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The World of Mañana : Times of Mañana

A Collaborative Timeline for the World of Mañana

This timleine for the World of Mañana is a collaborative effort by Shurik, wolf_brother, and Geekhis Khan of AHdotCom. We would also like to thank Subversive Panda, Susano, and others for research assistance and TL advice.

Timeline Synopsis (prose; low resolution)

The Timeline of Events (low resolution)

  • 1572 (POD): Queen Elizabeth I of England refuses to turn away the Dutch Sea beggars
  • 1572: The Dutch Revolt is violently supressed by the Spanish; Dutch diaspora to Denmark, England, Germanies
  • 1573: Spain intervenes in the French War of the Three Henries, backing Henri Guise
  • 1584: Elizabeth I secretly begins supporting the Ottomans against Spain
  • 1584: Iberians invade Morrocco; they are defeated, but the Sultanate weakened
  • 1589: Dutch Revolt of the Roses crushed, William of Orange killed
  • 1590: Morroccan invasion of Songhai Empire repusled due to weaker armies than OTL
  • 1591: Decisive Battle of the Holy Wind: hurricane criples English Navy off of Puerto Rico, Spain destroys scattered remnants, English survivors (~20 ships) take refuge in Roanoke Colony
  • 1591: Formal Ottoman backing, arming, training of Songhai Empire begins
  • 1592: Ottoman Empire seizes Malta; Venician neutrality and Spanish distractions result in Ottoman victory
  • 1593: Treaty of the Flags: England finally deports the Sea Beggars and recognizes Spanish maritime claims, many Protestant privateers flee to D-N, Med states, or Virginia
  • 1596: End of War of the Three Henries, France partitioned between Catholic north (Guise), Huguenot south (Bourbon), and Catholic Avignon/Provence (expansion of Papal Avignon)
  • 1597: Sir Francis Drake dies in raid on Spanish, Sir Walter Raleigh declares himself Royal Governor of Virginia; Raleigh will wed Croatan wife and found Raleigh Dynasty in Virginia
  • 1598: Spain's Philip II “the Holy” dies, Philip III “the Lesser” takes over
  • 1601: Death of Elizabeth I, civil/religious wars return to England, further weakening England
  • 1601: Summer Revolt in Netherlands crushed; Dutch Catholics found La Compañía de la Corona Española en las Indias (CCEI)
  • 1601: Dano-Dutch Privateers take over Benin from English
  • 1602: Persian-Ottoman War begins, unrest in Egypt against Ottoman rule
  • 1602: Mali, weakened by Wolof raids, falls to Ottoman-trained Songhai armed with guns, many horses
  • 1605: Polish-Muscovite War begins
  • 1606: Songhai secure mouth of Senegal River
  • 1607: Persian-Ottoman War ends in Turkish victory
  • 1608: Dano-Norwegian Trading Company founded; Dutch advances in economics, technology quickly modernizing, enriching D-N
  • 1610: Mamluk uprising in Egypt, receives Iberian support, intervention
  • 1611: Kalmar War between D-N and Sweden begins
  • 1611: Virginia-Powhattan War begins, mostly limited to raids, skirmishes
  • 1613: Jahja Khan carves own nation out of Crimean Khanate
  • 1613: Virginia victory over Powhattan; Governor Walter II marries Powhattan's daughter Matoaka (aka “Pocohantes”) and assumes both “empires”
  • 1613: Dano-Dutch explorers found “Nye Copenhagen” (OTL New Amsterdam/New York); first formal colonization of new Danish “Vinland” colony
  • 1613: Mamluk Revolt sucessful; Egypt independent, but heavily influenced by Iberian powers
  • 1613: Kalmar War ends in decisive Danish victory, in a large part thanks to Dutch wealth, knowledge, & technology
  • 1616: Endo of Polish-Muscovite war, Polish victory
  • 1616: Founding of Songhai/Kanem-Bornu alliance; two empires will share in conquest of small tribes/nations between them on Sahel
  • 1616: Start of brutal Decades War in the Germanies between northern Protestants and southern Catholics; it will eventually suck in most of Europe, reigniting war between the Frances among other things
  • 1617: Early trade and burgeoning alliance between Vindland Colony and Iroquois; Danes back Iriquois against North French Algonquian allies in the Great Lakes
  • 1618: Ottoman interference in Bijapur internal affairs
  • 1619: Portuguese traders increasingly frequent through Egypt, as are missionaries; work begins via corvee drafts on redigging the Tariqu Canal
  • 1620: Tariqu canal completed despite Mamluk uprising against Iberian interference, abuses; missionaries, Jesuits expelled from Egypt, but Iberians and allies maintain near-monopoly on European access to canal; Cape Route traffic slows to trickle, many remote European African colonies (Mozambique, Angola, etc.) isolated
  • 1620: English Parliament reestablished after long interregnum
  • 1622: Ottomans allowed access to canal for slightly higher fee than Iberians, Venicians negotiate cheap rates to canal as well; greater Ottoman involvement in Arabian peninsula and Horn of Africa, greater Portuguese support of Abyssinia
  • 1622: Mughal invasion of Bijapur repulsed thanks to Ottoman support
  • 1625: Ottoman-Persian War begins
  • 1626: Decisive Ottoman victory in Ottoman-Persian War, as Persia ATL never received OTL English training, modernization

(under construction)

TL Prose Chapters:

(under construction)



  • Death of Elizabeth I and the English Civil War (1601-1617)
  • Danish Imperial Expansion (1600-1650) [Includes Vinland/New Copenhagen colony and founding of Dano-Norwegian Trade Company]
  • First Ottoman-Persian War (1602-1607) [Includes footnote on lack of OTL's Essex Delegation]
  • The Great Eastern War (1605-16) [Includes Polish-Muscovite and Kalmar Wars, Jahja Khanate, plus teasers of upcoming Decades War]
  • The New Vinlander Saga (1613-29) [D-N and the Iroquois]
  • The Decades War, Part I (1616-34)
  • The Ottoman North African Uprisings (1610-13) [Mamluk Revolution and Second Moroccan War]
  • “Camelback Diplomacy” (1616-c.50) [Ottoman Trans-Saharan trade and diplomacy with the Sennar, Songhai, and Kanem-Bornu Empires]
  • The Grand Canal (1625-30) [Story of the Tariqu canal and Mamluk renaissance & diplomacy, including Venetian “Canal Coup” and seizure of Socotra]
  • The Sultan and the Sea (1618-c.50) [Ottoman naval expansion and Indian ventures]
  • European intervention in the Indies, part I (1622-49)
  • The Second Ottoman-Perisan War (1625-26)
  • The Fifth(?) Ottoman-Venecian War (1629-34)
  • Oliver Cromwell and the Second English Civil War (1634-39)
  • The Second Northern War (1628-34)
  • The Russo-Polish War (1634-40)
  • The Decades War, part II (1634-51) [Now with extra Swedes!]
  • The Treaty of Many Nations and the New World Order (1651)


It is as impossible to predict how and where a rumor may develop as it is impossible to predict where it will travel once born. Such is the chaotic world of human interaction where spite, exaggeration, politics, and favor may sway thoughts along entirely new paths, and so sway the course of history. Like the wayward snowflake that sets off the avalanche, the whims of small events can have drastic consequences.

No one can guess where the 1572 rumor that would so plague one Don Gomez Suarez de Figueroa of Cordova, 5th Count of Feria, ambassador for Phillip II of Spain to the Queen of England, first got started, but like the seed of a dandelion finding newly tilled soil the rumor found fertile ground among the whispers of the court of England. And with great haste this seed did sprout and grow until able to dispatch seeds of its own, and thus did propagate a thousand whispers and muted gasps until the entire court was abuzz with the word that King Phillip's ambassador had questioned the queen's very right to the throne. It is hard to say the rumor did not have some basis in reality. It was certainly no secret that the crown of Spain was less than enamored with the ascension of Henry's second daughter Elizabeth to the throne of England just over a decade before, particularly after the promise shown by her elder sister Mary's reign. Similarly, the Count of Feria was notably insulted by his current on-the-town lodgings after earlier being housed in the royal palace under Mary. Yet it seems difficult to imagine one of Feria's notable experience and tact openly expressing doubts to the Queen's legitimacy.

By the time Feria arrived at court the whispers had devolved greatly: “the Count has questioned the Queen's legitimacy”…“he has said that [her mother] Anne was nothing but a petty mistress and a whore”…“would you believe he called Her Majesty a bastard unfit to rule?” There can be little doubt such whisperings had made it to the ears of the Queen herself. The stares, averted eyes, and shocked murmurings that preceded Feria's appearance in court undoubtedly took their toll on his patience as he walked the halls towards the throne chamber. When his arrival before the Queen was announced we might imagine that the royal announcer's voice held a timber of strain. We know from the diaries of several courtiers that the Queen's visage was most coldly formal and harsh upon his arrival.

It is perhaps a good mark on the count's professionalism that he held his thoughts in check as he greeted the Queen formally. He most certainly endeavored to put forth his most diplomatic face as he bade Her Highness the proper salutations and got to the business at hand, which for that day was an airing of King Phillip's distress at the continued English harboring of the Dutch Calvinist pirates known as the Watergeuzen or “Sea Beggars”. He reiterated that His Majesty found these pirates a continued nuisance, and that it would be most certainly in the interest of the two nations' continued friendship if Her Majesty would turn them away.

Elizabeth expressed reticence, expressing Her nation's openness to shipping of all nations, including His Excellency's own.

Feria responded with insistence that these particular ships were a burden and hardly proper shipping.

Her Majesty talked of rumors and burden of proof.

As the conversation continued the subtle tensions of the atmosphere began to creep in, raising voices, sharpening the corners of smooth words, shortening retorts and tempers. Whether the conversation degenerated from Elizabeth's stubborn disrespect, as Feria maintains, or due to a sudden and spiteful outburst by Feria, as Sir Francis Walsingham maintains, remains the subject of an unresolved historical debate.

By all accounts Feria's was certainly a diplomatically reasonable request , and reflected a growing strain in the diplomatic ties between the nations since Herny VIII first split from Queen Catherine. Had it been levied under a more amicable atmosphere there is anecdotal evidence to support that the Queen might readily have acquiesced. Yet it would be incorrect to say that her adamant refusal to turn away the Geuzen was born only of personal pique. The continued violent Hapsburg suppression of Dutch Calvinists across the channel in Batavia was considered by many in the English court to be of direct threat to England's own religious and political liberty and a strong anti-Spanish faction remained in positions of influence close to the Queen's ear. There was no doubt that Spain's growing world hegemony was a threat to English interests in general. And given earlier English privateering efforts against the Spanish it's not unfathomable that she may have always planned to continue support for the Geuzen.

We may never know if Her Majesty would have turned away the Geuzen had circumstances been different [1], and historians remain divided on the issue. That this seeming act of whim has been used maliciously over the centuries by so many proponents of the so-called “Monstrous Regimen” theory [2] certainly clouds the history of the event. It is also impossible to predict what might have happened had the Geuzen been turned away, though speculations abound from their travelling to Denmark or the Germanies to their returning to Batavia to cause further difficulty to the Spanish suppression of the rebellion. Historian Dr. Jans Albrect goes as far as to propose that their presence might have been the spark to reignite the smoldering Dutch rebellion, only barely under control at that point [3], though it is hard to imagine how much damage a few hundred sailors could do with the Tercios astride much of the land.

If this event had any major repercussions it was most likely in the later diplomacy between the two nations, diplomacy already strained by religious and political concerns. The Protestant factions of Europe would celebrate the move as a victory. The Catholic nations would see the event as another heretic insult. Certainly relations between England and Spain would continue to deteriorate after this diplomatic impasse, and while it is impossible to guess how improved things might have been had things gone differently, it is hard to imagine that conflict between the old master and the young upstart was anything but inevitable.

From Times of Trouble, Religious and Political Upheval in Post-Lutheran Europe by Professor Julio de Santa Maria de Paranhos, University of Oporto, 1932 (Contributed by Geekhis Khan)

1 - This is the POD. OTL Bess turned away the Sea Beggars in 1572.

2 - This comes from The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regimen of Women by the Scottish Reformer John Knox, published in 1558, which maintained that women were far too fragile and emotional to run a nation (safe to say NOW does not look to kindly on this work). Written at the end of the reign of Bloody Mary it found a fertile audience at first. OTL Elizabeth I's Golden Age blew this theory out of the water. ATL…not so much.

3 - OTL the Sea Beggars travelled south to the Dutch city of Brielle on April 1st, which was completley unguarded by the Spanish at the time. They captured the city with ease, reigniting the rebellion which at this point had been largely subdued by the Spanish. ATL they remain a thorn in the Spanish side, but little more.

Back to Timeline Chapters

Dutch Revolt

Letter to the Editor, March of Time Periodical:

Dear Editor:

I am writing to express my severe displeasure at Dr. Vanderwaald's recent article “Orange Empire: the Batavian Hegemony that Never Was”. While I respect Dr. Vanderwaald and his previous work on the economic drivers of Dutch Calvinism in Spanish Batavia, I really feel he has pushed past the credibility bounds in his hypothetical “Dutch Republic”.

To begin, his premise of an independent Dutch Republic arising after a successful 1568 revolt is simply not feasible given the conditions of the time. Simply put, even with an overtly independence-minded William of Orange as a hypothetical organizer, the Calvinist factions were simply too scattered and disorganized of a group. A quick look at the ground conditions reveals the simple truth: even before the arrival of Alba the “uprising” was hardly more than semi-organized vandalism of church icons spurred by firebrand preachers. Margaret of Parma had already taken much of the wind out of the “rebellion's” sails by her attempts at compromise. And once Alba arrived with 10,000 trained Spanish soldiers, the remaining “Beggars”, as Berlaymont so called them, were scattered into the wind. Those who put up resistance met with terrible fates. William's half-hearted assault–which it should be reiterated was done nominally in the name of the Spanish sovereign against Alba–never had much hope of even temporarily displacing the tercios [1]. In fact, Alba's tercios had proven so effective and the staadts left so pacified, that he felt secure enough to completely abandon several northern cities [2] and move his armies south to react to a French border threat.

Now, as to the long-term ramifications of this hypothetical “Dutch Republic”, with all due respect to the industrious Batavian people I simply cannot buy Dr. Vanderwaald's theory that the ensuing federation of staadts could ever hope to achieve half of what the Danes–his obvious historical model–did. Yes, Dutch Calvanist refugees in Denmark did indeed have a noteworthy impact on the development of Dano-Norwegian banking and industry, but to claim retaining these expatriates would give the republic the tools for a maritime empire spanning the globe by 1750 is just not realistic. Geopolitical realities simply made such a small republic with so few natural barriers and so many expansionistic foes and neighbors simply unable to defend itself, and the hypothetical riches of this “Dutch Orient Company” would just further invite conquest, if not by the Hapsburgs then by the French, Danes, or even English, assuming this last somehow survived Elizabeth's continued antagonizing of the Spanish.

To be perfectly blunt, it is fanciful, hastily-researched things like this that make me so despise “contrahistorical” exercises like these. And while I shall continue to admire Dr. Vanderwaald's work in more mainstream historical pursuits I shall be most put off if your periodical continues to sully its well-deserved reputation with such populist tripe as this.


Jans Gottland, Malmö, Danmark

(Contributed by Geekhis Khan)

1 - OTL so far, if more than a little opinionated.

2 - Among these near-empty cities was one city of Brielle, which OTL fell to the recently-ejected-from-England Sea Beggars, reigniting the simmering revolt OTL. ATL, the Beggars remain comfortably in England, and the “Revolt of 1568” is effectively pacified…for the moment.

The Virginia Times, Culture Section, Recent Bestseller Reviews… (Contributed by Shurik)

“R.H. Amundsen’s recently released The Dutch Revolts is bland. However, the same can be said of any of his works. Yet despite the monotonous writing he has become infamous for, The Dutch Revolts offers an unprecedented analysis of the 16th century as it relates to the Dutch. If one can wade though the unending rhetoric of anti-Spanish sentiment so prevalent in his writing, Amundsen brings an amazing amount of research to the table when discussing such controversial subjects as the emigrations to Denmark-Netherland, Hamburg, and even to Virginia herself. In The Dutch Revolts, he attacks head-on the long held belief that the Spanish forced individuals of non-Catholic views from their home country. Similarly, he offers one of the most in-depth portraits of the controversial William of Orange, from his birth in Germany, to his imprisonment in Amsterdam, and amazing new evidence that his death during the violent Revolt of the Roses may not have been at the hands of those seeking to free him after all. Unfortunately, this remains the only high point in the massive text: his so-called ‘recent revelations’ of early communications between Dutch Revoltists and English protagonists will leave the only moderately well-educated historian falling asleep, as the subject matter is a near duplication of Farrar’s comprehensive text on the matter; some 10 years ago. Overall, the book is hardly worth the 19 shilling asking price, and is rated at a mere 2 stars.“

Back to Timeline Chapters

War of the Three Henries

The Ballad of the Three Henries (Scottish traditional)

Back in the Year of Our Lord, fifteen-hundred eighty three
There was room in God's Creation for but a single Hen-a-ri,
And he watched the world go by
From his throne so way-up high…

And the last thing he expected was a second Hen-a-ri!

[guitar interlude]

But his rascal little brother, Francis, Duke of Alençon
Went and caught a nasty sickness and by summer he was gone,
So ol' Henri checked his list
And the new heir left his pissed…

For that rubber-faced Navaresse was the Henri that was on!


Three, three Henries…
Three Henries in Francay!
Three, three Henries…
Each looks a different way!

Valois, Bourbon, and Guise
All waitin' in the lee…

But only one arse can fit the throne on any given day!

[guitar interlude]

Now ol' Henri number three was none too pleased to see the name,
For that troublemaking Hugeunot, he played a tricky game,
But the Salic law was very clear
And Bourbon inheritance was near…

And that troublemaking heathen on top could bring but war and shame!

[guitar interlude]

But the fun was only starting 'cause a third Henri appeared
In his latest, greatest Guise as a Papist loud and clear,
A man of book and sword
Fond of murder for the Lord…

With a hankerin' to place that Navarrese head high up on a spear!


Three, three Henries…
Three Henries in Francay!
Three, three Henries…
Each looks a different way!

Valois, Bourbon, and Guise
All fighting for the keys…

But only one arse can fit the throne on any given day!

[guitar interlude]

Now the Papists and Idolaters went at it left and right
And hardly any heads were left attached on any night,
And the smell it drifted low
To Castillian lands below…

To the nostrils of King Phillip who was drooling for a fight!

[guitar interlude]

Now King Phillip took his armies down from up there on their shelf
To prop up the Guise-ie Henri's claim in name (but really help himself),
For to dominate the Frenchies
Meant more Hapsburg ascend-ancy…

And what else but that could guarante the Papacy's good health?


Three, three Henries…
Three Henries in Francay!
Three, three Henries…
Each looks a different way!

Valois, Bourbon, and Guise
Add some Hapsburgs, if you please…

But only one arse can fit the throne on any given day!

[guitar interlude]

But Phillie's armies proved as welcome as a boil on the arse
And soon all of Phillie's Tercios found the welcome rather sparse,
And ol' Henri number three
Turned to Mister Navaree…

And said “Tis time for an arrangement before things get any warse!”

[guitar interlude]

Now the Henries met in secret, old Navarre would get the crown
And they had to play together before France burned to the ground,
And they shook each other's hand
And cemented the new plan…

To build a France with room for more than just one church to go around!


Three, three Henries…
Three Henries in Francay!
Three, three Henries…
Each looks a different way!

Valois, Bourbon, and Guise
Don't forget conspiracies…

But only one arse can fit the throne on any given day!

[guitar interlude]

But ol' Guise proved more than happy to accept some Spanish aid
And another pact of partners in the darkness now was made,
For a proper Papal pounding
On the new alliance's founding…

Could put ol' Guise-ie Henri on the throne of old Francay!

[guitar interlude]

Now the fightin' kept on goin' until Fifteen Ninety-Six
And the armies all were weary and the nation mighty sick,
So with no winner clear
And the vultures circ'lin' near…

The white flag went a wavin' and they talked about a fix!


Three, three Henries…
Three Henries in Francay!
Three, three Henries…
Each looks a different way!

Valois, Bourbon, and Guise
Pass the sherry, if you please…

But only one arse can fit the throne on any given day!

[guitar interlude]

But neither side was budgin' and the wine was gettin' light
So all three Henries retired and they went and bid “goodnight”,
And Lady France got splintered
By the middle of that winter…

Leaving three new Baby Frances suckling on the teats of spite!

[guitar interlude]

Now ol' Henri Guise claimed Paris by the might of Spanish guns
And ol' Henries three and four scooped up the south and central run,
And ol' Provence in the corner
Was left with no clear owner…

So the Papal claim on Avignion expaned just a ton!


Three, three Henries…
Three Henries in Francay!
Three, three Henries…
Each looks a different way!

Valois, Bourbon, and Guise
Now Aldobrandini…

But only one arse can fit the throne on any given day!

[guitar interlude]

Now the borders shifted here and there, but none could slip a cheek
Into the golden Throne of France, for all were left to weak,
With no one side a'leadin'
And the peaople sick of bleedin'…

So Three Frances were left standin' with Reunion lookin' bleak!

[guitar interlude]

So if having one Francay was good then 'tis better having three
And a sleepy peace descended for a few minutes at least,
And with France all torn asunder
And the mercs all fat with plunder…

No one in God's Creation danced as gaily as The Beast!


Three, three Henries…
Three Henries in Francay!
Three, three Henries…
Each looks a different way!

Valois, Bourbon, and Guise
With less room now to squeeze…

Any one arse into the throne of old Lady Francay!

[guitar interlude, downtempo]

No single arse can fit the throne of old Lady Francay!

Back to Timeline Chapters

The Revolt of the Roses

English-Ottoman Agreement

The Morroccan Wars

Anglo-Spanish War

(Contributed by Shurik)
New Edinburgh Tribune, Cover Story, May 23, 1934
Title: Virginia and England spat over custody of discovered treasure
By Gladys McDougall

“Famed Venetian oceanographic explorer Gaspare Meneghin, last week announced his intention to donate the entirety of his findings of the multi-year underwater excavation off the northern coast of Peurto Rico to which the National History Museum of Virginia. Yesterday however, London filed a formal protest against the announcement: claiming the remains of any ships from Francis Drake’s failed expedition against the Spanish Empire are the sole property of the English Crown. The National History Museum of Virginia however, immediately announced its decision to back Gaspare’s claim that Drake was acting in behalf of Virginian interests in the New World and the well known fact that operations were out of the then-de facto independent Virginia therefore: all archeological remains are the property of the people of the Virginian people.

Gaspare Meneghin announced six months ago that his little known excavation of the until-recently mysterious location of the decisive battle had finally achieved results in the unearthing of several cannon and navigational artifacts bearing insignia indisputably from Drake’s flagship in the fleet. Reinforcing Spanish historical claims that not a single Iberian ship was lost in the epic battle, Meneghin’s group have yet to unearth any evidence of Spanish artifacts from the 1591 naval encounter. Funded mostly by the Ottoman Society for the Preservation of Maritime History, the excavation has long since smashed records on multiple levels; including funds spent on a single dig: some 1.7 million Lira. Previously, only the Tariqu Canal dig came close, with some 900,000 Lira being spend on the archeological project. Similarly, multiple technological advancements now in use by the military owe their origins to the 7 year project to discover the true sight of the battle. Gaspare Meneghin though, is no stranger to underwater exploration: having headed a little known survey of the scene of the 1753 Japanese-Russian battle off the coast of Novo-Arkangelsk Island (OTL Hokkaido), and multiple underwater excavations throughout the Islamic Trade Union. The site of the 1591 Battle of the Holy Wind though, was unprecedented in the depth of the excavations, and the remoteness from established ports: requiring several pioneering technologies. The Tribune recently asked Meneghin about the enormous resources being poured into the venture, including 200,000 Scottish Pounds of his personal resources. In response, the famed historian turned adventurer claimed a lifelong passion for the history of the Caribbean, and cited the decisive battle between the Spanish treasure fleets and the Virginian-English corsair as one of the most epic in history. In fact, it is the very origins of Drake that are leading to the present dispute over legal custody of the artifacts.

When asked about future projects, Gaspare hinted at a possible venture to discover the final resting place of the corsair himself. However when asked how he intended to locate the fabled site, the response is typically Venetian: a sly grin, a shrug of the shoulders, and a cryptic comment to the effect of “I haven’t the foggiest idea”. In the last six months, the underwater project has uncovered some 7 tons of artifacts including cannon, utensils, porcelain, lead munitions, coins, navigational equipment, and even remaining iron pieces from the ships themselves.

Artifacts continue to be on temporary display at the San Juan Maritime Museum and will be added to until the final resting place of the artifacts is determined. See page A5 for photographs of the most recently recovered artifacts…”

Back to Timeline Chapters

Malta War

Danish Fleet

Expansion of the Songhai Empire

shared_worlds/manana_timeline.txt · Last modified: 2019/03/29 15:13 (external edit)