The Via Julia extends into Germania by July. Horace writes the ode, Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen. The foundations and northern section of the Palatium are completed by the end of the year. Ptolemy Caesar campaings into Germania to defeat the warlord, Varkus, ending yet another revolt in the future province of Germania Magna. The Carpathian and Caucasus conquests of Antony become military districts. Antony and Agrippa defeat the Parthian satrap, Sardonus at the Battle of Lake Urmia in Feb and campaign into northern Persia, and fight three minor, inconclusive battles against Sardonus, who uses the fake retreat to drain the Roman army. Antony and Agrippa, along with Scipio and Caesar are starting to feel the strain of mounting casualties after the fourth year of fighting in Parthia.
Caesar defeats Phraates twice in Carmania, but is defeated badly at the Battle of Rhogea. Caesar retreats to Persepolis where he rests his army and sends for reinforcements from Rome. Caesar begins preparing massive defenses around the city, similar to his battle at Tervi years earlier. Phraates and Musa besiege Persepolis in October. Scipio lays seige to the third Parthian capital, Hecatompylos in late November.