey (13,500), Finland (840), Estonia (800), Greece (2400), Nigeria (32,000), Ethiopia (29,000), the EAF (41,750), South Africa (36,200), Angola (16,000), Ghana (9000), Brazil (2100), Argentina (1200), India (24,500), Sri Lanka (210), Thailand (1000), Japan (2500), and Australia (4000). Totaling 382,000 troops, the coalition forces have in place a clear exit strategy which depends on eliminating all guerrilla forces being eliminated by 2059 and free elections held by 2062, with a final exit in 2065.

April 1st, 2057: PEACECOM civilian leaders give speeches in their countries declaring their plans for the former DRC. The country will be renamed the Federal State of the Congo (FSC), and power will be transferred to a provisional government of democratic activists in 2059.

June 12th, 2057: An ambush/suicide attack on an Argentinian convoy within PEACECOM moving to its occupation location kills over 112 coalition troops, including 92 Argentinians (almost 1/10th of their troop contribution). The SCZ claim responsibility in a video made by their leader, André Lubaya, who is believed to be hiding in the dense Congolese jungle.

June 13th, 2057: Argentina announces that it will be withdrawing from PEACECOM. In response, Jairam Rajesh, the Indian Prime Minister, gives a speech before Parliament that very night. Known as the “Human Imperative” speech, Rajesh lays out a philosophy of humanitarian intervention, calling it our “human imperative to aid others, no matter their creed or the crimes of their country”. He announces additionally that three countries (Egypt, Korea, and New Zealand) will be joining PEACECOM, more than making up for the missing Argentinian troops. This unprecedented show of resolve from the international community redoubles coalition morale.

August 21st, 2057: A report by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees finds that of 33 million pre-war Congolese Muslims, only 11.5 million remain within the FSC. 12.5 million are refugees in neighboring countries, especially the Republic of the Congo and Angola. Another 9 million are dead, massacred by the SCZ in what is known as the Muaji (“murder” in Swahili”). Overall, 16 million people were killed in the Third Congolese Civil War, a staggering 12.3% of the population, including 35% of men between ages 15 and 40.

January 1st, 2058: On the New Year, a leaked PEACECOM report from the Congo finds that the occupation is faring poorly. In the nine months since the occupation began, 456 coalition troops have been killed (including 126 Americans) and 2120 have been wounded. Cities and entire regions of the FSC have become self-segregated by religion. The report recommends serious consideration be given to splitting the country apart. A new religious urban militia, Ba'hai-oriented, has formed in Kinshasa and nearby cities and caused 10% of coalition fatalities. Muslims have engaged in 82 separate revenge acts of mob violence against Christians. Finally, over 100 Muslims have been crucified in Eastern Congo by the SCZ over the last year, in what the report calls “a brutal modern version of lynching. In one particularly horrifying case, a pregnant mother and her three children (all under 10) were kidnapped, skinned, strangled with their skin, and then crucified. The fetus was torn from the mother's body and burned to death in “holy water” – hydrochloric acid. Nevertheless, public resolve remains strong in almost all coalition countries, and troop levels remain unchanged.

May 12th, 2058: Three suicide car bombers in Kinshasa attack the PEACECOM ground headquarters, targeting visiting dignitaries as they arrive. Former US President and United Nations Secretary-General Kirkpatrick is gravely injured, and dies before he can be taken to a hospital. Other deaths include Wilhelm Königswarter, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, and Zhuang Xiaotian, the Chinese foreign minister. In total, 29 people are killed, and 137 injured.

July 8th, 2058: Nigerien forces finally withdraw from Chad, now that Chad has been fully remade into an Africanist country. The two nations are very close and mutually suspicious of Nigeria - there is some talk of a political union between the two.

October 28th, 2058: Madagascar announces that it will peg its currency, the ariary, to the South Asian rupee.

December 31st, 2058: A year-end round-up in the New York Times finds that so far, 381 Americans have been killed in the Congolese occupation. 1,293 PEACECOM troops have been killed, and André Lubaya, the leader of the Soldiers of Christian Zaire, has not yet been found. The article does note two bright spots; the Muslim population has settled down, and no longer is engaging in revenge attacks against Christians, and the Ba'hai militias have mostly been dismantled.

January 3rd, 2059: SCZ rebels, in conjunction with embassy staff, launch a bold attack on the American and European embassies in the provisional capitol, Mbandaka. Two unnamed senior American diplomats are among the 31 Americans killed; both embassies are under siege from militants for five hours before relief forces break through the attack to the embassy. 12 European civilians and three soldiers die.

May 3rd, 2059: In South Sudan, the Africanist leader Kuol Lubong is elected President. He swears himself to a policy of “Africanist revival”, including an expulsion of non-African embassies and companies, a greater emphasis on religious pluralism, and a national service requirement. South Sudan was viewed as teetering on the edge following the devastating civil war from 2054-56.

July 4th, 2059: Suicide car bombings occur across the Federated State of the Congo, aimed at coalition forces and mosques. 98 coalition troops die, including 52 Americans, and 401 civilians are killed. On the same day, a poll released by Dicemus Polling Corporation finds that 61% of Americans are supportive of a drawdown of American forces in the FSC.

July 9th, 2059: A bombing in Bangui, the capitol of Ubangi-Shari, kills 82 people outside the city's main mosque. The Soldiers of Christian Zaire claim that they have begun to expand their fight to Ubangi, saying that the Islamic minority is oppressing the country's Christians. Western analysts believe that the SCZ is trying to force PEACECOM to expand their occupation of the Congo to Ubangi.

July 28th, 2059: SCZ gunmen kill 24 people in a market in the capitol of Ubangi, Bangui. President Bongongo vows to bring the attackers to justice.

July 29th, 2059: The Indian foreign minister and European defense minister engage in an embarrassing shouting match over the Congo PEACECOM mission on the floor of the United Nations. Visinath Pollinuriti accuses Pao Golanzes of not showing humanitarian backbone, and of running away like a coward when things get hot. Golanzes retorts that the Indians have “neo-imperial” ambitions in the Congo. Both countries swiftly repudiate their officials' statements, and Pollinuriti and Golanzes apologize to one another.

September 5th, 2059: Oman officially becomes a member of the Indian Ocean International Community, adopting the Indian Ocean rupee as its official currency. The move had been expected for sometime, as Oman's previous currency had been tagged to the rupee since its introduction in 2048 and economic ties with the rest of the IOIC had grown significantly over the past fifteen years. Oman is the first IOIC member outside of South Asia.

September 12th, 2059: President Kuol Lubong of South Sudan announces a “national revitalization draft”, in line with his Africanist philosophy. All young people in the country will be required to either join the military, perform national labor service, or have at least two children within three years.

September 30th, 2059: Sovereignty in the Federated State of the Congo is officially transferred from PEACECOM to a provisional government led by Congolese expatriates. The Prime Minister is Ramazani Baya, a Congolese-Brazilian.

October 10th, 2059: The Joint Development and Free Trade Pact, better known as the African “Alliance for Democracy”, announces it will embark upon “the largest scientific endeavor yet attempted by humanity.” The group, led by South Africa, Nigeria, and the EAF, and supported by Europe and the United States, will build a massive supercollider in the Sahel to attempt to prove Nigerian physicist Muhammad Eda's reconstruction theory. The superconductor, called the Grand African Reconstruction Theory Collider (GART-C), will cost over 50 billion dollars, and will be completed in 2065. A location is selected in southern Mali, and a fusion plant will be built on the site to provide power; the fifth fusion plant in Africa. Europe and the United States contribute significant resources in terms of scientific personnel and financial assistance.

November 15th, 2059: Regarding the Congo intervention, a report leaked from the European Armed Forces finds that more European and American troops have been killed in the last five months than in the previous two years of the PEACECOM mission. The report suggests that SCZ guerrillas are targeting Westerners to try and force them to withdraw. Additionally, the report cites a Foreign Ministry memo which suggests that coalition forces evacuate all remaining Muslims from the FSC when they depart. This sparks debate across the coalition countries.

December 2nd, 2059: The first Congolese elections in thirty years are scheduled for June 1st, 2060. This is ahead of the pace originally set, as coalition countries are eager to withdraw. Over 5000 coalition troops have been killed since PEACECOM began operations in March of 2057. Three parties have been formed; a pro-intervention party, called the Democracy Party; a Christian right-wing party with loose links to the SCZ, known as the Society and Culture Party; and an anti-intervention umbrella party, known as the Freedom Party.

June 1st, 2060: Elections take place in the Federated State of the Congo, the first in thirty years. They are deeply marred by violence, but where voting is able to take place, it proceeds fairly and freely, run by UN election officials. Early results show a dramatic victory for the Freedom Party, which is anti-intervention and anti-violence.

August 3rd, 2060: President Berangér Bongongo of Ubangi, a Muslim, announces that the Army will be deployed throughout the country to protect mosques from attack by the SCZ. Ubangi is approximately 20% Muslim, and has been targeted by the SCZ. Christian groups throughout Ubangi complain that the entire country is under attack, and that the President is unfairly favoring Muslims.

February 20th, 2061: American forces begin withdrawal from the Federated State of the Congo. Of the 105,000 American troops, 20,000 depart in March, with the intention of having all American troops leave by the end of 2061. Meanwhile, President Obama of the United States calls a special PEACECOM head of government convention to discuss the plausibility of evacuating the Congo's 10 million Muslims.

March 5th, 2061: PEACECOM leaders agree to a plan, with the consent of the Congolese government, to dissolve the Federated State of the Congo. In the west, and along the coast, a mostly-Muslim country will exist, beginning on July 1st. On the same date, much of the west of the country will be absorbed into the Republic of the Congo and Angola. Meanwhile, the east will be left as a remnant, occupied by African and Indian troops until 2065.

May 2nd, 2061: A raid by Indian and Nigerian occupation forces in the Congolese village of Mabwe on the shores of Lake Upemba kills André Lubaya, leader of the Soldiers of Christian Zaire. Lubaya and the SCZ are responsible for the genocide of nearly 10 million Muslims and countless more deaths in the Third Congolese Civil War. Along with Lubaya, his two sons and three top aides are killed. His right-hand man, Jesus Mapkoka, is captured.

May 10th, 2061: An anti-Africanist political group, the Free People of South Sudan (FPSS), announce their presence by seeking to contest the upcoming 2062 parliamentary elections. President Lubong, an Africanist, warns that actions “contrary to the enliftment of the African race” and “condoning of imperialism” will not be tolerated.

May 20th, 2061: The war-crimes trial of Jesus Mapkoka, military chief of the Soliders of Christian Zaire, begins before the International Court of Justice. He is accused of genocide and crimes against humanity.

May 24th, 2061: Jesus Mapkoka, the military chief of the SCZ, is sentenced to death by the International Court of Justice. He is executed two weeks later.

April 2nd, 2061: The European Parliament votes 321-179 to withdraw all European forces from the Congo by the end of 2062, following the death of André Lubaya and his top aides. According to a PEACECOM report, violence has dropped sharply as the SCZ falls into chaos.

July 1st, 2061: The Republic of Kikongo, a Muslim-majority state, is created from the province of Bas-Congo and part of Badundu. The Congolese government remains sovereign over the remainder, renamed Federated Central Congo.

August 29th, 2061: Six coordinated car bombings in Ubangi-Shari kill over 500 people. The attacks, orchestrated by remnants of the Soldiers of Christian Zaire, strike in Bangui and Nola. In the aftermath, riots break out as Christians accuse the Muslim-headed government of not doing enough to protect them.

September 3rd-5th, 2061: A coup occurs in Ubangi-Shari, headed by General André Dackba. Dackba and his co-conspirators seize control throughout the country quickly, and announce their intentions on national television on September 5th. They plan to transform Ubangi into an Africanist nation with the support of the people, “so that our great resources can be used for us and not stolen by the imperialist racists of India, China, and the West!” It is suspected, but not proven, that Dackba has received support from Burkina Faso and other Africanist nations.

December 20th, 2061: The last American occupation troops leave the Republic of Kikongo, in the Congo; the total number of PEACECOM troops has dropped to 156,000, from a peak of 384,000.

January 1st, 2061: Chad and Niger merge into the Greater Africanist Republic of Chad, popularly known as Chad, headed by former Nigerien leader Djibo Bakary. President Bakary says that he hopes that Ubangi and Burkina Faso will join the nation as soon as is feasible.

January 20th, 2062: Beginning of the Sudanese crisis: parliamentary elections are held in South Sudan. Widespread voter intimidation, blackballing, and fraud is reported by the Africanist government in order to prevent the anti-Africanist Free People of South Sudan (FPSS) from gaining any seats. Several activists are beaten and the deputy head of the FPSS is killed in a suspicious car accident.

February 3rd, 2062: Sudanese crisis: several guards and personell are killed in an attack on two government buildings in Juba, South Sudan, by unknown gunmen. Responsibility for the attacks is claimed by the new Free Soldiers of South Sudan (FSSS), a militant force drawn from the anti-Africanist political party Free People of South Sudan. Their leader, Joseph Puoch, says that as long as elections are not fair, they will resort to violence to achieve their aims.

February 10th, 2062: Sudanese crisis: in Juba, a bombing at the Presidential Palace kills the Vice-President, Louis Juuk. He was a close ally of Africanist President Kuol Lubong. Meanwhile, violent prosters affiliated with the Free Soldiers of South Sudan, an anti-Africanist rebel group, seize the city of Wau in the country's north.

February 11th, 2062: Sudanese crisis: President Kuol Lubong of South Sudan gives a major speech denouncing the rebellion against his rule, and promising to execute any “race traitors”, as he calls the Free Soldiers of South Sudan. He also accuses the East African Federation and Ethiopia of being behind the arrest, and orders the South Sudanese Army mobilized and to the border. Africanist leaders in Burkina Faso, Greater Chad, and Ubangi announce that they will support President Lubong in “whatever actions need to be taken.”

February 13-17th, 2062: Sudanese crisis: tensions remain very high throughout Africa as President Lubong of South Sudan accuses the EAF and Ethiopia of supporting a rebellion against his rule. A crisis meeting of the Alliance for Democracy is held in Cairo. While the African “Big Four” (Nigeria, South Africa, the EAF, and Ethiopia) agree that South Sudan cannot militarily defeat the EAF and Ethiopia, they are worried about possible terrorist retaliations if they intervene.

February 18th, 2062: Sudanese crisis: a border skirmish occurs between Ethiopian and South Sudanese troops, leaving 6 men dead. Meanwhile, South Sudanese Army units retake the two cities in the country that had fallen into the control of the rebel FSSS. Over 350 civilians die in the assaults, including the leader of the FSSS, Joseph Puoch.

February 20th, 2062: End of the Sudanese crisis: the African Alliance for Democracy is forced to accept the status quo as Africanist South Sudanese President Luol Kubong crushes the remainders of the revolt against his rule. An uneasy peace settles over the area as the Alliance for Democracy makes an informal pact not to accept any new militarily imposed Africanist governments.

May 20th, 2062: Nigeria, South Africa, and the EAF, along with twenty-seven African allies, announce their withdrawal from the African Union. They accuse the AU of playing host to dictators and autocrats, and of discouraging true reform in Africa. The African Union was also unable to provide any meaningful action on the Congolese Civil War, and has been largely irrelevant for over 30 years. Over the next few years, states withdraw one by one from the AU, until the organization is officially disbanded in 2065. Multi-lateral African diplomacy now mainly occurs at the African meetings of the UN General Assembly, or in annual gatherings of African leaders hosted by the Joint Development and Free Trade Pact (the 'Alliance for Democracy')

July 10th, 2062: In Britain, Quartermain Outlines his plan for a more decisive British contribution to the Congo conflict. Britain will withdraw troops from Kikongo and the Congo and Angola whilst increasing troop numbers in the FCC. This plan is criticised as being too late in the day and also as neo-imperialistic however news footage of Jenny Knoxton announcing the plan in parliament is warmly received by the British public who are pleased that Britain is finally taking a stance on the Congo Crises.

August 11th, 2062: The East African Federation announces that it will be tagging its currency, the East African shilling, to the Indian Ocean rupee. Relations between India and the EAF have been close since the country's founding, but have grown increasingly more so especially during the Congo intervention, and international observers often label the EAF as India's most important African ally and a potential IOIC member.

May 2063: No PEACECOM deaths are reported for the month of April in Federated Central Congo, a first for the six-year occupation. Currently, there are seven countries making up the occupying forces in Federated Central Congo.

India: 31,000 Nigeria: 29,000 East African Federation: 25,550 South Africa: 24,400 Ethiopia: 11,900 Turkey: 2,000 Ghana: 1,900

January 1st, 2064: Ascension talks officially begin between the EAF and the Indian Ocean International Community in the city of Mombasa.

April 2-6th, 2064: Rioters in the northern Cameroonian town of Maroua burn down the local police station and a Chinese-owned power plant, killing over 82 people. The rioters, who are believed to be discontented Africanists, declare that they will join secede from Cameroon and join Greater Chad, an Africanist nation. Cameroonian President Sadou Eteki declares a state of emergency in the Extreme-Nord Region and sends the Army to restore order.

April 12th, 2064: In Cameroon, Africanist rioters in the cities of Douala and Ngoundere seize control from poorly equipped police forces. Nigeria's Foreign Minister, meanwhile, says that his country has proof that the “rioters” are actually being led by well-trained Chadians and Burkinabés. He alleges that the riots are a transparent attempt to spread Africanism through violence, fear and intimidation.

April 15th, 2064: Cameroonian Army forces are ejected from the towns of Maroua and Garoua in northern Cameroon by Africanist rioters, who are well-equipped with Chinese-made weapons. US intelligence believes the assault weapons can be traced back to Burkina Faso, which began purchasing large numbers of them in 2059. Cameroon seems to have lost control over some of its territory.

April 20th, 2064: In a major strategic error, Africanists in Cameroon declare the formation of the Pan-African Africanist Party Cameroon (PATA-CA), which is “irrevocably determined to the overthrow of the oppressive government of Cameroon and its replacement with one which recognizes the inherent value of the African race and its superiority.” This announcement allows Nigeria to declare the party a terrorist group and clears the grounds for a possible intervention on the basis of international terrorism. Meanwhile, the Cameroonian Army retakes the major port city of Douala after two days of street fighting. This is the beginning of the Third Africanist War.

April 25th, 2064: Africanist forces under the banner of PATA-CA advance to within 50 miles of Yaounde, while also seizing the smaller towns of Baffoussam and Bertoua. The Cameroonian government controls most of the population of Cameroon (including the two largest cities, Douala and Yaounde), while the rebels control 7 of 10 regions.

May 1st-3rd, 2064: The Cameroonian Army fights off an Africanist assault on the capitol, Yaounde. They suffer over 30 fatalities, but capture 82 rebels, including 13 foreign fighters from Chad and Burkina Faso.

May 1st, 2064: In Federated Central Congo, the Pan-Africanist African Party - Congo (PATA-C) is formed. Following on the heels of Africanist parties in Burkina Faso, Greater Chad, and Ubangi-Shari, PATA-C is unusual in that it is headed by the sitting head of state of Burkina Faso, President Moussa Oedraogo. The party announces that it will contest the upcoming 2066 elections on a platform of Africanism and anti-occupation. There are still over 100,000 international troops in Federated Central Congo. Oedraogo explains that he is the party's leader to show the unity of all Africans against the “foreign invaders who are brutalizing the Congo.”

May 5th, 2064: A meeting of the African Alliance for Democracy in Lagos produces consensus on action. The members of the league will intervene militarily in Cameroon to prevent an Africanist takeover. Troops will mostly come from Nigeria (with additional contributions from Ghana and Benin), while other nations will provide monetary and materiel support. The Alliance for Democracy also issues a joint statement warning other nations (implicitly Burkina Faso and Chad) not to become involved.

May 6th, 2064: Drones from the Nigerian Air Force begin bombing Africanist positions, using local intelligence sources to try to avoid civilian casualties.

May 9th, 2064: The main Africanist army in Cameroon withdraws from around Yaounde, breaking the two-week siege of the city. Indian intelligence services warn Nigeria that they will attempt to withdraw to Chad, a safe haven.

May 13th, 2064: The Nigerian Army, accompanied by elements of the Ghanaian Army, launch a massive cross-border invasion of Cameroon with over 143,260 troops. They engage Africanist forces in the towns of Maroua, Bamenda, and Kumba and score key military victories.

May 20th, 2064: 3,000 Africanist rebels in Ngaundere, Cameroon surrender to the Nigerian Army, as their retreat to Ubangi was cut off by an air-dropped Nigerian division.

June 2nd, 2064: The Alliance for Democracy announces that Cameroon has been fully secured by their international intervention, and that all Africanist rebels have been captured or have disappeared. The Third Africanist War, a major defeat for Africanism, is over after a little more than a month of fighting.

June 28th, 2064: Cameroon and Nigeria sign the Treaty of Ankara, guaranteeing that Cameroon will never become an Africanist state. Cameroon agrees to allow Nigerian troops to be based in the country (mostly along the borders with Ubangi and Chad), and welcomes over $5 billion in aid from the Alliance for Democracy.

July 1st, 2064: Remaining PEACECOM forces begin withdrawing from Federated Central Congo. The SCZ has almost entirely been disbanded, and over half of the country has seen no attacks in a year. However, corruption in government remains extremely high, and tensions remain with the Republic of Kikongo.

June 20th, 2065: Security in the last military district of Federated Central Congo is turned over from occupying PEACECOM forces to the Congolese military. The last PEACECOM forces depart on June 26th, ending eight years of foreign occupation in the former Democratic Republic of the Congo.

January 1st, 2066: The East African Federation is officially welcomed into the Indian Ocean International Community, becoming the first member of the organization outside the Asian continent. China denounces the move as “a continuation of Indian neo-imperialism in Africa,” even though China itself has exploited the resources of numerous African nations through economic domination for decades.

July 8th-9th, 2066: One year after the departure of the last occupying forces, elections are held in Federated Central Congo. The result is a landslide for the Pan-Africanist African Party, lead by President Oedraogo of Burkina Faso. While the elections are marred by irregularities, international observers admitted that there was nevertheless legitimate and enthusiastic support for Africanist ideals in the Congo. Pierre Tansi, a local and vocal politician, is inaugurated as President, although he says that he “will listen closely to the advice” of his “dear friend, President Oedraogo of Burkina Faso.”

December 8th, 2066: Drissa Sow of Mali is elected as UN general Secretary, making Liu Xilai the first one-term secretary since Josef Adamowicz.

April 2nd-10th, 2069: For nine days, riots sweep across the Arabian Peninsula. Discontented youth (especially women) start fires and attack government forces in cities from Riyadh to Dubai, sparked by a major fire in a slum in Manama, Bahrain. As fusion power has exploded into wide use across the developed world, oil consumption has dropped to its lowest level of use since the 2010s. In the seven members of the Gulf Cooperation Council, a recession has been in effect for nearly a year. As their economic fortunes have been threatened, the nations of the GCC have become ever more repressive, and have banded together for support against demographic and social turmoil. In the end, the riots are put down by a unified, coordinated military effort, which leaves 129 dead across the GCC. The crackdown is widely condemned, especially by A'ama. Egyptian President Alesh Hamatoub calls the suppression of the protests “a grave crime against Islam and against humanity”, and calls for the resignation of Saudi King Faisal II bin Salman.

January 1st, 2070: Treaty of Perth; the Indian Ocean Security and Defense Organization is established as a strategic military alliance in the Indian Ocean basin, in response with recent Chinese belligerence in Africa and Asia. The founding members are Australia, Bangladesh, Burma, the East African Federation, India, Madagascar, Oman, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

August 7th, 2072: Several bombs are detonated at the G-13 summit at Nairobi, EAF. The building is devastated, 200 are believed to be dead and 341 more are injured. Among the casualties are such prominent world leaders as American President Norse Cavalier, UK Prime Minister Theodore Quartermain, FES Commissioner Kyriakos Amanatidis, President of the EAF Vincent Oliech, and President of the Union State Andrey Brezhnev. Chinese Premier Shao Chianglei barely survives. Suspicion immediately descends upon the remnants of the SCZ, in cooperation with other Christian Fundamentalists.

timelines/africa_and_the_middle_east_progress_decline_and_hope.txt · Last modified: 2017/05/24 06:55 by petike