Publius Copellus is voted in as Princeps Senatus for a second ten-year term. Ptolemy Caesar’s second daughter, Caesaria is born in March. Caesar arrives in Rome, but is confined to the Palatium for the remainder of his life and because of his bad health, Octavian continues to run the day to day operations of the empire. Several areas throughout the Caucasus become a province. The Roman writer, architect and engineer Vitruvius finishes writing De Architectura (known today as The Ten Books of Architecture), a treatise on architecture, and perhaps the first work about this discipline. The Senate bestows the title Augustus upon Julius Caesar, a title that conveys Caesar’s authority over the Roman people and humanity in general.
Agrippa becomes the military governor of Mesopotamia. Scipio continues to campaign along the Indus, defeating rebel militias and building massive border defenses. His method of building roads and border defenses will set a precedent for future Roman generals and emperors.
The Nubians, led by Queen Candace Amanirenas, take the initiative against the Roman Empire and attack the Roman province of Egypt, moving toward Elephantine. In response to Meroe’s incursions into Egypt, Roman legioins under Gaius Petronius Pontius Nigrinus move south and raze Napata. Herod the Great builds a palace in Jerusalem and the fortress Herodian in Judae.